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Sample records for straw strength milling

  1. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  2. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  3. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  4. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  5. Gathering straw energy balance for co-generation in sugarcane mills; Balanco energetico do recolhimento da palha para cogeracao de energia em usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Joao Paulo Soto; Bizzo, Waldir Antonio; Carvalho, Danilo Jose; Berton, Rafael Piatto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Linero, Francisco Antonio Barba [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jpsveiga@fem.unicamp.br, bizzo@fem.unicamp.br, linero@ctc.com.br, liar@fem.unicamp.br, rpberton@fem.unicamp.br

    2012-11-01

    With the requirement and expansion of sugarcane harvest without burning the straw in the field of began to be seen as a potential fuel for co-generation sugarcane mills together bagasse. This study examined the productivity and three ways of gathering and transportation of straw in order to determine the potential energy available in biomass residues and their respective energy consumption on gathering and transport operations. To this were determined parameters for the production of waste per hectare, minimum quantity to be left in the field for maintenance of soil organic carbon and erosion reducing, the amount of straw recovered and milled at the mill, material humidity and diesel and electricity consumption of each step to obtain the final balance of energy recovered. (author)

  6. Newly isolated Penicillium oxalicum A592-4B secretes enzymes that degrade milled rice straw with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Akihisa; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Matsuura, Akira; Nagai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme producing micro-organism, which can directly saccharify rice straw that has only been crushed without undergoing the current acid or alkaline pretreatment, was found. From the homology with the ITS, 28S rDNA sequence, the strain named A592-4B was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Activities of the A592-4B enzymes and commercial enzyme preparations were compared by Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and Genencore GC220. In the present experimental condition, activity of A592-4B enzymes was 2.6 times higher than that of CTec2 for degrading milled rice straw. Furthermore, even when a quarter amount of A592-4B enzyme was applied to the rice straw, the conversion rate was still higher than that by CTec2. By utilizing A592-4B enzymes, improved lignocellulose degradation yields can be achieved without pre-treatment of the substrates; thus, contributing to cost reduction as well as reducing environmental burden.

  7. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Registration of 'Linkert' spring wheat with good straw strength and field resistance to the Ug99 family of stem rust races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw strength is one of the most important criteria for spring wheat cultivar selection in the north central U.S. ‘Linkert’ (PI 672164) hard red spring wheat was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2013 and has very good straw strength, high grain protein con...

  9. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  10. Material composition – Pinning strength correlation in Nb thin films with focused ion beam-milled washboard nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V., E-mail: Dobrovolskiy@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Physical Department, Kharkiv National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Shklovskij, Valerij A. [Physical Department, Kharkiv National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Institute for Theoretical Physics, NSC-KIPT, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We fabricated an array of grooves in Nb films by using focused ion beam milling. •We determined the material composition in different areas of the processed films. •We deduced the pinning activation energies from the magneto-resistivity data. •We obtained the material composition – pinning strength correlation in the processed films. -- Abstract: An analysis of the interrelated changes in the material composition and the pinning strength in nanostructured Nb (1 1 0) thin films is presented. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam milling of an array of uniaxial grooves. They induce a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state. By applying different magnetic fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing has been probed. The enhanced pinning strength in the processed films has been found to correlate with the content of Ga implanted into the films during the nanopatterning.

  11. Material composition – Pinning strength correlation in Nb thin films with focused ion beam-milled washboard nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Begun, Evgeniya; Huth, Michael; Shklovskij, Valerij A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We fabricated an array of grooves in Nb films by using focused ion beam milling. •We determined the material composition in different areas of the processed films. •We deduced the pinning activation energies from the magneto-resistivity data. •We obtained the material composition – pinning strength correlation in the processed films. -- Abstract: An analysis of the interrelated changes in the material composition and the pinning strength in nanostructured Nb (1 1 0) thin films is presented. The nanopatterns were prepared by focused ion beam milling of an array of uniaxial grooves. They induce a washboard-like pinning potential landscape for vortices in the mixed state. By applying different magnetic fields, the most likely pinning sites along which the flux lines move through the samples have been selected. By this, either the background isotropic pinning of the pristine film or the enhanced isotropic pinning originating from the nanoprocessing has been probed. The enhanced pinning strength in the processed films has been found to correlate with the content of Ga implanted into the films during the nanopatterning

  12. Evaluation of full-strength paper mill effluent for electricity generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the search for renewable, sustainable and affordable energy sources, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer the advantage of a biological oxidation of pollutants to the direct generation of electricity by microorganisms. We thus examined the biodegradability and suitability of unamended paper mill effluent for power production ...

  13. Effect of desliming of sulphide-rich mill tailings on the long-term strength of cemented paste backfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Baki, Hakan; İzki, Muhammet

    2013-01-30

    This paper presents the effect of desliming on the short- and long-term strength, stability and rheological properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) produced from two different mill tailings. A 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of ≥1.0 MPa and the maintenance of stability over 224 days of curing were selected as the design criteria for the evaluation of paste backfill performance. Desliming induced some changes in the physical, chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the tailings. CPB mixture of the deslimed tailings achieved the required consistency at a lower water to cement ratio. The short-term UCSs of CPB samples of the deslimed tailings were found to be 30-100% higher than those samples of the reference tailings at all the binder dosages and curing times. CPB samples of the deslimed tailings achieved the long-term stability at relatively low binder dosages (e.g. 5 wt% c.f. ≥6.1% for the reference tailings). It was also estimated that desliming could allow a 13.4-23.1% reduction in the binder consumption depending apparently on the inherent characteristics of the tailings. Over the curing period, generation of sulphate and acid by the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings was also monitored to correlate with the strength losses observed in the long term. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) analyses provided an insight into the microstructure of CPB and the formation of secondary mineral phases (i.e. gypsum) confirming the beneficial effect of desliming. These findings suggest that desliming can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich mill tailings to improve the strength and stability particularly in the long term and to reduce binder consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy; Altaf H. Basta

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the primary mechanical and physical properties of particleboard made from hammer-milled rice straw particles of six different categories and two types of resins. The results show the performance of straw particleboards is highly dependent upon the straw particle size controlled by the opening size of the perforated plate inside the hammer-...

  15. Optimizing Cutting Conditions for Minimum Surface Roughness in Face Milling of High Strength Steel Using Carbide Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design technique is used to investigate the effect of machining parameters, namely, spindle speed (N, depth of cut (ap, and table feed rate (Vf, on the obtained surface roughness (Ra and Rt during face milling operation of high strength steel. A second-order regression model was built using least squares method depending on the factorial design results to approximate a mathematical relationship between the surface roughness and the studied process parameters. Analysis of variance was conducted to estimate the significance of each factor and interaction with respect to the surface roughness. For Ra, the results show that spindle speed, depth of cut, and table feed rate have a significant effect on the surface roughness in both linear and quadratic terms. There is also an interaction between depth of cut and feed rate. It also appears that feed rate has the greatest effect on the data variation followed by depth of cut. For Rt, the results show that the table feed rate is the most effective factor followed by the depth of cut, while the spindle speed had a significant small effect only in its quadratic term. The conditions of minimum Ra and Rt are identified through least square optimization. Moreover, multiobjective optimization for minimizing Ra and maximizing metal removal rate Q is conducted and the results are presented.

