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Sample records for strawberry cultivar released

  1. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  2. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

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    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  4. Vernalização em cinco cultivares de morangueiro Vernalization on five cultivars of strawberry

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    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de morango é sazonal, e os melhores preços dos frutos são obtidos fora da estação. Buscando obter frutos fora da estação, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da vernalização em mudas de cinco cultivares de morangueiro. As mudas foram produzidas no sistema de vasos suspensos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso em fatorial 5x2x4, com cinco cultivares ("IAC-Campinas", "Dover", "Sweet Charlie", "Cartuno" e "Oso Grande", dois tratamentos (com e sem vernalização das mudas e quatro tempos, com quatro repetições. Para vernalização, as mudas foram levadas para câmara fria à temperatura de 10+2°C e fotoperíodo de 8h de luz dia-1 durante 28 dias, e em seguida transplantadas. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de sobrevivência, florescimento, frutificação, emissão de estolhos, a massa e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. A sobrevivência de mudas não foi afetada pela vernalização. Houve efeito significativo no florescimento e na frutificação das plantas vernalizadas. O estolonamento de plantas foi mais precoce nas mudas vernalizadas. Para todas as cultivares e tratamentos, a produção de frutos foi insignificante e comercialmente inviável.The strawberry production is seasonal, and the best fruit prices are obtained during the off season. Seeking to get fruits off season, this research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the seedling vernalization of five strawberry cultivars. The strawberry seedling were produced in suspended pot system. The experimental design was is completely randomized blocks with the factorial design 5x2x4, with five strawberry cultivars (IAC-Campinas, Dover, Sweet Charlie, Cartuno and Oso Grande, two treatments (with and without strawberry runners vernalization and four times. For vernalization, the strawberry seedling was taken to cold chamber at 10±2°C, and photoperiod of 8h of light day-1 for 28 days, after this they were transplanted. The

  5. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

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    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  6. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

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    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  7. Production of strawberry cultivars in closed hydroponic systems and coconut fibre substrate

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    Fabio Rodrigues de Miranda

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and average fruit weight of strawberry cultivars Albion, Camarosa, Festival and Oso Grande, in two closed hydroponic systems (gutters and grow bags, using coconut fibre as substrate. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, divided into strips, with five replications. The hydroponic systems did not differ significantly as to yield, with advantages, such as savings in water and fertilizer and reduced environmental impact, over open systems. The most productive cultivar was Festival, followed by Oso Grande, with average yields of 6.99 kg m-2 and 5.56 kg m-2 respectively. The cultivars with the greatest fruit weight were Oso Grande and Albion, having averages of 11.8 and 11.1 g respectively, with the former being significantly superior to the latter. The highest yield (7.4 kg m-2 was obtained from the cultivar Festival under the gutter system. The Ibiapaba region has conditions which are favourable to strawberry production in relation to precocity (harvesting starts in the 6th week of growth and production continues throughout the year; however there is a need to test new cultivars and to improve the cultivation techniques with an aim to producing larger-sized fruit.

  8. Effect of substrate and cultivar on growth characteristic of strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    11(56), pp. 11960-11966, 12 July, 2012. Available online at ... the highest of leaf area, length of petiole, runner number and total biomass. Mrak cultivar was the .... design with four replications. ..... Brochure of research station for floriculture and.

  9. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  10. Comparison of physiochemical changes in two popular strawberry cultivars grown in Iran (cvs. Kurdistan & Selva during storage time at 4°C

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    Jouki Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of storage time on some quality parameters of two strawberry cultivars fruits storage at 4°C have been evaluated. Several quality parameters were monitored during the storage period. The samples were analyzed 1, 7, 14 and 21days during storage. Fruits were analyzed about fruit weight, sugar content, chromatic parameters L*, a*, b*, fruit firmness, total titrable acidity, pH, and sensory evaluation. The Kurdistan strawberries retained their weight throughout the experiment as opposed to the Selva strawberries which lost 0.6% of their weight per day because of dehydration. The Selva cultivar was exceptionally firmer than Kurdistan strawberries. Two cultivars were rich in vitamin C and sugar but these values were more in Kurdistan cultivar. As expected, Chroma decreased and over the storage time in two cultivars. The results of this study showed that packaged Kurdistan strawberries could prove suitable for 7 days at 4°C compare with 4 days for selva strawberries.

  11. Programmed flowering of the F1 long-day strawberry cultivar ‘Elan’ with nitrogen and daylength manipulation

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    Edward F. Durner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for locally grown, high quality strawberries is increasing even though California, Florida and Mexico provide a year-round source of strawberries for the world market. In most of the US, locally grown strawberries are only available for a short time in late spring from seasonal fruiting short-day cultivars thus off-season strawberry production is an attractive option for growers. Seed propagated hybrids such as ‘Elan’ are becoming more widely available and offer an alternative to often low yielding cultivars used for off-season production. To determine whether or not ‘Elan’ could be programmed to flower with photoperiod or nitrogen, seedlings were fertilized with either 100 or 800 ppm nitrogen for 4 weeks in September beginning one week after exposure to either short days, the natural photoperiod, or long days, the natural photoperiod supplemented with 24 hours of incandescent radiation. Plants were then greenhouse forced under both photoperiods and floral phenology evaluated. Elevated nitrogen during floral initiation in September enhanced and accelerated flowering and plants receiving elevated nitrogen during initiation under long days flowered more than any other treatment. To determine whether or not flowering could be enhanced a second time in the same plants, another 4 week period of elevated nitrogen was provided in December and plant phenology evaluated through mid-January. Elevated nitrogen (800 ppm in December enhanced December and January flowering. Seedlings were conditioned with elevated nitrogen for a third time in late spring then field planted (early summer on raised beds with white or black plastic mulch. Elevated nitrogen in late spring enhanced yield in field production. No effects of mulch color, initiation photoperiod or interaction of considered factors were detected. Flowering differences detected in greenhouse studies translated into differences observed in the production field suggesting

  12. Effect of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor in formulated soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Li, Bingbing; Qin, Fang; Wang, Linxiang; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (pfuraneol) accelerated the release of ester compounds to some extent in different matrices. The above results demonstrated that presence of SPI and xanthan gum could bring about an imbalance in the strawberry flavor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the effect of genotype and agronomic conditions on metabolomic profiles of selected strawberry cultivars with different sensitivity to environmental stress.

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    Akhatou, Ikram; González-Domínguez, Raúl; Fernández-Recamales, Ángeles

    2016-04-01

    Strawberry is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crops across the world, so that there is a growing need to develop new analytical methodologies for the authentication of variety and origin, as well as the assessment of agricultural and processing practices. In this work, an untargeted metabolomic strategy based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with multivariate statistical techniques was used for the first time to characterize the primary metabolome of different strawberry cultivars and to study metabolite alterations in response to multiple agronomic conditions. For this purpose, we investigated three varieties of strawberries with different sensitivity to environmental stress (Camarosa, Festival and Palomar), cultivated in soilless systems using various electrical conductivities, types of coverage and substrates. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant alterations in primary metabolites between the three strawberry cultivars grown under different crop conditions, including sugars (fructose, glucose), organic acids (malic acid, citric acid) and amino acids (alanine, threonine, aspartic acid), among others. Therefore, it could be concluded that GC-MS based metabolomics is a suitable tool to differentiate strawberry cultivars and characterize metabolomic changes associated with environmental and agronomic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance and Odorants Released from Fresh and Decaying Strawberries

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    David Parker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma profile between fresh strawberries (storage days (SRD of 0, 1, and 3 and those that had started to decay (SRD = 6 and 9. In terms of concentration, seven compounds dominated the aroma profile of fresh strawberries (relative composition (RC up to 97.4% by mass, sum concentration: (1 ethyl acetate = 518 mg∙m−3, (2 methyl acetate = 239 mg∙m−3, (3 ethyl butyrate = 13.5 mg∙m−3, (4 methyl butyrate = 11.1 mg∙m−3, (5 acetaldehyde = 24.9 mg∙m−3, (6 acetic acid = 15.2 mg∙m−3, and (7 acetone = 13.9 mg∙m−3. In contrast, two alcohols dominated the aroma profile of decayed samples (RC up to 98.6%: (1 ethyl alcohol = 94.2 mg∙m−3 and (2 isobutyl alcohol = 289 mg∙m−3. Alternatively; if the aroma profiles are re-evaluated by summing odor activity values (ΣOAV; four ester compounds ((1 ethyl butyrate (6,160; (2 ethyl hexanoate (3,608; (3 ethyl isovalerate (1,592; and (4 ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (942 were identified as the key constituents of fresh strawberry aroma (SRD-0. As the strawberries began to decay; isobutyl alcohol recorded the maximum OAV of 114 (relative proportion (RP (SRD = 6 = 58.3%. However, as the decay process continued, the total OAV dropped further by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude—decreasing to 196 on SRD = 6 to 7.37 on SRD = 9. The overall results of this study confirm dramatic changes in the aroma profile of strawberries over time, especially with the onset of decay.

  15. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis

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    Flavor profiles of two Florida strawberry cultivars were determined using GC-olfactometry,GC-MS, odor activity values (OAVs) and sensory analysis. Thirty-six aroma active compounds were detected using GC-O. Thirty-four were identified. The major odor-active compounds in decreasing intensity were: me...

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

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    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  17. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

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    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  18. Culture systems in the production and quality of strawberry cultivars - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16552

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    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, strawberry cultivation was exclusively performed in soil using conventional cultivation methods, which resulted in many environmental and phytosanitary problems. Currently, soilless culture is the production method advocated for environmental reasons because it greatly reduces the use of chemical pesticide and fungicide inputs. This study assessed the yield and quality of fruits from strawberry cultivars grown in two systems (soil and substrate in a greenhouse. The experiment was performed from September 2010 to January 2011 in the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State. Treatments (cultivars x culture systems were arranged in a random block design with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement. Evaluation included number, total and commercial fresh weight of fruits per plant, transversal diameter, total titratable acidity (TTA, total soluble solids (TSS, TSS/TTA ratio and the pH of fruits. The cultivars Camarosa, Florida Festival and Portola excelled in relation to yield when grown in the soil system. In substrate culture, all cultivars had similar performance. The yield was higher in soil culture, while the quality was higher in the substrate system.

  19. Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition and color characteristics of new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by HPLC-MS and Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry.

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    Fernández-Lara, Rebeca; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Lourdes González-Miret, M; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Heredia, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The phenolic composition (by HPLC-DAD-MS) and color characteristics (by Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry) of four strawberry cultivars that have shown good climate adaptation to subtropical area (Nikte, Zamorana, Jacona and Pakal) have been assessed. 24 monomeric phenolics were identified, including 15 anthocyanins, 5 phenolic acids, 1 flavanol and 4 flavonols. Nikte and Zamorana showed the highest phenolic potential mainly due to their higher content of anthocyanins, while Pakal was richer in phenolic acids. Regarding color, Nikte and Zamorana were the more similar cultivars having the lowest values of lightness and hue. On the contrary, the color of Pakal was quite different from all the rest, due to the specific distribution between pelargonidin and cyanidin. The inclusion of both phenolic and colorimetric information in the Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed reaching very good discriminations among cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimativa da similaridade genética e identificação de cultivares do morangueiro por análise de RAPD Estimate of the genetic similarity and identification of strawberry cultivars by RAPD analysis

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    José Henrique Conti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Caracteres moleculares do morango foram avaliados para conhecer cultivares que estão sendo introduzidas no Brasil. Utilizou-se o método do polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. Os caracteres moleculares com maior poder de discriminação foram os "marcadores" gerados pelos "primers" Operon B8, Operon B19 e Operon G5, que foram eficientes para discriminar as vinte e seis cultivares estudadas. Os dados foram interpretados com o auxílio de dendograma, mapa de bandas, quadro de identificação e chave dicotômica. Foi possível distinguir seis grupos de similaridade, dois deles com cultivares selecionadas no Brasil, sendo um com 'Campinas', 'Agf 80', 'Piedade', 'Jundiaí' e 'Monte Alegre' e o outro com 'Obaira' e 'Mantiqueira'; três grupos com cultivares introduzidas, sendo o primeiro com 'Lassen', 'Reiko', 'Chandler', 'Pajaro', 'Blackmore' e 'Seascape', o segundo com 'Fern' e 'Oso Grande' e o terceiro com 'Florida Belle' e 'Selva' O último grupo reuniu as cultivares 'Dover' e 'Dabreak' junto com 'Princesa Isabel'.Strawberry cultivars introduced in Brazil were identified through molecular study. The method of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD was used. Molecular characters with larger discrimination power were produced by the primers Operon B8, Operon B19 and Operon G5. These were efficient to discriminate the twenty six studied cultivars. Data were analised through dendogram, bandmap, picture and dicotomic key. Six similarity groups were distinguished: Two with cultivars selected in Brazil, one with 'Campinas', 'Agf 80', 'Piedade', 'Jundiaí' and 'Monte Alegre' and the other with 'Obaira' and 'Mantiqueira'; three with introduced cultivars the first of which 'Lassen', 'Reiko', 'Chandler', 'Pajaro', 'Blackmore' and 'Seascape', the second with 'Fern' and 'Oso Grande' and the third with 'Florida Belle' and 'Selva'. The last group united the cultivars 'Dover' and 'Dabreak' with 'Princesa Isabel'.

  1. Produção de cultivares de morangueiro polinizadas pela abelha jataí em ambiente protegido Yield of strawberry cultivars polinized by jatai bees under protected environment

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    Odirce Teixeira Antunes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do morangueiro, tradicionalmente produzida a campo, teve seu sistema de cultivo modificado, sendo hoje produzido também em ambientes protegidos. Essa tecnologia pode, porém, ocasionar a produção de frutos deformados, devido à polinização entomófila insuficiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade dos frutos de morangueiro em ambiente protegido, utilizando a abelha jataí como agente polinizador. Foram avaliadas quatro cultivares de morangueiro (Oso Grande, Tudla, Chandler e Dover, na ausência e presença de duas e quatro colméias da Tetragonisca angustula (abelha sem ferrão Jataí. Os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 4 x 3, dispostos em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com sete repetições e 6 plantas úteis por parcela. Os rendimentos obtidos nas cvs. Oso Grande, Tudla e Chandler demonstram que a presença da abelha jataí na polinização em ambiente protegido contribui para o aumento da produtividade. A cv. Dover é a que se mostrou menos dependente de agentes polinizadores. A presença de abelhas eleva a porcentagem de frutos comerciáveis. A recomendação é da utilização de quatro colméias de Tetragonisca angustula para cada 170 m² de área protegida.Strawberry, which used to be typically grown in field conditions, had the growth system changed to be produced under protected environment. However, the harvested fruits in this system may show a certain deformation due to the insects pollination's deficit. In this work the strawberry yield was evaluated under protected cultivation, using stinglees bees (Meliponinae Jatai as a pollination agent. Four strawberry cultivars (Oso Grande, Tudla, Chandler, and Dover were evaluated in the presence of Tetragonisca angustula L. (Jatai bee, using two, four, and no beehives. A completely randomized design in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme with seven replications and six plants per plot was used. The yield of Oso Grande, Tudla, and Chandler cultivars

  2. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

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    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  3. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar.

  4. Análise comparativa de nutrientes funcionais em morangos de diferentes cultivares da região de Lavras-MG Comparative analysis of functional nutrients in strawberries of different cultivars in the region of Lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alvarenga Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O morango é um pseudofruto muito apreciado pela população brasileira, e seu cultivo vem sendo implantado na região de Lavras. É um alimento funcional, pois, além das suas propriedades nutricionais, também possui substâncias ativas, que mantêm ou melhoram a saúde do organismo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns compostos do morango que tenham efeitos benéficos para a saúde humana, em diferentes cultivares da região de Lavras-MG. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e 7 repetições de 5 frutos cada. Foram colhidos 150 frutos de três cultivares: 'Aroma', 'Oso grande' e 'Toyorrinho', os quais foram selecionados de acordo com o estádio de maturação e ausência de injúrias. Os compostos avaliados foram vitamina C, compostos fenólicos e minerais, dentre os quais o potássio, cálcio, magnésio, ferro, cobre, manganês e zinco. Entre as três cultivares, a 'Aroma' foi a que mais se destacou em relação à vitamina C e potássio; a cultivar 'Oso grande' obteve os maiores teores de cálcio, ferro, manganês, zinco e cobre, e a 'Toyorrinho' apresentou os menores teores dos compostos funcionais estudados.The strawberry is a pseudo-fruit highly appreciated by the Brazilian population, and its growing has been being established in the region of Lavras. It is a functional food, because in addition to its nutritional properties, it also has active substances, which maintain or improve the health of the human organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a few compounds of the strawberry, which have beneficial effects to human health in different cultivars of the region of Lavras-MG. It was used the completely randomized design with three treatments and seven replicates of five fruits each. A hundred and fifty fruits from three cultivars, 'Aroma', 'Oso Grande' and 'Toyorrinho' were harvested; those were selected according to the maturation stage and absence of injuries. The

  5. Fenologia, produção e teor de antocianinas de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Phenology, production and content of strawberry crops cultivars anthocyanins produced under protected environment

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    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade de cultivares de morangueiro exige estudos quanto à adaptação no local de cultivo. Por sua vez, a maior exigência do consumidor por produtos mais saudáveis requer informações a respeito das características nutracêuticas dos produtos. Este trabalho objetivou determinar as cultivares com maior adaptação ao cultivo protegido na região do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, os teores de antocianinas, bem como a época de plantio que proporcionam maior produtividade. O experimento foi conduzido em um ambiente protegido de 280 m², coberto com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, de 150 µm, com aditivo anti UV. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as épocas de plantio das mudas (28 de abril e 13 de maio as parcelas principais, e as cultivares (Dover, Tudla, Comander, Oso Grande, Campinas, Chandler, Serrano e Camarosa, as subparcelas. Foram avaliadas características fenológicas e componentes do rendimento. Os teores de antocianinas foram determinados por espectrofotometria, com comprimento de onda de 528 nm. Não houve interação entre cultivares e épocas de plantio sobre as características avaliadas. A maior produtividade foi do morangueiro cultivado precocemente, em abril. As cultivares Camarosa, Dover, Oso Grande e Tudla são as mais indicadas, pelo maior rendimento e escalonamento da produção, e a cultivar Serrano, pelo maior teor de antocianinas.The diversification of strawberry cultivars demands studies about their adaptation in the cultivation place and, the increase of the consumer's requirement for healthier products require studies about the products nutraceutica characteristics. In such a way, this work aimed to determine the cultivars with higher adaptation under protected environment in Rio Grande do Sul, Planalto Médio region, the contents of anthocyanins, as well as the period that provides more productivity. The

  6. Produtividade e teor de sólidos solúveis de frutos de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Yield and soluble solids contents of fruits of strawberry cultivars in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo protegido é uma alternativa para controlar variações climáticas em diferentes locais e épocas de plantio, entretanto, seus efeitos e interações com a cultura do morangueiro ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de três sistemas de cultivo (túnel alto, túnel baixo e a campo na produtividade, massa média de frutos e no teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos das cultivares de morango Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande em Guarapuava-PR. Quanto à produtividade e massa média de frutos, a cultivar Camarosa foi a melhor nos cultivos em túnel, tanto alto quanto baixo, pelo seu excelente desempenho. Os frutos da cultivar Sweet Charlie apresentaram o maior teor de sólidos solúveis nos três ambientes de cultivo. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos foram significativamente superiores nos cultivos em túneis, alto e baixo, quando comparados ao cultivo a campo. O ambiente que propiciou maior acúmulo de sólidos solúveis nos frutos foi o túnel alto, diferindo significativamente dos demais ambientes de cultivo.Protected cultivation is an alternative to control the climatic effects in different places and times of planting, however, its effects and interactions with the strawberry crop are little known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of three cropping systems (high tunnel, low tunnel and field on yield, mean fruit mass and the soluble solids contents of strawberry cultivars Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie and Oso Grande in Guarapuava. Camarosa cultivar presents an excellent performance regarding yield and mean fruit mass in high and low tunnel cultivation; hence, these cropping system can be indicated. Fruits of Sweet Charlie cultivar had the highest content of soluble solids in all the cultivation environments. Yield and mean fruit mass obtained from high and low tunnels were significantly higher than in the field. The environment high tunnel allowed

  7. Storage of strawberry pollen

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    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  8. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  9. Crescimento do morangueiro: influência da cultivar e da posição da planta no canteiro Strawberry growth: effect of cultivar and plant position in the bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Samuel Strassburger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de cultivares de morangueiro em sistema de cultivo orgânico, observando a influência da posição da planta no canteiro sobre a produção acumulada e a partição de massa seca entre os órgãos aéreos das plantas. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de dois fatores experimentais: cultivar ('Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real' e a posição das plantas no canteiro (Central e Bordadura. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas divididas e quatro repetições. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior produção de massa seca dos órgãos aéreos das plantas (62,3; 27,5 e 88,0g planta-1 para folha, coroa e frutos, respectivamente e, juntamente com a 'Aromas', maior produtividade (64,2 e 59,1Mg ha-1, respectivamente. A cultivar 'Aromas' apresentou a maior contribuição proporcional dos frutos para a composição do total de massa seca da planta (60,6% e o maior índice de colheita (88%. A posição das plantas não influenciou o crescimento e a produtividade, indicando ausência de efeito de bordadura para as cultivares 'Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real'.The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth of strawberry cultivars growing in organic crop system observing the influence of plant position in the bed on accumulated dry matter production and its partitioning among the aboveground plant organs. The experiment was conducted in Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. The treatments were compose by the combination of two experimental factors: cultivar ('Aromas', 'Albion', 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' and plant position in the bed (Central and Border. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with split-plots and four replications. 'Camarosa' cultivar presented highest dry mass

  10. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  11. Enhanced flowering of the F1 long-day strawberry cultivars ‘Tarpan’ and ‘Gasana’ with nitrogen and daylength management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Durner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in sustainable self-sufficiency, particularly when considering produce has increased. Strawberries, especially particularly the seed propagated, long-day, F1 hybrids such as ‘Tarpan’ and ‘Gasana’, fit self-sufficient, sustainable production models well. They provide aesthetic as well as culinary benefits producing colorful, attractive blossoms and flavorful fruit. To determine if ‘Tarpan’ and ‘Gasana’ flowering would respond to photoperiod and nitrogen, seedlings were fertilized with 100 or 800 ppm nitrogen for 4 weeks in September beginning one week after exposure to either short days, the natural photoperiod, or long days, the natural photoperiod supplemented with 24 hours of incandescent radiation. Plants were then greenhouse forced under both photoperiods and floral phenology evaluated. Photoperiod and N fertility during floral initiation in September affected subsequent flowering of both cultivars. The response was rapid with significant differences observed 4 weeks after the commencement of treatment. Both cultivars responded with increased rate (enhanced precocity and intensity (enhanced inflorescence/flower number of flowering with elevated N. In ‘Gasana’ elevated N accelerated flowering by 2–3 weeks. There was a slight acceleration of flowering in lower N plants with long-day forcing, however, elevated N was much more effective in accelerating flowering than long-day forcing. In ‘Tarpan’, long-day forcing and elevated N were equally effective in accelerating flowering. Inflorescence production per plant or crown and the number of flowers per plant were enhanced with elevated N in both cultivars. Long-day forcing stimulated the number of inflorescences produced per crown in both cultivars. The number of flowers per plant in ‘Tarpan’ was also enhanced by long-day initiation or forcing. Elevated N, short-day initiation or long-day forcing enhanced the number of flowers per inflorescence in

  12. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE FRUTA EN CULTIVARES DE FRESA (Fragaria sp. AFECTADOS POR ESTRÉS SALINO YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SALT-STRESSED STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2006-12-01

    levels. This trial was carried out to investigate the relationship between NaCl-salt stress, fruit quality and yield on the strawberries cultivars ‘Sweet Carlie’ ‘Chandler’ and ‘Camarosa’ grown in pots filled with salinized soil in glasshouse. Five salt levels were compared (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl which induced different electrical conductivity (EC levels (2,68; 6,08; 8,24; 9,98 y 12,62 dS.m-1 respectly. The different EC levels were obtained by adding NaCl progressively to the soil. Fruit yield and quality were negatively influenced by the tested treatments. Sugar content in fruits was influenced by the treatments. Total soluble solids and tritrable acidity in fruits grew as EC levels grew. While the accumulation of dry matter in the roots showed a proportional increase with the level of NaCl in the substrate, the fruits showed an opposite tendency. Although typical stress symptoms such as growth retardation and poor fruit yield were observed in the strawberry tested cultivars, ‘Sweet Charlie’ was less sensitive to the salinity.

  13. Cultivars

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    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  14. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  15. GA3 e Paclobutrazol no florescimento e na produção de frutos em duas cultivares de morangueiro GA3 and Paclobutrazol on the flowering and yield of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Duarte Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito dos fitorreguladores Ga3 e Paclobutrazol no florescimento e produção de frutos de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. O experimento foi conduzido em Caldas (MG, na EPAMIG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2x4, onde as variáveis dependentes foram duas cultivares ('Oso Grande' e 'Seascape' e os tratamentos controle (água; GA3 a 40 mg L-1 em duas aplicações (aos 45 e 65 dias após o transplante; paclobutrazol (produto comercial Cultar 10% a 100 mg L-1 aos 75 dias após o transplante das mudas; combinação de GA3 + paclobutrazol aplicados aos 45; 65 e aos 75 dias, respectivamente, após o transplante. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via foliar em ambas as cultivares. A resposta à aplicação dos fitorreguladores GA3 e paclobutrazol em morangueiro depende da cultivar. A cv. Seascape, de dia neutro, respondeu melhor à aplicação de GA3 que a 'Oso Grande', de dia curto; Por outro lado, o paclobutrazol, quando aplicado via foliar, aos 75 dias após o transplante, reduziu o florescimento do morangueiro o que mostra a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre dosagens e épocas de aplicação do paclobutrazol nesta cultura.The effect of bioregulators GA3 and paclobutrazol was evaluated on flowering and yield of strawberry cultivars Oso Grande and Seascape. The experiment was carried out in Caldas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of control (no application of bioregulators; GA3 at 40 mg L-1, in two applications (45 and 65 days after transplanting date; paclobutrazol (commercial product Cultar, 10% at 100 mg L-1, 75 days after transplanting date; combination of GA3 + paclobutrazol, applied 45; 65 and 75 days, respectively, after transplanting date. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four replications, in a factorial 2x4. The response to the bioregulators GA3 and Paclobutrazol was cultivar

  16. LED Light to improve Strawberry Flavour, Quality and Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanenberg, M.A.A.; Janse, J.; Verkerke, W.

    2016-01-01

    A current demonstration in the greenhouses of Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk (the Netherlands) shows positive results of LED light on the quality and production of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). In this demonstration two strawberry cultivars, Elsanta and Sonata, are exposed to three different light

  17. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Differential Gene Expression Related to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Resistance in the Octoploid Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the strawberry industry is limited by fungal disease. Anthracnose is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and leads to large-scale losses in strawberry quality and production. However, the transcriptional response of strawberry to infection with C. gloeosporioides is poorly understood. In the present study, the strawberry leaf transcriptome of the ‘Yanli’ and ‘Benihoppe’ cultivars were deep sequenced via an RNA-seq analysis to study C. gloeosporioides resistance in strawberry. Among the sequences, differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Significant categories included defense, plant–pathogen interactions and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set provides molecular insight into C. gloeosporioides resistance genes in resistant and susceptible strawberry cultivars. Our findings can enhance breeding efforts in strawberry.

  18. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  19. Release of a new lodging-resistant mutant cultivar produced by gamma-rays in glutinous rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki; Igarashi, Isao; Sato, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    To obtain short culm mutants with lodging resistance, while retaining the other desirable traits, such as an excellent quality of the original variety, dry seeds of a glutinous rice cultivar Mezuru were exposed to gamma-rays. In M3, thirty plants were selected from 4020 plants, based on the short culm length. From the results of the subsequent yield and adaptability tests, a promising mutant line was called by the name of Sakata-Mezuru as a new cultivar in 1996. This mutant variety was mainly characterized by shortening of each internode, especially the lowest internode, and at harvest it was more adaptable to mechanical work due to the lodging resistance than its parent. It was demonstrated that the grain quality of the mutant equals to or slightly surpasses that of the parent. Sakata-Mezuru has been registered in February of 2001 and officially released. (author)

  20. Effects of Insecticides on Strawberry Aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell on Resistant and Susceptible Strawberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell, is the most important vector ofstrawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventivecontrol measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aimof the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefoliipopulations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptiblestrawberry cultivar Čačanska rana and medium resistant hybrid, zf/1/94/96 (Senga Fructarinax Del Norte. Lower toxicity of deltamethrin was observed (laboratory assay as well aslower biological efficacy of dimethoate at lower concentrations (field trial for specimensfrom C. fragaefolii population reared on susceptible strawberry cultivar Čačanska rana.

  1. Identifying Key Flavors in Strawberries Driving Liking via Internal and External Preference Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Penelope; Cicerale, Sara; Pang, Edwin; Keast, Russell

    2018-04-01

    Australian consumers desire the development of a more flavorsome Australian strawberry cultivar. To aid in the development of well-liked strawberries, the attributes driving liking need to be identified. The objective of this research is to apply Preference Mapping (PM) techniques to the descriptive profile of commercial and newly bred strawberry cultivars, together with consumer preference data to determine the flavors contributing to liking. A trained sensory panel (n = 12) used Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) methodology to evaluate two appearance, seven aroma, five texture, 10 flavor and 10 aftertaste attributes of three commercial strawberry cultivars and six elite breeding lines grown in Victoria, Australia. Strawberry consumers (n = 150) assessed their liking of the same strawberry cultivars. QDA® significantly discriminated strawberries on 28 of the 34 sensory attributes. There were significant differences in hedonic ratings of strawberries (F(8,714) = 11.5, P = 0.0001), with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifying three consumer clusters each displaying differing patterns of preference. Internal and external PM techniques were applied to the data to identify the attributes driving consumer acceptability. Sweet, berry, caramel, fruity and floral attributes were identified as most contributing to liking. Sour, citrus, green, astringent, firm and gritty attributes were conversely associated with a reduction in consumer liking. Elite Lines 2 and 6 have been identified as having the broadest appeal, satisfying between 60% and 70% of consumers in the population assessed, thus the introduction of these cultivars should satisfy the largest group of consumers in the Australian market. The results of this research could be applied to breeding programs, to ensure newly bred cultivars express characteristics that were identified as well-liked amongst consumers. In addition, this research provides evidence for marketing strawberries by

  2. Impact of rice cultivar and organ on elemental composition of phytoliths and the release of bio-available silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimin eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The continental bio-cycling of silicon (Si plays a key role in global Si cycle and as such partly controls global carbon (C budget through nutrition of marine and terrestrial biota, accumulation of phytolith-occluded organic carbon (PhytOC and weathering of silicate minerals. Despite the key role of elemental composition of phytoliths on their solubility in soils, the impact of plant cultivar and organ on the elemental composition of phytoliths in Si high-accumulator plants, such as rice (Oryza sativa is not yet fully understood. Here we show that rice cultivar significantly impacts the elemental composition of phytoliths (Si, Al, Fe and C in different organs of the shoot system (grains, sheath, leaf and stem. The amount of occluded OC within phytoliths is affected by contents of Si, Al and Fe in plants, while independent of the element composition of phytoliths. Our data document, for different cultivars, higher bio-available Si release from phytoliths of leaves and sheaths, which are characterized by higher enrichment with Al and Fe (i.e., lower Si/Al and Si/Fe ratios, compared to grains and stems. We indicate that phytolith solubility in soils may be controlled by rice cultivar and type of organs. Our results highlight that the role of the morphology, the hydration rate and the chemical composition in the solubility of phytoliths and the kinetic release of Si in soil solution needs to be studied further. This is central to a better understanding of the impact of soil amendment with different plant organs and cultivars on soil OC stock and on the delivery of dissolved Si as we show that sheath and leaf rice organs are both characterized by higher content of OC occluded in phytolith and higher phytolith solubility compared to grains and stems. Our study shows the importance of studying the impact of the agro-management on the evolution of sinks and sources of Si and C in soils used for Si-high accumulator plants.

  3. Detection and isolation of nepoviruses on strawberry in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honetslegrová, J; Spak, J

    1995-06-01

    Arabis mosaic, strawberry latent ringspot, tomato black ring and raspberry ringspot nepoviruses were monitored using double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) in 18 cultivars of strawberry Fragaria x ananassa Duch. in the Czech Republic. Arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot viruses were detected, isolated and characterized on differential host plants and by electron microscopy. Both viruses were purified and antisera to them were prepared.

  4. Genes for and molecular markers linked with resistance to Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.; Henken, B.; Haymes, K.M.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A gene-for-gene model is presented which explains interactions between cultivars of strawberry and races of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, the causal agent of red core (red stele) root rot. The model allows the constitution of a universal differential set of strawberry genotypes and the

  5. Relationship between production, nematodes and "redness" in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira Curi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In recent years "redness" has increasingly appeared in strawberry plants with leaves taking on a reddish color. No causal agent has been associated with plants. Since strawberries presented problems due to the incidence of nematodes, the purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between production, resistance to the Meloidogyne hapla nematode and the "redness" symptom in strawberry cultivars. Two experiments were performed, both with the 'Camino Real', 'Festival', 'Oso Grande', 'Albion' and 'Camarosa' cultivars. The first experiment was performed in the field, where the following were evaluated: strawberry production, fruit quality, macro and micronutrient contents in fruit and leaves, percentage of plant survival, incidence of nematodes, quantity of eggs in the roots and juveniles in the soil, and the incidence of Botrytis cinerea . In the second experiment, the strawberries were transplanted into pots and filled with pinus bark-based commercial substrate. Half the pots were inocculated with Meloidogyne hapla . Cultivars presented differences in fruit production and also in the incidence of "redness". Lowest performance in production was related to the high incidence of the nematode Meloidogyne hapla. 'Oso Grande' and 'Albion' presented nematode-resistant behavior. It was possible find a relationship between the incidence of the Meloidogyne hapla nematode, and the incidence of "redness" only 'Camino Real' cultivar.

  6. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  7. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  8. BRS Libra: cultivar de pessegueiro lançada pela Embrapa, em 2009 ‘BRS LIBRA’: peach cultivar released by Embrapa, in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Clima Temperado enfatiza a criação de cultivares de maturação precoce, produtoras de frutas de polpa não fundente. Isto é devido ao interesse dos produtores e da indústria conserveira, uma vez que tais cultivares têm mais baixo custo de produção e muito boa oportunidade de mercado. A cv. BRS Libra atende a esta demanda e já foi testada por produtores da área próxima a Pelotas, por vários ciclos, contando com a cooperação do serviço de Extensão do Rio Grande do Sul. Mais recentemente, os testes foram estendidos a outras regiões com a parceria de instituições de pesquisa públicas e privadas. A cv. BRS Libra tem baixa necessidade em frio, com floração precoce e maturação iniciando geralmente, no início de outubro e ocasionalmente, ao final de setembro, no município de Pelotas. A sua exigência em frio não foi determinada precisamente, mas por comparação com outras cultivares estima-se que seja entre 100 e 200 horas.The Embrapa peach breeding program emphasizes the development of early ripening cultivars which produce non-melting flesh peaches. This is due to the interest of growers and canning industry on these cultivars because of the lower production costs plus the market oportunities. The BRS Libra cv. meet this objective and has been tested by growers around Pelotas'area, for several years with the collaboration of the extension service of Rio Grande do Sul State, and more recently in other areas, thanks to the cooperation of other public and private research institutions. It has low chilling requirement, early blooming and the harvest generally starts by beginning of October and exceptionally end of September, in Pelotas, RS. The chilling requirement was mot precisely determined but by comparison with other cultivars, it is estimated between 100 and 200 hours.

  9. Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance

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    Anne Muola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar ‘Rügen’, leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar ‘Rügen’ and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar ‘Rügen’ were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

  10. Genetic Progress in Winter Wheat Cultivars released in Chile from 1920 to 2000 Progreso Genético en Cultivares de Trigo de Invierno Liberados en Chile desde 1920 a 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the major crop in terms of planted area and presents the largest distribution in the country covering a wide range of climatic regions. This study assesses the changes of various agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in Chile between 1920 and 2000. A total of 117 winter accessions, representing 45 old and 72 modern cultivars were tested in a humid Mediterranean-type climate, with irrigation, in 2003. Old cultivars were those released before 1960 and modern ones were those released after 1960. Principal component (PC analysis using 10 agronomic traits clearly separate modern from old cultivars of winter wheat. Comparing modern cultivars with old ones, plant height have been reduced by 25.6%, but others traits have increased, like harvest index (21.1%, number of grains per ear (42.6%, sedimentation value (103%, and grain hardness (32.0%. The variation in plant height was negatively correlated with harvest index (r = -0.30, p El trigo (Triticum aestivum L. es el cultivo más importante en Chile en términos de superficie sembrada y áreas geográficas en las cuales se siembra, cubriendo una gran diversidad de condiciones climáticas. Este estudio evaluó los cambios de varias características agronómicas de variedades de trigo de invierno liberadas en el país entre 1920 y 2000. Un total de 117 genotipos de trigos de invierno, que representa 45 cultivares antiguos y 72 cultivares modernos, se evaluaron en un clima húmedo de tipo mediterráneo, en condiciones de riego, en el año 2003. Los cultivares antiguos corresponden a aquellos liberados antes del año 1960 y los modernos a los liberados después del año 1960. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales (CP usando 10 características agronómicas, permitió separar claramente los cultivares modernos de los antiguos. Al comparar los cultivares modernos con los antiguos se determinó que la altura de la planta se ha reducido un 25,6%, pero en

  11. Notice to nurserymen of the nameing and release for propagation of lufin white an american hardy hibiscus cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus laevis ‘LUFKIN WHITE’, a new hardy native ornamental hibiscus cultivar is recommended for trial by nurserymen and horticulturists as a summer flowering perennial landscape plant nationwide but is particularly adapted to conditions in the South. ‘LUFKIN WHITE’ was selected for its exception...

  12. Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Prince, a New Rabbiteye Blueberry Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Prince’ is a new rabbiteye blueberry cultivar developed by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticulture Laboratory, Poplarville, MS. “Prince’ has a relatively tall and spreading growth habit, grows vigorously, and producing numerous canes. Its high yield potential results from the development o...

  13. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  14. Quality development of Danish strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    The quality of fruit and berries has often been the topic of debate and Danish strawberries have been both praised and criticized. Therefore the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Danish Fruit Growers' Association, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP have joined together...... in a project about quality assurance of strawberries. One purpose of the project has been to provide systematic knowledge about Danish consumers' attitudes towards strawberries, knowledge, buying behaviour and consumption of strawberries. Another purpose has been to take an active part in the development...... of new strawberry varieties and growing methods and also to support better distribution and sale of strawberries. During 1999, focus group interviews and a representative study with 1174 householdswere carried out. In-home tests of existing and new varieties of strawberries will be carried out during...

  15. Strawberries without struggle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crake, T.

    1980-01-01

    Advice on diseases and their control to make cultivation more profitable and the strawberries more appealing to consumers is given. Control over both leak disease and post-harvest anthracnose have been achieved with a combination of heat treatment and irradiation

  16. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  17. An anthocyanin rich strawberry extract induces apoptosis and ROS while decreases glycolysis and fibrosis in human uterine leiomyoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Soriful; Giampieri, Francesca; Janjusevic, Milijana; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Greco, Stefania; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Ciavattini, Andrea; Mezzetti, Bruno; Capocasa, Franco; Castellucci, Mario; Battino, Maurizio; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-04-04

    Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression. In leiomyoma cells, strawberry increased the percentage of apoptotic and dead cells. Strawberry significantly increased ROS concentration in leiomyoma cells, while decreased it in myometrial cells. After strawberry treatment, leiomyoma cells showed a significant decreased rate of ECAR, while OCR was unchanged in both myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Strawberry significantly decreased collagen1A1, fibronectin and versican mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. The reduced protein expression of fibronectin was observed by strawberry extract in leiomyoma cells as well. Furthermore, strawberry was able to reduce activin A induced fibronectin, collagen1A1, and versican as well as activin A and PAI-1 mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. This study suggests that strawberry can be developed as therapeutic and/or preventive agent for uterine leiomyomas.

  18. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida) validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome.

  19. Breeding new improved clones for strawberry production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonçalves Galvão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breeding different strawberry genotypes and plant selection in Brazil could result in new cultivars with better environmental adaptations. The aim was to develop and select new F1 strawberry plants with higher potential yields. Twelve hybrid populations were obtained from breeding the cultivars Aromas, Camarosa, Dover, Festival, Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie and Tudla, and 42 F1 hybrids were obtained from each population. An augmented randomized block design was used. Productive traits were measured and heterosis was calculated for all traits. The breedings Dover x Aromas and Camarosa x Aromas both showed 28.6% of their hybrids with a total fruit mass that was higher than that of cv. Aromas, and 9.5 and 14.3% were higher than that of cv. Camarosa, respectively. The breeding of Camarosa x Aromas produced hybrids with high potential yields and a large average fruit mass that reached the commercial standard. Hybrids MCA12-93, MFA12-443 and MCA12-89 showed high potential yields and can be used as parents in strawberry breeding programs.

  20. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  1. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the freshness of strawberries and carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peneau, S.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Escher, F.

    2007-01-01

    of strawberries and carrots that varied in cultivar, as well as with time and conditions of storage. Product characteristics measured by descriptive sensory and physico-chemical analyses were related to consumer and expert panel (individual and consensus) ratings of freshness. Results showed that a large number...... of attributes contributed to the freshness of strawberries and carrots and that those were also indicators of the physiological ageing of these products. Our results suggest that consumer evaluation of fruit and vegetable freshness corresponds to an evaluation of this ageing process through the observation...

  2. Improved Stable Isotope Dilution Assay for Dietary Folates Using LC-MS/MS and Its Application to Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Striegel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Folates play an important role in the human body and a deficiency of this vitamin can cause several diseases. Therefore, a reliable analytical method is crucial for the determination of folate vitamers in strawberries and other dietary folate sources. A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for analyzing folates in food was developed and validated. The folate vitamers Pteroylmonoglutamic acid, tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate were quantified using 13C-labeled internal standards. Validation of the assay was accomplished by determining linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection, and limit of quantification and revealed to be a precise, sensitive, and accurate method to determine folate vitamers. Strawberries are worldwide consumed and known to be a good dietary source of nutritive compounds. Using this method, folate concentrations in selected commercial strawberry cultivars and experimental breeding lines grown in Germany and Australia were investigated. Total folates varied from 59 to 153 μg/100 g on fresh weight basis. Furthermore, folate content after lyophilizing or freezing did not show any significant differences compared to fresh strawberries. However, significant losses of total folates in pureed strawberries could be observed after 5 days of storage with only 16% of the original concentration retained. In summary, some of the investigated strawberry cultivars/breeding lines can be considered as rich dietary sources of natural folates.

  3. Improved stable isotope dilution assay for dietary folates using LC-MS/MS and its application to strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Chebib, Soraya; Netzel, Michael E.; Rychlik, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Folates play an important role in the human body and a deficiency of this vitamin can cause several diseases. Therefore, a reliable analytical method is crucial for the determination of folate vitamers in strawberries and other dietary folate sources. A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for analyzing folates in food was developed and validated. The folate vitamers Pteroylmonoglutamic acid, tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate were quantified using 13C-labelled internal standards. Validation of the assay was accomplished by determining linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification and revealed to be a precise, sensitive and accurate method to determine folate vitamers. Strawberries are worldwide consumed and known to be a good dietary source of nutritive compounds. Using this method, folate concentrations in selected commercial strawberry cultivars and experimental breeding lines grown in Germany were investigated. Total folates varied from 59 to 153 µg/100 g on fresh weight basis. Furthermore, folate content after lyophilizing or freezing did not show any significant differences compared to fresh strawberries. However, significant losses of total folates in pureed strawberries could be observed after 5 days of storage with only 16 % of the original concentration retained. In summary, some of the investigated strawberry cultivars/breeding lines can be considered as rich dietary sources of natural folates.

  4. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  5. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  6. (Lilium) cultivar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... 2National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing, China. Accepted 6 August, 2012 ... hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the ... of sterilization was not ideal which led to higher.

  7. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  8. Strawberry radurisation on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Venhage, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An international breakthrough was made at Pelindaba in 1981 when laboratory experiments were adjusted to accomodate commercial quantities of strawberries. Theory and practise of the radurisation of strawberries become compatible and led to the successful marketing of 1,6 million punnets of radurised strawberries during the period 1981 to 1984. Several benefits are derived from this technology, making the marketing and distribution of radurised strawberries an accepted and on-going process

  9. Seed storage effects on germination for two forage kochia cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivar ‘Snowstorm’ forage kochia was released by the USDA-ARS in 2012. It is a synthetic cultivar selected for stature, forage production, and adaptation to semiarid environments. Similar to the earlier released (1984) ‘Immigrant’ cultivar it can increase rangeland productivity magnitudes when...

  10. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  11. Effects of Mulch and Cultivar on Strawberry Productivity under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planted at the beginning of long rains in March 2002. Data were recorded from the fourth month after planting .... each plant, putting all leaves per treatment in a. R eprod u ced by Sabin et G atew ..... Indian Society of Soil Science 41: 17-25.

  12. Determination of S-genotype in apple and sweet cherry cultivars released at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apples and sweet cherries are generally characterized by self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the multiallelic locus S with gametophytic action. Thus the identification of S-genotype represents crucial information for fruit breeders and growers. The aim of this study was to identify the S-genotype of two apple (‘Čačanska Pozna’ and ‘Čadel’ and two sweet cherry (‘Asenova Rana’ and ‘Čarna’ cultivars developed at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method with consensus and allele-specific primers. The S-genotype of apple cultivars ‘Čačanska Pozna’ (S7S9 and ‘Čadel’ (S2S7 were consistent with parental combinations ‘Starking Delicious’ (S9S28 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9 and ‘Golden Delicious’ (S2S3 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9, respectively. For sweet cherry cultivars ‘Asenova Rana’ [‘Drogans Gelbe’ (S1S5 × ‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4] and ‘Čarna’ [‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4 × ‘Bigarreau de Schrecken’ (S1S3], S3S9 and S1S4 were identified respectively, suggesting that the reported pedigree is erroneous. The trueness-to-type of DNA samples of both sweet cherry cultivars was confirmed by comparison of cultivar samples from more than one site. Upon this testing, the remaining inconsistency indicated that aforementioned parentages of the sweet cherry cultivars were incorrect. These discrepancies could be the result of possible pollen contamination, or mistakes either in breeders recording or in seed processing and seedling production. The results of S-genotyping of apple and sweet cherry cultivars provide relevant information on correct assignment of these cultivars to cross-compatibility groups, which are important for cross design in developing new cultivar, as well as for orchard management in the efficient production of fruits. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31064: Development and preservation

  13. CARACTERIZAÇÃO TOPOGRÁFICA DOS FOLÍOLOS MEDIANOS DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO SOB ALTAS TEMPERATURAS

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    JOSÉ MACHADO COELHO JÚNIOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of the strawberry is concentrated in the states of the Southeast and South of the country contributing to generating direct and indirect jobs. The opening of new frontiers in atypical climate conditions for the cultivation, such as regions having higher temperatures, has been investigated. The leaf topography interferes with pathogenicity and deposition of pesticides. This study aimed to analyze the performance of 11 cultivars of strawberry in the tropical conditions of the Mesorregião Mata of the Pernambuco state. The cultivation was done in screenhouse where topographical characters of the median leaves of cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was Completely randomized, with five replications, being each pot a plot. Dover, Oso Grande and Tudla cultivars showed leaves with a flatter relief. The cultivar Sweet Charlie presented a more rugged topography. Considering the conditions of this experiment, the cultivars Dover, Oso Grande and Tudla were those that presented the most potential to pesticide absorptions.

  14. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  15. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  16. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  17. Preparation of micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance and its application in the aromatic wallpaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zuobing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance was successfully prepared with wall materials including maltodextrin, sodium octenylsuccinate and gum Arabic. The micro-capsule was added to wallpaper and aromatic wallpaper with strawberry characteristics was obtained. The particle distribution, surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal property and controlled release performance of micro-encapsulated fragrance and aromatic wallpaper were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-TR, thermal gravity analysis (TGA and chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The results showed that the average diameter of micro-capsule was 2 μm and the particles mainly distributed in the tissues of wallpaper. The result of TGA showed that the micro-capsule had a good stability. Meanwhile, the aromatic wallpaper had strawberry aroma more than 3 months and took on excellent controlled release performance.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of modified antifreeze protein gene in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisulak Dheeranupattana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum condition for shoot regeneration from leaf explants of strawberry cultivar Tiogar was investigated. It was found that the best regeneration condition was MS medium containing N6-Benzyladenine (BA and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D at concentrations of 1 mg.l-1 and 0.2 mg.l-1, respectively. Antibiotics sensitivity test found that shoot regeneration from leaf explant was inhibited more than 90% at the concentration of kanamycin (Km as low as 5 mg.l-1. The modified gene encoding antifreeze protein isoform HPLC 6 was successfully constructed using codons which were optimally expressed in the strawberry plant. The antifreeze protein genes, naturally in plasmid pSW1 and modified in plasmid BB, were transformed to strawberry leaf explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. The strawberry plants, transformed with both AFP genes, were able to root in MS media containing 50 mg.l-1 Km, while no roots grew from nontransformed plant in this condition. Polymerase chain reaction indicated that the transgenes were integrated in the genome of transformants.

  19. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  20. Active package for wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Del Valle, Valeria; Catala, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2007-03-21

    An antimicrobial active package has been developed to improve the safety and quality of wild strawberries, as well as extending their shelf life. The fruits were packed in equilibrium-modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP), and the effect on Botrytis cinerea growth and on the quality parameters of the fruit by the addition of different amounts of 2-nonanone, an antifungal volatile compound naturally present in strawberries, was investigated during storage at 10 and 22 degrees C. The temperature of 10 degrees C was chosen as the temperature used at points of sale, and 22 degrees C was chosen as the control temperature. Fungal growth was inhibited in all cases, possibly due to the synergistic effect of high CO2 partial pressures and the presence of the antifungal compound. Weight, soluble solids, titrable acidity, and anthocyanin losses were retarded by the presence of 2-nonanone. This effect was more pronounced as the 2-nonanone concentration was increased at both temperatures. Therefore, an active package that releases 2-nonanone inhibits fungal decay and delays the senescence of highly perishable wild strawberry fruit.

  1. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  2. Effect of different planting time on different varieties of strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yue; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Lin, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The experiment chose two strawberry varieties which planted in two periods of September 10 and September 20, in order to identify the optimum planting time of strawberries by exploring the effects of different planting time on strawberry quality and flowering initially. The results showed that different planting time will affect the growth and quality of strawberry, and the quality of September 10 planting strawberries is better than September 20 planting strawberries while there do exist some differences between strawberry varieties. In summary, the preliminary determination is that in Hanyuan area, the Hong Yan and Zhang Ji's optimum planting time is 10 September.

  3. Phyllochron estimation in intercropped strawberry and monocrop systems in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Ferro Constâncio Mendonça

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The phyllochron is defined as the time required for the appearance of successive leaves on a plant; this characterises plant growth, development and adaptation to the environment. To check the growth and adaptation in cultivars of strawberry grown intercropped with fig trees, it was estimated the phyllochron in these production systems and in the monocrop. The experiment was conducted in greenhouses at the University of Passo Fundo (28º15'41'' S, 52º24'45'' W and 709 m from June 8th to September 4th, 2009; this comprised the period of transplant until the 2nd flowering. The cultivars Aromas, Camino Real, Albion, Camarosa and Ventana, which seedlings were originated from the Agrícola LLahuen Nursery in Chile, as well as Festival, Camino Real and Earlibrite, originated from the Viansa S.A. Nursery in Argentina, were grown in white polyethylene bags filled with commercial substrate (Tecnomax® and evaluated. The treatments were arranged in a randomised block design and four replicates were performed. A linear regression was realized between the leaf number (LN in the main crown and the accumulated thermal time (ATT. The phyllochron (degree-day leaf-1 was estimated as the inverse of the angular coefficient of the linear regression. The data were submitted to ANOVA, and when significance was observed, the means were compared using the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The mean and standard deviation of phyllochrons of strawberry cultivars intercropped with fig trees varied from 149.35ºC day leaf-1 ± 31.29 in the Albion cultivar to 86.34ºC day leaf-1 ± 34.74 in the Ventana cultivar. Significant differences were observed among cultivars produced in a soilless environment with higher values recorded for Albion (199.96ºC day leaf-1 ± 29.7, which required more degree-days to produce a leaf, while cv. Ventana (85.76ºC day leaf-1 ± 11.51 exhibited a lower phyllochron mean value. Based on these results, Albion requires more degree-days to issue a leaf as

  4. Effects of Site and Cultivar on Consumer Acceptance of Pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, John M; Merhaut, Donald J; Jia, Zhenyu; Arpaia, Mary Lu; Mauk, Peggy A; Preece, John E

    2018-05-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and juice have risen in popularity as it was discovered that pomegranate has relatively high antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to determine consumer acceptance compared to the industry standard, 'Wonderful,' which comprises 90% to 95% of commercial production in the United States. Fruit were sourced from 2 cultivar field trials, one in inland Riverside, California, and one in coastal Ventura County, California. Cultivars selected for the study included 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' 'Haku Botan,' 'Loffani,' 'Phoenicia,' 'Wonderful,' and 'cv. 857,' an heirloom cultivar from Ventura County, CA, U.S.A. Pomegranate arils were subject to sensory evaluation by 87 untrained consumer panelists in late 2016. Panelists were given pomegranate arils and asked to score the samples using a 9-point Hedonic scale for the following fruit quality traits: aril color, sweetness, tartness, seed hardness, bitterness, and overall desirability. There were significant differences among cultivars for all traits assessed by the sensory panelists. There were differences in acceptance among consumers for 'Wonderful' depending on if it was grown on the coast versus inland, and consumers preferred inland- versus coastal-grown 'Wonderful.' 'Wonderful' pomegranate was associated with cultivars that consumers scored low on desirability for bitterness. Cultivars that scored well in overall desirability compared with 'Wonderful' were 'cv. 857,' 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' and 'Phoenicia.' Consumer sensory panels are important to determine scientifically which cultivars are desired by the public. These panels allowed for the determination of which pomegranate cultivars are liked or disliked by consumers and why. If the pomegranate growers know the most desirable cultivars for consumers, they are more likely to adopt and plant them, thus potentially increasing the

  5. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  6. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  7. Conservation by irradiation of the cooled strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabi, Olfa

    2004-01-01

    During this work, the microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic effects of the irradiation were studied throughout the strawberries conservation at 4 0 C in camarosa variety. Thus, the optimal dose was measured. The experimental results showed that the ionizing treatment causes a notable reduction of the microbial flora (total yeasts and moulds, psychrotrophes germs) of the strawberry. This reduction can exceed the 90% of the total flora in the strawberries treated with 2.5 and 3 KGy. The microbial load remained no significant for the strawberries treated with 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy until the 21 2nd day of the conservation. On the organoleptic level, the gustatory quality of the strawberries irradiated by 2 and 2.5 KGy is acceptable, whereas the control strawberries exposed at 3 KGy are acceptable. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the physico-chemical parameters is significant only in the case of the ascorbic acid which notes a considerable reduction in the vitamin during the first days of conservation, but which will be moderated after 8 2nd days of the storage cutters irradiated. This degradation remained more accelerated in the case of control strawberries. Lastly, we can affirm that the irradiation increases the shelf life without making modifications sensitive to the original characteristics of the cutter, which constitutes a reliable process and inexpensive in energy. (author). 13 refs

  8. Biological parameters and fertility life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Araujo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study provides the first contribution of the biology and life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, an important strawberry pest throughout the world. This species lives in the crown and leaf petioles of the plant. It is difficulty to rear this species in laboratory due to protocooperation with ants observed only in the field. We studied the life cycle of A. forbesi on the leaves of the Albion strawberry cultivar at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photophase. The experiment was randomised with 100 replicates. The parameters of the fertility life table were calculated using TabVida. In the population studied, 25% and 46% had four and three instars, respectively. A mean of 1.43 nymphs per female per day was generated. The mean reproductive period was seven days and the mean longevity was 10 days. In every 11 days there is a generation of A. forbesi, where each female has the potential to generate between 6 to 9 individuals daily, increasing its population by 1.2 times. The average life cycle was 16.8 days. High viability observed in all instars and the resulting values of R0, rm and λ suggest that A. forbesi has the capacity to increase their numbers in a short period of time, while generating high populations in strawberry crops, requiring differential management.

  9. The flavor and nutritional characteristic of four strawberry varieties cultured in soilless system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Ji, Mei-Ling; Chen, Min; Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Li, Ling; Gao, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Cui-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Strawberry fruits (cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren) were harvested and evaluated the flavor and nutritional parameters. By principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, differences were observed based on the volatile compounds composition, sugar and acid concentration, sweetness, and total soluble sugars/total organic acids of the four varieties. A total of 37, 48, 65, and 74 volatile compounds were identified and determined in cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren strawberry fruits extracted by head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), respectively. Esters significantly dominated the chemical composition of the four varieties. Furaneol was detected in cultivars of Sachinoka and Guimeiren, but mesifuran was only found in cv. Tochiotome. Tochiotome and Sachinoka showed higher content of linalool and (E)-nerolidol. Sachinoka showed the highest content of total sugars and total acids. Guimeiren showed higher sweetness index than the other three cultivars. Firmness of Tochiotome was highest among all the varieties. The highest total soluble solids TSS value was found in cv. Sachinoka, followed by the Guimeiren and Tochiotome varieties. Sachinoka had the highest titratable acidity TA value. The content of ascorbic acid (AsA) of cv. Tochiotome was higher than the others, but there was no significant difference in cultivars of Benihoppe, Tochiotome, and Sachinoka. Fructose and glucose were the major sugars in all cultivars. Citric acid was the major organic acid in cv. Tochiotome, cv. Sachinoka, and cv. Guimeiren. Tochiotome had higher ratios of TSS/TA and total sugars/total organic acids than others, arising from its lower acid content. The order of the comprehensive evaluation score was Sachinoka>Guimeiren>Tochiotome>Benihoppe.

  10. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  11. New cultivars of jujube induced by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, V.T.; Tuynh, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Mutation breeding of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lin.) received attention by the Food Crops Research Institute since 1978. Mutations can be directly released as new cultivars or indirectly as bud grafting source. N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH) was used at a concentration of 0.02-0.04% for 12 h treatment of pre-germinated seeds of different jujube cultivars. Some useful mutants were selected and directly released as new cultivars to farmers. Of the selected mutants two cultivars, ''Ma hong'' and ''Dao tien'', are the most preferable and popularly grown in the country. ''Ma hong'' is a mutant of ''Gia Loc'', a very popular cultivar. Main useful traits of ''Gia Loc'' such as early maturing, two crops of fruits per year are maintained (harvest in December and August). ''Ma hong'' has round-formed, pink rose coloured, sweeter fruits and stable fruit yield in off-season (Aug.) as compared with oval-formed, yellow-coloured and sour fruit of ''Gia Loc''. ''Dao tien'' is a mutant of the local variety ''Thien Phien'' with quite different traits. The original cultivar is late maturing (harvested in Feb.) with one crop of fruit per year and has small fruits (mean wt. of fruit at harvest 20 g). ''Dao tien'' is one month earlier in maturing allowing two crops of fruit per year (harvested in Jan. and Nov.). Fruits are round-formed, bigger (mean wt. of fruit: 25 g) and more tasteful (peach-flavored and brittle). (author)

  12. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION ON STRAWBERRY FRUIT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional control of strawberry is very difficult, because a large number of factors influence the absorption and availability of nutrients through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Aim is to establish concrete measures for improving crop technology by applying optimum dose of fertilizers, leading to increased productivity and fruit quality of strawberry culture. The research was conducted during 2009-2011, in a two-way experience. It was located at the Institute of Research - Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti. Experimental factors were: A - cultivars: a1 - Onebor, a2 – Real, a3 - Elsanta a3, a4 - Magic, a5 - Alba, a6 – Premial; a7-Queen Elisa; B – Fertilizer with 6 graduations: b1 - unfertilized, and five graduations b2 - b6 were applied mixtures of the below fertilizers, thus: b2 - 6.4 kg/ha/week, b3 - 14.3 kg/ha/week, b4 - 21.4 kg/ha/week, b5 - 28.5 kg/ha/week and b6 - 35.8 kg/ha/week. The fertilizers applied were: Polyfeed (N19: P19: K19, potassium nitrate (N12: P0: K43: Mg2 and Magnisal (N11: P0: K0: Mg15. Mixtures were applied at 2 weeks intervals, as follows: 1 April to 15 May (flowering time, 2 applications, containing macroelements N: P: K: Mg - 14:6,3:20,7:5,7 g/100 g mixed fertilizers; May 15 - June 15 (in the picking period, 2 applications of N: P: K: Mg 10,2:6,3:13,5:2,83 g/100 g blend fertilizer and August 1 to September 15 (2 applications with N: P: K: Mg 12,2:6,3:20,7:31,6 g/100 g mixed fertilizers. Following determinations were made: number of fruit per plant, average weight of fruit (g by weighing a sample of 250 fruits and production in tons/hectare. Experimental treatments have led to differences in fruit production. Thus, the analysis of fertilizer doses on the chemical components of the fruits of the seven studied cultivars, we concluded that V5 and V6 treatments had a positive influence on number of fruit per plant and on yielding capacity. Treatments induced also, highest average fruit weight in

  13. The complete genome sequence of a new polerovirus in strawberry plants from eastern Canada showing strawberry decline symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Bernardy, Mike; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Wiersma, Paul A; DeYoung, Robyn; Bouthillier, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Strawberry decline disease, probably caused by synergistic reactions of mixed virus infections, threatens the North American strawberry industry. Deep sequencing of strawberry plant samples from eastern Canada resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling poleroviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "strawberry polerovirus 1" (SPV1).

  14. Effect of drying methods with the application of vacuum microwaves on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Oszmiański, Jan

    2009-02-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of vacuum-microwave drying (240, 360, and 480 W) in the production process of dehydrated strawberry and to compare and contrast the quality of these dehydrated strawberries in terms of their polyphenol compounds, concentration of some heat liable components, and color to that of freeze-dried, convective, and vacuum-dried strawberry. Thus, the effect of vacuum-microwave drying and other drying methods on the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (anthocyanins, flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that ellagic acid and flavanol changes were affected by drying techniques and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, flavanols, and ascorbic acid, and there was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity. The most striking result was that conventional and vacuum drying decreased antioxidant activity in both cultivars, whereas contradictory results were found for vacuum-microwave processed strawberry. This study has demonstrated that vacuum-microwave drying, especially at 240 W, can produce high-quality products, with the additional advantage of reduced processing times, compared to other processes such as freeze-drying.