  16. MASS BALANCE OF SILICA IN STRAW FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SILICA REDUCTION IN STRAW PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The high silica content of wheat straw is an important limiting factor for straw pulping. High silica content complicates processing and black liquor recovery, wears out factory installations, and lowers paper quality. Each section of wheat straw has different cells and chemical compositions and thus different silica content. In this work, the silica content of balled straw samples were examined according to their physical components, including internodes, nodes, leaves (sheath and blade, rachis, grain, other plant bodies, and other plant spikes. Mass distribution of silica was determined by a dry ashing method. Half (50.90% of the silica comes from leaves, and its mechanical separation will reduce the silica content in wheat straw pulp significantly. Destroying silica bodies by sonication will increase the strength properties of straw pulp.

  17. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  19. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  1. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  2. Development and performance of resistive seamless straw-tube gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Y.; Aoki, M.; Ishihara, A.; Ishii, J.; Kuno, Y.; Maeda, F.; Nakahara, K.; Nosaka, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Terai, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Yokoi, T.

    2005-01-01

    A new straw-tube gas chamber which is made of seamless straw-tubes, instead of ordinary wound-type straw-tubes is developed. Seamless straw-tubes have various advantages over ordinary wound-type ones, in particular, in terms of mechanical strength and lesser wall thickness. Our seamless straw-tubes are fabricated to be resistive so that the hit positions along the straw axis can be read by cathode planes placed outside the straw-tube chambers, where the cathode strips run transverse to the straw axis. A beam test was carried out at KEK to study their performance. As a result of the beam test, the position resolution of the cathode strips of 220μm is achieved, and an anode position resolution of 112μm is also obtained

  3. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  4. Use and co-combustion of straw in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J S [SK Power, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Coal has in more decades been the backbone of the Danish energy production. As a consequence of a political wish to utilize domestic fuel and reduce the massive use of coal and the CO{sub 2} emission, straw has since 1989 been used in Denmark at small-scale combined heat and power plants. All straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are owned by the power stations. Furthermore some district heating plants owned by the municipalities, consumers or privately owned, also use straw as a fuel, as in the middle of the eighties it was prohibited to use coal as fuel in district heating plants. Different rules of subsidies and duties made natural gas or biomass the most competitive fuel for the district heating plants. For various other reasons there are also some oil-fired district heating plants in operation. Today five straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are in commercial operation. Three of these plants exclusively use straw as a fuel, one uses both straw, wood chips and natural gas, and one straw and coal. These five combined heat and power plants, having a total annual consumption of straw of approx. 200 000 tonnes, supply district heating to five medium-sized towns. On 14 June 1993 an agreement was made in the Danish Parliament ordering the power stations to reach an annual volume input of 1.2 mill. tonnes of straw and 0.2 mill. tonnes of wood chips in year 2000. Therefore two new plants are under construction and co-combustion with straw is being installed at an existing coal-fired power station. In addition, two large plants are under consideration. With the two plants under construction and with the co-combustion plant, the straw consumption is expected to increase to 430 000 tons of straw per year. These two plants will start operations in 1995 and 1997 respectively. All the operating straw-fired combined heat and power stations show an economic loss. Besides the price of fuel, this is due to the efficiency of the plants, which with

  5. Use and co-combustion of straw in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J.S. [SK Power, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Coal has in more decades been the backbone of the Danish energy production. As a consequence of a political wish to utilize domestic fuel and reduce the massive use of coal and the CO{sub 2} emission, straw has since 1989 been used in Denmark at small-scale combined heat and power plants. All straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are owned by the power stations. Furthermore some district heating plants owned by the municipalities, consumers or privately owned, also use straw as a fuel, as in the middle of the eighties it was prohibited to use coal as fuel in district heating plants. Different rules of subsidies and duties made natural gas or biomass the most competitive fuel for the district heating plants. For various other reasons there are also some oil-fired district heating plants in operation. Today five straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are in commercial operation. Three of these plants exclusively use straw as a fuel, one uses both straw, wood chips and natural gas, and one straw and coal. These five combined heat and power plants, having a total annual consumption of straw of approx. 200 000 tonnes, supply district heating to five medium-sized towns. On 14 June 1993 an agreement was made in the Danish Parliament ordering the power stations to reach an annual volume input of 1.2 mill. tonnes of straw and 0.2 mill. tonnes of wood chips in year 2000. Therefore two new plants are under construction and co-combustion with straw is being installed at an existing coal-fired power station. In addition, two large plants are under consideration. With the two plants under construction and with the co-combustion plant, the straw consumption is expected to increase to 430 000 tons of straw per year. These two plants will start operations in 1995 and 1997 respectively. All the operating straw-fired combined heat and power stations show an economic loss. Besides the price of fuel, this is due to the efficiency of the plants, which with

  6. Iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw to remove tylosin from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongyuan; Guo, Xuetao; Peng, Dan

    2018-08-01

    Maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides was synthesized via a simple and environmentally friendly method. Three maize straw materials, the original maize straw, maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides, were detected by SEM, BET, XPS, XRD and FTIR. The results showed that maize straw was successfully modified and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides has a larger surface area than MS. According to the experimental data, the sorption trend could conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, and the sorption ability of tylosin on sorbents followed the order of original maize straw oxides iron and manganese oxides. The study indicated that manganese oxides and iron-manganese oxides could significantly enhance the sorption capacity of original maize straw. The sorption isotherm data of tylosin on original maize straw fit a linear model well, while Freundlich models were more suitable for maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides. The pH, ionic strength and temperature can affect the sorption process. The sorption mechanisms of tylosin on iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw were attribute to the surface complexes, electrostatic interactions, H bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  8. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  9. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2012-01-01

    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  13. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  14. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  15. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  16. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  17. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  18. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  19. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  20. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  1. Shell cracking strength in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb.) and its implication in uses as a value-added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, C A

    2008-09-01

    Researchers are currently developing new value-added uses for almond shells, an abundant agricultural by-product. Almond varieties are distinguished by processors as being either hard or soft shelled, but these two broad classes of almond also exhibit varietal diversity in shell morphology and physical characters. By defining more precisely the physical and chemical characteristics of almond shells from different varieties, researchers will better understand which specific shell types are best suited for specific industrial processes. Eight diverse almond accessions were evaluated in two consecutive harvest seasons for nut and kernel weight, kernel percentage and shell cracking strength. Shell bulk density was evaluated in a separate year. Harvest year by almond accession interactions were highly significant (p0.01) for each of the analyzed variables. Significant (p0.01) correlations were noted for average nut weight with kernel weight, kernel percentage and shell cracking strength. A significant (p0.01) negative correlation for shell cracking strength with kernel percentage was noted. In some cases shell cracking strength was independent of the kernel percentage which suggests that either variety compositional differences or shell morphology affect the shell cracking strength. The varietal characterization of almond shell materials will assist in determining the best value-added uses for this abundant agricultural by-product.

  2. Study on the Effect of Straw Fiber on the Performance of Volcanic Slag Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Liu, Xi-xu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of straw fiber on the working performance, mechanical properties and frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete were studied. The experimental results show that the straw fiber is subjected to surface carbonization treatment and mixed into the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete. The flexural strength and fracture pressure ratio of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete are improved obviously Improved volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete brittleness improves toughness. Carbonized straw fiber greatly improves the frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete. So that the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete freeze-thaw cycle can reach 300 times.

  3. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  4. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  5. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  6. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Pressed Straw Concrete Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, S.; Wijanarko, W.

    2018-03-01

    Rice straws have been widely used as wall filler material in China, Australia, and United States, by spinning them into hays with an approximate dimension of 40 cm of height, 40cm of thickness and 60 cm of width, using a machine. Then, the hays are placed into a wall frame until they fill it completely. After that, the wall frame is covered with wire mesh and plastered. In this research, rice straws are to be used as concrete brick fillers, by pressing the straws into hays and then putting them into the concrete brick mold along with mortar. The objective of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete brick, namely: compressive strength, specific gravity, and water absorption power. This research used experimental research method. It was conducted by using concrete bricks which had 400 cm of width, 200 cm of height, and 100 cm of thickness, made from rice straws, cement, sand, and water as the test sample. The straws were each made different by their volume. The mortars used in this research were made from cement, sand, and water, with the ratio of 1:7:0.5. The concrete bricks were made by pressing straws mixed with glue into hays, and then cut by determined variations of volume. The variations of hays volume were 0 m3, 0.000625 m3, 0.00075 m3, 0.000875 m3, 0.00125 m3, 0.0015 m3, 0.00175 m3, 0.001875 m3, 0.00225 m3, and 0.002625 m3. There were 3 samples for each volumes of hays. The result shows that the straw concrete bricks reached the maximum compressive strength of 1.92 MPa, specific gravity of 1,702 kg/m3, and water absorption level of 3.9 %. Based on the provided measurements of products in the Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian product standardization), the concrete bricks produced attained the prescribed standard quality.

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  8. Straw Appliqué Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... colours. This combination make up the costumed part; and the exposed part of the skin; ... Bits of different geometric shapes, sizes, and tones are combined to create the forms from the ... Acrylic, Poster//Water-colour and Pastel. ... (Enenajor 2004) where all aspects of the work is filled with straw medium.

  9. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  10. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  11. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  12. Decomposition of Rice Straw and Corn Straw Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw at aerobic and anaerobic condition were investigated under the simulated condition in the lab. Results showed that two stages, i.e. the rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 3 months, and the slow one between 3 and 12 months, of decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw were found under anaerobic and aerobic incubation condition, and more than 55%of rice straw and corn mass was lost at the initial 3 months incubation period. The half times(t1/2of rice straw and corn straw mass lost under aerobic condition were 59.2 d and 52.9 d, which were short than those(72.6 d and 79.9 dunder the anaerobic condition, respectively. Carbon release constants from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.61 and 0.60 per month, which were higher than those (0.55 and 0.57 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The nitrogen release from crop straw followed the same rule as the carbon release from straw. The constants of nitrogen released from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.25 and 2.36 per month, which were higher than those(0.16 and 2.32 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The losses of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were also higher than those under anaerobic condition. In summary, the aerobic environment increases de composition and release of organic and inorganic substances from crop straw.

  13. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  14. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  16. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  17. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of wheat straw particle size on the mechanical and water absorption properties of wheat straw/low density polyethylene biocomposites for packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Tajeddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural composites with biodegradability properties can be used as a renewable alternative to replacing conventional plastics. Thus, to reduce the plastics applications in the packaging industry, biocomposites content of wheat straw (with 40, 100, 140 mesh as a natural biodegradable composite and low density polyethylene (LDPE as a common synthetic polymer in the packaging industry were prepared and characterized by the mechanical and water absorption properties. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride was used as a compatibilizer material. Morphology of wheat straw flour was studied by optical microscope to obtain the aspect ratio (L/D. The tensile and flexural tests were applied for determining mechanical properties and scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for particles distribution and sample structures. The water absorption of the samples was calculated by weight difference. The results indicated that the particle size of wheat straw four and the L/D amount are Significantly affected on the tensile strength and water absorption of the samples. However, the effect of wheat sraw particle size on the flexural strength was not significant. Overall conclusions show that by increasing the particle size of the filler (wheat straw, can prepare the biocomposite with better tensile strength and less water absorption compared with smaller particle size.

  19. A vertical ball mill as a new reactor design for biomass hydrolysis and fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Assis Castro, Rafael Cunha; Mussatto, Solange I.; Conceicao Roberto, Inês

    2017-01-01

    A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyces...

  20. γ-ray radiation effect on properties of straw powder/PBS composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Luo Yongquan; Liu Wentao; Zhu Jun; Guo Dongquan; Li Zhaopeng; Gen Feng; Qu Lingbo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, with decreasing global fossil resources and increasing 'white pollution', renewable and biodegradable materials attract more and more attentions. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) has good mechanical property, biodegradability and processing performance, which is the focus of hot topics in the study of biodegradable plastic materials, however, being soft and of high cost, it is still limited in application range. Purpose: In order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties, a series of wheat straw powder/PBS composites were prepared by melt extrusion, and then the 60 Co-y ray was directly utilized to irradiate the straw powder/PBS composite. Methods: The influence of TAIC (triallyl isocyanurate) radiation absorbed dose and radiation sensitizer on the mechanical property and thermal performance of straw powder/PBS composite was investigated, and the impact fracture surface morphology of the composite was observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). Results: The tensile strength and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing radiation dosage, and then tend to be stable, the heat distortion temperature also increased but not significantly with increasing radiation dosage. The results show that when TAIC content is 2%, with straw powder/PBS composite irradiated by 30-kGy dose, the tensile strength and flexural strength are increased by 26% and 39.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The radiation modification of composite material has no effect on thermal stability, but do improve the tensile strength and flexural strength when up to 2% of TAIC is integrated and irradiated by certain dose. The interface cohesiveness between straw powder and PBS is strengthened after radiation. (authors)

  1. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  2. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  3. Straw Combustion in a Grate Furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    1998-01-01

    Fixed-bed combustion of straw has been conducted in a 15 cm diameter and 137 cm long cylindrical reactor. Air, which could be preheated, was introduced through the bottom plate. The straw was ignited at the top with a radiation heater. After ignition, when a self-sustaining reaction front...

  4. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) for treated canola straw were significantly higher than that of untreated canola straw (control) (p<0.001). Gas productions at 24 h for untreated canola straw (control) and treated canola straw were 20.03 and 27.07 ml, respectively.