  15. Bioecological peculiarities of mid-ripening varieties of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of a range of strawberry varie­ties based on comprehensive study and introduction of new Ukrainian and West European cultivars. Methods. Cultivars and elite forms were studied using the methods of primary variety studying and state variety testing at three-year strawberry plantations of the Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the city of Kyiv and its variety testing stations. Results. It was found that more frequent spring and summer droughts as well as black frosts in winter adversely affected the strawberry productivity. The best varieties were selected among new ones for the complex of traits, they included ‘Elegance’ from the Great Britain, ‘Gercules’ from Ukraine (both are dessert grapes, ‘Elsanta’ from Holland (for universal use, ‘Alba’ from Italia (as raw material. The highly adaptive and productive ‘Istochnik’ and ‘Festyvalna romashka’ varieties (as raw material are recommended for the north regions. Conclusions. In the context of profound climatic change, high-profitable cultivation of mid-ripening varieties and a strawberry as such in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone is expedient under controlled conditions – in high film tunnels, in hot-houses and under perennial irrigation that already has become the European tendency.

  16. The Content of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria vesca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at evaluating the contents of flavonoids, free phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (% by means of DPPH radical neutralization ability in fresh and air-dried fruits of three wild strawberry cultivars. Examinations revealed differences in contents of biologically active substances determined in raw versus dried material depending on the cultivar. Mean concentrations of flavonoids and tannins were highest in raw fruits of “Baron von Solemacher” cv., which amounted to 1.244 mg·g−1 and 6.09%, respectively. Fresh fruits of “Regina” cv. were characterized by the highest average content of phenolic acids and anthocyanins: 4.987 mg·g−1 and 0.636 mg·100 g−1. The pattern of mean contents of biologically active substances analyzed in air-dried fruits was similar. Significant differences in abilities to neutralize the DPPH radical to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined wild strawberry fruits were also indicated.

  17. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  18. Health and taste related compounds in strawberries under various irrigation regimes and bio-stimulant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Burcak; Sarıdaş, Mehmet Ali; Çeliktopuz, Eser; Kafkas, Ebru; Paydaş Kargı, Sevgi

    2018-10-15

    Strawberry has a unique status within the fruit species in terms of health and taste related compounds. This experimental study concerned the application of a bio-stimulant at various drip irrigation levels (IR125, IR100, IR75 and IR50). The effects of the bio-stimulant (seaweed extract) on the eating quality, i.e., the taste-related (TSS, fructose, glucose, sucrose and citric, malic, l-ascorbic acid), and health-related (antioxidant activity, total phenol, myricetin and quercetin) compounds were studied in two strawberry cultivars. The 'Rubygem' with its higher sugar and lower acid content has been more preferable than the 'Kabarla' cultivar. The bio-stimulant contributes to taste by improving the TSS, fructose, sucrose and also to health by increasing the quercetin content of the fruit which is associated to the cardiovascular properties and cancer reducing agents. The experiment conducted revealed significant increases only in the TSS contents and antioxidant activity under the IR50 and IR75 deficit irrigation treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ariza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health.

  20. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  1. Role of Brassinosteroid on Qualitative Characteristics Improvement of Strawberry Fruit cv. Paros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila mohammadrezakhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, strawberry growers have been mostly interested in growing cultivars for the fresh market because of its profitability, but on the other hand it requires more complicated technologies and well-educated workers. High quality of the fruit for the fresh market is an important factor attracts customers and determines their choice and prices. Fruit production cost for the fresh market needs to be calculated and efficient methods and technologies also should be taken into consideration. New environmentally friendly mineral-organic fertilizers can improve fruit quality and yield of dessert strawberry cultivars. The desired effects was obtained through the activity of fertilizer’s components, which very often belong to different groups of natural hormones, elicitors, vitamins, flavonoids, amino acids, etc. Numerous breeding programs have been aimed at improving strawberry taste and disease resistance. Three major components of fruit organoleptic quality are flavor, sweetness, and acidity. Several studies have been devoted to strawberry aroma. Fruit with intense flavor also have high titratable acidity and high soluble solids. Numerous studies have addressed strawberry sweetness and acidity. Fruit soluble solids, sugars, titratable acidity, and organic acids at maturity are quantitatively inherited. Moreover, there appears to be genetic variations for these fruit quality traits. Numerous biochemical changes are observed during strawberry development and especially during fruit ripening. The major soluble constituents of maturing and ripe strawberries are soluble sugars and organic acids. The major soluble sugars in strawberries are glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The major organic acid is citric acid. This acid contributes greatly to fruit titratable acidity, which declines gradually during fruit development. The sugar/ organic acid ratio is a major parameter of strawberry taste. Brassinosteroids (BRs are a class of poly hydroxyl

  2. STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH LEAF ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE TO BIOSTIMULATORS AND REDUCED FERTILIZATION WITH N AND K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry cultivar Elsanta was grown in peat based substrate in a green house. Full dose and 50% reduced nitrogen and potassium fertilization were applied during fruit bearing period in spring, along with biostimulators Viva®, Megafol® and their combination. The specific activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPXs; EC 1.11.1.7, catalase (CATs; EC 1.11.1.6, ascorbate peroxidase (APXs; EC 1.11.1.11 and glutathione reductase (GRs; EC 1.6.4.2 in strawberry leaf were stimulated by biostimulators and reduced fertilization. The strongest link seen here was between the enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle (APXs and GRs, which were positively related to trifoliate leaf fresh mass (TLFM. The highest TLFM was observed in Megafol® treated plants.

  3. Bioinformatic Analysis of Strawberry GSTF12 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiran; Jiang, Leiyu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-01-01

    GSTF12 has always been known as a key factor of proanthocyanins accumulate in plant testa. Through bioinformatics analysis of the nucleotide and encoded protein sequence of GSTF12, it is more advantageous to the study of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis accumulation pathway. Therefore, we chosen GSTF12 gene of 11 kinds species, downloaded their nucleotide and protein sequence from NCBI as the research object, found strawberry GSTF12 gene via bioinformation analyse, constructed phylogenetic tree. At the same time, we analysed the strawberry GSTF12 gene of physical and chemical properties and its protein structure and so on. The phylogenetic tree showed that Strawberry and petunia were closest relative. By the protein prediction, we found that the protein owed one proper signal peptide without obvious transmembrane regions.

  4. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  5. Sweet, red and Danish: New strawberry varieties on their way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Fjord, Thomas Ahle

    2000-01-01

    A strawberry isn't just a strawberry. Some are sweeter than others, more fragrant and juicier. It is therefore a difficult task to develop a strawberry that tastes like in childhood memories of endless sunny days, and which also is suitablefor the distribution system of today. But new varieties...... are on their way. And this time consumers have participated in the development process. The new strawberry varieties are the result of extensive product development in the research project 'Better Danish strawberries' in which the Danish Institute of Agricultural Science, Danish Fruit Growers' Association......, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP participated. Danish strawberry growers initiated the project and the purpose is to assure the quality of strawberries and to improve the distribution and sale. In order to get consumers to evaluate both new and existing varieties the MAPP Centre carried...

  6. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Franciscleudo B; Duarte,Priscila S; Puschmann,Rolf; Finger,Fernando L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾) and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitatio...

  7. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  8. Vegetative and reproductive performances of irradiated strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velchev, V.; Stoyanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of radioactive gamma-irradiation (Cs 137 source with 600 rad/min intensity) at 250 to 1500 rad of the vegetative and reproductive performances of the strawberry was studied, under field conditions with the cvs. Gorella, Cambridge Favourite, and Zenga Zengana. It was found that in all cvs. the highest stimulating effect in respect to number of leaves was produced by rates of 1000 and 1500 rad. Irradiation with 750 and 1000 rad had a stimulating effect on the formation of more flower buds and flowers in Gorella and Cambridge Favourite, while similar effect was evident in Zenga Zengana only at 1000 rad. Radioactive irradiation had different effect on the yield of the cultivars studied. A positive after-effect was observed in the second year in Gorella at 1000 rad - 117512 kg/ha; by Zenga Zengana at 750 rad - 337237 kg/ha; and by Cambridge Favourite at 250 rad - 199766 kg/ha, which represented 113,02; 111,25 and 105.00% respectively as compared to the control

  9. FREQUÊNCIAS DE IRRIGAÇÃO LOCALIZADA EM CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO BATISTA RIBEIRO DA SILVA REIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the best irrigation frequency and main cultivar associated with the production of strawberry according to the irrigation management used. The experiment was carried out at the FEMO, linked to the URENM of the EPAMIG. The experiment was installed in split plots, with cultivars Camarosa, Dover, Oso Grande and Tudla on subplot and frequencies FR1, FR2 and FR3 in the plots in ran-domized block with four replications, totaling 48 experimental units. The fruits were harvested, quantified and classified as fruits commercial and non-commercial. Higher commercial fruit yield was observed in cultivar Oso Grande, mainly associated with characteristic fruit that fruit weight is equal or superior to 10g. The culti-var Dover was sole with a higher yield of commercial fruit when subjected to FR2. Regarding the number of commercial fruits, the cultivar Oso Grande showed yield higher than the 'Tudla'. The FR2 showed a better per-formance for all variables compared to FR3. Therefore, the cultivar Oso Grande showed better productive per-formance. Taking into consideration the irrigation’s frequency, and for higher strawberry yields, the frequen-cies FR1 and FR2 can be used.

  10. sativa L.) Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ten rice cultivars from the International Rice Germplasm Centre originating from Bangladesh were analysedfor the~r genetics of resistance to bacterial blight. The test cultivars were selected on the basis of their high level ofresistance to races IV & VI ofXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The mode ofinheri- tance was ...

  11. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance. (author)

  12. Sensation™ ‘Florida 127’ Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida127’ strawberry originated from a 2009 cross between Winterstar™ ‘FL 05-107’ (female parent) and unreleased selection FL 02-58 (male parent). It is a short-day genotype adapted to an annual plasticulture growing system. The plant is upright with open architecture, allowing air movement and e...

  13. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  14. Management of Soilborne Diseases in Strawberry Using Vegetable Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, Krishna V

    2007-01-01

    The influence of crop rotation on soilborne diseases and yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was determined at a site infested with Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia and at another with no known history of V. dahliae infestation during 1997 to 2000. The rotations studied at the V. dahliae-infested site were (i) broccoli-broccoli-strawberry, (ii) Brussels sproutsstrawberry, and (iii) lettuce-lettuce-strawberry; the treatments at the site with no history of V. dahliae were (i) broccoli-...

  15. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  16. BIODIVERSITY OF NATIONAL SQUASH CULTIVAR ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bukharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The squash is one of  the most  ancient plants, bearing numerous qualities. The squash gave high yield and is unpretentious plant, the fruit of which is long-stored and can be used as boiled, stewed, baked, fried product, and be added to bread, mush and pudding, and be prepared as puree, jam, candied fruit and other meals. Owing to useful characteristics the squash is a valuable source or raw  material for  food  canning  industry,  for  health-care and functional foodstuff production. Its best cultivar accessions contain to 30% of dry matter, to 12% of sugars  and  to  36%  of  carotene.  The  species  of  squash includes 4 subspecies and 20 varieties. One accession that came from Spain in 1937 served as an initial breeding accession for many other table cultivars for long time. For 80 years of national breeding program the many cultivars for  table  use have been released. There are the classic cultivars, such as ‘Mramornaya’, ‘Stolovaya Zimnaya’,  Gribovskaya Zimnaya’,  ‘Donskaya  Sladkaya’, ‘Michurinskaya’ that are selected or developed from first Spanish accession. This richness and originality of cultivar squash accessions should be carefully preserved. There are the new generation cultivars, such as ‘Kroshka’, ‘Malishka’,    ‘Rossiyanka’,    ‘Konfetka’,    ‘Moskvichka’, ‘Vnuchka’ and many others, which are short-tendrils and suitable for  modern  mechanized cultivation  technology. Moreover the development of new cultivars, bearing resistance to biotic and abiotic stress is the main goal of nearest breeding program.

  17. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  18. Quality consumption of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carballo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers increasingly require a food product that preserves their nutritional value; retain fresh colour, flavour and texture.Appearance, texture and flavour are attributes identified as to be key to acceptability of fruit and also for consumers in making purchase of fresh produce.The objective of this work was to investigate the consumer's preference of sensory quality and the commercial aspects of fresh strawberries, harvested in spring time from the south of our country, Uruguay- South America.In this study, seven different strawberries varieties (INIA-Arazá, INIA- Ivapitá, Ventana, Seascape, Camarosa, INIA- Ivahé, Aromas were sensory and physicochemical evaluated.The results obtained showed a high correlation between total soluble solids and sensory attributes (colour, texture, and flavour.Camarosa and Ivahé varieties were prefered for the external and internal aspects of the fruit.Future work should investigate other producer areas of the country and other harvesting time.

  19. Nitrogen for growth of stock plants and production of strawberry runner tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeimi Isabel Janisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine growth and dry matter partitioning among organs of strawberry stock plants under five Nitrogen concentrations in the nutrient solution and its effects on emission and growth of runner tips. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, from September 2010 to March 2011, in a soilless system with Oso Grande and Camino Real cultivars. Nitrogen concentrations of 5.12, 7.6, 10.12 (control, 12.62 and 15.12 mmol L-1 in the nutrient solution were studied in a 5x2 factorial randomised experimental design. All runner tips bearing at least one expanded leaf (patent requested were collected weekly and counted during the growth period. The number of leaves, dry matter (DM of leaves, crown and root, specific leaf area and leaf area index (LAI was determined at the final harvest. Increasing N concentration in the nutrient solution from 5.12 to 15.12 mmol L-1 reduces growth of crown, roots and LAI of strawberry stock plants but did not affect emission and growth of runner tips. It was concluded that for the commercial production of plug plants the optimal nitrogen concentration in the nutrient solution should be 5.12 mmol L-1.

  20. Analysis of water movement in peatbags used for the Kagawa strawberry substrate culture system [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, M.; Ushida, H.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an investigation of water movement in peatbags and growth accompanying changes in solar radiation and irrigation in the Kagawa strawberry substrate culture system (Rakuchin). 1. The water content of the substrate increased constantly for five days after setting and thereafter remained almost level. The water content rate became high from the start in the parts containing the roots. 2. At the bottom of the peatbag, the water content increased from the central part where roots were present at the time of setting, and rate of the increase was accelerated by shading and high irrigation. 3. In fine weather, there was no stagnation in the peatbag. In cloudy weather, water movement to the upper part of the peatbag was slow. 4. With plentiful irrigation, there were no symptoms of weak coloration among veins of new leaves or slow growth. 5. It was concluded that in the Rakuchin system, peatbags at the beginning of irrigation do not suffer water excess or deficiency, nor do they develop water stagnation. Furthermore, it seems that an increase of irrigation has no influence on the growth of the 'Nyohou' strawberry cultivar

  1. Improved Sustainability through Novel Water Management Strategies for Strawberry Transplant Establishment in Florida, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing bare-root transplants in Florida, United States, is an inefficient water-consuming activity. Between 3500 and 5500 m3/ha are applied with sprinkler irrigation to lower temperatures around the transplant crown and aid early root development, but more than 97% of the water volume runs off the polyethylene-covered beds. Research has been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of producing containerized (plug short-day cultivar transplants under Florida conditions, the effect of continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinklers on transplant establishment and the use of kaolin clay to reduce stress on young transplants. Research results demonstrated that growers may have alternatives to reduce water use and pumping costs during strawberry transplant establishment by the following: (a plug transplants can be produced from mother plants from Florida’s subtropical weather without chilling conditioning and still be competitive in the winter market; (b using continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinkler irrigation saves between 16% and 33% of the water volumes for strawberry establishment; and (c using kaolin clay showed to be a low-cost (US$63/ha plus application costs investment to reduce irrigation volumes by at least 30%.

  2. Thermal requirements and estimated number of generations of Neopamera bilobata (Say in strawberry-producing regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Melissa de Azevedo Kuhn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The thermal threshold and thermal requirements of Neopamera bilobata were determined, and the number of generations that this species may produce in the main strawberry-producing regions of Brazil was estimated. In a climate chamber (70±10% RH and 12h photophase at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, or 30±1°C, the development of 120 eggs was monitored until the adult stage, at each temperature. Nymphs were maintained in individual cages and fed on strawberry fruits of the cultivar Aromas. The mean duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages were calculated by estimating the lower and upper developmental thresholds and the thermal constant, and this information was used to estimate the number of generations per year in different strawberry-producing regions of Brazil. The egg-to-adult duration decreased as temperatures increased, up to 28°C (93.4, 83.2, 43.9, and 31.4 days at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C, respectively. Viability of nymphs was highest between 22 and 28°C. At 30°C, the egg-to-adult duration increased (36 days, while the viability decreased (11.11%. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold was 15.2°C and the thermal constant was 418.4 degree-days. Calculating the number of generations indicated that the largest number (5.1 generations yr-1 was obtained for the municipality of Jaboti, Paraná, and the smallest for Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (1.9 generations yr-1. Our findings demonstrated that important strawberry-producing regions in Brazil are suitable for the development of N. bilobata.

  3. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  4. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  5. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  6. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... postharvest physiology of strawberry. In: Luby JJ, Dale A (Eds.), The. Strawberry into the 21th Century. Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 145-152. Kovach J, Petzoldt R, Harman GE (2000). Use honey bees and bumble bees to disseminate Trichoderma harzianum 1295-22 to straw- berries for botrytis control.

  7. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  8. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  9. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  10. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  11. Irradiation preservation processing study of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation preservation processing of strawberry was studied. The results show that single seal processing or combining with irradiation processing under given doses is of no practical value, but only combining with chill processing can promote lengthening period of fresh keeping. Single irradiation processing under given doses provides not only good initial state, but also the beginning of bad development at top speed on microorganism. The composite processing of irradiation, chill and seal can supply extended shelf lifetime with optimum value of dual synergetic effect

  12. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  13. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  14. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  15. Agronomic characteristics and phytochemical profiles of advanced June-bearing strawberry lines for the northern Canadian climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichun Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven advanced strawberry lines (‘SJ011‑10’, ‘SJ0440‑2’, ‘SJ061‑8’, ‘SJ066‑3’, ‘SJ069‑3’, ‘SJ069‑12’, ‘SJ0814‑37’, ‘SJ8518‑11’, ‘K04‑12’, ‘LL0220‑10’ and ‘V151’ were evaluated for their yield, fruit quality, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, and phenolic composition, and were compared with a commercial cultivar (‘Wendy’. The results showed that ‘SJ069‑3’ had excellent soluble solids content, mid-level titratable acidity, low weight loss, and the best firmness among all the cultivars. Higher total antioxidant capacity was found in ‘SJ069‑3’, according to ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays, an indication that ‘SJ069‑3’ is a promising new cultivar for the fresh market. In addition to rich individual phenolics, ‘SJ061‑8’ had the highest total antioxidant capacity, which was significantly different from the other genotypes, suggesting the potential use of this line as parent material in breeding or as a functional food ingredient. There was a strong relationship between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, according to Folin–Ciocalteu, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. This study confirms that anthocyanins are major phenolic compounds contributing to the main antioxidant power of strawberries.

  16. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  17. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  18. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  19. Financial results achieved in short-day strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South-western Ontario's continental climate (short days, hot summers and very cold winters the matted-row system was the dominant production system to grow short-day strawberries. Varieties-staggered production (planting a combination of early, mid and late-season varieties provides strawberry harvest from five to seven weeks. Short-day strawberries are vegetative grown in the first year, and harvested for two consecutive years. The total cost of short-day strawberry production was 54,370 $CAD/ha. The production and harvest costs in the first and second years were 20,812 $CAD/ha and 16,930 $CAD/ ha, respectively, and accounted for 69.42% of the total. Pre-plans operations were the least expensive procedures costing 8.13%, while planting and care of young plants made up 22.45% of the total costs. The total income of growing short-day strawberries under a matted-row system was 76,671 $CAD/ha (the first and second production years 41,330 $CAD/ha and 35,341 $CAD/ha, respectively. The short-day strawberries in matted-row system, with average yield of 15,722 kg/ha, generated a net revenue of 22,300 $CAD/ha.

  20. Effect Of Agrotechnical Measures And Varieties On Seasonal Dynamics Of Tetranychus Urticae Koch (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae On High Tunnel-Cultivated Garden Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the seasonal pattern of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on strawberries cultivated in polythene-covered high tunnels in temperate climatic conditions. Various cultivars were used and the effect of modification of plant covering indices on abundance and incidence of these mites was also tested. The number of two-spotted spider mites was relatively low at the beginning of the vegetation season and started to increase when average air temperature rose above 20 to 25 °C. In the experiment two types of tunnels differing in additional plant cover were used. The maximum mite abundance did not significantly vary between varieties in tunnel 1 conditions, but it was significantly lower for variety 'Sonata' in tunnel 2 conditions. Mite numbers significantly declined after strawberry foliage mowing and removal of polythene cover. Mite development was prolonged in tunnel 1, where additional cover of plants was used and higher early season air temperature was recorded in comparison to tunnel 2. It was concluded that increase in early season temperature can increase two-spotted spider mite abundance and have a more negative effect on strawberry plants in respect of foliage damage by mites.

  1. Influence of superabsorbent polymers on the chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. and biological activity in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiciuk Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By improving the air and water properties of soils, superabsorbent polymers can affect the increase and improvement of the quality of the yield of berry plants, including strawberries. Their presence in the soil has an influence on its biological activity as related to microorganisms. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of superabsorbent polymers added to the soil on the content of macroelements and sodium in the leaves and fruit of strawberry of the ‘Elsanta’ cultivar and changes in the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The superabsorbent polymer (AgroHydroGel was used in two doses: 1.8 and 3.6 g dm-3 of soil. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium was assessed using the ASA method, while the content of nitrogen and sulphur was assessed by the elemental analysis method (CHNS analyser. The number of microorganisms was assessed with a BacTrac analyser and the coefficient of microorganism development extent (SR was also determined. AgroHydroGel increased the content of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and fruit but did not affect the content of phosphorus, sulphur and sodium. The addition of the superabsorbent at a dose of 3.6 g dm-3 of soil reduced the magnesium content both in the leaves and fruit of the strawberry. AgroHydroGel decreased the content of calcium in the fruit. The use of AgroHydroGel contributed to the expansion of the K ion ratio to other ions, both in the leaves and fruits. We observed a significant increase in the amount of soil bacteria (1.8 g dm-3 dose and no significant influence on actinomycetes and fungi (irrespective of dose used.

  2. Coating effect of chitosan irradiation on performance of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; Adjat Sudradjat

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is a horticultural product which has high economic value, however, strawberries are easily damaged. Therefore, required proper post harvest handling for keep up the appearances of strawberries, one of them is the edible coating technique using chitosan. The purpose of this research was to maintaining the appearance of strawberry. Chitosan is irradiated at a dose of 0 kGy, 5 kGy, and 10 kGy, and then characterized. Observations were carried on for five days at room temperature including: the testing of the performance of the fruit that was observed visually and analysis of fruit weight loss. The results showed that the performance of strawberries is coating with irradiated chitosan of 10 kGy is still good. The percentage of weight loss strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan smaller than the strawberries without coating with chitosan (control). Strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan has a shelf life and weight loss better than control. (author)

  3. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  4. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  5. Cytomorphological and autoradiografical studies on the receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Eherh. in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the cortex and pith cells of strawberries from the cultivar Talizman gradually increased until ripening, especially in the cortex. The volume of the nucleus also increased. The nuclei in the pith were smaller then in the cortex. The volume of the nucleolus increased significantly between days 1 and 5 after pollination, after which it remained unchanged. At the end of the growth period, the volume of the nucleolus in cortical and pith cells in the lower and central part of the fruit increased. Endomitotic polyploidization which was responsible for the growth of the fruit, occurred during the development of the receptacle. The intensity of 3H actinomycin binding reached a maximum in the oldest stages. This is proof for the accumulation of active DNA during mitosis. Saturation with this antibiotic occurred in the early stages of fruit development. No dependence between the volume of cells and the number of nuclei binding 3H actinomycin was observed.

  6. Srain Yield Stability of some Bread Wheat Cultivars Introduced in Moderate and Cold Area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tarinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to genotype×environmental interaction, seed yields of genotypes are usually evaluated in broad range of environmental conditions to obtain efficient information concering cultivar selection and introduction. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted based on RCBD with three replications, using 20 bread wheat cultivars to study seed yield stability of cultivars introduced during the past several years to cold, and moderate areas of Iran. This experiment was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch during 2009-2012, for 4 years. Because of significant genotype×environmental interaction, stability analysis was performed by all possible methods to obtain stable and high potential cultivars. The result of stability analysis showed non parametric, AMMI, GGE biplot and simultaneous selection stability methods introduce lower, high, and higher yielding cultivars to be stable. On basis of all stability methods, Bahar (spring type introduced in 2008, Mahdavi (facultative type released in 1995, and Azadi cultivar (winter type introduced in 1989 respectively with 7.27, 7.13 and 6.88 (t/ha grain yield were stable and were highly potential cultivars among other cultivars. These cultivars could be introduced to researchers as stable cultivars to be used as parental ones in breeding programs for production of highly stable and seed yielding lines.

  7. The role of profilin and lipid transfer protein in strawberry allergy in the Mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, L.; Salentijn, E.; Rivas, M. F.; Mancebo, E. G.; Asero, R.; Matos, C. I.; Pelgrom, K. T. B.; Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; van Ree, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to other Rosaceae fruit, only few cases of patients with adverse reactions to strawberry are listed in literature. OBJECTIVE To identify allergenic proteins in strawberry and to express and characterize recombinant strawberry lipid transfer protein (LTP; rFra a 3). METHODS:

  8. Comparison of the Effect of 1-MCP and Low-Pressure Air on Shelflife of Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria ananassa cv. Camarossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Modares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa has tasteful, fragrant and nutritious fruits. But, because of delicate texture and high metabolic activities of the fruits at maturity, are very sensitive and easily decayed, and thus have short shelflife. Ethylene is one of the main causes of postharvest fruit losses, which could reduce the shelflife of strawberry. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to examine the effect of 1 µL/L 1-MCP treatment and low-pressure air pretreatment at 0.2 atm in 2 hours on apparent and physicochemical characteristics of strawberry fruit, cultivar Camarossa, during storage in cold store. The study was performed as split plots in time, based on complete randomized design with 3 replications. The results showed that the highest marketability (90%, fruit firmness (7.95 N, titrable organic acids (1.15 g/100 cc, vitamin C (78.13 mg/100 cc and total soluble solids (10.48 % and the lowest amount of apparent decay (13.3 %, acidity (3.63 and taste index (9.04 were obtained in 1-MCP and low-pressure air treatments, which shows the effect of treatments on reducing the rate of biochemical variations in fruit texture. Correlation coefficients between all treatments were significant (P≤0.01. Meanwhile, the positive effect of 1-MCP on appearance and studied physicochemical characteristics was more than low-pressure air pretreatment. Even, the combination of these two treatments had no significant difference with 1-MCp treatment alone. In general, this observation depicts the more positive and significant effect of 1-MCP treatment in delaying the maturity and improving the qualitative traits of strawberry fruits after being stored in cold storage.

  9. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  10. Technological process for production of persimmon and strawberry vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Hidalgo1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Ana Belen Cerezo2, Maria-Jesús Torija1, Albert Mas11Biotecnologia Enològica, Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel-li Domingo, Tarragona; 2Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainAbstract: Fruit surplus is common in intensive agriculture in many countries. This ecologic and economic problem requires alternative uses to be found for fruit. The aim of this study was to use surplus fruit to produce vinegar by traditional methods (alcoholic fermentation and acetification from persimmon and strawberry. The process was performed with naturally occurring microorganisms and compared with inoculated commercial wine yeast for alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation proceeded faster when inoculated due to the length of the lag phases observed in spontaneous fermentations. The alcoholic fermentations of strawberry mash were faster than those of persimmon mash. In contrast, acetifications were much faster in persimmon (30 days than in strawberry (70 days, in the latter some acetifications were not finished. From the technologic point of view, to produce persimmon and strawberry wine and vinegar, it is better to avoid fruit pressing and perform the process with fruit mash. Inoculation is recommended for persimmon and is necessary for strawberry.Keywords: wine, vinegar, fruit seasonings, acetic acid bacteria

  11. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  13. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  14. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  15. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  16. Influência do pH da solução extrativa no teor de antocianinas em frutos de morango Influence of the extraction solution pH on the content of anthocyanins in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Bordignon Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, os estudos sobre a composição química do fruto do morangueiro vêm ganhando destaque devido ao seu elevado consumo e às atividades biológicas atribuídas a ele. Além disso, os principais metabólitos secundários encontrados nesses frutos são as antocianinas, compostos responsáveis pela intensa coloração vermelha e amplamente utilizados como corantes naturais pela indústria alimentícia. Neste trabalho, foram preparados diferentes extratos de frutos de morango com a cultivar Oso Grande, com o intuito de verificar a influência do pH no perfil espectroscópico do extrato e no teor de antocianos. O extrato em pH 1,0 forneceu um perfil clássico para antocianinas na análise por espectroscopia no ultravioleta, assim como um maior teor de antocianinas nos frutos frescos devido a uma extração mais eficiente das substâncias de interesse.Recently, the study on the chemical composition of the strawberry fruit has been recognized in view of its increased consumption and biological activities. Moreover, the main secondary metabolites found in strawberry fruits are anthocyanins, which are the compounds responsible for the intense red color of the fruit and are widely used as natural colorants by the food industry. In this work, were prepared different extracts with strawberry fruits of the cultivar Oso Grande in order to verify the pH influence on the spectroscopic profile of the strawberry extracts and on the content of anthocyanins. The results indicate that at pH 1,0 the extract showed a classic profile to anthocyanins through ultraviolet spectra analysis and a higher content of anthocyanins in fresh fruits.

  17. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... pest of strawberry....

  18. Vegetative growth and yield of strawberry under irrigation and soil mulches for different cultivation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Regina Célia de Matos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative growth and yield of strawberry in relation to irrigation levels and soil mulches are still not well known, mainly for different environmental conditions. Two experiments were carried out in Atibaia, SP, Brazil, during 1995, one in a protected environment and the other in an open field, to evaluate the cultivar Campinas IAC-2712, under different irrigation levels and soil mulches (black and clear polyethylene. Three water potential levels in the soil were used in order to define irrigation time, corresponding to -0.010 (N1, -0.035 (N2, and -0.070 (N3 MPa, measured through tensiometers installed at the 10 cm depth. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was adopted, as randomized complete block, with 5 replicates. In the protected cultivation, the irrigation levels of -0.010 and -0.035 MPa and the clear plastic mulch favored the vegetative growth, evaluated through plant height, maximum horizontal dimension of the plant, leaf area index, as well as by total marketable fruit yield and its components (mean number and weight of fruits per plant. In the open field cultivation, no effect of treatments due to rainfall were observed.