  5. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  6. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-03-07

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49, 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol production with a yield of 0.44 g/g. T. hirsuta was capable of directly fermenting starch, wheat bran and rice straw to ethanol without acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol concentrations of 9.1, 4.3 and 3.0 g/l, corresponding to 89.2%, 78.8% and 57.4% of the theoretical yield, were obtained when the fungus was grown in a medium containing 20 g/l starch, wheat bran or rice straw, respectively. The fermentation of rice straw pretreated with ball milling led to a small improvement in the ethanol yield: 3.4 g ethanol/20 g ball-milled rice straw. As T. hirsuta is an efficient microorganism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to fermentable sugars and directly converting them to ethanol, it may represent a suitable microorganism in consolidated bioprocessing applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Naveed, S.; Yousaf, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  9. Some global charges in classical Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrus'ciel, P.T.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of boundary conditions allowing the definition of a global field strength (''global color'') are presented. A definition of global color of the sources and of the Yang-Mills field is proposed. Some exact solutions of Yang-Mills equations with point sources and with ''topologically nontrivial electric color'' are presented

  10. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  11. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  12. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  13. Influence of rice straw polyphenols on cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Qin; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we found that during cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei large amounts of polyphenols were released from rice straw when the latter was used as the carbon source. We identified and quantified the phenolic compounds in rice straw and investigated the effects of the phenolic compounds on cellulase production by T. reesei. The phenolic compounds of rice straw mainly consisted of phenolic acids and tannins. Coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were the predominant phenolic acids, which inhibited cellulase production by T. reesei. When the concentrations of CA and FA in the broth increased to 0.06 g/L, cellulase activity decreased by 23% compared with that in the control culture. Even though the rice straw had a lower tannin than phenolic acid content, the tannins had a greater inhibitory effect than the phenolic acids on cellulase production by T. reesei. Tannin concentrations greater than 0.3 g/L completely inhibited cellulase production. Thus, phenolic compounds, especially tannins are the major inhibitors of cellulase production by T. reesei. Therefore, we studied the effects of pretreatments on the release of phenolic compounds. Ball milling played an important role in the release of FA and CA, and hot water extraction was highly efficient in removing tannins. By combining ball milling with extraction by water, the 2-fold higher cellulase activity than in the control culture was obtained. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  15. Adsorption, immobilization and activity of cellulase in soil: the impacts of maize straw and its humification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study some aspects of sorption and immobilization of cellulase molecules on soil components by the analysis of the reactions of cellulase in a soil treated with different levels of maize residue and incubated for 90 days. The analysis of variance showed that the effects of the treatments of maize straw, incubation time and their interaction on cellulase adsorption, desorption and immobilization were statistically significant. The adsorption and immobilization capacities of soil by application of maize straw increased significantly. However they decreased with decreasing the soil organic matter (SOM after 45 days of incubation. The desorption of adsorbed cellulase molecules from the soil by washing with distilled water depended on the SOM contents and its humification. The binding strength of cellulase molecule with fresh miaze straw was significantly stronger than that with humified maize straw. The immobilized cellulase activity, particularly its specific activity increased significantly by increasing the OC contents in the soil treated with maize straw.

  16. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  17. Soil Burial of Polylactic Acid/Paddy Straw Powder Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorulnajwa Diyana Yaacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the biodegradability of polylactic acid (PLA/paddy straw powder (PSP biocomposites. Environmental degradation was evaluated by composting the biocomposite samples into the soil. Different techniques, including mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, were used to obtain a view of the degradation that occurred during the soil burial of the biocomposites. Results of the mechanical tests showed that an increasing content of PSP in the biocomposites decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break (EB, while it increased the modulus of elasticity after six months of exposure. Scanning electron microscopy on the surface after soil burial showed that the filler was poorly wetted by the matrix. This explains the reduction in tensile strength and the elongation at break after soil burial. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the crystallinity of the biocomposites increased with longer composting periods.

  18. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  19. Utilization of straw for Bihudung production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietjen, C

    1955-01-01

    Surplus straw unwanted for farmyard-manure preparation is best utilized for the production of manure gas. In the German Bihugas process, anaerobic fermentation of wheat straw, alone or mixed with beet leaves, at 31/sup 0/ for 22 to 36 days produces about 15 cu m gas of 44 to 46% CO/sub 2/ content/100 kg material. The decomposition product supplies an organic manure of favorable C/N ratio, generally <20 : 1.

  20. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-07-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  1. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-01-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp→dπ + data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  2. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  4. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  5. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  6. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  7. Some characteristics of the long straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Ivanov, A.B.; Livinskij, V.V.; Lobastov, S.P.; Lysan, V.M.; Mishin, S.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    This article represents the construction and testing of the long straw drift tubes of different types. The diameter and the length of each straw were equal to 15 mm and 3 m respectively. The cathode resistance of these straws has a small value, i.e. about 100 Ohm/m. Thus, they do not have a large attenuation length. Installation of the spacers reduces the effective straw length by 0.5 % per meter, at least

  8. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  9. Primary properties of MDF using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid pretreated rice straw particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Yiqiang Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect the oxalic acid (OA) and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of rice straw medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The results show the IB strength increased about 9.6% and 13.4% for steam-treated MDF (PC) and OA-treated MDF compared with raw control panels, while OA pretreatment has a slight negative effect...

  10. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  11. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  12. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  13. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  14. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Wesson, D. K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A. T.; Robertson, W. J.; Walker, W. D.

    1991-06-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  15. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ogura

    Full Text Available Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.

  16. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  17. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  18. Straw quality for its combustion in a straw-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Allica, J.; Blanco, F.; Garbisu, C. [NEIKER, Instituto Vasco de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio (Spain); Mitre, A.J.; Gonzalez Bustamante, J.A. [IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Consultoria, Bilbao (Spain); Itoiz, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Alkorta, I. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias

    2001-07-01

    ENERGIA HIDROELECTRICA DE NAVARRA, S.A. (Navarra, Spain) is erecting a 25 MW power generation plant using straw for electricity generation. Cereal straws have proved to be difficult to burn in most existing combustion systems. During the last two years, a study has been carried out in Navarra to investigate the possibilities of improving the fuel quality of straw by a reduction in its K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} contents. The simple leaching of K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} with water by exposure to natural rainfall in the field resulted in considerable reductions of these two elements. A reduction in the K{sup +} content of the cereal plants caused by exposure to natural rainfall has been observed during plant ripening (before crop harvesting). Some varieties of straw show lower initial K{sup +} contents, making them more suitable for this purpose. There seems to be no clear correlation between the relative decrease in K{sup +} content and the amount of accumulated rainfall. Our results have also shown a very close correlation between K{sup +} content and electrical conductivity. The simplicity of this latter measurement makes this parameter a very interesting option to test the straw quality directly in the field. Structural components of the straw were not decomposed during the time when we left the straw in the field. Finally, the Cl{sup -} content in straw was increased when the Cl{sup -} dose from the fertiliser was increased. On the other hand, the content of K{sup +} was not influenced by the applied amount of K{sup +} fertiliser. (Author)

  19. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  20. Dehalogenation and decolorization of wheat straw- basedbleachery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Differences in the persistence of various bleachery effluent lignins against attack by white-rot fungi. Biotechnol. Lett. 14: 869-874. Nonwood (2000). Biological Materials for Nonwood Products, Upgrading straw into pulp, pulp and polymeric material. available at http://www.nf-2000.org/secure/Eclair/F141.htm.

  1. Experimental study of methanic fermentation of straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopter, P; Beerens, H

    1952-12-03

    The amount of liquid manure obtainable was a limiting factor in methanic fermentation of wheat straw. An equal volume of 0.2% aqueous solution of Na formate could be substituted for 90% of the normal requirements of liquid manure. This shortened the preliminary stages of cellulosic fermentation when no methane was produced and slightly increased the subsequent yield of methane.

  2. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  3. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  4. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  5. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  6. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  7. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  8. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  9. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  10. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  11. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Moises; Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed

  12. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    -GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

  13. Economy of straw-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The aim was to produce a detailed survey of the economical aspects of the operation of individual Danish straw-fired heating plants and to compare the results. It is hoped the operators of these plants will thus be encouraged to work together when atttempting to solve problems in this respect and that the gathered information could be used by consultants. The collected data from the survey is presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  14. Methane and compost from straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijkens, B A

    1982-01-01

    A concept is developed in which the farmer collects the straw and ferments it anaerobically to compost and methane at the farm. The methane can be used for heating and for production of mechanical energy, while the compost can be returned to the land at any suitable moment. This way of processing conserves part of the energy, present in the straw, that would otherwise be lost by the field-burning or the ploughing-in. In the meantime it solves the field-burning and environmental problems and it provides the possibility to recycle the organic matter in the humus, as well as all the fertilizing compounds K, P, Mg and nitrogen. There are indications that the arable land will need a restocking with humus that has been lost during many years of (modern) farming, leading to loss in structure and production capacity. This study collects the global technical and economical data, enabling us to indicate under which circumstances and local conditions the methane and compost concept would be feasible and would be an alternative to field-burning, ploughing-in or to the purely energetic use of the straw.

  15. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials and techni......During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  16. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  17. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  18. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  19. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of corn straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shengqiang Shen; Shuhua Yang; Xinguang Shi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was performed to analyze the pyrolysis process of corn straw. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the component of pyrolysis gas of corn straw was tested using the gas chromatograph analyzer. Experimental results showed that, as the reaction temperature increases, the component of H 2 and CH 4 increases, whereas the component of CO and CO 2 decreases. Finally, the mechanism of pyrolysis process of corn straw was revealed from the point of view of the molecular structure...

  20. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Wesson, D.K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A.T.; Robertson, W.J.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider. (orig.)

  1. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  2. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  3. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...... long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate....

  4. Environmentally Friendly Utilization of Wheat Straw Ash in Cement-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The open burning of biomass residue constitutes a major portion of biomass burning and leads to air pollution, smog, and health hazards. Various alternatives have been suggested for open burning of crop residue; however, each of them has few inherent drawbacks. This research suggests an alternative method to dispose wheat straw, i.e., to calcine it in a controlled environment and use the resulting ash as a replacement of cement by some percentage in cement-based composites. When wheat straw, an agricultural product, is burned, it is very rich in SiO2, which has a pozzolanic character. However, the pozzolanic character is sensitive to calcination temperature and grinding conditions. According to the authors’ best knowledge, until now, no systematic study has been devised to assess the most favorable conditions of burning and grinding for pozzolanic activity of wheat straw ash (WSA. Hence, a systematic experimental program was designed. In Phase I, calcination of WS was carried out at 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C for 2 h. The resulting ashes were tested for color change, weight loss, XRD, XRF, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and pozzolanic activity index (PAI tests. From test results, it was found that beyond 600 °C, the amorphous silica transformed into crystalline silica. The WSA calcined at 600 °C was found to satisfy Chapelle and Fratini tests requirements, as well as the PAI requirement of ASTM at 28 days. Therefore, WSA produced at 600 °C (WSA600 showed the best pozzolanic performance. In Phase II, WSA600 was ground for various intervals (15–240 min. These ground ashes were tested for SEM, Blaine fineness, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and PAI tests. From test results, it was observed that after 120 min of grinding, there was an increase of 48% in Blaine surface area, with a consequence that WSA-replaced cement cubes achieved a compressive strength almost similar to that of the control mix. Conclusively, wheat straw calcined at

  5. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China.

  6. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  7. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  8. Study on the Utilization of Paper Mill Sludge as Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar A.M. Md

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A major problem arising from the widespread use of forestry biomass and processed timber waste as fuel is related to the production of significant quantities of ash as a by-product from the incineration of such biomasses. A major portion (approximately 70% of the wood waste ash produced is land-filled as a common method of disposal. If the current trend continues with waste products, such as paper mill sludge landfills, a large amount of space would be required by 2020. A revenue study was conducted as a result of investigations into the use of paper mill sludge as recycled materials and additives in concrete mixes for use in construction projects. The study had to provide the assurance that the concrete produced had the correct mechanical strength. Concrete mixes containing paper mill sludge were prepared, and their basic strength characteristics such as the compressive strength, flexural strength, ultra pulse velocity and dynamic modulus elasticity were tested. Four concrete mixes, i.e. a control mix, and a 10%, 20%, and 30% mix of paper mill sludge as cement replacement for concrete were prepared with a DoE mix design by calculating the weight of cement, sand and aggregate. The performance of each concrete specimen was compared with the strength of the control mix. As a result, when the percentage of paper mill sludge in the concrete increased, the strength decreased. Overall, a high correlation was observed between density and strength of the concrete containing paper mill sludge.

  9. Structural elucidation and antioxidant activity of lignin isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Lihui; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhao, Huifang; Jin, Yongcan

    2018-05-17

    Alkali‑oxygen cooking of lignocellulose offers lignin many structural properties and bioactivities for biorefinery. In this work, milled wood lignin (MWL) and alkali‑oxygen lignin (AOL) were isolated from rice straw and alkali‑oxygen black liquor, respectively. The lignin structure was characterized by spectroscopy and wet chemistry. Antioxidant activity of lignins was assessed by DPPH·and ABTS scavenging ability assay. Results showed the oxidization and condensation of lignin occurred during alkali‑oxygen cooking. The p-hydroxyphenyl was more easily removed from rice straw than guaiacyl and syringyl units. The ester or ether linkages derived from hydroxycynnamic acids, and the main interunit linkages, i.e. β-O-4' bonds, were mostly cleaved. Lignin-xylan complex had high reactivity under alkali‑oxygen condition. Tricin, incorporated into lignin, was detected in MWL but was absent in AOL. Nitrobenzene oxidation showed MWL can well represent the protolignin of rice straw, and the products yield decreased dramatically after alkali‑oxygen cooking. AOL had higher radical scavenging ability than MWL indicating alkali‑oxygen cooking was an effective pathway for the enhancement of antioxidant activity of lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selected parameters of maize straw briquettes combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraszkiewicz Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the process of burning briquettes made of maize straw was performed. A number of traits have been evaluated, including physical characteristics of the fuel through parameters describing combustion kinetics as well as products and combustion efficiency. The study was conducted in a grate boiler, during which the differentiating factor was the air velocity flowing to the boiler. It was observed that the obtained values of the considered parameters were different, particularly temperature of the flue gas and the amount of CO and SO2 in the flue gas.