  19. Influence of plasmogenes on the productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmogenes are largely located in mitochondria or plastids and they can influence the inheritance of many plant characteristics. This phenomenon is called cytoplasmic inheritance and can be detected on the basis of the expression of a trait in progeny F1 obtained from single and reciprocal crosses. The aim of this study was to examine the cytoplasmic inheritance of in vitro productivity of morphogenesis in three genotypes of Fragaria x ananassa Duch., i.e. the cultivars 'Dukat', 'Teresa' and the breeding clone no. 590. Single and reciprocal crosses were done according to Griffi ng's method 3. The value of general combining ability (GCA indicated cv. 'Teresa' as the best maternal component for crossing and 'Dukat' as the worst. The negative reciprocal cross effects (rij revealed the cytoplasmic inheritance for cv. 'Dukat' as maternal form and positive rij for the breeding clone no. 590 indicated the nuclear inheritance of morphogenetic ability. Cv. 'Teresa', as maternal component, showed nuclear inheritance of that trait in crossing with cv. 'Dukat' and with 590 cytoplasmic inheritance. The productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry depended on the parental combination and the direction of crossing.

  20. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  1. Grain legume cultivars derived from induced mutations, and mutations affecting nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-five grain legume cultivars developed using induced mutations have been released in 32 countries. A maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by common bean (50), groundnut (44), pea (32) and mungbean (14). Gamma or x-ray exposures of seeds led to the direct development of 111 cultivars, while neutron and chemical mutagen treatments resulted in 8 and 36 cultivars respectively. One hundred and three cultivars have been developed using mutants in cross breeding. Attempts have been made to estimate the successful dose range for gamma and x-rays, defined as the dose range, which led to the development, registration and release of a maximum number of mutant cultivars. Exposures to seeds ranging between 100-200 Gy in all grain legumes, except faba bean, resulted in 49 out of 111 cultivars being developed as direct mutants. Successful doses reported for faba bean are lower than 100 Gy. Modified crop plant characters are listed. Besides the development of new cultivars, a large number of induced mutants that show altered nodulation pattern have been isolated in grain legumes. Such mutants have made a significant contribution in basic studies on host-symbiont interactions and towards cloning of plant genes related to symbiosis and nitrogen fixation. Their exploitation in breeding programs for enhancing nitrogen fixation is just beginning. Available information on nodulation mutants in grain legume crops is summarised. Mainly, four types of nodulation mutants have been isolated. They show either: no nodulation (nod -), few nodules (nod +/-), ineffective nodulation (Fix-), hypernodulation (nod ++) or hypernodulation even in the presence of otherwise inhibitory nitrate levels (nts). Hypernodulating and nts mutants are of great interest. A soybean cultivar incorporating nts trait has been released in Australia. (author)

  2. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  3. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  4. A novel 3D imaging system for strawberry phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Q. He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate and quantitative phenotypic data in plant breeding programmes is vital in breeding to assess the performance of genotypes and to make selections. Traditional strawberry phenotyping relies on the human eye to assess most external fruit quality attributes, which is time-consuming and subjective. 3D imaging is a promising high-throughput technique that allows multiple external fruit quality attributes to be measured simultaneously. Results A low cost multi-view stereo (MVS imaging system was developed, which captured data from 360° around a target strawberry fruit. A 3D point cloud of the sample was derived and analysed with custom-developed software to estimate berry height, length, width, volume, calyx size, colour and achene number. Analysis of these traits in 100 fruits showed good concordance with manual assessment methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of an MVS based 3D imaging system for the rapid and quantitative phenotyping of seven agronomically important external strawberry traits. With further improvement, this method could be applied in strawberry breeding programmes as a cost effective phenotyping technique.

  5. A novel 3D imaging system for strawberry phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Joe Q; Harrison, Richard J; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and quantitative phenotypic data in plant breeding programmes is vital in breeding to assess the performance of genotypes and to make selections. Traditional strawberry phenotyping relies on the human eye to assess most external fruit quality attributes, which is time-consuming and subjective. 3D imaging is a promising high-throughput technique that allows multiple external fruit quality attributes to be measured simultaneously. A low cost multi-view stereo (MVS) imaging system was developed, which captured data from 360° around a target strawberry fruit. A 3D point cloud of the sample was derived and analysed with custom-developed software to estimate berry height, length, width, volume, calyx size, colour and achene number. Analysis of these traits in 100 fruits showed good concordance with manual assessment methods. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an MVS based 3D imaging system for the rapid and quantitative phenotyping of seven agronomically important external strawberry traits. With further improvement, this method could be applied in strawberry breeding programmes as a cost effective phenotyping technique.

  6. Refining ASD for disease management in strawberry and apple production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as an industry level option for replacing soil fumigants to manage soil-borne diseases in both annual and perennial crop production systems. Although ASD has proven effective for the suppression of certain soil-borne pathogens in both strawberry ...

  7. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  8. Application of thermoluminescence measurements to detect irradiated strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Guggenberger, R.; Bogl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence intensity of unirradiated and irradiated strawberries was studied with regard to dose response, storage time, and different varieties. An identification method could finally be developed. Further investigations were carried out to determine the origin of the thermoluminescence effect, which was found to be attributable to mineral grains adhering to the sample surface

  9. Microbiological possibilities to demonstrate that strawberries have been irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminga, S.K.; Beumer, R.R.; Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of greenhouse and outdoor-grown strawberries were divided into two portions, they were wrapped and one portion was irradiated at 200 krad. The composition of the microflora before and after irradiation was investigated. The flora of the non-irradiated samples was composed mainly of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging, with only a few exceptions, either to the Enterobacteriaceae-family or to the genus Pseudomonas. Also, moulds and yeasts were frequently encountered in varying quantities. Moulds and yeasts did not appear to make good indicator organisms. Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria were always found to be absent after irradiation when solid media were used, even when starting from samples with numbers in the order of magnitude 10 5 -10 6 /gm. When outdoor-grown strawberries were used, this always led to a clear difference from the cooresponding untreated samples. Greenhouse strawberries, however, sometimes contain, even if they have not been treated, only a very small number of micro-organisms. Consequently, if gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria are present on strawberries they most probably have not been irradiated. Of course, this does not apply if post-contamination has been possible. If there is no growth of the above mentioned bacteria on any of te media used, considerable possibility exists that irradiation has taken place. (orig./MG) [de

  10. PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY OF SELECTED STRAWBERRY JAMS WITH FRUCTOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Prochwicz Zagórska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially available strawberry jams with fructose were characterized in relation to acidity and reducing sugar, ash, micro- and macroelement contents. The results showed that the jams differed in active and total acidity, ash, as well as reducing sugar content. Differences between the jams were more pronounced for microelements than for macroelements. doi:10.5219/46  

  11. Real - time NASBA detection of strawberry vein banding virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlíková-Vašková, Dana; Špak, Josef; Klerks, M. M.; Schoen, C. D.; Thompson, J. R.; Jelkmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, - (2004), s. 213-221 ISSN 0929-1873 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRT-PL99-1553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : strawberry virus * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.384, year: 2004

  12. Studies on preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Pawar, U B; Pawar, G H

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated

  13. The effect of dietary factors on strawberry anthocyanins oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Sandhu, Amandeep; Huang, Yancui; Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2017-11-15

    Strawberries are a dietary source of anthocyanins, particularly pelargonidin glycosides. Dietary anthocyanins have received increasing attention among researchers and consumers due to their health benefits. The oral bioavailability of anthocyanins is reported to be low and various dietary factors may influence their oral bioavailability further. Milk is suggested to reduce (poly)phenols' oral bioavailability. However, the effect of milk on anthocyanin oral bioavailability remains uncertain. Likewise, mixed nutrient meals may influence the oral bioavailability of anthocyanins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of milk on the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic (PK) variables of strawberry anthocyanins consumed with and without a meal. Nine healthy participants consumed a strawberry beverage prepared in milk or water with a standard meal on two occasions. On two additional occasions, the beverages were given to a subset (n = 4) of participants to determine the impact of the meal on anthocyanin PK variables, including oral bioavailability. Independent of the meal, beverages prepared in milk significantly reduced the peak plasma concentrations (C max ) of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (P-3-G), pelargonidin-glucuronide (PG) and pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (P-3-R), as well as the PG and P-3-R area under the curve (AUC) (p bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins under meal conditions; however, the oral relative bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins was reduced by ∼50% by milk under without meal conditions (p < 0.05). Consuming strawberry beverages made with milk and consuming those made with water with and without a meal influenced different aspects of strawberry anthocyanin PKs. The significance of this effect on clinical efficacy requires additional research.

  14. Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Alm, Rikard; Canbäck, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Proteomic screening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) yielded a 58% success rate in protein identification in spite of the fact that no genomic sequence is available for this species. This was achieved by a combination of MALDI-MS/MS de novo sequencing of double-derivatized peptides and indel......-tolerant searching against local protein databases built on both EST and full-length nucleotide sequences. The amino acid sequence of a strawberry allergen, homologous to the well-known major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, was partially determined. This strawberry allergen, named Fra a 1 according...... to the nomenclature for allergen proteins, showed sequence identity of 54 and 77%, respectively, with corresponding allergens from birch and apple. Differential expression, as evaluated by 2-D DIGE, occurred in 10% of protein spots when red strawberries were compared to a colorless (white) strawberry mutant. White...

  15. Oilseed cultivars developed from induced mutations and mutations altering fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Nichterlein, K.; Maluszynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three cultivars of annual oilseed crops, developed using induced mutations, have been officially approved and released for cultivation in 26 countries. The maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by groundnut (44), sesame (16), linseed (15), rapeseed (14), Indian mustard (8), castorbean (4), white mustard (3) and sunflower (1). The majority (118 of 163) of the cultivars have been developed as direct mutants and 45 of 163 by using the induced mutants in a crossing programme. While in soybean 53 out of 58 cultivars were selected as direct mutants, in groundnut 22 from 44 were developed after hybridization. Eighty-three cultivars were developed directly by exposing seeds to gamma or X-rays. Attempts have been made to infer the successful dose range, defined as the range which led to the development, registration and release of the maximum number of mutant cultivars for gamma and X-rays. The successful dose ranges in Gy for the main oilseed crops are: soybean 100-200, groundnut 150-250, rapeseed 600-800, Indian mustard 700 and sesame 100-200. The main characteristics of the new cultivars, besides higher yield, are altered plant type, early flowering and maturity and oil content. Mutants altering fatty acid composition have been isolated in soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed and minor oil crops. New cultivars having altered fatty acid composition have been released in rapeseed, sunflower and linseed. The latter, previously grown for non-edible oil, has been converted to a new edible oil crop. (author)

  16. Supercritical CO2-Assisted Spray Drying of Strawberry-Like Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanocomposites in Chitosan Powders for Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to develop new systems that can deliver anticancer drugs into the site of action when initiating a treatment. Recently, the use of nanotechnology and particle engineering has enabled the development of new drug delivery platforms for pulmonary delivery. In this work, POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites and ibuprofen (IBP were encapsulated into a chitosan matrix using Supercritical Assisted Spray Drying (SASD. The dry powder formulations showed adequate morphology and aerodynamic performances (fine particle fraction 48%–55% and aerodynamic diameter of 2.6–2.8 µm for deep lung deposition through the pulmonary route. Moreover, the release kinetics of IBP was also investigated showing a faster release of the drug at pH 6.8, the pH of lung cancer. POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites proved to have suitable sizes for cellular internalization and their fluorescent capabilities enable their future use in in vitro cell based assays. As a proof-of-concept, the reported results show that these nano-in-micro formulations could be potential drug vehicles for pulmonary administration.

  17. Evaluation of a miniaturized NIR spectrometer for cultivar identification: The case of barley, chickpea and sorghum in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Worku, Tigist

    2018-01-01

    Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated. Predictive multiclass models of 24 barley cultivars, 19 chickpea cultivars and 10 sorghum cultivars delivered an accuracy of 89%, 96% and 87% on hold-out sample. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) algorithms consistently outperformed other algorithms. Several cultivars, believed to be widely adopted in Ethiopia, were identified with perfect accuracy. These results advance the discussion on cultivar identification survey methods by demonstrating that miniaturized NIR spectrometers represent a low-cost, rapid and viable tool. We further discuss the potential utility of the method for adoption surveys, field-scale agronomic studies, socio-economic impact assessments and value chain quality control. Finally, we provide a free tool for R to easily carry out crop cultivar identification and measure uncertainty based on spectral data.

  18. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge-Marie Birkedal; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... produced cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and viridicatin on the artificially infected berries, while Altemaria arborescens produced tenuazonic acid, Alternaria tenuissima produced altertoxin land altenuene, and Trichoderma spp. produced several peptaibols. In conclusion, native strawberry microbiotas are highly...

  19. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  20. Polinização de morangueiro por Apis mellifera em ambiente protegido Strawberry polinization through Apis mellifera in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos comerciáveis no morangueiro, em ambiente protegido, utilizando a espécie de abelha Apis mellifera em relação à ausência de um agente polinizador. Foram instalados dois experimentos, utilizando-se das cultivares Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante e Aromas (tratamentos, no período de 05 de maio a 19 de dezembro de 2006. No primeiro experimento, não havia polinizadores (testemunha. O segundo foi polinizado pela espécie de abelha Apis mellifera. Os tratamentos (cultivares foram dispostos, em cada experimento, em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com seis repetições. Foram avaliadas características de rendimento, bem como análise físico-química dos frutos de cada cultivar. Quanto ao rendimento, a maior produção obtida foi com a cultivar Camarosa tanto na ausência quanto na presença de polinizadores (907,46 g. planta-1 e 1.054,93 g. planta-1, respectivamente, ao passo que a cultivar Oso Grande apresentou menor número de frutos deformados.This work objectified to compare the productivity and the quality of the strawberry marketable fruits in protected environment, using the species of bee Apis mellifera in relation of the absence of a polinizator agent. It was installed two experiments using the cultivates Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante and Aromas (treatments, in the period of May 5 th until December 19th of 2006. The first experiment did not have polinizatores agents (control. The second was polinizated by the species of bee Apis mellifera. The treatments (cultivars had been arranged, in each experiment in a randomized blocks with 6 repetitions. They were evaluated income characteristics, as well as analysis physicist-chemistry of the fruits of each cultivar. For the income, the biggest production was gotten in cultivar Camarosa, for the first and the second experiment (907,46 g. plant-1 and 1054,93 g. plant-1, respectively, in the way that the cultivate

  1. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry Qualidade de morango minimamente processado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciscleudo B Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾ and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitation, drainage, cut in halves. Removal of the calyx did not result significant difference for fresh weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH and ratio TSS/TTA. The rapid cooling resulted in lower electrolyte leakage and respiratory rate, especially sanitized fruits. Sanitization by immersion in chlorine solution slowed the growth of fungi and yeast. Drainage for 20 minutes eliminated practically all water on the surface of the fruits. The fresh-cutting did not affect the visual and nutritional quality of strawberries like appearance, microbiot, vitamin C, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, consisting of alternative market potential economically viable.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar mudanças físicas, químicas, fisiológicas e microbiológicas durante o fluxograma de processamento mínimo de morango. Morangos das cultivares Camarosa, Dover e Tudla oriundos de área experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, foram selecionados por cor (¾ vermelho e ausência de danos. Posteriormente, foi avaliado o fluxograma de processamento mínimo: resfriamento rápido, água e gelo; remoção do cálice acompanhado de conservação a 5±0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, por 13 dias; sanitização; drenagem; corte, em metades. A remoção do cálice não resultou diferença significativa para massa fresca, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, pH e razão SST/ATT. O resfriamento rápido ocasionou menores extravasamentos de eletrólitos e

  2. Biological control of Mycosphaerella fragariae in strawberry culture

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    Anderson Luis Heling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mycosphaerella spot is one of the main foliar diseases of strawberry, degrating great leaf regions and reducing the photosynthetic area. Its control is mainly by the use of chemical fungicides, but, due the increasing demand for food free of pesticide, alternative control methods have been researched, such as biological control. This work aimed to evaluate the effect on strawberry plants, treated with the biological control agents Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the severity of Mycosphaerella fragariae, productivity and in the activity of β-1.3 glucanases, peroxidases and chitinases enzymes. It was verified that S. cerevisiae and B. cereus treatments were similar to fungicide for disease control. However, even reducing the severity of the disease, there was no increase in productivity, and the different control agents do not cause changes in the evaluated defense mechanisms.

  3. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Lagarón, José M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2006-01-11

    Controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "Reina de los Valles" wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) was studied. Fruits were stored at 3 degrees C for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% CO2/21% O2 (air), 3% CO2/18% O2, 6% CO2/15% O2, 10% CO2/11% O2, and 15% CO2/6% O2. The effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, pH, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. The result showed that the 10% CO2/11% O2 combination can efficiently prolong the shelf life of wild strawberries by maintaining the quality parameters within acceptable values, through inhibiting the development of Botrytis cinerea, without significantly modifying consumer acceptance.

  4. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  6. Enhancement of glycerol production by zygosaccharomyces ruxii using strawberry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleigy, S.A; Taha, S.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol is important industrial product that can be produced using osmophilic yeasts. In this study a local isolate of osmophilic yeast, zygosaccharomyces ruxii, was used for glycerol production from strawberry waste. The effects of some important parameters including glucose and urea concentrations, incubation temperature, initial ph and gamma irradiation were investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum glycerol production (126.8 g/l)by z. ruxii were occurred at 31 degree C and initial ph 5 in the presence of 250 g/l glucose and 3 g/l urea in the production medium . Under these optimizing fermentation parameters, enhancement of glycerol production (130 g/l) were recorded when the inoculum of z. ruxii was exposed to 0.25 kGy. also, the present results showed reduction in BOD 5 levels of fermented strawberry waste.

  7. Carrot Cultivar Evaluation: Soilless Media vs. Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Nine cultivars of carrots were grown in a growth chamber. Each cultivar was grown both in hydroponic and soil-less media root-zone for sixty days. Three 30L tubs were used for each root-zone treatment. Three cultivars were planted in each tub, initially at 180 plants m-2 then thinned to 90 plants m-2 on day 45.

  8. Modificações nas atividades da poligalacturonase e pectinametilesterase em morangos armazenados a temperatura ambiente Modifications in the activities of poligalacturonase and pectinametilesterase in stored strawberries the ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanna Alves Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as modificações da poligalacturonase (PG e da pectinametilesterase (PME em morangos cultivados na região de Lavras, MG, e armazenados em temperatura ambiente. Foram utilizados morangos das cultivares 'Oso-grande', 'Toyorrinho' e 'Tudla'. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (3X2, sendo 3 cultivares e 2 dias de análises (0 e 5 dias. A parcela experimental foi constituída por 10 frutos. Durante o armazenamento houve uma diminuição nos teores de pectina total e um aumento nos de pectina solúvel em todas as variedades analisadas. A atividade da PG e PME aumentaram com o período de armazenamento, independente da cultivar.The objective of this research was to evaluate the modifications of the polygalacturonase (PG and the pectinmethilesterase (PME in strawberries cultivated in the region of Lavras, MG, and stored at room temperature. Strawberries of the research were used for plantation of 'Oso-grande', 'Toyorrinho' and 'Tudla'. The entirely randomized design with 4 replicates was used, being the treatments arranged in factorial (3x2, being 3 plantations and 2 days of analyses (0 and 5 days. The experimental parcel was consisted by 10 fruits. During the storage there was a reduction in the levels of total pectin and an increase in the ones of soluble pectin in all the analyzed varieties. With the period of storage the PG and PME activity grew, independent of the cultivar.

  9. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  10. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  11. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Sontag, G

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  12. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2003-01-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment

  13. The genetic diversity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. hybrids based on ISSR markers - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.16737

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Ferreira Nunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important agricultural crop in Brazil. However, most of the commercial genotypes currently in cultivation in Brazil were developed in other countries with environmental adaptations often inadequate for the regional conditions. In this work, inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to determine the genetic variability and the loci segregation profiles of 84 strawberry hybrids obtained from a genetic breeding program at the ‘Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais.’ The hybrids were produced from crosses involving the following progenitors: ‘Toyonoka’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Camino Real’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Oso Grande’ x ‘Sweet Charlie’, ‘Oso Grande’ x ‘Toyonoka’, ‘Dover’ x ‘Oso Grande’, and ‘Camino Real’ x ‘Toyonoka’. Fourteen genotypes were randomly sampled for each hybrid combination and evaluated. The results showed that the genetic profiles of the hybrids from each test cross were very diverse, most likely due to the high heterozygosity of the genome of each progenitor involved, which might indicate the presence of adequate genetic diversity among the hybrids to allow for the selection of new cultivars with agronomic traits that are more suitable to environmental conditions in Brazil.

  14. Storage of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa L. cv. ‘Oso Grande’, subjected to 1-MCP - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.8790

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanna Alves Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of 1 - methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the substances involved in the softening of strawberry, cultivar Oso Grande, stored at room temperature, from the municipality of Itutinga, State of Minas Gerais. The parameters evaluated were: firmness, total pectin, percentage of solubilization, activities of the enzymes pectinmethylesterase (PME (EC 3.1.1.11 and polygalacturonase (PG (EC 3.2.1.15. It was concluded that 1-MCP delayed the softening of the fruits, since the fruits that were treated with 1-MCP after storage, have shown greater firmness, lower activities of PG and PME, and lower contents of total pectin, soluble pectin and percentage of solubilization. 

  15. Strawberry Extract’s Effects on Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis Biofilms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are oral bacteria related to root canal infection and periodontal disease pathogenesis. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa fruit are rich in vitamins and minerals, have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Objective: This study investigated the inhibition effect of strawberry extract on monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis bacteria grown as biofilms in vitro. Methods: This study used E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. It analyzed the effect of strawberry extract on bacteria biofilm formation using a biofilm assay on microplate wells. Five concentrations of strawberry extracts were used (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, and the inhibition effect was observed after a 1h, 3h, 6h, and 24h incubation period. Biofilms without the strawberry extract were used as the negative controls, and crystal violet and safranin (0.5%w/v were used to count the biofilm mass. The biofilms grown on microplates were counted using an ELISA reader at 450 nm after 200 mL of 90% ethanol was added to attract the absorbed stain. The strawberry extract inhibition effectiveness on the biofilm formation of each bacterium tested was analyzed using one-way Anova, where p<0.05 was defined as a significant difference. Result: The strawberry extract inhibited the tested monospecies and multispecies bacteria biofilm formation. The optimal strawberry extract concentration for the inhibition of either monospecies biofilms was 100%. However, the optimal incubation time for the strawberry extract to inhibit the multispecies biofilm formation was 24h, which was the study’s biofilm maturity phase. Conclusions: The 100% strawberry extract concentration inhibited the formation of both the monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis biofilms. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential of strawberry extract as an alternative dental

  16. Transient transformation meets gene function discovery: the strawberry fruit case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eGuidarelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F. X ananassa and of the closely related F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes important for strawberry fruit development, defence and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed.

  17. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S.; Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

  18. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  19. Influences of the GAMMA radiation on useful life of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla B, Ligia M.; Sepulveda P, Claudia M.

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the purpose of prolonging the useful life of strawberry (bird variety) by means of gamma radiation, eliminating the causing microorganisms of the deterioration of the fruit partially: aerobic mesophyll, psicrotrophos, molds and yeasts, effect that was controlled by means of the recount of the same ones. In the same way, it was carried out a quantitative analysis of some parameters such organolitics as flavor, color and hardness, to observe the behavior of the strawberry with the different applied treatments. The irradiation process was made with a source of Co-60, provided by the INEA with an activity of 82 kilo curios. The used radiation doses were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy, which were quantified by means of chemical dosimeter : Sulfate cupric ferrous-sulfate. Strawberries were storage under refrigeration with controlled conditions of temperature between 1 and 2 C and relative humidity of 85-90, and periodically, samples were removed for different analyses

  20. Classification of Strawberry Fruit Shape by Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, A.; Nagamatsu, S.; Kyutoku, Y.; Dan, I.; Wada, T.; Oku, K.; Saeki, Y.; Uto, T.; Tanabata, T.; Isobe, S.; Kochi, N.

    2018-05-01

    Shape is one of the most important traits of agricultural products due to its relationships with the quality, quantity, and value of the products. For strawberries, the nine types of fruit shape were defined and classified by humans based on the sampler patterns of the nine types. In this study, we tested the classification of strawberry shapes by machine learning in order to increase the accuracy of the classification, and we introduce the concept of computerization into this field. Four types of descriptors were extracted from the digital images of strawberries: (1) the Measured Values (MVs) including the length of the contour line, the area, the fruit length and width, and the fruit width/length ratio; (2) the Ellipse Similarity Index (ESI); (3) Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs), and (4) Chain Code Subtraction (CCS). We used these descriptors for the classification test along with the random forest approach, and eight of the nine shape types were classified with combinations of MVs + CCS + EFDs. CCS is a descriptor that adds human knowledge to the chain codes, and it showed higher robustness in classification than the other descriptors. Our results suggest machine learning's high ability to classify fruit shapes accurately. We will attempt to increase the classification accuracy and apply the machine learning methods to other plant species.

  1. Engineering the anthocyanin regulatory complex of strawberry (Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eLin-Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca is a model fruit for a number of rosaceous crops. We have engineered altered concentrations of anthocyanin in F. vesca, to determine the impact on plant growth and fruit quality. Anthocyanin concentrations were significantly increased by over-expression or decreased by knock-down of the R2R3 MYB activator, MYB10. In contrast, a potential bHLH partner for MYB10 (bHLH33 did not affect the anthocyanin pathway when knocked down using RNAi constructs. Metabolic analysis of fruits revealed that, of all the polyphenolics surveyed, only cyanidin and pelargonidin glucoside, and coumaryl hexose were significantly affected by over-expression and knock down of MYB10. Using the F. vesca genome sequence, members of the MYB, bHLH and WD40 families were examined. Global analysis of gene expression and targeted qPCR analysis of biosynthetic genes and regulators confirmed the effects of altering MYB10 expression, as well as the knock-down of bHLH33. Other members of the MYB transcription factor family were affected by the transgenes. Transient expression of strawberry genes in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that MYB10 can auto-regulate itself, and potential repressors of MYB10. In tobacco, MYB10’s activation of biosynthetic steps is inhibited by the strawberry repressor MYB1.

  2. Induced Mutation in Strawberry by Using Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadvibulya, Valailak; Puripanyavanich, Vichai; Pipattanawongse, Narongchai; Yeesawasdi, Voravit; Teja, Waich

    2003-12-01

    The culture of strawberry plants variety Tio ga were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,120 and 140 Gy. They were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with BA 0.1 mg/l. It was found that radiation dose which caused 50% lethality (LD 50 ) was 80 Gy. The survival plants were transferred to rooting medium (MS medium) and then transplanted to field for stolon production and yield investigation. Two lines with good fruit quality were obtained after selection till M 1 V 5 . They were planted for further testing. In experiment II, The culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 70, SM and Dover were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 40 and 60 Gy. They were transplanted to field for stolon and yield production. Three lines from Royal 70 were obtained after selection till M 1 V 4 . In experiment III, the culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 50, Royal 70, Nyoho and Selva were irradiated with gamma rays at the same doses as experiment II. Nine lines from Royal 70 and four lines from Nyoho with good characters were selected for further testing

  3. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into the... continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Donna...

  4. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan... importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on this analysis, we... importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  5. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  6. Desempenho produtivo e massa média de frutos de morangueiro obtidos de diferentes sistemas de cultivo / Performance and average mass of strawberry fruit obtained from different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Kurchaidt Pinheiro Camargo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e a massa média de frutos de oito cultivares de morangueiro (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei e Ventana, cultivadas em diferentes sistemas de produção. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foram blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os frutos foram colhidos no período de outubro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que, quanto à produtividade, o sistema orgânico foi mais efetivo para as cultivares Oso Grande e Tudla-Milsei e o sistema convencional para Dover e Toyonoka. As maiores massas médias foram encontradas nos frutos das cultivares Tudla-Milsei e Ventana, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. A cultivar que se destacou tanto no sistema orgânico quanto no sistema convencional, foi a Tudla-Milsei, com as maiores produtividades e os frutos com maior massa média. As cultivares responderam diferentemente em função do manejo cultural empregado em cada sistema de cultivo, o que permite afirmar que há variabilidade entre as cultivares comerciais mais plantadas na atualidade. Portanto, a escolha da cultivar a ser utilizada, visando à produtividade, deverá ocorrer em função do seu desempenho dentro de cada sistema de cultivo. AbstractThe goal of this work was to evaluate the productivity and mass of fruit average of eight cultivars (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei and Ventana of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa grown in different cropping systems. The experimental designed was randomized blocks with 4 replications. The fruits were collected in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. The results allow inferring that the productivity, the organic system was more effective for the Oso Grande e Tudla-Milsei and conventional system for Dover and Toyonoka. The highest masses averages were found in fruits of Tudla-Milsei and Ventana, in both systems. Tudla

  7. Comparison of single and combination treatments of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Acramite (bifenazate) for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Kelts, Crystal; Rondon, Silvia I; Francis, Roger R

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of combining releases of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite (TSSM) (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in strawberries. In the greenhouse experiment, a combination treatment of P. persimilis and N. californicus was compared with single treatments of each species, Acramite application, and untreated control. All treatments significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control. Field studies employed two approaches: one investigating the same five treatments as the greenhouse experiment and a second, comparing combination treatments of P. persimilis/N. californicus, Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis to single treatments of each and to control plots. Among the combination treatments, the P. persimilis/N. californicus treatment significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control, but was not as effective as N. californicus alone during the 2003-2004 field season. Also, combination treatments of Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis significantly reduced TSSM populations compared with the control. These findings indicate that all three combination treatments are promising options for TSSM control in strawberries for growers in northern Florida and other strawberry producing areas of the world.

  8. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  9. Comparison and flowering valuation of New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Startek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2003 the flowering of four New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups were compared. They were the following cultivars: 'Sonic Pink', 'Sonic Sweet Cherry', 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'. The experiments were carried out from the middle of April till the middle of October. Neutralised sphagnum peat with slow release fertiliser Osmocote Plus 5/6 was used as medium. It was found that the cultivar 'Sonic Pink' began blooming 1-4 weeks earlier than the other cultivars. The cultivars 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' had significantly more abundant flowering (105.3-113.3 flowers per plant than the cultivars 'Sonic Pink' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink' (72.0-92.8 flowers per plant. All the cultivars had big flowers (6.3-7.8 cm in diameter. The most similar flowers were found in 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and the least similar in 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'.

  10. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  11. Strawberry: Fast and accurate genome-guided transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruolin; Dickerson, Julie

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel method and software tool, Strawberry, for transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq data under the guidance of genome alignment and independent of gene annotation. Strawberry consists of two modules: assembly and quantification. The novelty of Strawberry is that the two modules use different optimization frameworks but utilize the same data graph structure, which allows a highly efficient, expandable and accurate algorithm for dealing large data. The assembly module parses aligned reads into splicing graphs, and uses network flow algorithms to select the most likely transcripts. The quantification module uses a latent class model to assign read counts from the nodes of splicing graphs to transcripts. Strawberry simultaneously estimates the transcript abundances and corrects for sequencing bias through an EM algorithm. Based on simulations, Strawberry outperforms Cufflinks and StringTie in terms of both assembly and quantification accuracies. Under the evaluation of a real data set, the estimated transcript expression by Strawberry has the highest correlation with Nanostring probe counts, an independent experiment measure for transcript expression. Strawberry is written in C++14, and is available as open source software at https://github.com/ruolin/strawberry under the MIT license.