  11. Operating properties of straw-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Bonyushkin, Yu.E.; Korytov, A.V.; Malyshev, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    The initial results of the study of thin-wall mylar tubes (called straws) made under the laboratory conditions are presented. The maximal avalanche charge allowing the reliable detector operation is ∼ 10 pC, the spatial accuracy σ x near the anode wire at 3 atm of pure isobutane is ≅ 45 μm. The good separation of charge signals from electrons and X-rays was obtained with the Xe:iso-C 4 H 10 = 94:6 gas mixture. Tubes 5 mm in diameter withstand the pressure of 8-12 atm. 11 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...

  13. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  14. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  15. Obtaining of Peracetic Cellulose from Oat Straw for Paper Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Zelenchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of technology for obtaining peracetic pulp from oat straw and its use in the production of one of the paper mass types. Objective. Determination of peracetic cooking technological parameters’ optimal values for oat straw peracetic cellulose quality indicators. Methods. The oat straw cooking was carried out with peracetic acid at 95 ± 1 °C from 90 to 180 min for hydromodulus 8:1 and 7:1, using a sodium tungstate catalyst. To determine the oat straw peracetic cellulose mechanical indexes, laboratory samples of paper weighing 70 g/m2 were made. Results. Technological parameters’ optimum values (temperature, cooking duration, hydromodulus, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid concentration for the oat straw delignification process were established. It is shown that the sodium tungstate catalyst addition to the cooking solution at a rate of up to 1 % of the plant raw material weight helps to reduce the lignin content in cellulose to 15 %. A diagram of the cellulose yield dependence on its residual lignin content for various methods of non-wood plant material species delignification is constructed. The high efficiency of the peracetic method for obtaining cellulose from non-wood plant raw materials, in particular from oat straw, has been confirmed. It is determined that the obtained peracetic cellulose from oat straw has high mechanical indexes. Conclusions. Oat straw peracetic cellulose can be used for the production of paper and cardboard mass types, in particular wrapping paper.

  16. Decomposition characteristics of maize ( Zea mays . L.) straw with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil with various nitrogen amended carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios under a range of moisture was studied through a laboratory incubation trial. The experiment was set up to simulate the most suitable C/N ratio for straw carbon (C) decomposition and sequestering in the soil.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... value of molasses treated with canola straw using in vitro gas production technique with Taleshi native ... As straw is poorly fermented, it has low rates of ... Gas production was measured as the volume of gas in the calibrated syringes and was recorded before incubation and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24,. 48, 72 and 96 ...

  18. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  19. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  20. Effect of increasing amounts of straw on pigs’ explorative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S.; Forkman, Björn

    2015-01-01

    According to European legislation, pigs must have permanent access to sufficient quantity of materialto enable manipulation activities. However, few studies have quantified how much straw is needed tofulfil the requirements of growing pigs. We investigated the effect of increasing amount of straw...... on pigs’manipulation of the straw, and hypothesised that after a certain point increasing straw amount will nolonger increase oral manipulation further. From 30 to 80 kg live weight, pigs were housed in 90 groups of18 pigs in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with partly slatted concrete floor and daily provided...... with the percentage ofpigs manipulating straw simultaneously. This was recorded in three 1-h intervals (1 h before and 1 h afterstraw allocation in the morning, as well as from 17 to 18 h in the afternoon). With increasing quantity ofstraw provided, we found a curvilinear (P increase in the time spent in oral...

  1. PADI ASIC for straw tube read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Traeger, Michael; Fruehauf, Jochen; Schmidt, Christian [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, Mircea [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A prototype of the CBM MUCH straw tube detector consisting of six individual straws of 6mm inner diameter and 220 mm length filled with Ar/CO{sub 2} gas mixture has been tested at the COSY accelerator in Juelich. The straw tubes were connected to the FEET-PADI6-HDa PCB equipped with PADI-6 fast amplifier/discriminator ASIC. As a reference counter in this measurement the scCVD diamond detector has been used delivering excellent timing, time resolution below 100 ps (sigma), and very precise position information, below 50 μm. The demonstrated position resolution of about 160 μm of the straw tube read out with PADI-6 ASIC confirms the capability of the PADI chip and puts this development as a very attractive readout option for straw tubes and wire chambers.

  2. Hydration properties of briquetted wheat straw biomass feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fredriksson, Maria; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Biomass densification elevates the bulk density of the biomass, providing assistance in biomass handling, transportation, and storage. However, the density and the chemical/physical properties of the lignocellulosic biomass are affected. This study examined the changes introduced by a briquetting...... process with the aim of subsequent processing for 2nd generation bioethanol production. The hydration properties of the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw were characterized for water absorption via low field nuclear magnetic resonance and sorption balance measurements. The water was absorbed more...... rapidly and was more constrained in the briquetted straw compared to the unprocessed straw, potentially due to the smaller fiber size and less intracellular air of the briquetted straw. However, for the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw there was no difference between the hygroscopic sorption...

  3. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  4. Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NOx multifuel burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    2010-01-01

    A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles...... and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the particle size and shape distribution, the modification of particle motion and heating due to the departure from the spherical ideal, the devolatilization rate of straw......, the influence of inlet boundary conditions and the effect of particles on the carrier phase turbulence. It is concluded that straw combustion is associated with a significantly longer flame and smaller recirculation zones compared to coal combustion for the present air flow specifications. The particle size...

  5. Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose from Organosolv Straw Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Shniruk, O. M.

    2017-03-01

    The object of this work is to present a study of nanocellulose preparation from organosolv straw pulp (OSP) and its properties. OSP was obtained through thermal treatment in the system of isobutyl alcohol-H2O-KOH-hydrazine followed by processing in the mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide for bleaching and removal of residual non-cellulosic components. We have obtained nanocellulose from OSP through acid hydrolysis with lower consumption of sulfuric acid and followed by ultrasound treatment. The structural change and crystallinity degree of OSP and nanocellulose were studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques. It has been established that nanocellulose has a density up to 1.3 g/cm3, transparency up to 70%, crystallinity degree 72.5%. The TEM and AFM methods shown that nanocellulose have diameter of particles in the range from 10 to 40 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that nanocellulose films have more dense structure and smaller mass loss in the temperature range 220-260 °C compared with OSP. The obtained nanocellulose films had high Young's modulus up to 11.45 GPa and tensile strength up to 42.3 MPa. The properties of obtained nanocellulose from OSP exhibit great potential in its application for the preparation of new nanocomposite materials.

  6. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( ≥ 35 MPa and ≤ 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  7. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  8. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  9. Microbial Activity and Silica Degradation in Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther Jin-kyung

    Abundantly available agricultural residues like rice straw have the potential to be feedstocks for bioethanol production. Developing optimized conditions for rice straw deconstruction is a key step toward utilizing the biomass to its full potential. One challenge associated with conversion of rice straw to bioenergy is its high silica content as high silica erodes machinery. Another obstacle is the availability of enzymes that hydrolyze polymers in rice straw under industrially relevant conditions. Microbial communities that colonize compost may be a source of enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to products because composting systems operate under thermophilic and high solids conditions that have been shown to be commercially relevant. Compost microbial communities enriched on rice straw could provide insight into a more targeted source of enzymes for the breakdown of rice straw polysaccharides and silica. Because rice straw is low in nitrogen it is important to understand the impact of nitrogen concentrations on the production of enzyme activity by the microbial community. This study aims to address this issue by developing a method to measure microbial silica-degrading activity and measure the effect of nitrogen amendment to rice straw on microbial activity and extracted enzyme activity during a high-solids, thermophilic incubation. An assay was developed to measure silica-degrading enzyme or silicase activity. This process included identifying methods of enzyme extraction from rice straw, identifying a model substrate for the assay, and optimizing measurement techniques. Rice straw incubations were conducted with five different levels of nitrogen added to the biomass. Microbial activity was measured by respiration and enzyme activity. A microbial community analysis was performed to understand the shift in community structure with different treatments. With increased levels of nitrogen, respiration and cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activity

  10. Comparison of bonding strengths of the sapwoods and heartwoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... strengths formed by joining the sapwood and heartwood of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), oak ... nated by tar oil or epoxy resin to protect against damage .... phenol formaldehyde ... Preparation of experimental samples.

  11. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...

  12. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  13. Study of straw chamber lifetime with argon ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cheu, E.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Stockhausen, W.; Toki, W.; Wadley, W.; Wood, C.; Mir, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present detailed laboratory measurements of the lifetime of a small test chamber, simulating the Mark III straw vertex chamber conditions. The tests were carried out with an argon-ethane 50/50 gas mixture at 3 atm absolute pressure and 3.9 kV applied to the wires. After the accumulation of ≅ 0.02 C/cm on a single straw, continuous discharges began. The addition of alcohol or water vapor to the gas mixture was found to extend the lifetime of the straws. Continuous flow of the gas mixture with water vapor through the straws prolonged the lifetime significantly. We present results on the effects of changing the gas mixture inside the straws at regular time intervals. Adding a small percentage of water vapor to the argon-ethane gas and flowing the gas mixture in the straws can improve the lifetime by more than an order of magnitude. An accumulated charge of 1.0 C/cm on a single straw has been obtained. (orig.)

  14. Tracking with Straw Tubes in the PANDA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragadireanu M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA spectrometer will be built at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany to perform accurate tests of the strong interaction through ¯pp and ¯pA annihilation studies. The charged particle tracking at PANDA will be done using both solid state and gaseous detectors. Among the latter, two straw tube detector systems will be built [1]. The cylindrical, central straw tube tracker features a high spatial and momentum resolution for a wide range of particle momenta from about 8 GeV/c down to a few 100 MeV/c, together with particle identification in the momentum region below about 1 GeV/c by measuring the specific energy-loss. A new technique, based on self-supporting straw double layers with intrinsic wire tension developed for the COSY-TOF straw tracker [2], has been adopted for the PANDA trackers. The development of the readout electronics for the straw tubes is ongoing. Prototypes have been produced and used to instrument straw tube modules that have been tested with cosmic rays and proton beams. Design issues of the PANDA straw tubes, together with the results of the prototype tests are presented.

  15. Evaluation of the thermal and structural performance of straw bale construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Kyle R.

    This thesis is primarily divided into two distinct experimental programs evaluating: 1) the thermal performance and, 2) the structural performance of straw bale construction. The thermal performance chapter describes hot-box testing (based on ASTM C1363-11) of seven straw bale wall panels to obtain their apparent thermal conductivity values. All panels were constructed with stacked bales and cement-lime plaster skins on each side of the bales. Four panels were made with traditional, 2-string field bales of densities ranging from 89.5 kg/m3 - 131 kg/m3 and with the bales on-edge (fibres perpendicular to the heat flow). Three panels were made with manufactured high-density bales (291 kg/m3 - 372 kg/m3). The fibres of the manufactured bales were randomly oriented. The key conclusion of this work is that within the experimental error, there is no difference in the apparent thermal conductivity value for panels using normal density bales and manufactured high-density bales up to a density of 333 kg/m3. The structural performance chapter describes gravity and transverse load testing (based on ASTM E72-15) of non-plastered modular straw bale wall (DBW) panels to evaluate their strength capacity and failure modes. The out-of-plane flexural (OPF) tests exhibited a mean ultimate bending moment of 49.7 kNm. The axial compression (AC) tests exhibited a mean ultimate line load of 161.0 kN/m. The local flexural header beam (HP) tests exhibited an ultimate line load of 31.6 kN/m. The OPF and AC capacities of the DBW exceeded the capacities exhibited by a conventional 38 mm x 140 mm stud wall. However, the DBW's header beam strength and stiffness was inferior to conventional stud wall.

  16. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  18. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  19. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  20. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, I; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting g...

  1. Prospects in straw disintegration for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef

    2013-10-01

    The pretreatment methods for enhancing biogas production from oat straw under study include hot maceration, steam explosion, and pressure shockwaves. The micropore area (9, 55, and 64 m(2) g(-1)) inhibitor formations (0, 15, and 0 mL L(-1)) as well as the overall methane yields (67, 179, and 255 CH4 VS t(-1)) were robustly analyzed. It was confirmed that the operating conditions of the steam explosion must be precisely tailored to the substrate. Furthermore, it was beneficial to prepend the hot maceration before the steam explosion and the pressure shockwaves. The second alternative may give increased methane yields (246 in comparison to 273 CH4 VS t(-1)); however, the application of pressure shockwaves still faces limitations for deployment on a commercial scale.

  2. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking......-column’’ approach and includes the energy equations for both the fuel and the gas accounting for heat transfer between the two phases. The model gives important insight into the combustion process and provides inlet conditions for a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the freeboard. The model predictions...... indicate the existence of two distinct combustion modes. Combustion air temperature and mass flow-rate are the two parameters determining the mode. There is a significant difference in reaction rates (ignition velocity) and temperature levels between the two modes. Model predictions were compared...

  3. Mechanical and Thermal Stability Properties of Modified Rice Straw Fiber Blend with Polycaprolactone Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Khandanlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of modified rice straw (ORS on the mechanical and thermal properties of modified rice straw/polycaprolactone composites (ORS/PCL-Cs. The composites (Cs of polycaprolactone (PCL with ORS were successfully synthesized using the solution-casting method. The RS modified with octadecylamine (ODA as an organic modifier. The prepared composites were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and mechanical properties were investigated. Composites of ORS/PCL showed superior mechanical properties due to greater compatibility of ORS with PCL. The XRD results showed that the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS content from 1.0 to 7.0 wt.% in comparison with PCL peaks. Tensile measurement showed an increase in tensile modulus but a decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break as the ORS contents are increased from 1.0 to 7.0 wt.%; on the other hand, tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt.% of ORS. Thermal stability was decreased with the increase of ORS contents. SEM micrograph indicated good dispersion of ORS into the matrix, and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the interaction between PCL and ORS is physical interaction.

  4. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  5. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  6. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  7. Discussion on the electronic problems of straw vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the characteristic time of the output waveform of straw vertex detector, the design of its high resolution and high counting rate readout system and the problems of the charge and time calibrations are discussed

  8. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  9. Corrosion Investigations in Straw-Fired Power Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Karlsson, A

    2001-01-01

    of accelerated corrosion. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely the Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted CHP plants. Three types......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam...

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  11. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  12. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  13. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. ... Optimization of fermentation conditions showed highest cellulolytic enzymes ... using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble ...