  12. Manipulating transplant morphology to advance post-transplant growth and yield in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods were developed to enhance transplant success and minimize water use of strawberry transplants harvested in Canadian nurseries for use in the annual strawberry production system in the Southern United States: mechanical leaf removal by mowing, and chemical control of growth and

  13. Towards consumer-friendly cisgenic strawberries which are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of genetically modified (GM) strawberries which are less susceptible to fruit rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. To achieve Botrytis resistance, a polygalacuronase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene has been isolation from strawberry and was characterised.

  14. A study of the synergetic effect of strawberry γ-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1990-01-01

    The change of commerical strawberry quality during storage period was studied. The shelf lifetimes of irradiated strawberries by the single radiation means using 1 kGy, 2 kGy or 3 kGy doses are not longer than that of the storage in icebox. However, the study indicated taht the synergetic effect could be produced by combine radiation means with icebox

  15. Identification of food preserved by ionizing radiation; Preliminary tests in strawberries using thermoluminescent (TL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, T.; Sillano, O.; Espinoza, J.; Roman, A.; Deza, A.

    1992-01-01

    TL measurements, of irradiated and unirradiated strawberries were carried out, using peel, seeds (achenes), leaves and sediment. The four types of samples presented a different thermoluminescence response. The best results were obtained with sediment removed from the soil of the fruit surface. It is concluded that TL is a promising technique for detecting irradiated strawberries using sediment samples. (author)

  16. Processing factors and variability of pyrimethanil, fenhexamid and tolylfluanid in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit; Rabølle, M.

    2003-01-01

    An HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of three pesticides in strawberries was developed and validated. Recoveries were measured at three spiking levels and ranged from 85 to 99% (mean recoveries). The effects of processing of strawberries ranging from rinsing to jam production were investigated...

  17. CATT as a non-chemical pest and nematode control method in strawberry mohter planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, J.; Verschoor, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Until 2008 methyl bromide (MeBr) was used in The Netherlands for fumigation of strawberry runners, intended as mother planting stock, to make them free of contamination by strawberry tarsonemid mites (Phytonemus pallidus). As an alternative of MeBr fumigation a 48 h CATT method was developed and

  18. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  19. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  20. Telas de sombreamento na produção de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Shading screens in the production of strawberry in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a produção de duas cultivares de morangueiro, conduzido sob diferentes telas de sombreamento (coberturas em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrícola de aço galvanizado, com teto semicircular, coberta com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de 150 μm de espessura, no Setor de Horticultura da Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS. Os tratamentos constaram de um fatorial duplo com duas cultivares (Camarosa e Oso Grande e 4 coberturas (testemunha sem tela e telas termo-refletora metálica, azul e vermelha com 40% de sombreamento que foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições com 20 plantas por parcela em área útil de 3 m². Foram determinados o número total e comercial de frutos e a massa fresca total e comercial e de frutos deformados por planta. Monitorou-se a temperatura do ar e a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA, sendo essa verificada em dois dias típicos (dia ensolarado e dia nublado. Considerando as médias obtidas sob a ausência e presença de telas e o total das colheitas, as produções das cultivares Oso Grande e Camarosa foram semelhantes. Na tela azul essas cultivares apresentaram a menor massa fresca.The production of two strawberry cultivars achieved under different shading screens (covers in protected environment was evaluated. The experiment was set up in galvanized steel closed greenhouse with semicircular ceiling covered with low-density polyethylene (LDPE films 150 μm thickness, in the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a double factorial with two cultivars (Camarosa and Oso Grande and four covers (control without screen and metalic, blue and red thermo-reflective screens with 40% shading which were distributed in randomized blocks lining with three repetitions with 20 plants per plot in an useful area of 3m². The total and commercial number of fruits and the total and commercial

  1. Effect of ion beam irradiation of fresh-keeping of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing; Huang Min; Wu Ling; Mo Yan; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; Kang Ju

    2011-01-01

    Effects of ion beam irradiation on strawberry quality were studied, in this study and microbial biomass, decay index, weight loss and biological index were detected. Irradiation dosage were 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. The results showed that the irradiation decreased the number of microorganism in the strawberry and delayed the rotten speed. The soluble solide, Vc and total acid content of irradiated strawberry reduced slower than that of control. It indicated that the irradiation dosage did not affect the quality of strawberry in this study . Therefore, 2.0 ∼ 3.0 kGy of ion beam irradiation were an excellent irradiation dosage for strawberry preservation. (authors)

  2. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. The latter group was dominated by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger was also isolated. As expected, bacteria were the most abundant and diverse group of the strawberry...... microbiota followed by yeasts and filamentous fungi. No obvious correlation between grower practice and the strawberry microbiota was observed. Differences between microbiotas on strawberries from conventional systems with up to 10 fungicide spray treatments and organic production systems were insignificant...

  3. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  4. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  5. Molecular characterisation of radish cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Cruz

    Full Text Available The radish has been gaining importance in the Brazilian market due to its use as a green manure and cover crop, and also due to its potential for the production of biodiesel, however there are only two registered cultivars, which are morphologically very similar. Determination of genetic purity is a prerequisite in marketing seeds as it ensures uniformity of the crop and is important in breeding programs. The aim of this work therefore was to evaluate the similarity and genotype patterns which permit differentiation of the commercial radish cultivars IPR 116 and CATI AL-1000. In order to do this, isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns were analysed in dry seeds, soaked seeds, seedling leaves and young leaves; the isoenzymes used being: superoxide dismutase, catalase, esterase, glutamate-oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Thirty-seven RAPD primers and 10 ISSR primers in leaves of the CATI AL-1000 and IPR-116 cultivars were analysed. Among the isoenzymes under study, the most polymorphic were glutamate oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and superoxide dismutase, with the superoxide dismutase system giving the best characterisation for all stages of development. The catalase isoenzyme system did not make it possible to differentiate between cultivars at any stage of development, and isocitrate lyase was not revealed by the protocol used. In analysis of the markers, 27 RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers showed polymorphism. The results indicate that it is possible to determine reliable descriptors based on isoenzymes at different stages of development of the radish and with the use of RAPD and ISSR primers.

  6. Postharvest quality of strawberry fruits produced in organic and conventional systems Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro produzidos em sistemas orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia KP Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some physicochemical characteristics of fruits of eight strawberry cultivars (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei and Ventana cultivated in organic and conventional systems. The evaluated characteristics were soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/AT ratio and anthocyanins. Evaluated sensory characteristics were flavor and appearance. The cultivars had a differential performance between themselves and among the systems for the evaluated characteristics. Generally, the conventional system produced fruit with higher levels of soluble solids and, organic system produced higher concentrations of anthocyanins. The fruits of the cultivar Toyonoka had the best soluble solids content in both systems and the anthocyanins content of 'Tudla-Milsei' and 'Camino Real' were proeminent in comparison to the other cultivars. The fruits from the organic system of production were preferred by judges on the sensorial attributes. The highest notes were given to the appearance of the cultivar Ventana in the conventional system and 'Tudla-Milsei' in the organic system.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características químicas e sensoriais de frutos de oito cultivares de morangueiro (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei e Ventana provenientes de sistemas orgânico e convencional de cultivo. As características químicas avaliadas foram sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT e teor de antocianinas. As características sensoriais avaliadas foram sabor e aparência. As cultivares apresentaram um comportamento diferenciado entre si e frente aos sistemas de produção para as características avaliadas. De modo geral, o sistema convencional produziu frutos com maiores teores de sólidos solúveis e o sistema orgânico, maiores valores de acidez titulável e maiores concentrações de antocianinas. Os frutos da

  7. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  8. Floral markers of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cottiglia, Filippo; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2010-01-13

    Strawberry tree honey, due to its characteristic bitter taste, is one of the most typical Mediterranean honeys, with Sardinia being one of the largest producers. According to specific chemical studies, homogentisic acid was identified as a possible marker of this honey. This work, based on HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honeys, previously selected by sensory evaluation and melissopalynological analysis, showed that, in addition to the above-mentioned acid, there were other high levels of substances useful for the botanical classification of this unifloral honey. Two of these compounds were isolated and identified as (+/-)-2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (c,t-ABA) and (+/-)-2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid (t,t-ABA). A third compound, a new natural product named unedone, was characterized as an epoxidic derivative of the above-mentioned acids. Structures of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as HPLC-MS/MS and Q-TOF analysis. In selected honeys the average amounts of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were 176.2+/-25.4, 162.3+/-21.1, and 32.9+/-7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the A. unedo nectar confirmed the floral origin of these compounds found in the honey. Abscisic acids were found in other unifloral honeys but not in such high amount and with a constant ratio of about 1:1. For this reason, besides homogentisic acid, these compounds could be used as complementary markers of strawberry tree honey.

  9. Irradiation of strawberries and tomatoes - chemical changes, marker compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Schindler, M.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was directed to the detection of radiation induced chemical changes in strawberries and tomatoes. The investigations were focused on polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids). These compounds, which are present in minor amounts [low ppm-range (mg/kg)], are part of the bioactive substances and have anticancerogenic, antimicrobial and antioxidative properties. Determination of polyphenols occurred by HPLC with diode array and/or coulometric electrode array detection. In strawberries 15 phenolic compounds could be detected. Upon irradiation (1-6 kGy) five were decreasing and one was increasing with dose, nine remained unaffected /1, 2/. In tomatoes five phenolic components could be identified, three of them decreased markedly with irradiation. In unirradiated samples of both foods the content of phenolic derivatives varied significantly, depending on variety, origin and degree of ripeness. Since these differences were in the same range as the radiation induced chemical changes, it could be concluded that irradiation does not reduce food quality based on the phenolic components. In strawberries a substance was detected which may be used as marker to prove an irradiation treatment. Its zero dose level is insignificant yet its concentration showed a linear increase with dose, it trebled at 3 kGy and quintupled at 6 kGy. Due to its presence in very low concentration (<1ppm) the chemical structure could not yet been determined. MS/MS analysis proved a molecular weight of m/z 318 as well as characteristic fragments of m/z 197, 165, 137, 93. On the basis of the UV-VIS spectrum (absorption maximum 265 nm) it can not be attributed to flavonoids, ellagic acids or cinnamic acid derivatives

  10. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    possibly due to the low biodiversity offered by many commercially driven, single species, Danish forests. At field scale (I) bee species richness was higher in field margins compared to field centres but there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. Sampling time had...... an effect on wild bee community composition with higher activity-density and species richness in late May and late June than in early and mid-June (II). Results thus indicate that functional diversity of visiting wild bee assemblages in strawberry differs depending on the spatial and time scale...

  11. Detecting irradiation of strawberries by means of thermoluminescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Guggenberger, R.; Boegl, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Investigations into the origin of the thermoluminescence (TL) have shown that this effect is due to trace amounts of mineral particulates adhering to the irradiated material. This result and own experience have led to the development of the TL-based method for post-factum detection of an irradiation of strawberries. In addition to the analysis of whole fruits, a method has been tested that proceeds via separation of adhering matter to separate TL analysis of the particulates. The results obtained so far show no difference or improvement as compared to whole-fruit TL analysis. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Determining the Pollinizer for Pecan Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoon Ajamgard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the best pollinizer for five selected pecan cultivars in southwest of Iran at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center in 2014-2015. The cultivars included: 'GraTex', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw' as pollinated cultivars (♀ and 'GraTex', 'Peruque', 'Comanche 4M', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'Mohawk', 'Mahan', 'Stuart 2J', '3J', 'Stuart 4J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw', 'Apache', '6M', 'Wichita 7J' and 'Comanche 5M.' as pollinizer cultivars (♂. In the first step, a pollination chart of cultivars was determined in two years. The pollination chart of cultivars showed that all the cultivars investigated during this study were dichogamous and also protogynous except for the 'Peruque'. ‘GraKing’ had the longest duration of shedding pollen. Pollination chart showed that 'Peruque', ‘GraKing’, and 'Stuart 2J' had flowering overlap with the selected cultivars. Pollen germination test showed that the germination ability was different among the cultivars. It was 45% for 'GraKing' and 35% for 'Peruque', which were both recommended as pollinizers in this study. '6M', 'GraTex' and 'Stuart 4J' cultivars had the highest pollen germination percentage of 65%, 60% and 60%, respectively. The results of controlled pollinationtest showed that different pollen sources had no significant effect on nuts per cluster but self-pollinated all of the cultivars significantly reduced fruit set in first and second years. Based on the present research, pollination in pecan orchard was necessary for adequate yield. Also, 'Peruque', 'GraKing' and 'Stuart 2J' were the best pollinizers for five selected cultivars in southwest of Iran.

  13. Broiler litter and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers influence on earliness and yield on strawberry and cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Abed Elghani

    1996-01-01

    Author.Comparison of broiler litter (BL) rates to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers was studied during 1994-1995 as to its effect on earliness and yield of strawberry and cabbage grown on a calcareous soil. Strawberry (Frag aria x ananassa Duch.cv.Oso Grande) was grown using BL at rates which supplied 100 (BL1) or 200 (BL2) Kg N/ha, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements applied at 150 Kg N/ha in six equally split applications throughout the growing season. Crop yield was higher (P 0.05) under the litter treated plots especially the BL2 rate. Leaf Fe was comparable among treatments (P>0.05) and no Fe chlorosis symptoms were observed, even though the soil is calcareous. Residual soil nitrate-nitrogen was comparable (P>0.05) among all the treatments with the ammonium nitrate and the BL2 having the highest values, indicating that BL at 200 Kg N/ha apparently released an amount of N equivalent to that from the 150 Kg N/ha of ammonium nitrate. Available soil P (water soluble), although comparable among treatments (P>0.05), was higher under the BL treated plots especially at the 200 Kg N/ha rate reflecting the P content of the manure. It is recommended to apply BL at a rate of 200 Kg N/ha to fertilize strawberry over the use of inorganic N fertilizers at similar rates. O-S-Cross cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) was tested using the same rates of BL described previously, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements at 125 Kg N/ha split as 25 Kg N/ha early in the season, 50 Kg N/ha just before heading, and 50 Kg N/ha at heading. Total yield and marketable yield were higher under the inorganic treated plots than under BL (P 2 . The higher yields under the inorganic N fertilizer treated plots were also reflected in leaf nitrate-nitrogen. Leaf blade P was comparable (P>0.05) among all treatments indicating a high soil P level at the beginning of all treatments before heading (P>0.05) and at heading, where as at first harvest it was higher (P<0.05) under the nitrogen

  14. Over-expression of Gene FaASR Promotes Strawberry Fruit Coloring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongjie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit development and ripening is a complicate process. Although much progress has been made on the ripenig process, the molecular mechamism of fruit development is not yet clear. In this study, we used ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry as test materials, based on cloning the strawberries ASR homologous gene, we carried out the bioinformatics and temporal expression analysis of FaASR, by manipulating ASR gene expression level in strawberry fruit, we tested the changes of physiological indicators, including sugar, ABA, pigments content, and fruit firmness, as well as phenotypic changes. In addition, we measured the expression changes of some anthocyanin-related gene, such as CHS and UFGT, by which we revealed the regulation mechanisms of ASR gene over strawberry fruit ripening. Strawberry ASR contained a typical domain of ABA/WDS that was related to fruit ripening and stress-resistance, and ASR gene over-expression could promote strawberry fruit coloring, endogenous ABA and sucrose accumulation, fruit softening, and induced the transcription levels of anthocyanin-related genes CHS and UFGT. The present study will further reveal the molecular mechanisms of information transmission in fruit development, and will also play an important foundation for future molecular improvement of strawberries breeding.

  15. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS in adults [n=60; age: 49±10 years; BMI: 36±5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS, low dose control beverage (LD-C, high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS, and high dose control beverage (HD-C for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, whole blood glutathione (GSH, and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were examined at screening (0 week and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.; glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p<0.05. Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43% versus control group (p<0.01. No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids.

  17. Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry and Other Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Horowitz, S; Sharon, A

    2001-10-01

    ABSTRACT Anthracnose is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry occurring worldwide. In Israel, the disease is caused primarily by the species Colletotrichum acutatum. The pathogen causes black spot on fruit, root necrosis, and crown rot resulting in mortality of transplants in the field. The host range and specificity of C. acutatum from strawberry was examined on pepper, eggplant, tomato, bean, and strawberry under greenhouse conditions. The fungus was recovered from all plant species over a 3-month period but caused disease symptoms only on strawberry. Epiphytic and endophytic (colonization) fungal growth in the different plant species was confirmed by reisolation from leaf tissues and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific primer amplification. C. acutatum was also isolated from healthy looking, asymptomatic plants of the weed genera Vicia and Conyza. Isolates that were recovered from the weeds caused disease symptoms on strawberry and were positively identified as C. acutatum by PCR. The habitation of a large number of plant species, including weeds, by C. acutatum suggests that, although it causes disease only on strawberry and anemone in Israel, this fungus can persist on many other plant species. Therefore, plants that are not considered hosts of C. acutatum may serve as a potential inoculum source for strawberry infection and permit survival of the pathogen between seasons.

  18. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  19. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  20. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  1. Estimation of loss of genetic diversity in modern Japanese cultivars by comparison of diverse genetic resources in Asian pear (Pyrus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Sogo; Takada, Norio; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-14

    Pears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar 'Nijisseiki' and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources. We genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to 'Nijisseiki' as the year of release became more recent. Both Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward 'Nijisseiki'. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of Chitosan Coating Treatments and Calcium Dips on Quality and Shelf-life of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberries are a highly perishable fruit and storage life may be less than a week. In these investigations strawberries were treated with one of the following treatments: I) 1 % calcium chloride dips (1 % CaCl 2 ), II) 2 % irradiated (150 kGy in the solid state) chitosan (CS) (2 % Irr. CS) and III) with a coating formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 . They were then stored at 6 degree C for up to 24 days. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed by evaluating the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries during the storage period. Results indicated that no sign of strawberries decay were observed in the fruits treated with CS formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 up to 20 days, where 6.1 % wt loss was detected. This treatment slowed the ripening of strawberries as shown by their retention of firmness and delayed changes in their external colour anthocyanin. To a lesser extent titratable acidity and ph were also affected by coatings. This treatment decreased the initial log counts of total aerobic bacteria, mould and yeast, coliform and E. coli. After 20 days of cold storage, the log counts of these micro organisms were lower than the log count of uncoated strawberries. Thus, CS can be used as a natural antimicrobial coating on fresh strawberries to improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life. CS formulation contains 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 extended the shelf-life of strawberries to 20 days in cold storage at 6 degree C with acceptable appearance, firmness, flavour and colour, while uncoated strawberries only lasted for 4 days as a result of mould growth and loss of surface appearance

  4. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  5. URS Altiva – a new oat cultivar with high agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar C. Nava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The oat cultivar URS Altiva, developed from the simple cross ‘UFRGS 995090-2 x URS 21’, and released by the Oat Breeding Program of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS in 2015, presents high grain yield, high grain quality, desirable agronomic performance, and partial resistance to crown rust.

  6. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  7. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The memory of iron stress in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; da Silva, José Paulo; Miguel, Maria Graça; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro José; Pestana, Maribela

    2016-07-01

    To provide information towards optimization of strategies to treat Fe deficiency, experiments were conducted to study the responses of Fe-deficient plants to the resupply of Fe. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was used as model plant. Bare-root transplants of strawberry (cv. 'Diamante') were grown for 42 days in Hoagland's nutrient solutions without Fe (Fe0) and containing 10 μM of Fe as Fe-EDDHA (control, Fe10). For plants under Fe0 the total chlorophyll concentration of young leaves decreased progressively on time, showing the typical symptoms of iron chlorosis. After 35 days the Fe concentration was 6% of that observed for plants growing under Fe10. Half of plants growing under Fe0 were then Fe-resupplied by adding 10 μM of Fe to the Fe0 nutrient solution (FeR). Full Chlorophyll recovery of young leaves took place within 12 days. Root ferric chelate-reductase activity (FCR) and succinic and citric acid concentrations increased in FeR plants. Fe partition revealed that FeR plants expressively accumulated this nutrient in the crown and flowers. This observation can be due to a passive deactivation mechanism of the FCR activity, associated with continuous synthesis of succinic and citric acids at root level, and consequent greater uptake of Fe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation processing of fruits: application to strawberries and prunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, M.

    1986-10-01

    Extending the shelf-life of fresh fruit by means of low-dose irradiation (radurization) is not a new idea: experiments in that field started in the early sixties. These experiments have actually proved that, in some cases, irradiation can achieve shelf-life extension, either through a delay in ripening (bananas), or through rot inhibition (soft cherries, apricots, tomatoes, strawberries). Alas, they have also highlighted the intolerance showed by a number of fruits when radurized: irradiation is apt to have them ripen more rapidly (peaches, nectarines) or to soften them too much (pears, table grapes, oranges, apples, plums, grapefruit, melons, honeydew melons). Even in those cases where irradiation results in a benefit, this benefit varies depending on the variety of fruit involved, as can be seen from a deep survey of the irradiation of strawberries. Preservation of dehydrated fruit is a different matter. Prunes, for instance, would be contamined by molds, wasn't it for the addition of sorbic acid during the fabrication process. Ionization of prunes can allow producers to avoid the use of a chemical, and to keep the prunes at a greater degree of humidity [fr

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of strawberry (Fragaria sp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-02-01

    Despite the increased production of strawberry in Syria, the storability and marketability of fruits were not well studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Senga sengana strawberry produced in Syria and the effect of gamma irradiation on fungal sp. i.e. Botrytis; Penicillium; Rhizopus. The fruits were treated with 1 , 2 and 3 KGy of gamma rays. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 2 to 4 centigrade and 80 to 90 % relative humidity (RH). In order to investigate their marketability, the fruits where held at room temperature (25 to 30 centigrade). Weight loss, microbial decay, and total loss, juice production, pH, total soluble solids of the juice and organoleptic qualities were evaluated throughout the different storage and marketing periods. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased the microbial decay and increased the storability and marketability of fruits by 50 and 100% after using 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. D10 were 1.8 and 2.4 for Botrytis and Rhizopus respectively. One day after irradiation total soluble solids and its pH values were increased. Fourteen days later, irradiated fruits produced more juice with higher pH, but total soluble solids were less. Gamma irradiation did not have an effect on aroma and colour of fruits, whereas, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation had an adverse negative effect on taste. (author)

  11. Modelling formulae of strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Expediency of the development of formulae and innovative technologies for production of prophylactic application drinks possessing antioxidant, probiotic and hepatoprotective properties with the use of the secondary dairy product – whey, as well as the domestic vegetable raw materials having a high content of bioactive substances has been substantiated.Formulation composition of the prophylactic drinks based on cheese whey, extract of Tagetes patula flowers and the berry filler “Strawberry” with the use of the response surface method has been developed. Bioactivity of the drinks and the complex quality indicator which accounts for the total influence of the bioactivity, organoleptic assessment and weight coefficients of the specified unit indicators were taken as the optimization criteria; as the independent factors that were varied in the course of the experiment, the mass fractions of the marigold flowers extract and the strawberries filler were selected. It is recommended that the mass fractions of the berry filler “Strawberry” and the extract of Tagetes patula flowers in the prophylactic drinks are set as 7 and 20 % of the finished product, accordingly. The practical mass fraction of the citric acid of 0.2 % was determined as it ensures high organoleptic characteristics of the finished drinks. Recommendations are given concerning development of innovative technologies of unfermented and fermented strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application enriched with the extract of Tagetes patula flowers.

  12. Sensory analysis and chemical characterization of strawberry fruits Análise sensorial e caracterização química de frutos de morango

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    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the chemical characterization and sensory analysis of strawberry fruits from cultivars Camp-dover, Dover, Camp-oso, Oso Grande, and Tudla-Milsei, grown in the southern region of Minas Gerais State. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the ratio between both characteristics were evaluated, in three replications. Sensory analysis was carried out by a panel of 34 non-trained assessors, recruited out of UNICENTRO students, professors, and employees. Assessors evaluated the samples for aroma and flavor using sorting-preference tests, with scores from 1 (less preferred to 5 (most preferred. Appearance was assessed by means of a hedonic scale, from 1 (dislike very much to 9 (like very much. Each assessor evaluated five samples of each cultivar for aroma and flavor. To evaluate external appearance, fruits were presented in polystyrene trays, covered with transparent film. Cultivars Camp-dover, Oso Grande, and Tudla-Milsei had the highest (pO trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e a análise sensorial de morangos das cultivares Camp-dover, Dover, Camp-oso, Oso Grande e Tudla-Milsei, produzidas na região Sul de Minas Gerais. Foram avaliados teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável, além da razão entre as duas características, em três repetições. A análise sensorial foi realizada por um painel de 34 avaliadores, formado por alunos, professores e funcionários da UNICENTRO. O painel avaliou o aroma e o sabor dos frutos utilizando testes de ordenação-preferência, com notas variando de 1 (menor preferência a 5 (maior preferência. A aparência foi avaliada por meio de escala hedônica, de 1 (desgostei muito a 9 (gostei muito. Cada painelista avaliou cinco amostras de cada cultivar para aroma e sabor. Para avaliação da aparência, os frutos foram apresentados em bandejas plásticas, cobertas com filme plástico transparente. As cultivares Camp-Dover, Oso Grande e Tudla

  13. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  15. Developing native Vaccinium crops and cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium species have long been harvested from the wild. Breeding and cultivar development, however, did not begin until about 1911 in New Jersey with efforts to commercially cultivate northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Cultivar development spread to cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and ...

  16. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  17. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    potential for processing into frozen French fries and flakes, released in 2007. It was developed by the Embrapa Potato Breeding Program (Embrapa Temperate Agriculture, Pelotas-RS; Embrapa Transference of Technology, Office of Canoinhas-SC; and Embrapa Vegetables, Brasília-DF, based on tuber appearance and yield, specific gravity and French fries quality. Tubers are red-skinned, lightly rough, oval shaped with shallow eyes. The pulp is white. Cultivar BRS Ana has high yield potential. In the subtropical ecosystem, cultivar BRS Ana showed higher yield (31.2 t ha-1 than the most used cultivars in Brazil when grown in autumn, and did not differ from them in the spring. In the tropical ecosystem, under irrigation, BRS Ana did not differ from both control cultivars. It produced higher percentage of marketable tubers (55.6% and average tuber weight (108.4 g than the controls in the fall crop of subtropical ecosystem. In both ecosystems, cultivar BRS Ana presented high specific gravity (1.086 and dry matter content (19.7%. The sensorial analysis showed that cultivar BRS Ana is adequate for home made French fries as well as for industrial processing. It is moderately susceptible to late blight (Phytophthora infestans and presents good resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani. The reaction to the tuber soft rot (Pectobacterium sp. is similar to the most used cultivars. It has low seed degeneration conferred by moderate resistance to PVY and low incidence of PLRV. Susceptibility to tuber physiological disorders has not been observed. It seems that BRS Ana has lower fertilizer and water requirements than the most planted cultivars, meaning reduction of crop cost and risk. In the subtropical ecosystem, tuberization starts later in spring, therefore BRS Ana should be planted earlier in the season.

  18. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  19. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  20. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  1. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content a...

  2. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Annisya Pramesti; Tadeus Arufan Jasrin; Opik Taofik Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This stu...

  3. Effect of Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root zone Drying (PRD on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahnazari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deficit irrigation (DI is a suitable solution to gain acceptable and economic performance by using minimum amount of water. The partial root zone drying (PRD method introduced in Australia for the first time and its goal was controlling the vine’s excessive growth. This goal gained by alternative drying the rootzone. Basically the theory of PRD method, is expanding the plant’s roots by applying alternative stress on different sides of the roots. So the plants with PRD irrigation method can have different root system in comparison with other irrigation methods. At this method the plant’s condition would be OK by uptaking water from wet side, and the roots at the dry side can release abscisic acid hormone which decrease the stomatal conductance and consequently the water use efficiency would be increase.There had been studies on the effect of water tension on strawberry. The previous studies on strawberry indicated that the water stress can increase the plant’s brix concentration and some of plant acids.The awareness of the impact of water deficit stress on strawberry plant quantity and quality is essential for irrigation and product management, and at the current study, effect of different deficit irrigation methods on quantitative and qualitative traits of strawberry have been evaluated. The focus at the current study was on the qualitative traits. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in one of strawberry farms of Babolsar city in 2012 to evaluate the effects of deficit irrigation and partial root zone drying on quantitative and qualitative traits of strawberry plants. Three Irrigation treatments were studied: Full Irrigation (FI, Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI75% at 75% level of plants water requirementand Partial Root zone Drying (PRD75% at 75% level of plants water requirement. The study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation was continued until the

  4. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Robinson Boyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonisation by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonising strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonised roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir.

  5. Successful strategy for the selection of new strawberry-associated rhizobacteria antagonistic to Verticillium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kurze, S; Buchner, A; Wellington, E M; Smalla, K

    2000-12-01

    In order to isolate and characterize new strawberry-associated bacteria antagonistic to the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., rhizobacterial populations from two different strawberry species, Greenish Strawberry (Fragaria viridis) and Garden Strawberry (F. x ananassa) obtained after plating onto King's B and glycerol-arginine agar, were screened for in vitro antagonism toward V. dahliae. The proportion of isolates with antifungal activity determined in in vitro assay against V. dahliae was higher for the Garden Strawberry than for the Greenish Strawberry. From 300 isolates, 20 isolates with strong antifungal activity were selected characterized by physiological profiling and molecular fingerprinting methods. Diversity among the isolates was characterized with molecular fingerprints using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the more discriminating BOX-PCR fingerprint method. The physiological profiles were well correlated with molecular fingerprinting pattern analysis. Significant reduction of Verticillium wilt by bacterial dipping bath treatment was shown in the greenhouse and in fields naturally infested by V. dahliae. The relative increase of yield ranged from 117% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 344% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P10) in greenhouse trials, and 113% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 247% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6) in field trials. Evaluation resulted in the selection of three effective biocontrol agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6, P10, and Streptomyces diastatochromogenes S9) antagonistic to the Verticillium wilt pathogen.

  6. Effect of Storage on the Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Strawberry and Kiwi Leathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal A; D'Ignoti, Valeria; Saez, Barbara; Diaz, Ricardo I; Torres, Carolina A

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry and kiwi leathers were used to develop a new healthy and preservative-free fruit snack for new markets. Fruit puree was dehydrated at 60 °C for 20 h and subjected to accelerated storage. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, water activity (aw ), total phenolic (TP), antioxidant activity (AOA) and capacity (ORAC), and color change (browning index) were measured in leathers, cooked, and fresh purees. An untrained panel was used to evaluate consumer acceptability. Soluble solids of fresh purees were 11.24 to 13.04 °Brix, whereas pH was 3.46 to 3.39. Leathers presented an aw of 0.59 to 0.67, and a moisture content of 21 kg water/100 kg. BI decreased in both leathers over accelerated storage period. TP and AOA were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in strawberry formulations. ORAC decreased 57% in strawberry and 65% in kiwi leathers when compared to fruit puree. TP and AOA increased in strawberries during storage. Strawberry and Kiwi leathers may be a feasible new, natural, high antioxidant, and healthy snack for the Chilean and other world markets, such as Europe, particularly the strawberry leather, which was preferred by untrained panelists. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  8. Fate and activity of fungal BCAs delivered to strawberry flowers and their potential for integration with fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a serious strawberry disease. Yield loss is prevented by repeated fungicide treatments during flowering which increases the risk of pesticide residues in berries. Fruit lesions are typically initiated from B. cinerea infected stamens or from dead infected......) the interaction between BCAs and B. cinerea on strawberry flowers, 2) the sensitivity of BCAs to strawberry fungicides, and 3) the effect of combined BCA+fungicide treatment on BCAs and on the indigenous mycobiota....

  9. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  10. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  11. Detection of irradiation of strawberries by determining their microbial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminga, S.K.; Beumer, R.R.; Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    A system was elaborated to determine whether strawberries have been irradiated, using 3 criteria, namely the number of Enterobacteriaceae, the percentage of yeasts on total microflora (or total absence of microorganisms) and the number of Pseudomonas. The higher the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and/or Pseudomonas, the lower the probability that the strawberries have been irradiated. The higher the yeast percentage, the more the conclusion is justified that irradiation has taken place. The same holds true for total absence of microorganisms. By combining results for the 3 criteria an identification scheme was drawn up that would have led to 189 correct decisions (92.2%) on 205 samples (102 irradiated with 200krad, 103 unirradiated). In only 3 samples (1.5%) the combination of properties resembled that generally shown by the opposite group in such a way that they would have been classified in the wrong category. Some combinations of results for the 3 criteria were found in about equal numbers for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. These samples and others showing contradictory results, totalling 13 samples (6.3%), had to be placed in a separate 'intermediate' category, about which no opinion could be given. The only possibility in such cases is to investigate new samples. Sixty of the samples were investigated without the investigators knowing whether the samples had been irradiated; 56 of them would have been classified in the right category with the help of the scheme made up using the previous data; the remaining 4 had to be classified in the intermediate category. (author)

  12. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The investigations were directed to the determination of the effect of γ-irradiation on various phenolic compounds in strawberries in dependence of dose. A significant decrease of these compounds during irradiation could reduce their beneficial effect on health, which are based on their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. On the other hand hydroxilation of phenolic acids has been proposed as a promising method to distinguish between irradiated and not irradiated fruits and vegetables. Irradiated and not irradiated strawberry samples were homogenized, centrifuged and chromatographically purified from matrix components on polyamide columns. For determination of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, which are present as esters or as glycosides, the samples had to be acid/base hydrolized prior to purification. The individual compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography and detected by means of a diode-array-detector. Peak identification was based on both UV-Vis-spectra and retention times compared with those of standards. In hydrolized samples four phenolic acids [gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid] were identified. Only 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was affected by irradiation (build up with dose). Five flavonoids were detected in non hydrolized samples [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and, in trace quantities, quercetin-3-galactoside], the concentration of the catechines and of kaempferol-3-glucoside decreased as irradiation dose increased, whereas those of quercetin-3-glucoside remained unchanged. In addition two as yet unclassified compounds showed a significant change of concentration upon irradiation. One of them (m/e = 450) is decreasing, one (m/e = 318) is increasing to the fivefold at a dose of 6 kGy

  13. Discrimination of candidate subgenome-specific loci by linkage map construction with an S1 population of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soichiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2017-05-12

    The strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, is an allo-octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) and outcrossing species. Although it is the most widely consumed berry crop in the world, its complex genome structure has hindered its genetic and genomic analysis, and thus discrimination of subgenome-specific loci among the homoeologous chromosomes is needed. In the present study, we identified candidate subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and constructed a linkage map using an S 1 mapping population of the cultivar 'Reikou' with an IStraw90 Axiom® SNP array and previously published SSR markers. The 'Reikou' linkage map consisted of 11,574 loci (11,002 SNPs and 572 SSR loci) spanning 2816.5 cM of 31 linkage groups. The 11,574 loci were located on 4738 unique positions (bin) on the linkage map. Of the mapped loci, 8999 (8588 SNPs and 411 SSR loci) showed a 1:2:1 segregation ratio of AA:AB:BB allele, which suggested the possibility of deriving loci from candidate subgenome-specific sequences. In addition, 2575 loci (2414 SNPs and 161 SSR loci) showed a 3:1 segregation of AB:BB allele, indicating they were derived from homoeologous genomic sequences. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous linkage groups revealed differences in genome structure among the subgenomes. Our results suggest that candidate subgenome-specific loci are randomly located across the genomes, and that there are small- to large-scale structural variations among the subgenomes. The mapped SNPs and SSR loci on the linkage map are expected to be seed points for the construction of pseudomolecules in the octoploid strawberry.

  14. Produção de mudas de morangueiro em casa-de-vegetação utilizando recipientes suspensos Production of strawberry runners in greenhouse using hanging baskets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    (27,2.This work aimed to quantify the propagation potential of ten strawberry cultivars, in greenhouses, using hanging baskets. The studied cultivars were Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie, and Vila Nova. In greenhouse, mother plants were individually cultivated in hanging baskets (5 L, filled with a mixture of soil and bovine manure, placed at 1.20 m above the soil. Stolons were placed vertically and nutrition was carried out only by the mother plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with ten replications of each cultivar, represented by the initial mother plants. Number of stolons, runners, and leaves per mother plant, and average length of roots, were evaluated after 180 days. Considering all cultivars at once, mother plants produced an average of 6.9 stolons, with 27.4 runner plants, 3.4 mature leaves, and 4.1 cm root length. There was high variability among strawberry cultivars for all multiplication characteristics. The largest average number of stolons per mother plant were observed in cultivars Dover (8.4, Camarosa (7.9, Milsei-Tudla (7.9, Sweet Charlie (7.6, Campinas (7.3, and Oso Grande (7.2. Results of number of runner plants produced per stolon and number of stolons produced were inversely proportional. The highest number of runner plants per stolon was observed in cultivar Aromas (6.8, significantly different from all other cultivars. When you consider the total number of plants, the best results wereobtained in the following cultivars: Dover (34.0, Campinas (31.9, Oso Grande (30.9, Sweet Charlie (30.7, Milsei-Tudla (28.8, Vila Nova (28.0, and Aromas (27.2.

  15. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adaptation of cotton cultivars | Wondimu | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each cultivar a linear regression of yield on the mean yield of all cultivars for each year was computed to measure cultivar adaptation. The cultivars with the highest mean yield exhibited a similar degree of adaptation to different environments with regression coefficient close to 1.0. For example, the breeding lines, Acala ...

  17. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its naturel enemies, and the presences of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  18. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  19. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  20. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  1. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  2. Inactivation of E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh strawberries by antimicrobial washing and coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial washing, antimicrobial coating, and a combination of both treatments were evaluated for their ability to inactivate artificially inoculated foodborne pathogens and native microflora on strawberries stored at 4 degrees C. Strawberries were inoculated with a six-strain composite of E. co...

  3. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  4. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, José L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-11

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  5. Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli in strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most fresh produce, such as strawberries, receives minimal processing and is often eaten raw. Contamination of produce with pathogenic bacteria may occur during growth, harvest, processing, transportation, and storage and presents a serious public health risk. Strawberries have been implicated in ...

  6. Impact of High-Power Pulsed Light on Microbial Contamination, Health Promoting Components and Shelf Life of Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Buchovec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of high-power pulsed light (HPPL on the microbial control and nutritional properties of strawberries. Berries were treated with HPPL and afterwards analyzed in terms of microbial contamination, shelf life extension, antioxidant capacity, firmness, total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and colour. Results indicate that the decontamination of strawberries by HPPL was significant compared to control. Naturally distributed mesophilic bacteria on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 2.2 log, and inoculated Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were inactivated by 1.5 and 1.1 log, respectively. Yeasts/microfungi distributed on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 1 log. The shelf life of treated strawberries was extended by 2 days. The increase of temperature on the surface of fruit never exceeded 42 °C. No significantly important differences were observed in total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits before and after pulsed light treatment. Moreover, no impact on the strawberry colour or firmness was found after HPPL treatment. In conclusion, HPPL is fast, effective, non-thermal and environmentally friendly technique which can be applied for microbial control of strawberries.

  7. Produtividade do morangueiro em função da adubação orgânica complementar em cultivo protegido / Strawberry yield under supplementary organic fertilization in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade, a emissão de estolhos e o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos de morangueiro, em função da adubação com esterco de bovino complementar à adubação química, em cultivo protegido, na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, compreendendo quatro cultivares (Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie, Dover e Camarosa e quatro doses de adubação orgânica com esterco (0, 30, 60 e 90 t ha-1. As cultivares Camarosa e Oso Grande tiveram incremento na produtividade com as doses intermediárias, mas reduziram sua produção na dose máxima. A produtividade da cultivar Dover foi reduzida linearmente com o aumento das doses, provavelmente devido ao aumento no número de estolhos emitidos. A cultivar Sweet Charlie não apresentou resposta em produtividade. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais dos frutos de Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande foram influenciados pela adubação orgânica.AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the yield of strawberry, the issuance of stolons and soluble solids contents of fruits, in dependence on organic fertilization with cattle manure to supplement chemical fertilizer, in greenhouse, in South-Central region of Paraná State. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, with treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial, with four cultivars (Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie, Camarosa and Dover and four doses of cattle manure (0, 30, 60 and 90 t ha-1. The cultivars Oso Grande and Camarosa had increased the yield with the intermediate doses, but reduced yield at the maximum dose. The yield of Dover was reduced linearly with increasing dose, probably due to the increasing number of stolons. The cultivar Sweet Charlie did not respond in yield. The contents of total soluble solids of the fruits of Oso Grande and Sweet Charlie were

  8. Strawberry fruit resistance to simulated handling Resistência física de morangos submetidos ao manuseio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvest operations are currently the main source of mechanical injury of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. Experiments were designed to simulate conditions encountered during commercial handling. Individual fruits were subjected to impact or compression forces with similar energy to determine the sensitivity to mechanical injury. Bruise volume was used as the measurement of injury. Bruise severity increased as a function of impact energy for both impact types. However, dropped fruits had larger bruise volume than fruits submitted to pendulum impactor at the same energy level. Doubling the impact energy (0.040 to 0.083 J increased bruise volume by 7 times (13 to 91 mm³. Fruits dropped from 380 mm (0.075 J showed 71% greater bruise volume than those dropped from either 130 mm (0.025 J or 200 mm (0.040 J. Compressed fruits showed higher bruise volume than other tests. Some cultivars are more susceptible to compression forces than others. 'Sweet Charlie' berries showed bruise volume 40% higher than the others cultivars when subjected to compression. Fruits subjected to impact showed bruise volume lower than the compressed fruits, indicating the possibility to be handled and graded in a packing line.A etapa de colheita é a principal fonte de danos físicos ao morango (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.. Experimentos foram realizados para simular condições encontradas durante manuseio. Frutos foram submetidos individualmente às forças de impacto e compressão em energias similares para determinar sensibilidade dos frutos a danos físicos. Volume da injúria física foi utilizado para mensurar a incidência do dano físico ocorrido. Severidade da lesão aumenta, com incremento da energia, tanto para força de impacto como para compressão. Todavia, frutos submetidos à queda livre demonstraram maiores volumes de danos físicos do que frutos submetidos a danos ocasionados por pendulo no mesmo nível de energia. Dobrando a energia de impacto (0

  9. Plant probiotic bacteria Bacillus and Paraburkholderia improve growth, yield and content of antioxidants in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosaddiqur; Sabir, Abdullah As; Mukta, Julakha Akter; Khan, Md Mohibul Alam; Mohi-Ud-Din, Mohammed; Miah, Md Giashuddin; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Islam, M Tofazzal

    2018-02-06

    Strawberry is an excellent source of natural antioxidants with high capacity of scavenging free radicals. This study evaluated the effects of two plant probiotic bacteria, Bacillus amylolequefaciens BChi1 and Paraburkholderia fungorum BRRh-4 on growth, fruit yield and antioxidant contents in strawberry fruits. Root dipping of seedlings (plug plants) followed by spray applications of both probiotic bacteria in the field on foliage significantly increased fruit yield (up to 48%) over non-treated control. Enhanced fruit yield likely to be linked with higher root and shoot growth, individual and total fruit weight/plant and production of phytohormone by the probiotic bacteria applied on plants. Interestingly, the fruits from plants inoculated with the isolates BChi1 and BRRh-4 had significantly higher contents of phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins over non-treated control. Total antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fruits of strawberry plants treated with both probiotic bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of significant improvement of both yield and quality of strawberry fruits by the application of plant probiotic bacteria BChi1 and BRRh-4 in a field condition. Further study is needed to elucidate underlying mechanism of growth and quality improvement of strawberry fruits by probiotic bacteria.

  10. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaeian, Narges; Omid, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to investigate the energy use efficiency, and to make an economical analysis in greenhouse strawberry production in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 25 greenhouse strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method. The results indicate that greenhouse strawberry production consumed a total energy of 121891.33 MJ ha -1 . About 78% of this was generated by diesel fuel, 10% from chemical fertilizers, and 4.5% from electricity. Energy ratio, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of greenhouse strawberry production were 0.15, 12.55 MJ kg -1 , -683488.37 MJ ha -1 and 8.18 MJ $ -1 , respectively. Determination of the efficient allocation of energy resources were modeled by Cobb-Douglas production function. Econometric model evaluation showed the impact of human labor, fertilizers, installation of equipment and transportation costs for strawberry production were all significant at 1% level. The elasticity estimates indicated that among the cost inputs, transportation is the most important input (-0.75) that influences total cost of production, followed by labor (0.31), fertilizers (0.18) and installation of equipments (0.22). The benefit-cost ratio and net return were obtained as 1.74 and 151907.91 $ ha -1 , respectively.

  12. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraei, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  13. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  14. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  15. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na 2 CO 3 ). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na 2 CO 3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na 2 CO 3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both

  16. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  17. Morphological, mechanical and antioxidant properties of Portuguese almond cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Meyer, Anne S.; Afonso, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological (of fruit and kernel), mechanical (namely shell rupture force) and antioxidant properties (including phenolics and flavonoid content) of five Portuguese almond cultivars, comparing them with two commercial cultivars (Glorieta and Ferragnès). Of ...... high kernel weight, low percentages of double kernels or losses during shelling and considerable higher phenolics and flavonoids content may be considered by industry during selection of almond.......). Of the analyzed traits, nut and kernel dimensions varied substantially and were used to describe cultivars. However, some traditional cultivars recorded similar (Pegarinhos), or even higher (Amendoão, Casanova and Refêgo) nut and kernel weight than commercial cultivars. Furthermore, shelling percentage...... of traditional cultivar (Bonita) was higher than commercial cultivars. Rupture force necessary to break fruits of all traditional cultivars was higher than commercial ones, and was correlated to nut weight cultivars. The phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidants were higher for Casanova. Parameters like...

  18. Produção hidropônica de morangueiro em sistema de colunas verticais, sob cultivo protegido Hydroponic strawberry production in vertical columns system under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do morangueiro fora do solo possibilita a eliminação do uso de produtos para desinfecção, reduzindo o consumo de frutos contaminados e a agressão ao meio ambiente, além de proporcionar melhor aproveitamento da área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em ambiente protegido e colunas verticais, dois sistemas de irrigação: gotejamento por estacas (externo e autocompensante (interno; dois tipos de substratos: Horta 2 e Tabaco 1; com e sem drenagem. A cultivar utilizada foi a Oso Grande. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em parcela subsubdividida, com três repetições. Com base nos rendimentos obtidos nos terços superior, médio e inferior das colunas, o sistema de irrigação mais indicado é o gotejamento por estacas (externo, com drenagem na extremidade inferior da coluna. Os substratos não diferem quanto à produção, mas Horta 2 incrementa o teor de antocianina nos frutos.Since strawberry cultivation in soil less system does not needs disinfection products, it decreases fruits and environmental contamination. Besides it provides a better utilization of the area and makes easy the management of the culture. The objective of this work was to evaluate two irrigation systems: dripping for props (outside and self compensate (inside; and two types of substrates: Horta 2 and Tabaco 1; with or without draining, on the cultivar Oso Grande of strawberry. The experiment was carried out under protected cultivation and in vertical columns conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications, and the treatments were arranged in a split-plot. The strawberry yield found in the upper, medium, and lower positions of the columns indicates that the dripping for props (outside is the most efficient irrigation system, since drainage is used in the lower extremity of the column. Although there were no differences substrates, Horta

  19. Salt Tolerance of Six Switchgrass Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youping Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass cultivars (‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, ‘Kanlow’, ‘NL 94C2-3’, ‘NSL 2009-1’, and ‘NSL 2009-2’ were evaluated for salt tolerance in two separate greenhouse experiments. In experiment (Expt. 1, switchgrass seedlings were irrigated with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution (spiked with salts at an EC of 5.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5 or 10.0 dS·m−1 (EC 10 for four weeks, once a week. Treatment EC 10 reduced the tiller number by 32% to 37% for all switchgrass cultivars except ‘Kanlow’. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a significant reduction of 50% to 63% in dry weight. In Expt. 2, switchgrass was seeded in substrates moistened with either a nutrient solution of EC 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution of EC of 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5, EC 10, or EC 20. Treatment EC 5 did not affect the seedling emergence, regardless of cultivar. Compared to the control, EC 10 reduced the seedling emergence of switchgrass ‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, and ‘NL 94C2-3’ by 44%, 33%, and 82%, respectively. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a 46% to 88% reduction in the seedling emergence index except ‘NSL 2009-2’. No switchgrass seedlings emerged under EC 20. In summary, high salinity negatively affected switchgrass seedling emergence and growth. Dendrogram and cluster of six switchgrass cultivars indicated that ‘Alamo’ was the most tolerant cultivar, while ‘NSL 2009-2’ was the least tolerant cultivar at both seedling emergence and growth stages. A growth-stage dependent response to salinity was observed for the remaining switchgrass cultivars. ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘Cimarron’ and ‘Kanlow’ at the seedling emergence stage; however, ‘Kanlow’ and ‘Cimarron’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ at the seedling growth

  20. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of FaPR-1 gene in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fan; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Ling, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The FaPR-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR from `Benihoppe' strawberry and its bioinformatics analysis was conducted. The results showed that the open reading frame was 483 bp encoding encoding l60 amino acids which protein molecular weight and theoretical isoelectricity were 17854.17 and 8.72 respectively. Subcellular localization prediction shows that this gene is located extracellularly. By comparing strawberry FaPR-l and other plant Pathogenesis-related protein, homology and phylogenetic tree construction showed that the homology with grapes, peach is relatively close. In the treatments of ABA, sucrose and the mixture of the two, the expression of FaPR-1 in strawberry fruit were significantly increased.

  2. Suitability of Dukat strawberries for studying effects on shelf life of irradiation combined with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new Dukat variety of strawberries was used to study the effect of irradiation combined with cold storage on their shelf life and chemical composition. Strawberries, with or without stems, were irradiated with a dose of 2.5 or 3.0 kGy within 6-10 or 20-24 h after harvesting. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the minimum storage time for the fruits could be extended by a minimum of 9 days. If the time between harvest and irradiation was shorter, better results for storage experiments were obtained. Fruits with stems were more suitable for cold storage after irradiation than those without stems. Irradiation of strawberries did not change the titratable acidity and content of the reducing sugars. Colour intensity and ascorbic acid levels decreased in proportion to the absorbed dose and storage time. (orig.)

  3. The effect of irradiation on the macro- and microstructure of strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroes, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Etelka; Zackel, Erna

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Gorella, Pocahontas and Rival strawberry varieties were irradiated (2,5 kGy) by means of a sup(60)Co source to increase storage life. The packaged fruits were stored in cabinets of 80-90% relative vapour content at 5 and 10 deg C, respectively. No significant differences could be found in the refraction % and pH values of the irradiated and control samples and of the packeged and unpackaged samples. Due to irradiation the consistency of fruits softened. At the measurements of strawberries with Instron consistometer the optimal quality marks seem to be obtainable by measuring the deformation steadiness. By means of optical microscopy it was stated that the tissue structure of various strawberry varieties did not alter essentially due to irradiation. (author)

  4. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  5. Study of Trehalose Addition on Aroma Retention in Dehydrated Strawberry Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of dehydrated fruit products, the influence of the addition of two sugars (sucrose and trehalose on the retention of aroma components during dehydration of strawberry puree was investigated. Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, containing polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre (100 μm coupled with gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS was used for the analysis of the aroma of strawberry puree dehydrated by using freeze drying and foam-mat drying. The analytes identified included esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, several alcohols and acids. The results obtained in this study give further insight into the mechanisms concerning the application of trehalose as flavouring additive, due to its ability to retain and preserve the fruit volatiles responsible for the characteristic flavour of fresh fruits during dehydration processes. The best retention of aroma components in dehydrated strawberry puree was obtained by trehalose addition when combined with freeze drying.

  6. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  7. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  8. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA GONÇALVES GUIMARÃES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em quatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas, apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos.

  9. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  10. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  11. Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 55 0 C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 15 0 C and 3.5 fold at 2 0 C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D 10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 10 3 -10 4 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

  12. Supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds as a valuable component of mild cleansing compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, E; Michorczyk, P; Olszańska, M; Ogonowski, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was an elaboration of mild cleansing compositions, containing supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds (SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil), as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. The influence of concentration of the oil on user properties of shower/bath products was studied. A series of products (shower/bath cosmetics) composed mainly of mild surfactants (amphoacetates, sulfosuccinates, betaines) and containing different amounts of the oil (0.5 up to 5.0%) were prepared. For the stable products (formulations containing up to 2% of the oil), the influence of the SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil addition on the products' stability, foam ability, surface tension, pH and rheological properties was studied. Moreover, the skin compatibility and moisturizing efficiency of the cleansing products were recorded in a group of 15 volunteers (including 10 women and five men, aged 20-30 years), using skin diagnosis system AramoTS, Aram Huvis Co. Additionally, characterization of CO2 extract from strawberry seeds was performed. Measurements of the oil's analytical constants, that is acid value and saponification number, were conducted according to Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 660:2010 and PN-EN ISO 3657:2013, respectively. The oil concentration influences stability of the products. Only the formulations containing 0.5-2% of the extract have shown high stability. Moreover, used in the amount up to 2% the SC-CO2, strawberry seed oil does not affect significantly the cleansing and foaming properties of the products. The obtained shower/bath cosmetics showed good user properties and additionally good skin-moisturizing effect. The supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds, rich source of unsaturated fatty acid, could be successfully used in the formulation of body washing compositions as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Molecular characterization of rye cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 The results of molecular analysis of 45 rye taxa (Secale cereale L. represented by agricultural varieties originated from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 6 SSR markers was evaluated. Six specific microsatellite primer pairs produced 58 polymorphic alleles with an average of 9.7 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 6 (SCM2 to 14 (SCM86. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The diversity index (DI of SSR markers ranged from 0.5478 (SCM2 to 0.887 (SCM86 with an average of 0.778. The lowest value of polymorphic information content was recorded for SCM2 (0.484 and the highest value for SCM86 (0.885 of PIC was detected in SCM86 with an average of 0.760.The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on UPGMA algorithm. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided rye genotypes into 4 main clusters. The first cluster of 14 genotypes was subdivided in two subclusters (1a and 1b where 50% of genotypes were Czechoslovak origin. The second cluster contained four genotypes were three (75% of them had Czech or Czechoslovak origin. In the third subcluster separated three rye genotypes of different origin. The rest (24 of rye genotypes in the fourth cluster were divided into two subclusters (4a and 4b where clearly separated group of Polish (4aa and Czech and Czechoslovak (4ab genotypes. Two genotypes of 4aa subcluster (Wojcieszyckie and Dankowskie Nowe from Poland were genetically the closest. In the dendrogram alle genotypes were differentiated and clustering partially reflects geographic origin of studied rye genotypes. In this experiment, SSRs markers proved to be a high informative and usefull tool in genetic diversity research for the distinguishing and characterization of close related varieties. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  14. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  15. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  16. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Tuberoso, C; Floris, I; Reniero, F; Guillou, C; Ghelli, S

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of organic acids in strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey showed the presence of an unknown acid as the main constituent. This compound was isolated and identified as homogentisic acid (2, 5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) by MS and NMR techniques. Its average content in honey was 378 +/- 92 mg/kg. Analysis of nectar confirmed the floral origin of the compound found in honey. Since this acid was not detected in any of the different monofloral honeys, it could be used as a marker of strawberry-tree (A. unedo) honey.

  17. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  18. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Balbinot Junior,Alvadi Antonio; Fleck,Nilson Gilberto; Menezes,Valmir Gaedke; Agostinetto,Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, ...

  19. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jungeun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roses (Rosa sp., which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO terms, Plant Ontology (PO terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a

  20. Rapid identification of red-flesh loquat cultivars using EST-SSR markers based on manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Xu, H X; Chen, J W

    2014-04-29

    Manual cultivar identification diagram is a new strategy for plant cultivar identification based on DNA markers, providing information to efficiently separate cultivars. We tested 25 pairs of apple EST-SSR primers for amplification of PCR products from loquat cultivars. These EST-SSR primers provided clear amplification products from the loquat cultivars, with a relatively high transferability rate of 84% to loquat; 11 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic products. After analysis of 24 red-fleshed loquat accessions, we found that only 7 pairs of primers could clearly separate all of them. A cultivar identification diagram of the 24 cultivars was constructed using polymorphic bands from the DNA fingerprints and EST-SSR primers. Any two of the 24 cultivars could be rapidly separated from each other, according to the polymorphic bands from the cultivars; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct position on the cultivar identification diagram. This red-flesh loquat cultivar identification diagram can separate the 24 red-flesh loquat cultivars, which is of benefit for loquat cultivar identification for germplasm management and breeding programs.

  1. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  2. Pollinator communities in strawberry crops - variation at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, E J; Klatt, B K; Arildsen, J; Trandem, N; Andersson, G K S; Tscharntke, T; Smith, H G; Sigsgaard, L

    2015-08-01

    Predicting potential pollination services of wild bees in crops requires knowledge of their spatial distribution within fields. Field margins can serve as nesting and foraging habitats for wild bees and can be a source of pollinators. Regional differences in pollinator community composition may affect this spill-over of bees. We studied how regional and local differences affect the spatial distribution of wild bee species richness, activity-density and body size in crop fields. We sampled bees both from the field centre and at two different types of semi-natural field margins, grass strips and hedges, in 12 strawberry fields. The fields were distributed over four regions in Northern Europe, representing an almost 1100 km long north-south gradient. Even over this gradient, daytime temperatures during sampling did not differ significantly between regions and did therefore probably not impact bee activity. Bee species richness was higher in field margins compared with field centres independent of field size. However, there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. In contrast, bee activity-density increased towards the southern regions, whereas the mean body size increased towards the north. In conclusion, our study revealed a general pattern across European regions of bee diversity, but not activity-density, declining towards the field interior which suggests that the benefits of functional diversity of pollinators may be difficult to achieve through spill-over effects from margins to crop. We also identified dissimilar regional patterns in bee diversity and activity-density, which should be taken into account in conservation management.

  3. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  4. Secondary metabolism responses in two Pisum sativum L. cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cultivars were grown in the absence or presence of Fe with the addition of bicarbonate for twelve days. Higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids were observed in Fe-deficient tissues of both cultivars; however, the increase was greater in the tolerant cultivar than in the susceptible one. The activity of shikimate ...

  5. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  6. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  7. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  8. Characterization of brazilian wheat cultivars in terms of nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N management in wheat crop is one of the most studied agricultural practices in Brazil; however, there are few reports on its use efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize 18 Brazilian wheat cultivars, which are representative and have been recently released to cultivation, for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. The experiments were carried out in Pato Branco, Paraná, and Coxilha, Rio Grande do Sul, during the 2011 crop season. It was used a randomized block design with three replications, in factorial scheme (2 environments × 18 cultivars. Genetic variability was observed for nitrogen utilization efficiency by grains (NUtEg=47.6 to 81.1 kg kg-1 and nitrogen harvest index (NHI=71.3 to 84.6% with significant effects relating to the environment of cultivation and performance of these traits. The evaluation of the protein concentration of grain by near infrared spectrometry (GPC N produced equivalent results to the direct analytical method of Kjeldahl (GPC K, in Pato Branco (r=0.56 and Coxilha (RS (r=0.80. However the CPG N overestimated the protein values by 16.85%. The GPC and protein yield were positively correlated with NUtEg and NHI. The best performance for the traits associated with NUE was observed for the following cultivars: Mirante, Quartzo, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Raízes and CD 150. This is the first report of differences between Brazilian wheat cultivars for nitrogen use efficiency.

  9. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  10. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  11. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  12. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  13. (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to drought stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) yields are estimated at 5-30 t ha-1yr-1, lower than the potential 60 t ha-1yr-1, with the cause being drought stress. Much evidence among stakeholders shows little understanding about banana cultivar sensitivity, escape and avoidance mechanisms to drought due to un-attempted measures of retaining ...

  14. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT: Seeds of five different landrace cultivars of Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum. (Harms) Marechal and Baudet, obtained from northern Ghana, were evaluated for their suscep- tibility to infestation and damage by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. The com- pletely randomized design ...

  15. Bloemverdroging: Cultivars met vroege bloemaanleg koeler bewaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Uitval in de tulpenbroeierij door bloemverdroging kwam de afgelopen jaren veel meer voor dan daarvoor. Reden voor PPO om na te gaan wat hiervan de oorzaak zou kunnen zijn. In dit artikel legt onderzoeker Martin van Dam uit dat vooral in warme lentes bij vroege cultivars de kans op bloemverdroging

  16. Lights and shadows of the red gold. An integrated assessment of Spanish strawberry production and its impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Lopez, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Spanish strawberries are an export success. Spain is the second largest producer of this fruit and it has been the world's leading strawberry exporter for years. In 2012, strawberry exports were approximately 95% of total strawberry production in Spain. The production of the red gold is concentrated in around 7000 hectares of intensive farming in the province of Huelva (south west Spain). At least 85% of all Spanish strawberries are produced in this region, in an area close to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Doñana National Park. The case of the strawberry production in Huelva makes an interesting case study for the integrated analysis of the water-food-land-political economy nexus. Its combination of bio-physical and socio-economic characteristics (local climatic conditions, agricultural techniques, environmental issues, food value chains, trade networks and socio-economic factors) are quite particular and form a case where social and natural issues coevolve. Supporters of the activity argue a high contribution to local GDP and job market and its strategic position in international markets. Critics maintain that this industry creates social and environmental conflicts. The strawberry from Huelva supplies early season strawberries to the richer markets of Germany and France and at the same time seems to fail in alleviating a provincial unemployment rate of 34%. The viability of the system is in danger: production costs are 70% higher than 20 years ago while the price per kilo has not changed or even decreased. In environmental terms, the strawberries of Huelva are irrigated with ground water withdrawn from aquifers that feed the water streams of the natural park. Half of the wells that extract the water are not legally registered for what the total amount of water withdrawal remains unknown. Should we promote the continuity of this activity? In this work, I perform a Multi-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) of Water for the

  17. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  18. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  19. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  20. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  1. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  2. CZE separation of strawberry anthocyanins with acidic buffer and comparison with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Blanda, Giampaolo; Cardinali, Andrea; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2008-10-01

    Anthocyanins, the major colourants of strawberries, are polar pigments that are positively charged at low pH. Herein, we have assessed a new analytical method for the separation of anthocyanins using CZE. Acidic buffer solutions (pH pigments in the cation flavylium form and achieve high molar absorptivity at 510 nm. These spectral properties enabled us to identify strawberry anthocyanins in a preliminary stage by detection in the visible range, although the method was optimised at 280 nm to obtain the best S/N. The effects of buffer composition highlighted the necessity of adding an organic modifier to the running buffer to obtain a suitable separation. The electrophoretic method permitted the separation of the three main anthocyanins of strawberry extracts, namely pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg-glu), pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The electrophoretic results, expressed as retention time and separation efficiency of the major anthocyanin (Pg-glu), were compared to those achieved in HPLC, the analytical technique traditionally used for the investigation of anthocyanins in vegetable matrix. The content of Pg-glu in strawberries (cv. Camarosa), calculated with HPCE and HPLC methods, resulted respectively in 11.41 mg/L and 11.37 mg/L.

  3. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  4. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  5. Screening strawberry plants for anthracnose disease resistance using traditional and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of strawberry which may cause fruit rot, leaf and petiole lesions, crown rot, wilt, and death. Crop loss due to anthracnose diseases can reach into the millions of dollars. Three species of Colletotrichum are considered causative agents of anthr...

  6. Genomics tools available for unravelling mechanisms underlying agronomical traits in strawberry with more to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  7. Pollinator communities in strawberry crops – variation at multiple spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel; Klatt, B.K.; Arildsen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    and hedges, in 12 strawberry fields. The fields were distributed over four regions in Northern Europe, representing an almost 1100 km long north-south gradient. Even over this gradient, daytime temperatures during sampling did not differ significantly between regions and did therefore probably not impact bee...

  8. Influence of growing conditions at different latitudes of Europe on strawberry growth performance, yield and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, E.; Josuttis, M.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The site effect of five locations from north (Stjørdal, Norway, 63°36'N) to south (Ancona, Italy, 43°31'N) was evaluated in strawberry regarding yield performance, fruit quality, length of fruit developing time from anthesis to harvest start and length of the harvest season. Cv. Elsanta was grown...

  9. Agricultural Change and the Rise of the British Strawberry Industry, 1920-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, E. J.; Ilbery, B.; Mills, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on structural change within the UK horticultural sector. This paper examines long-term changes, over a 90-year period, in one particular part of the UK horticultural sector: strawberries. It follows its growth from being a minor crop in 1920 to becoming the biggest grossing horticultural crop in 2009. Using a…

  10. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  11. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...

  12. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisya Pramesti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This study was a pure experimental in-vitro using Friedman and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests for statistical analysis. The population of this study was anterior teeth. The samples were maxillary central incisors. The sampling technique using sample size determination based on the testing formulas of the difference of two average data pairs resulted in 11 specimens. The result of the research showed that all coffee-stained teeth sample had an increasing enamel colour index. The samples were then applied with strawberry juice resulted in a significant average difference colour index value indicated by p<0.001. The conclusion of this research indicated that there was an effect of strawberry juice on the coffee-stained teeth re-whitening process.

  13. Impact of climate change on the timing of strawberry phenological processes in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Līga Bethere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been shown to impact aspects of agriculture and phenology. This study aims to quantify changes in the timing of garden strawberry blooms and harvests in the Baltic States using Regional Climate Models (RCMs. First, parameters for a strawberry phenology model based on the growing degree day (GDD methodology were determined. Growing degree days were calculated using a modified sine wave method that estimates the diurnal temperature cycle from the daily maximum and minimum temperature. Model parameters include the base temperature and the required cumulative GDD sum, estimated from phenological and meteorological observations in Latvia for the years 2010–2013 via iterative calibration. Then an ensemble of bias-corrected RCM results (ENSEMBLES project was used as input to the phenological model to estimate the timing of strawberry phenological processes for the years 1951–2099. The results clearly show that strawberry phenological processes can be expected to occur earlier in the future, with a significant change in regional patterns. Differences between coastal and inland regions are expected to decrease over time. The uncertainty of the results was estimated using the RCM ensemble spread, with northern coastal locations showing the largest spread.

  14. CATT: a New and Non-Chemical Pest and Nematode Control Method in Strawberry Planting Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Evenhuis, B.; Hoek, J.; Kastelein, P.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Verschoor, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to MeBr fumigation a 48h Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) was developed and scaled up by Wageningen UR in cooperation with the Dutch plant propagating association Plantum. This results in an excellent de-infestation and 99.8 % mortality of the strawberry

  15. CATT as a sustainable method for disinfestation of strawberry mother planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, H.; Verschoor, J.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) is scaled up to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch producers of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) mother planting stock. CATT is a non-chemical and sustainable method to disinfest plant material from insect pests. Frigo plants

  16. Dynamics of predation on Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa trap cropped organic strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be strategically planted as a trap crop for Lygus spp. in California’s organic strawberry fields. Alfalfa has been shown to attract both Lygus spp. and, in turn, a Lygus-specific parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). However, the impact of alfalfa trap-cropped st...

  17. Order of 29 December 1988 on treatment of strawberries by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This order specifies the conditions for authorizing with a view to selling or putting on sale strawberries whose preservation has been obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 radiation or to electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 million electron-volts (10 MeV). (NEA) [fr

  18. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  19. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry.

  20. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  1. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Puche, L.; Molina-Hidalgo, F.J.; Boersma, M.; Schuurink, R.C.; López-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Caballero, J.L.; Blanco-Portales, R.; Muñoz-Blanco, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and

  2. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  3. Managing conflict over biological control: the case of strawberry guava in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Biological control researchers commonly avoid targets with potential for high conflict, but for certain highly damaging invaders with no viable management alternatives, it may be necessary to consider biological control even when it is likely to generate conflict. Discussed here is a case study, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine...

  4. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry cv. Camarosa by a Dual Plasmid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haddadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  5. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  6. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and packaging on conservation of toyonoka strawberries stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Danielle Marinelli

    2000-01-01

    Strawberries have short post harvest life due to the rapid spoilage caused by fungal infections, even when stored under refrigeration. The effects of gamma radiation (0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and two kinds of packages (plastic boxes with or without PVC film wrapping) were evaluated using Toyonoka strawberries kept under refrigeration (3 to 6 deg C and relative humidity of 55%) for 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after irradiation, applied 1 day after harvesting. Deterioration progression and loss of weight occurred in the course of storage and although the content of ascorbic acid had also increased, total titratable acidity, p H and ratio remained constant during all the experimental period, independent of the samples treatments. The use of PVC film packing inhibited dehydration of the strawberries along the storage and also caused reduction in soluble solid content of the fruits stored for more than 8 days. The treatments with 2.0 and 2.5 kGy had caused significant losses of ascorbic acid the higher dose also significantly reduced the texture of the fruits. Sensorial analysis has been performed with 30 untrained judges to evaluate the acceptability of strawberries packed without the PVC wrapping and irradiated with doses of 0.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy. No irradiation effects were observed and the samples were acceptable with no significant difference between samples stored for 1 or 8 days after irradiation. PVC film packaging and irradiation were not efficient in delaying post harvest decay of Toyonoka strawberries in the conditions used in these experiments. (author)

  8. Ultrasound improves chemical reduction of natural contaminant microbiota and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica on strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Peixoto, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; de São José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2017-01-16

    New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica intentionally inoculated onto strawberries were analyzed. Ultrasound increased the effect of all chemical compounds in the reduction of aerobic mesophilic, molds and yeasts. The best treatment for those groups of microorganisms was ultrasound combined with peracetic acid (US+PA) that reduced 1.8 and 2.0logcfu/g during 9days of storage. Bactericidal effect of peracetic acid was also improved by ultrasound inactivation of S. enterica, reaching a decimal reduction of 2.1logcfu/g. Moreover, synergistic effects were observed in contaminant natural microbiota inactivation for all tested compounds during storage, without any major physicochemical or sensory alteration to the strawberries. Therefore, ultrasound treatment can improve the effect of sanitizers that are substitutes of chlorine compounds without altering the quality of strawberries during storage. Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Peracetic acid (PubChem CID: 6585); Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PubChem CID: 18372154). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the storage life elongation of fresh strawberries and raspberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of preserving strawberries and raspberries at room temperature by irradiation is studied. The fruits were packed in perforated plastic bags and irradiated on gamma-device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min. Strawberries were irradiated with 250 krad, raspberries of ''Rubin'' variety with 150 or 200 krad. Irratiated and control fruits were stored at 20sup(o) - 22sup(o)C and examined every day until the first signs of microbial decay appeared. It is found that the total number of microorganisms drops immediately after irradiation. The earliest signs of decay in control strawberries appeared on the second day after they had been packed; in irradiated strawberries - on the fourth or fifth day, with a rapid progress of decay thereafter. Decay of control raspberries started on the first day and by the fourth day all packages were completely moldy, while irradiated fruits had a very good appearance. Single mold spots appeared on the third or fourth day after exposure to 150 krad and later than the fifth day after exposure to 200 krad. Physico-chemical studies disclosed a tendency toward decrease in the sugar content immediately after irradiation. A post-irradiation decrease in the content of total pectine substances and ascorbic acid was also observed. At the end of preservation ascorbic acid in strawberries was reduced by 33 per cent and in raspberries by 19 - 70 per cent. The spectra of antecyonic substances showed that during the preservation of irradiated fruits oxidation has been more intensive. (Ch.K.)

  11. Effect of ultraviolet-C light on postharvest decay of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, F.; Ippolito, A.; Salerno, M.; Lattanzio, V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-C light (u.v.-C) at low doses on postharvest decay of strawberries caused by Botrytis cinerea and other pathogens was investigated. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and ethylene production, as influenced by ultraviolet-C irradiation, were also determined. Strawberries (cv. ‘Pajaro’) from plants that had been treated with chemicals against grey mould were irradiated with u.v.-C doses ranging from 0.25 to 4.00 kJ m-2 and inoculated with B. cinerea at different times (0, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after irradiation. To assess the effect of u.v.-C light on the naturally occurring postharvest decay, organically grown strawberries were also used. After treatment the strawberries were stored at 20±1°C or at 3°C. u.v.-C doses at 0.50 and 1.00 kJ m-2 significantly reduced botrytis storage rot arising from both artificial inoculations and natural infections in comparison with the unirradiated control. The doses shown to reduce botrytis rot produced an increase in PAL activity 12 h after irradiation; this result indicates the activation of metabolic a pathway related to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are usually characterized by antifungal activity. In addition, u.v.-C irradiation caused an increase in ethylene production proportional to the doses applied, reaching the highest value 6 h after treatment. The overall results from these investigations indicate that treatment with low u.v.-C doses produces a reduction in postharvest decay of strawberries related to induced resistance mechanisms. Moreover, a germicidal effect of reducing external contaminating pathogens cannot be excluded

  12. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  13. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Compatibility and Morpho–Physiological Characteristics of Some Olive Cultivars (Oleaeuropaea L. at Tarom Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmoud azimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to statistics presented by FAO in 2011, the world area under olive cultivation has been estimated about 9 million and six hundred thousand hectares from which Iran shares approximately 103 thousand hectares. Tarom region in Zanjan province is one of the important olive cultivation in which 12600 hectare has been devoted to olive planting. A growing trend could be seen if the cultivation area regarding the fertile and non- fertile olive orchards along with amount of production were compared during the last decades which may be attributed mainly to favorable climatic condition for olive cultivation in the region. Temperature as the most important environmental factor affects flowering and fruiting of olive trees. Temperatures that stimulate olive fruiting, and sub-zero temperatures which cause damage to olive tree or fruit yielding are of great importance in determining the adaptability of olive trees. Regarding the quality of olive oil, fruit characters such as: cultivar, ripening and climatic conditions are considered as main characters too. To determine the adaptable cultivars for any region and microclimates many experiments have been carried out worldwide. In Iran, Zard and Roghany local olive cultivars selected for northern parts of Iran with the most area under cultivation in Rudbar and Tarom regions but the Dezful cultivar has been released for southern regions of the country. This study was carried at Tarom Olive Research Station, Zanjan, Iran and aimed to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive traits of some domestic and foreign olive cultivars and to determine the adaptability of them to the studied area. Materials and Methods At the beginning of the study, age of the olive trees varied between 4 to 6 years and all the trees were in the reproductive phase. Plantation system was also 8 × 8 meters with trickle irrigation systems. The cultivars were: Amigdalolia, Arbequina, Abusatl, Bladi, Picual, Roghany, Zard

  15. The variation in firmness measurements of individual non-irradiated and irradiated parfaite strawberries using a modified Ballauf penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.J.; Truter, A.B.; De Villiers, F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of extensive measurements on the firmness of healthy and unmarked strawberries of export size after irradiation at a dose of 200 krad and after no irradiation treatment

  16. Identification of urinary biomarkers after consumption of sea buckthorn and strawberry, by untargeted LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuparencu, Catalina Sinziana; Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Gürdeniz, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    , strawberry and sea buckthorn, in humans. A randomized controlled single-blinded three-way cross-over meal study was conducted in 16 overweight men. The intervention meals consisted of sea buckthorn puree, strawberry puree or an iso-caloric control drink. Urine samples were collected on each test day at t...... in very low concentrations and therefore not identified. Nine and 11 markers were (tentatively) identified for strawberry and sea buckthorn, respectively, the most specific being conjugates of aroma compounds and coloring flavonoids. Metabolites reflecting the step-wise aromatization of quinic to hippuric...... profiling after consumption of sea buckthorn or strawberries. Combinations of these markers are proposed as potentially specific for intake of each of these berries, but need further validation in larger and less-controlled study settings....

  17. Transferência do fator caturra para o cultivar Mundo Novo de Coffea arabica Transfer of the CT gene to Mundo Novo cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatados os estudos realizados visando à introdução do gene Ct (caturra que contribui para reduzir a altura da planta, no cultivar Mundo" Novo de Coffea arabica.Estudaram-se, em ensaios de produtividade, as populações Fv F.,, F3 e F4. Nessas populações e principalmente entre os descendentes dos "caféeiros H 2077-2-5 e H 2077-2-12, foram selecionadas plantas homozigotas para os alelos Ct e também para os alelos responsáveis pela cor do fruto xc ou Xc. Essas combinações foram denominadas 'Catuaí Amarelo' e 'Catuaí Vermelho', respectivamente, e suas características são apresentadas. Os novos cultivares vêm-se mostrando de interesse econômico para as regiões cafeeiras não somente pelo porte pequeno, mas também pela produtividade, pelo vigor vegetativo e pela precocidade.The successful transfer of the Ct gene for short internode to the tall cultivar of Coffea arábica'Mundo Novo' is reported. Individual selections were carried out in the F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations. It was found that early selection in the F2 generation was quite effective. A remarkably good correlation was found between productitivity of F2 plants and the yield of the F3 and F4 generations. Plants of the F4 generation have shown reasonable uniformity and high yield in several trials. The new selections showed to be early producers. Two new cultivars were released namely 'Catuaí Amarelo' and 'Catuaí Vermelho'. The former has yellow fruits whereas the latter has red fruits. The plants are much shorter that the ones of Mundo Novo. The new cultivars have a very strong secondary and tertiary branching. Because of these characteristics Catuaí Amarelo and Catuaí Vermelho are being planted in large scale replacing the tall cultivars.

  18. Variation in broccoli cultivar phytochemical content under organic and conventional management systems: implications in breeding for nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Erica N C; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T; Myers, James R; Paulo, Maria João; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.

  19. Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Erica N. C.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Myers, James R.; Paulo, Maria João; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Zhu, Ning; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies. PMID:25028959

  20. In-home versus laboratory sensory testing using non-expert consumers: A comparable study using testing of varieties of Danish strawberries as cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder

    varieties of strawberries, which are able to satisfy both consumer and producer demands, in which both testing approaches have been used. As part of the project the following methodological steps were taken in order to identify consumer preferences for strawberries: focus group interviews aiming at finding...... the relevant question for a large scale survey among Danish households (n=1162), showing the households general knowledge, attitudes and behaviour when buying and consuming strawberries. From this large scale survey n=120 persons were randomly selected for participation in experiments, where 9 new varieties...... and 2 well-known varieties of strawberries were tested. The testing used a split-over design where each person participated in sensory testing of 5 different varieties of strawberries. Besides all the participant in the experiment were asked to do an in-home test of 2 of the 5 varieties of strawberries...

  1. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined the report “Evaluation of Strawberry Nursery Plant Cold Treatments on Survival of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, submitted to the European Commission by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA...... the effectiveness of the cold treatment proposed for the elimination of B. tabaci from strawberry plant consignments prepared for shipment to the EU. In addition, the Panel conducted a preliminary review of the available literature on viruses of strawberry and concluded that no B. tabaci-transmitted viruses...... are currently known to infect strawberry and that no viruses of Fragaria listed in European Council Directive 2000/29/EC are known to be transmitted by B. tabaci. However, adult whiteflies of B. tabaci on strawberry consignments can carry plant viruses irrespective of whether strawberry is a host plant...

  2. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Ac...

  3. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  4. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  5. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, K.; Quinet, M.; Decat, J.; Secco, B.; Dulière, E.; Pieters, S.; van der Kooij, T.; Lutts, S.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, Ghent University and the Université catholique de Louvain investigated the suitability, growth and development of four potato cultivars in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions with the aim to incorporate such cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of tubers for human nutrition and (c) production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four cultivars (Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator) were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique (NFT) gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared. The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted 127 days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed 145 days. Annabelle (1.45 kg/m2) and Bintje (1.355 kg/m2) were the best performing of the four cultivars. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers (20.95 g/tuber) and Desiree the smallest (7.67 g/tuber). The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW. The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The energy values of the tubers remained in the range of the 2010 USDA and Souci-Fachmann-Kraut food composition databases. The amount of Ca determined was slightly reduced compared to the USDA value, but close to the Souci-Fachmann-Kraut value. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases

  6. Novel Fungal Pathogenicity and Leaf Defense Strategies Are Revealed by Simultaneous Transcriptome Analysis of Colletotrichum fructicola and Strawberry Infected by This Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Liqing Zhang; Xin Huang; Chengyong He; Chengyong He; Qing-Yu Zhang; Xiaohua Zou; Ke Duan; Ke Duan; Qinghua Gao

    2018-01-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola, which is part of the C. gloeosporioides species complex, can cause anthracnose diseases in strawberries worldwide. However, the molecular interactions between C. fructicola and strawberry are largely unknown. A deep RNA-sequencing approach was applied to gain insights into the pathogenicity mechanisms of C. fructicola and the defense response of strawberry plants at different stages of infection. The transcriptome data showed stage-specific transcription accompanied...

  7. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  8. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  9. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  10. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae disease reactions in lettuce differential cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne diseases significantly affect high value crops in coastal California, including lettuce and strawberry. Breeding crops for pathogen resistance is a strategy for the sustainable management of crop disease. Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes wilt and economic losses in a ...

  11. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  12. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  13. Suitability of three cultivars of coral bells (heuchera cvs. to bioremediation of cadmium (cd, lead (pb and zinc (zn from post-mining area in zagłębie dąbrowskie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sąkol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term shallow exploitation of pitcoal in Będzin area (in mining district Zagłębie Dąbrowskie has degraded the environment. Profiles of soil were dislocated and contaminated with heavy metals above permissible standards. Due to the fact that Zagłę- bie Dąbrowskie is densely populated, risk of harmful exposure to heavy metals affects high number of people. Decontamination of post-mining grounds is possible with planting plants which not only tolerate elevated heavy metals quantities but can also accumulate them in plant tissues. Materials and methods: The cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ and ‘Palace Purple’ of coral bells (Heuchera cvs. were chosen to do the research. Cadmium, lead and zinc uptake in plants growing in contaminated and control fields was evaluated. Amount of heavy metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Content of metals detected in plants in postmining soil was respectively: Cd 1,92 mgükg11, Pb 56,3 mgükg11, Zn 153,7 mgükg11. Those metals value is from 2 to 4 times higher than natural content in neutral soil of pH 6,5 – a typical pH in this region. The examined cultivars of coral bells accumulated significant amount of Cd, Pb, Zn even if concentration of those metals was low, what is characteristic for clean regions of Poland. Conclusions: The plants cultivated on contaminated soil of post-mining region didn`t show toxic response (damaged leaves even though they accumulated cadmium, lead and zinc in their roots and leaves. Cultivars differences of coral bells found on significance level (p¤0,05. The cultivar ‘Palace Purple’ has transported the highest amount of lead from roots to leaves. Other cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ have accumulated higher amounts of metals in their roots in a sequence Cd¤Zn¤Pb.

  14. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg(-1)) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg(-1)) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (price grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  15. Study about the use of ionizing radiation to delay the putrefaction of strawberries 'Tioga'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the ionizing radiation has been studied in fresh strawberries of the variety 'Tioga', with the purpose to extend its commercialization period. After the packaging in semi-permeable polyethylene, the material was procesed using 60 Co source of 400kCi. The strawberries were irradiated with a dose of 2kGy. The treated products and the unirradiated ones were stored refrigerated at 5 deg C with a relative humidity of 90 % and in absence of light. Each 4 days, chemical, organoleptics and microbiological studies were carried out and conditions of expense and transport post-irradiation were simulated. The results obtained would indicate the technological viability of ionizing radiations on this type of berries, keeping them in a good state during a period of 28 days post-treatment, the unirradiated material showed undiserable microbiological, organoleptics and chemical alterations after the 4th day of storage. (Autor) [es

  16. The stability of dichlofluanid and vinclozolin and their influence on the quality of strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davídek, J; Hajslová, J; Svobodová, Z

    1981-05-01

    The content of dichlofluanid and vinclozolin found on strawberries treated with Euoparen and/or Ronilan, respectively, did not exceed the residue tolerance. Further decrease of the amount of these fungicides occurred during heatsterilisation of the fruit and storage of the products. The rate of decomposition of dichlofluanid and/or vincolozolin in model solutions (pH 3.0-6.0) followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The taste and flavour of untreated fruit was preferred to those of strawberries treated with fungicides. There were differences in the content of reducing sugars, volatile fatty acids and titrable acidity in individual samples. Gas-chromatographic profiles of volatile substances isolated from treated and untreated berries also differed.

  17. Effect of pasteurisation and freezing method on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of strawberry pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilma Auxiliadora Santos; Resende, Nathane Silva; Carvalho, Elisângela Elena Nunes; Resende, Jaime Vilela de; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the stability of strawberry pulp subjected to three factors, pasteurisation (pasteurised and unpasteurised), freezing method (static air and forced air) and storage time (0, 2, 4 and 6 months). Pasteurisation favoured vitamin C retention during storage but enhanced the total loss of phenolics without affecting anthocyanin levels. Freezing by forced air was more effective in retaining phenolics during the first 4 months of storage, although the freezing method did not affect the anthocyanin levels. Processing and storage reduced the levels of individual phenolics. Freezing by forced air was more effective than static air in retaining antioxidant activity of the pulp. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme levels were relatively stable and independent of pasteurisation, freezing and storage time. Even after 6 months of frozen storage, strawberry pulp is a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds and retains high antioxidant capacity independent of pasteurisation and freezing method.

  18. Extending shelf-life and economic evaluation of strawberry irradiated in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was made on ''Egypt's mega gamma I'' irradiator the radiation which is cobalt-60. The following dose was studied in detail 3.5 KGy, was compared with unirradiated sample was studied at the same time. The storage conditions for refrigeration were 4+-1 0 C. During storage periodic fruits were carried out as certain organoleptic properties. The refrigerated irradiated fruits have a shelf life of more than 30 days, whereas the unirradiated ones last only up to 14 days. On the other side the study of economic evaluation of irradiated strawberry showed that the activity of cobalt-60 source needed to satisfy requirement of gamma-irradiation processing of the annual strawberry production in Egypt has been figured a 0.563 Mci for a total activity

  19. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  20. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. Productivity and Photosynthesis-related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Gil Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL. When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5◦C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, photochemical quenching (qP, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm. Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10◦C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5◦C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of postharvest strawberry fruit in response to exogenous auxin and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxin; Mao, Linchun; Lu, Wenjing; Ying, Tiejin; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-01-01

    Auxin and abscisic acid regulate strawberry fruit ripening and senescence through cross-talk of their signal transduction pathways that further modulate the structural genes related to physico-chemical properties of fruit. The physiological and transcriptomic changes in harvested strawberry fruits in responses to IAA, ABA and their combination were analyzed. Exogenous IAA delayed the ripening process of strawberries after harvest while ABA promoted the postharvest ripening. However, treatment with a combination of IAA and ABA did not slow down nor accelerate the postharvest ripening in the strawberry fruits. At the molecular level, exogenous IAA up regulated the expressions of genes related to IAA signaling, including AUX/IAA, ARF, TOPLESS and genes encoding E3 ubiquitin protein ligase and annexin, and down regulated genes related to pectin depolymerization, cell wall degradation, sucrose and anthocyanin biosyntheses. In contrast, exogenous ABA induced genes related to fruit softening, and genes involved in signaling pathways including SKP1, HSPs, CK2, and SRG1. Comparison of transcriptomes in responses to individual treatments with IAA or ABA or the combination revealed that there were cooperative and antagonistic actions between IAA and ABA in fruit. However, 17% of the differentially expressed unigenes in response to the combination of IAA and ABA were unique and were not found in those unigenes responding to either IAA or ABA alone. The analyses also found that receptor-like kinases and ubiquitin ligases responded to both IAA and ABA, which seemed to play a pivotal role in both hormones' signaling pathways and thus might be the cross-talk points of both hormones.

  2. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depardieu, Claire; Prémont, Valérie; Boily, Carole; Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25) and an aged bark (AB) material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF) substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25) enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+) in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America.

  3. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Depardieu

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25 and an aged bark (AB material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25 enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+ in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America.

  4. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  5. Modelling Fresh Strawberry Supply “From-Farm-to-Fork” as a Complex Adaptive Network

    OpenAIRE

    Engelseth, Per; Karlsen, Anniken; Verwaart, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to model and thereby enable simulation of the complete business entity of fresh food supply. A case narrative of fresh strawberry supply provides basis for this modelling. Lamming et al. (2000) point to the importance of discerning industry-specific product features (or particularities) regarding managing supply networks when discussing elements in “an initial classification of a supply network” while Fisher (1997) and Christopher et al. (2006, 2009) point to the ...

  6. Signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, K; Creemers, P; Brugmans, W; Van Laer, S

    2004-01-01

    Signum, a new fungicide developed by BASF, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. The product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. Boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. Both components in the premix formulation combine two different biochemical modes of action in the fungal cell respiration. Therefore, this co-formulation gives a broad-spectrum activity and also a reduced resistance risk for different target pathogens. Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease on strawberry-fruits and thus the control of fruit rot is mainly focused on this fungus. In average over 6 years, Signum has not only given a very good control against Botrytis fruit rot, but it has also shown a high performance in the control of Colletotrichum. Besides, Signum provides good control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) and limits the shift to other fruit rots like leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and leak (Rhizopus, Mucor). The availability of several categories of fungicide families with a different mode of action gives opportunities in alternating different fungicides and is the best guarantee for a sustainable control of fruit rot in all kinds of strawberry production methods. Signum should be integrated in an overall disease management program. Trials, in which the applications of Signum were timed on disease forecasting, based on environmental factors favorable for Botrytis development, were very promising. This tool can also help in establishing the IPM-concept in the production of strawberries.

  7. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  8. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  9. The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, A; De Vos, C H; Wein, M; Sun, Z; Greco, R; Kroon, A; Mol, J N; O'Connell, A P

    2001-11-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated strawberry gene member of the MYB family of transcription factors. Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was observed. Expression of late flavonoid biosynthesis genes and their enzyme activities were adversely affected by FaMYB1 overexpression. Two-hybrid assays in yeast showed that FaMYB1 could interact with other known anthocyanin regulators, but it does not act as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, the C-terminus of FaMYB1 contains the motif pdLNL(D)/(E)Lxi(G)/S. This motif is contained in a region recently proposed to be involved in the repression of transcription by AtMYB4, an Arabidopsis MYB protein. Our results suggest that FaMYB1 may play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols in strawberry. It may act to repress transcription in order to balance the levels of anthocyanin pigments produced at the latter stages of strawberry fruit maturation, and/or to regulate metabolite levels in various branches of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

  10. Workload and awkward posture problems among small-scale strawberry farmers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudini, Ganga; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    Farmers handle heavy workloads, often in awkward postures and experiencing some work related problems. Farmers perceive them as no more than inevitable consequences of farming activities. Although many problems can be prevented or reduced by simple and inexpensive modifications to work, these problems are increasing among farmers. The main focus of the paper was to investigate workload and awkward postures among strawberry farmers and suggest possible solutions to overcome the identified problems. Questionnaires, direct observations and intertwining methods were used to collect the data. Low-level strawberry beds and long working hours were recognized as critical factors that led to farmers' health problems including suffering from low back pain, heavy fatigue, unsteady feeling after work, etc. There was a substantial increase in fatigue in busy seasons compared with slack seasons. When compared with the other workers such as office, technical, sales and blue-collar workers, female farmers' general fatigue level was considerably high. Findings indicated that strawberry farming was a stressful occupation and farmers were strained under heavy workload, monotonous and repetitive work and poor working conditions with frequent fatigue symptoms and severe influence on health.

  11. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-12-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5%, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g) up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g), and loss of acidity (0.68%) were observed in packages containing 3% of ZnO nanoparticles with 10% polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  12. Abiotic Stress-Related Expressed Sequence Tags from the Diploid Strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo. Rivarola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity of available transcriptome sequence, we produced 41,430 L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs from plants growing under water-, temperature-, and osmotic-stress conditions as well as a combination of heat and osmotic stresses that is often found in irrigated fields. Clustering and assembling of the ESTs resulted in a total of 11,836 contigs and singletons that were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, over 1200 sequences with no match to available Rosaceae ESTs were found, including six that were assigned the “response to stress” GO category. Analysis of EST frequency provided an estimate of steady state transcript levels, with 91 sequences exhibiting at least a 20-fold difference between treatments. This EST collection represents a useful resource to advance our understanding of the abiotic stress-response mechanisms in strawberry. The sequence information may be translated to valuable tree crops in the Rosaceae family, where whole-plant treatments are not as simple or practical.

  13. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, γ-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest.

  14. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  15. Detection of irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    The method of detecting low-dose irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component was studied. Ratio of peak height (S) of high magnetic field cellulose component, and noise width (N) of either irradiated or unirradiated seeds of strawberries were compared. In this study, sample was identified to be irradiated when S/N ratio of ESR spectrum of 4 min. sweep time was above 0.7. In the case of S/N ratio below 0.7, when the S/N ratio of integrated ESR spectrum, obtained from measuring 10 times with 1 min. sweep time was above 1.0, the sample was identified to be irradiated. The result suggests that S/N ratio is a good marker to detect the irradiation. The strawberries irradiated above 0.5kGy was able to be detected after 3 days storage at room temperature, after 21 days refrigeration and after 60 days freezing, respectively. (author)

  16. Irradiation and evolution of the gray rot botrytis cinerea at the strawberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, Arbia

    2005-01-01

    Strawberry was introduced since french colonization in tunisia as one of plants cultivated. At the end of the 1970's the strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was developed in area of Cap Bon. grey mold, caused by botrytis cinerea is by far the most widespread and serious of strawberry fruit diseases and an ever-present threat to the crop. A wide variety of symptoms is caused by B. Cinerea such as a rot on fruit and blight on leaves. this fungus causes domages bith in the field and during storage. In order to reduce severity of grey mold, biological control in field and radiation on post-harvest are developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonism of some microorganisms against B.Cinerea such as Trichoderma and Bacillus in greenhouse. On the other hand we tested the efficacity of biological products such as Prev-Am and BM 86on enhancing plant defense. For the post-harvest studies, the goal is to provide a wear tool to manage better the fungus by gamma rays radiation. (author). 29 refs

  17. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  18. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5 %, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g, and loss of acidity (0.68 % were observed in packages containing 3 % of ZnO nanoparticles with 10 % polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  20. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  1. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  2. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

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    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  3. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae

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    Da-Ran Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August, the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  4. Fuzzy classification for strawberry diseases-infection using machine vision and soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Hamit; Al Shahadat, Mohamad; Kiani, Ehsan; Dimililer, Kamil

    2018-04-01

    Robotic agriculture requires smart and doable techniques to substitute the human intelligence with machine intelligence. Strawberry is one of the important Mediterranean product and its productivity enhancement requires modern and machine-based methods. Whereas a human identifies the disease infected leaves by his eye, the machine should also be capable of vision-based disease identification. The objective of this paper is to practically verify the applicability of a new computer-vision method for discrimination between the healthy and disease infected strawberry leaves which does not require neural network or time consuming trainings. The proposed method was tested under outdoor lighting condition using a regular DLSR camera without any particular lens. Since the type and infection degree of disease is approximated a human brain a fuzzy decision maker classifies the leaves over the images captured on-site having the same properties of human vision. Optimizing the fuzzy parameters for a typical strawberry production area at a summer mid-day in Cyprus produced 96% accuracy for segmented iron deficiency and 93% accuracy for segmented using a typical human instant classification approximation as the benchmark holding higher accuracy than a human eye identifier. The fuzzy-base classifier provides approximate result for decision making on the leaf status as if it is healthy or not.

  5. Influence of processing on the volatile profile of strawberry spreads made with isomaltulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I; Rosa, E; Heredia, A; Escriche, I; Andrés, A

    2013-05-01

    A new strawberry spread formulated with fructose and isomaltulose (replacing sucrose partially or totally) and a high percentage of fruit was developed in line with the new trend of healthier products. This work studies the influence of some process variables (percentage of sugar, pectin and citric acid, and time of thermal treatment) on the volatile profile of these spreads with different formulations. The ripeness of the raw strawberries influences the concentrations of some of the compounds in the spreads, such as isobutyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 3-hexen-1-yl acetate or propan-2-ol. The process conditions have an important effect on the volatile profiles. Most of the esters and alcohols decreased whereas 13 new compounds appear, mostly furans (furfural, 2-acetylfurane, 5-methyl furfural, mesifurane) and aldehydes (octanal, nonanal, decanal and benzaldeyhde). In general, the spreads formulated with sucrose-isomaltulose that contained higher levels of pectin and citric acid gave better results in the preservation of the original aromatic compounds in raw strawberries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds.

  7. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  8. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  9. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  10. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  11. A new Job's tear cultivar ''Hatohikari''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Chiba, I.; Kato, M.; Okuyama, Y.; Sugawara, S.; Tanosaki, S.; Shindo, K.; Ishikura, N.; Seki, K.; Endo, T.; Shibata, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new Job's tear cultivar ''Hatohikari'', developed at the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Morioka, Japan was registered as Norin No.2 Job's tear and released by Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in 1995. ''Hatohikari'' is a progeny from a gamma-ray radiated mutant of ''Okayama-zairai'' in 1980. ''Okayama-zairai'' shows high yield and good quality. However, its demerits are late maturity and long plant height. The major agronomic characteristics of the new cultivar ''Hatohikari'' are as follows: The maturity is earlier than that of ''Okayama0zairai'', yielding ability is 38% higher than that of ''Okayama-zairai , the plant height is 30 cm shorter than that of ''Okayama-zairai'' and it is suitable for combine harvest. ''Hatohikari'' has large seeds with good quality for tea processing. Shattering is easy, and resistance to leaf blight is medium. ''Hatohikari'' is adaptable to middle mountain regions in chugoku district of Japan. This cultivar has been recommended in Hiroshima prefecture since 1995

  12. MN 716: nova cultivar de cevada com estabilidade de produção e qualidade cervejeira Production stability and brewing quality of Barley MN 716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 716, lançada em 2004, é uma das cultivares recomendadas para cultivo com maior estabilidade de produção. Nos anos em que participou do ensaio para determinação de seu valor de cultivo e uso, apresentou excelente produtividade de grãos, com média superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e desempenho equilibrado quanto à qualidade, com destaque para seu teor de beta-glucanas e índice enzimático. A cultivar constitui um avanço do melhoramento desse cereal no Brasil, aliando características de interesse do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 716, released in 2004, is one of the most recomended cultivars, for its high stability. In the years that it was included in the agronomic and use value trial, the cultivar MN 716 showed high yield average, exceeding 3,000 kg ha-1, as well as excellent qualitative performance, mainly in relation to beta-glucans and enzyme index. The cultivar is a breeding achievement for this cereal in Brazil, and serves the interests of both producers and industrial sector.

  13. Use of seed protein polymorphism for discrimination of improvement level and geographic origin of upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Montalván

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain proteins from 58 Brazilian and nine Japanese upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. were electrophoretically separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Densitometric scanning of the electrophoretic profiles permitted the estimation of the relative concentration of 16 protein fractions, which were used as variables for the calculation of Fisher's canonical discriminating functions. Significant differences between mean values of protein fractions were useful in distinguishing Brazilian and Japanese cultivars, as well as improved and non-improved Brazilian rice cultivars in scattered plots. Electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphism in rice grain can indicate geographic origin as well as breeding improvement level of a cultivar. Improved cultivars were those released by plant breeding institutes.Proteínas de grão de 58 genótipos de arroz brasileiro e nove japoneses foram separadas por meio de eletroforese (SDS-PAGE. A observação densitométrica dos perfis eletroforéticos permitiu avaliar as concentrações relativas de 16 frações protéicas que foram usadas como variáveis para a estimativa de funções discriminantes de Fisher. Diferenças significantes foram encontradas entre as frações protéicas dos grupos brasileiros e japoneses, assim como entre os genótipos melhorados e não melhorados. O polimorfismo protéico detectável eletroforetica-mente nos grãos de arroz pode indicar a origem geográfica e o nível de melhoramento dos cultivares.

  14. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M.; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  15. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  16. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa) as antidepresant activity on mice induced by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Siti; Fitri, Lulu L.

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a physiological disorder on the brain and may induce the reduction levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and the increased levels of stress hormone, corticosterone. The use of antidepressant drugs causing side effect, therefore natural agents are used as alternative therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of strawberries in the murine experiments in increasing serotonin level as well as decreasing in the immobility time of mice on Forced Swimming Task (FST). Forty-eight male outbreed of 4 weeks old mice strain Swiss Webster with average body weight of 18-22 grams were divided into six groups of eight mice, as follows: (1) non-stressed, (2) Chronic Mild Stressed (CMS), (3) strawberry extract (with dose of 464.1 mg/kg) and CMS, (4) strawberry extract (with dose of 928.2 mg/kg) and CMS, (5) fisetin (with a dose of 10 mg/kg) and CMS, and (6) amitriptyline (an antidepressant, with a dose of 3.25 mg/kg) and CMS as a comparison group. Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) method were used as induction of stress consisted of seven different stressors and assigned randomly for 35 days. Provision of treatment was made during the 14 days preparations on day 22 to day 35. At the end of treatments, all mice were assigned on FST test for immobility time measurements. Next, all mice were decapitated and the brains were isolated. Serotonin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV-visible light detector. The results showed that the immobility time of group mice which were given by the strawberries (928.2 mg/kg) and fisetin had shorter duration than the positive control group. Furthermore, the level of serotonin in the test group increased compared to CMS group. Corticosterone levels of treatment mice were increased significantly compared to non-stressed mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that strawberries are able to improve depressive symptoms by decreasing immobility time and increasing levels of

  17. Inactivation of an E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at inactivating E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberrie...

  18. Contaminated Frozen Strawberries in School Lunches. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (June 5, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This hearing includes testimony on contaminated strawberries in school lunches. Contaminated strawberries were determined to be the cause of an outbreak of hepatitis in the state of Michigan. In addition to statements by the committee members, testimony was given by: (1) Mary Ann Keeffe, Acting Under Secretary, Food Nutrition and Consumer…

  19. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined

  20. Growth of Three Lettuce Cultivars in NASA's HDU PEM During the 2010 DRATS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. Rooting media and slow release fertilizers were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that had shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. These tests involved comparing growth, color and quality of the lettuce cultivars grown under VEGGIE LED array (Orbitec, Madison, WI) or Biomass Production System for Education ((BSEe), Orbitec, Madison, WI) compact fluorescent lamps using a gravity feed water delivery system. Mission relevant conditions of CO2, temperature and RH were maintained using controlled environment chambers (EGC, Chagrin Falls, OH). Growth data was obtained for the two red leaf lettuce cultivars, Outredgeous and Firecracker, and the green Bibb lettuce cultivar, Flandria. Growth and quality was evaluated using different concentrations (7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) of commercial slow release fertilizer (Osmocote Plus 15-9-12, Scotts, Maryville, OH) and Nutricote 18-6-8 (Florikan, Sarasota, FL) in either a peat/vermiculite media (sunshine LP5 MiX, Sungro, Bellview, WA) or calcined montmorillonite clay [(arcillite,)Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL]. The commercial peat/vermiculite mix generally resulted in larger plants than those grown in arcillite. Increasing the concentration of Osmocote from 7.5 to 15 g/L increased the height, dry mass, and leaf area of lettuce cultivars. In contrast, there was a decrease in growth parameters when concentration of Nutricote was increased from 7.5 to 15 g/L. The best growth was obtained with the 7.5 g/L Nutricote using a commercial peat/vermiculite mixture. This media was used for field testing VEGGIE plant system in the 2010 DRAT test. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple

  1. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  2. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  3. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight. One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05. The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease.

  4. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  6. Enhancement of antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of yogurt enriched with concentrated strawberry pulp obtained by block freeze concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Henrique; Arend, Giordana Demaman; Rezzadori, Katia; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Petrus, José Carlos Cunha

    2018-02-01

    Strawberry juice was concentrated using block freeze concentration process. The concentrate was used to produce two yogurts with different concentrations of cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp (15% and 30%). Total lactic acid bacteria count, physicochemical and rheological properties was evaluated during storage (7days) for all yogurts. Also, the beverages produced were compared with two commercial trademarks. It was observed that the total lactic acid bacteria count remained higher than 10 8 CFU·mL -1 during the storage time for all beverages studied. The viscosity of the yogurts decreased when the ratio of strawberry cryoconcentrate was increased. The Power Law model was successfully applied to describe the flow of the yogurts, which had a thixotropic behaviour. The incorporation of the cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp in the yogurt resulted in a product with 3-fold more anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The enrichment of natural yogurt with strawberry cryoconcentrated pulp proved to be effective in the production of a beverage with higher nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  8. Processing properties of grains from some maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the dry milling, whole or pealed grains were simply processed in a hammer mill and the flour fractions separated as with wet milling. Results indicated some variation in the proximate composition with nine cultivars exhibiting protein contents above 8%. High protein cultivars were in order hybrids 88094X87036, ...

  9. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  10. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  11. Effect of environment and cultivar on the expression of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were evaluated for BSV expression so as to determine the tolerant cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions and stages of disease expression. A number of factors including plant age, cultivar, season and growth site were investigated in the greenhouse and field to assess their effect on BSD symptom expression.

  12. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  13. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  14. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  15. Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on ...

  16. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  17. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  18. IPR CATUARA TM – new cultivar of high gluten wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar IPR Catuara TM, obtained from a cross between the line LD 975 and the cultivar IPR 85, exhibits high gluten strength, which will allow the milling industry to supplement flours from wheats with weaker gluten strength, resulting in better quality products for the final consumer.

  19. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  20. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  1. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  2. Comparison between four blackberry (Rubus sp.) cultivars to light variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enciso, B.E.; Gómez, C.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper compares four Colombian blackberry cultivars- (Rubus sp.) light compensation points, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity. Time can be saved and efficiency improved by adapting different cultivars to differing luminosity once these parameters have been determined and established. The four cultivars involved were -Guarne-, -San Antonio-, -Sara 3- and -Pacho 2- forming part of Corpoica-s blackberry collection at the Sena farm in Manizales. The results revealed that all four cultivars had different light compensation points. They also showed that net photosynthesis varied amongst cultivars, even when grown in the same environmental conditions and that total chlorophyll and leaf area may be used as indicators of response to the conditions being evaluated. Key words: Photosynthesis, leaf area, radiation, compensation point, photons flow density (PFD), chlorophyll [es

  3. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  4. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  5. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  6. Importance of microbial pest control agents and their metabolites In relation to the natural microbiota on strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Jensen, Dan Funck

    control. A series of laboratory, growth chamber, semi-field and field experiments using strawberry as a model plant focusing on commercial microbial pest control products (MPCPs) or laboratory MPCAs expected to be on the market within 10 years served as our experimental platform. Initially the background...... level of indigenous microbial communities and their mycotoxins/metabolites on strawberries was examined in a field survey with 4 conventional and 4 organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. Culturable bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated...... and identified using both chemotaxonomy (fatty acids and metabolite profiling) and morphological characteristics. Microbial communities on strawberries were complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. Bacteria were the most...

  7. Analysis of Strawberry Farmer’s Satisfaction for Utilization of “X” Fungicide in Pandanrejo Village, Batu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskoro Aji Prihatmojo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research are to understand some factors that are affecting strawberry farmers satisfaction in utilization of ”X” fungicide and the level of farmer satisfaction. The location of this research in Pandanrejo Village, Batu City with 50 respndents. The method which was used in this research are decriptive statistics, Logistic Regression, and Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI. Measuring factors that affect satisfaction used four dummy variables, such as education level, group refference, training experience, and information source. And then to measure the level of satisfaction used variable of product attributes such as variety of product size, composition, expire date, procedure, permite of distribution, product availability, benefit, product information, completeness, rate of extermination ,and price. The result of logistic regression that group reference and source information are affecting the satisfaction of strawberry farmer. The obtained result of Customer Satisfaction Index method got 73,43% which means that strawberry farmer are satisfied with fungicide “X”.

  8. The Effect of Water Deficit Imposing Methods on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of New Potato Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Parvizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficiency is the main factor that limits crop production in arid and semiarid regions. Due to limitation in water resources, low efficiency of water in surface irrigation method and irregular rainfall application of sprinkle and triple irrigation methods is inevitable in more regions of Iran. In this respect, it is crucial to employ methods that can improve water use efficiency and do not damage the sustainable production of potato in these regions. Introduction of some potato cultivars that have good capability of yield in deficit irrigation is anopportunity in this case. In previous study new released potato cultivar (Savalan and three other promising clones had more yield and growing potential compared with Agriacultivar. Therefore, it was necessary to evaluate new cultivar (Savalan and promising clones in water deficit irrigation. In this respect, as is expected, if cultivars or clones have more tolerance to water deficit they canbe suitable cultivar candidate and germplasms in water critical water conditions in many regions of Iran. Material and Methods This experiment has been conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Hamedanin split plot design based on Randomized Complete Block in three replications with two factors, including: 1. Water deficit irrigation treatment, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of regular potato irrigation requirement. 2. Three clones accompanied with Savalan and Sante Cultivars. Irrigation system was tape method. Irrigation treatments were established immediately after cultivation of tubers. Water requirement was calculated through corrected vapotranspiration (ETo determined by Penman-Monteith equation considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season, fewgrowing indices including, flowering longevity and harvesting time were recorded along with measurement of dry and fresh root weights. Total yield was measured by selecting randomly of 2 m2in every plot

  9. Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-09-29

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  10. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  11. Influência do sistema de produção e do armazenamento refrigerado nas características físico-químicas e no desenvolvimento de compostos voláteis em morangos Influence of planting system and cold storage on the physical-chemistries characteristicsand volatile compounds development in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Machado de Ávila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o armazenamento, pode ocorrer a perda de compostos voláteis responsáveis pelo aroma e o aumento de compostos indesejáveis, o que ocasiona a perda de qualidade do morango, reduzindo a vida de prateleira e levando à rejeição do produto pelos consumidores. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a influência do sistema de produção (convencional e orgânico e do período de armazenamento (0, 2, 5, 8 dias nas características físicas e químicas (CFQ e nos compostos voláteis (CV de morango das cultivares 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', utilizando morangos de pomar comercial da região de Pelotas/RS. Os frutos foram colhidos em estádio de maturação comercial e com boa aparência. O planejamento experimental foi casualizado, em triplicata de 15 frutos. Os morangos foram armazenados a T de 1°C, com 90-95% umidade relativa (UR. Foram avaliadas a perda de massa, a coloração instrumental [L*, a*, b* e ângulo hue (H] , a firmeza, os sólidos solúveis (SS, a acidez titulável (AT, a relação SS/AT, pH e os teores de CV. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as diferenças significativas determinadas pelo teste de Tukey (PDuring the storage a loss of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma and an increase of undesirable compounds can occur leading to a decrease in the strawberry quality, a reduction of the shelf life and product rejection by the consumers. In the present work the influence of the planting system (conventional and organic and the storage period (0, 2, 5 and 8 days upon physical and chemical characteristics (FCC as well as on strawberry volatile compounds (VC in the cultivars 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' were evaluated using strawberries from a commercial orchard from Pelotas/RS. The fruits were harvested in a stage of commercial maturation and sound appearance. The experimental planning was randomized, in triplicate of fifteen fruits. The strawberries were stored at 1°C and 90-95% of relative humidity

  12. Phenology and yield of strawberry as influenced by planting time and genotypes in a sub tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Islam, N.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of planting time on phenology of five strawberry genotypes Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008, and BARI strawberry-1 were evaluated at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute in two consecutive years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Sweet Charlie took the shorter time to begin flowering, followed by BARI Strawberry-1 and Festival when planted in 1st October. Genotype FA 008 took longer time to flower when planted in 1st December. Days to flowering of all the varieties was found to decrease with the increase in air temperature. Regardless of planting year, the genotype FA 005 followed by Camarosa and Festival, planted on 1st September, exhibited the longest harvest duration, while Sweet Charlie planted on 1st December exhibited the shortest harvest duration in both years. Genotype Festival planted on October yielded fruit with the greatest fruit weight, followed by Sweet Charlie and Camarosa planted on the same date. Plants of FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December produced minimum fruit weight. Maximum number of fruits/plant as well as yield/plant obtained from Sweet Charlie planted in October, while BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December yielded the least. With the use of quadratic equation it was estimated that maximum yield was obtained at ambient temperature 18.5 degree C then it was decreased with the increase of temperature. Strawberry planted in early October was found to be the most suitable in Bangladesh. Among the studied genotypes, Sweet Charlie was found to be superior in yield and early planting, and Camarosa was suitable for late planting. Festival was found less sensitive to planting date. (author)

  13. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  14. Identification, Isolation, and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs are known to play dominant roles in plant responses to heat, as well as other abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. While the strawberry is an economically important fruit plant, little is known about the Hsf family in the strawberry. To explore the functions of strawberry Hsfs in abiotic and biotic stress responses, this study identified 17 Hsf genes (FvHsfs in a wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14 and isolated 14 of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strawberry FvHsfs genes into three main groups. The evolutionary and structural analyses revealed that the FvHsf family is conserved. The promoter sequences of the FvHsf genes contain upstream regulatory elements corresponding to different stress stimuli. In addition, 14 FvHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 17 FvHsf genes in wild diploid woodland strawberries under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, and salt, biotic stress (powdery mildew infection, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Fifteen of the 17 FvHsf genes exhibited distinct changes on the transcriptional level during heat treatment. Of these 15 FvHsfs, 8 FvHsfs also exhibited distinct responses to other stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for further studies to dissect FvHsf function in response to stress stimuli.

  15. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  16. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  17. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation and refrigerated storage on mold growth and keeping quality of strawberry (Fragaria sp) cv 'Confitura'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of fresh matured strawberries at 0.5-2.0 kGy and storage under ambient and refrigerated conditions was tested for delaying the mold appearance and extension of storage life. Radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was effective in extending the storage life of fresh strawberries by 2 days under ambient conditions. Samples irradiated at 1.5 and 2.0 kGy followed by refrigerated storage delayed the mold growth significantly (p≤0.05) and extended the storage life by 8 days. (author)

  19. Intraspecific responses of 188 rice cultivars to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Peng, A.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Phytotron studies were conducted to determine the intraspecific variation in sensitivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to enhanced UVB and to test the hypothesis that rice cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB radiation are more tolerant to enhanced UVB. Out of the 188 rice cultivars (from various rice growing regions and ecosystems) tested, 143 had significantly reduced plant height, 52 had smaller leaf area, 61 had lower plant dry weight and 41 had less tiller number under elevated UVB radiation (13.0 kJ m −2 day −1 ) for 3 weeks. Six cultivars showed significant positive growth response to enhanced UVB radiation, although the mechanism is not clear at present. These six cultivars were from the summer rice crop of Bangladesh and from high elevation rice areas where prevailing UVB radiation is most likely to be greater. However, there was no correlation between the dry matter changes under enhanced UVB and the ambient UVB level at the origin of the cultivar across the 188 cultivars tested. Therefore, cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB are not necessarily more tolerant to enhanced UVB radiation. (author)

  20. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, N.O.; Ogunbodede, B.A.; Adediran, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Productive performance of blackberry cultivars in altitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Information on the production performance of blackberry in less colder regions are fundamentals to the expansion of the cultivated area and extension of management practices for cultivars adapted to climate conditions in Brazil. The research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the productive performance of different blackberries cultivars in altitude region of 1,387m with mild temperatures, situate at 18º14’56”S, 43º36’0”W, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was carried during the seasons 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. The blackberry cultivars evaluated were the following ones ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’. Flowering and harvesting of cultivars were evaluated as well as climatological data of the area in order to relate the number of hours of accumulated cold less than 13°C, 10°C and 7.2°C with production and crop time. To determine the production, the mass of blackberries harvested per plant was measured. Production of blackberry cultivars was extended in altitude region with similar productivity to the other producing regions in Brazil. Productive performance of the cultivars varied according to the accumulation of cold hours with mild temperatures that occurred in cultivation region. ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’ showed good adaptation, being ‘Brazos’ the cultivar most productive.

  2. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afolabi, N O; Ogunbodede, B A; Adediran, J A [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ibadan (Nigeria). Inst. of Agricultural Research and Training

    1996-07-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  4. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  5. Cassava starch edible coating incorporated with propolis on bioactive compounds in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Betsy Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Strawberry is a fruit appreciated throughout the world due to its attractive quality attributes and stands out due to its high phenolic compound content, which positively contribute to biological properties of nutritional interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cassava starch coatings incorporated with propolis combinations on the phytochemical content and the maintenance and increase of the strawberry antioxidant activity. The treatments were 3% cassava starch (CS, 3% cassava starch + 33% ethanolic propolis extract (CS + P33%, 3% cassava starch + 66% ethanolic propolis extract (CS + P66% and control (C. The fruits were stored at 4 °C ± 0.5 ºC and 90%RH for 16 days, making up a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 time evaluations. Vitamin C, phenolic compound, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity levels were evaluated through two methods. The coating with 66% of propolis promoted higher Vitamin C content than fruits submitted to the other treatments at 8 and 12 days of storage. For antioxidant activity, fruits treated with CS maintained a higher FRS percentage (free radical scavenging at all time evaluations. Control fruits presented higher anthocyanin content at the last evaluation time when the highest antioxidant capacity, by the ABTS method (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, was observed in fruits with CS and CS + P66% treatments. There was an increase tendency of the phenolic content during storage in all evaluated fruits. The propolis concentrations used, however, were not sufficient to increase or maintain the antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents of strawberries.

  6. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2002-07-03

    Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening.

  7. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids of the strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Zeljan; Plazibat, Misko; Vundać, Vjera Bilusić; Zuntar, Irena

    2006-06-01

    The leaves and fruits of strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L., collected from two separate geographic locations in Croatia were investigated to determine their flavonoid composition and content. Quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin were identified in all leaf samples by means of thin-layer chromatography; the fruits contained only isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was present in some leaf samples. The content of flavonoids depended on the plant organ investigated, date of collection and the locality. Spectrophotometric determination of the flavonoids indicated that the leaves are richer in flavonoids (0.52-2.00%) than fruits (0.10-0.29%).

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium.

  10. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  11. Hyperbaric storage at room temperature for food preservation: A study in strawberry juice

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A.; Guignon, Bérengère; Bermejo-Prada, Ana; Sanz Martínez, Pedro D.; Otero, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric storage at room temperature was evaluated as a new food preservation method. To do that, strawberry juices maintained at different pressure levels (0.1, 25, 100 or 220 MPa) and 20°C for 15 days were compared to raw and thermally pasteurized samples stored at atmospheric pressure and 5°C for the same period. Hyperbaric storage reduced the initial microbial load of the juices by more than 2 log units to levels below the limit of detection. Moreover, pressure was effective to attenuat...

  12. Strawberries packaged with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC film/ Morangos embalados com filme de Ppolicloreto de Vinila (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries cv. Dover with approximately 75% of their surface with red color was packaged in disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET container and sealed with PVC film of 15mm thick. Strawberries without film serves as control. The fruits were stored at 12°C for ten days and there were determined during storage time the titratable acidity, solid soluble and vitamin C contents, color, respiration rate, texture and weight loss. After 6 days the strawberries packaged without film had decayed while the fruits packaged with PVC film were in conditions of consumption and commercialization. After 10 days all fruits were inappropriate to consumption. Packages with PVC film extended the shelf life of strawberries preserving the color characteristic of the product and vitamin C content, reducing the respiration rate and weight loss, characterizing this packaging as being adequate to this kind of product.Foram utilizados morangos cv. Dover com aproximadamente 75% de sua superfície com coloração vermelha e embalados em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET. No tratamento CONTROLE os morangos foram acondicionados sem filme e no tratamento FILME, as embalagens foram seladas com filme de PVC de 15mm de espessura. As frutas foram armazenadas a 12°C por dez dias e foram determinadas ao longo do tempo acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, cor, taxa de respiração, textura e perda de massa. Após 6 dias de armazenagem os morangos CONTROLE estavam impróprios para consumo pois apresentavam deterioração visível por bolores enquanto que os embalados com PVC estavam em condições de consumo e comercialização. Após 10 dias todos os morangos estavam impróprios para consumo. A embalagem utilizando filme de PVC aumentou a vida de prateleira de morangos em relação aos sem embalagem pois preservou melhor a coloração característica do produto e teor de vitamina C e reduziu as taxas de respiração e de perda de massa, caracterizando a

  13. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  14. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

  15. Breeders’ work after cultivar development - the stage of recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new cultivars is the ultimate goal of breeding programs and is the result of many years of hard work and dedication of breeders and their teams. An important part of the process, often neglected by geneticists, is the stage from recommendation to the production of breeder seed (post-breeding. This paper discusses the role of the breeder in the recommendation, registration, protection and marketing of new cultivars. The breeder’s active participation in all phases of post-breeding is fundamental to ensure that the cultivar reaches farmers quickly and can provide the benefits expected by society

  16. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    important step for seed production and commercialization in Brazil. Registration assures the genetic identity and varietal quality for breeding programs. Additionally, cultivar protection guarantees royalties to private and public breeding and seed companies, which can use these resources to continue their research and development projects. This paper describes the experience in registering and protecting two new jalapeño pepper cultivars (BRS Sarakura and BRS Garça released by Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program. Four out of 48 botanical descriptors showed high discriminatory potential to differentiate the two new cultivars: plant length and size, green color intensity in fruits before maturity, and peduncle thickness. Both jalapeño cultivars showed plant uniformity, high yield and capsaicin content, and genetic stability during two growing-cycles, as well as distinct traits when compared to other Capsicum cultivars. Lessons learned with cultivar registration and protection include the need to have prior experience in morphological characterization and practical application of botanical descriptors, the aid of an experienced botanist to identify new Capsicum species and varieties, and finally knowledge of bureaucratic procedures and requirements.

  17. IPR 82-Araucária, cultivar de batata para olericultura sustentável IPR 82-Araucária, potato cultivar for sustainable vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scotti

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas as principais características agroindustriais e morfológicas de uma nova cultivar de batata lançada pelo IAPAR, em parceria com a Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF e a Embrapa Semente Básica, Canoinhas (SC. "IPR 82-Araucária" foi selecionada de populações clonais introduzidas do CIP, Lima-Peru, por meio da Embrapa Hortaliças e avaliada nas Estações Experimentais do IAPAR desde 1984. A nova cultivar apresentou como fatores positivos alta produtividade comercial e resistência de campo à requeima, permitindo prever reduções em até 50% no uso de fungicidas para o controle da doença. A suscetibilidade à mancha chocolate e sarna comum evidenciaram a necessidade de manejo adequado de densidade e época de plantio, calagem e irrigação para minimizar os riscos de ocorrência dessas doenças. Com essas características, "IPR 82-Araucária" apresenta potencial para atender às demandas de produtores orgânicos e para produção em áreas de mananciais de água.The main agronomic, industrial, and morphological characteristics of a new Brazilian potato cultivar released by IAPAR, Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF and Embrapa Sementes Básicas, Canoinhas-SC are presented. "IPR 82-Araucária" has been selected from clonal populations derived from crosses done in CIP, Lima, Peru, and introduced for field evaluations in 1984. High yield and field resistance to late blight have been the main features of the new cultivar, allowing to predict reductions as much as 50% in fungicides applications. Susceptibility to internal brown necrosis and common scab requires special farmer's attention in respect of planting density, liming, and irrigation management to decrease risks of incidence of these diseases. "IPR 82-Araucária" is potentially suited for organic farming, and for growing in areas close to water resources.

  18. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawracała, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; Łacka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars ( Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly ( Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium-solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-stemmed AC Abbey cultivar. There was no regeneration from the explants of four cultivars: CLTR 7027, Alentejano, Marquis and Bombona. Principal component analysis showed no differences between the cases under observation (callus induction and green plant regeneration) in their response to pre-treatment temperatures (4 and 8°C). The examination of the effects of various auxin types in the induction medium on callus formation and green plant regeneration revealed that the strongest stimulation of these processes was observed in the C17 medium with 2,4-D and dicamba. The efficiency of callus formation and green plant regeneration was greater in solid-stemmed cultivars than in hollow-stemmed cultivars.

  19. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  20. Generation of Transcript Assemblies and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from Seven Lowland and Upland Cultivars of Switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. Childs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a North American perennial prairie species that has been used as a rangeland and forage crop and has recently been targeted as a potential biofuel feedstock species. Switchgrass, which occurs as tetraploid and octoploid forms, is classified into lowland or upland ecotypes that differ in growth phenotypes and adaptation to distinct habitats. Using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq reads derived from crown, young shoot, and leaf tissues, we generated sequence data from seven switchgrass cultivars, three lowland and four upland, to enable comparative analyses between switchgrass cultivars and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for use in breeding and genetic analysis. We also generated individual transcript assemblies for each of the cultivars. Transcript data indicate that subgenomes of octoploid switchgrass are not substantially different from subgenomes of tetraploids as expected for an autopolyploid origin of switchgrass octoploids. Using RNA-seq reads aligned to the switchgrass Release 0 AP13 reference genome, we identified 1,305,976 high-confidence SNPs. Of these SNPs, 438,464 were unique to lowland cultivars, but only 12,002 were found in all lowlands. Conversely, 723,678 SNPs were unique to upland cultivars, with only 34,665 observed in all uplands. Comparison of our high-confidence transcriptome-derived SNPs with SNPs previously identified in a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS study of an association panel revealed limited overlap between the two methods, highlighting the utility of transcriptome-based SNP discovery in augmenting genome diversity polymorphism datasets. The transcript and SNP data described here provide a useful resource for switchgrass gene annotation and marker-based analyses of the switchgrass genome.