  14. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  15. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  16. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  17. Multichannel prototype of coordinate detector based on segmented straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, Yu.V.; Davkov, V.I.; Davkov, K.I.; Zhukov, I.A.; Lutsenko, V.M.; Myalkovskij, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Savenkov, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and assembly technology of a detector prototype based on segmented straws is considered. The granularity of the prototype is 4 cm 2 . The prototype has a sensitive area of 400 x 200 mm, and contains two straw planes displaced against each other by 2 mm. The number of registration channels is 360. Preliminary results of the bench study of the prototype are presented

  18. Straw fired district heating plants in Denmark. Facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    A series of analyses and comparisons of technical, operational and financial and environmental conditions relating to straw-fired district heating and cogeneration plants in Denmark during the period of May 1993 to June 1995. The report provides an insight into the potentials of straw as a source of energy, particularly in the case of countries where the cultivation of cereals represents a major part of the agricultural economy. (AB)

  19. Additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Peripolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral and protein-energy (MPES, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplements (ES, combination of MPES + ES, and straw without supplement (WS on digestibility, fermentation kinetic parameters, cumulative gas production, methane, CO2 production, and volatile fatty acid concentration of rice straw of low and high nutritional value, estimated by in vitro techniques. The experimental design was randomized and factorial 2 × 4: two straws (low and high nutritional value incubated with four supplements (MPES, ES, MPES + ES, and WS and their interactions. Four experimental periods were used, totaling four replications per treatment over time. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of the rice straw with high nutritional value was improved by MPES, while the combination of MPES + ES supplements inhibited the digestibility of this straw. Dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen increased through MPES and MPES + ES supplements resulted in an increase in NH3-N concentration and a decrease in CO2 production due to the microbial mass formation. However, this increase was not enough to improve organic matter degradability parameters, cummulative gas production, gas production kinetics, and acetate:propionate ratio and reduce methane emissions. The straw with high nutritional value showed greater content of nitrogen fraction a, effective degradability, cummulative gas production, and methane and CO2 productions comparing with low-nutritional value straw. The use of MPES and MPES + ES supplements can be used as strategy to mitigate CO2 in ruminant production systems that use rice straw.

  20. High precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm straws were made of aluminized mylar strip with transparent longitudinal window. The X coordinate information has been taken from the cathode strips as induced charges and investigated via centroid method. The spatial resolution σ=120 μm has been obtained with signal/noise ratio about 60. The possible ways for improving the signal/noise ratio have been described. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  1. A high precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.; Zubarev, E.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Lysiakov, V.N.; Makhankov, A.V.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm diameter straws were made of aluminized Mylar with transparent longitudinal window. The X-coordinate information has been taken from cathode strips as induced charges and investigated with the centroid method. The spatial resolution σ x =103 μm was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 70. The possible ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Biodegradation of wheat straw by different isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Astaraei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of agricultural wastes due to their recycling and possible production of cost effective materials, have economic and ecological advantages. A biological method used for degrading agricultural wastes is a new method for improving the digestibility of these materials and favoring the ease of degradation by other microorganisms. This research was carried out to study the possible biodegradation of wheat straw by different species and isolates of Trichoderma fungi. Two weeks after inoculation of wheat straw by different isolates, oven drying in 75◦C, the samples were weighted and (Acid Detergent Fiber ADF and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber reductions of each sample under influence of fungal growth were compared with their controls. The results showed that biodegradation of wheat straw were closely related to fungi species and also its isolates. The Reductions in NDF and ADF of wheat straw by T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum were more pronounced compared to others, although T. reesei was superior in ADF of wheat straw reduction. It is concluded that for improving in digestibility and also shortening the timing of composting process, it is recommended to treat the wheat straw with Trichoderma fungi and especially with T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum that performed well and had excellent efficiencies.

  3. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  4. Torrefied Biomass Pellets—Comparing Grindability in Different Laboratory Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The firing and co-firing of biomass in pulverized coal fired power plants around the world is expected to increase in the coming years. Torrefaction may prove to be a suitable way of upgrading biomass for such an application. For transport and storage purposes, the torrefied biomass will tend to be in pellet form. Whilst standard methods for the assessment of the milling characteristics of coal exist, this is not the case for torrefied materials—whether in pellet form or not. The grindability of the fuel directly impacts the overall efficiency of the combustion process and as such it is an important parameter. In the present study, the grindability of different torrefied biomass pellets was tested in three different laboratory mill types; cutting mill (CM, hammer mill (HM and impact mill (IM. The specific grinding energy (SGE required for a defined mass throughput of pellets in each mill was measured and results were compared to other pellet characterization methods (e.g., durability, and hardness as well as the modified Hardgrove Index. Seven different torrefied biomass pellets including willow, pine, beech, poplar, spruce, forest residue and straw were used as feedstock. On average, the particle-size distribution width (across all feedstock was narrowest for the IM (0.41 mm, followed by the HM (0.51 mm and widest for the CM (0.62 mm. Regarding the SGE, the IM consumed on average 8.23 Wh/kg while CM and HM consumed 5.15 and 5.24 Wh/kg, respectively. From the three mills compared in this study, the IM seems better fit for being used in a standardized method that could be developed in the future, e.g., as an ISO standard.

  5. Straw-to-soil or straw-to-energy? An optimal trade off in a long term sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, Massimo; Cammerino, Anna Rita Bernadette; Garofalo, Pasquale; Delivand, Mitra Kami

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy balance and GHG savings of a straw-to-electricity value chain were determined. • An “expanded” LCA was performed, from farm field to electricity delivery. • Both direct and indirect factors of land use change have been considered in the analysis. • No-tillage and crop rotation significantly improved the system performance. • A win–win, sustainable solution for the energy use of straw has been identified. - Abstract: This study examined some management strategies of wheat cultivation system and its sustainability in using straw as an energy feedstock. According to the EU regulatory framework on biofuels, no GHG emissions should be assigned to straws when they are used for energy. Given this relevance in the current energy policy, it is advisable to include all possible marginal effects related to land use, resource utilization and management changes in the comparison of different biomass options. Coherently, an expanded life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to include the upstream cultivation phase and to make a comparison between “straw to soil” and “straw to energy”. Different crop management conditions in Southern Italy were simulated, by using the CropSyst model, to estimate the long-term soil organic carbon and annual N 2 O soil emissions. Three wheat cropping systems were considered: the conventional single wheat system without straw removal (W0) and with partial straw removal (W1), together with a no-tillage “wheat-wheat-herbage” rotation system with partial straw removal (W2). The results of the simulations were integrated in the LCA to compare fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of straw-to-electricity with respect to the fossil-based electricity system. The “improved” rotational wheat cropping system (W2) gave the best performance in terms both of GHG savings and fossil displacement, thus stressing that straw use for energy generation in parallel with the optimization of the

  6. Determining In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics and Methane Production of Wheat Straw and Soybean Straw Pelleted with Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEÇYÜZ, Emre; KILIÇ, Ünal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed todetermine the effects of pelletting on the invitro gas productions (IVGP), invitro digestibilities and methane productions of wheat straw and soy strawpelletted with different additives such as molasses, guar meal and sepolite. Inthe study, 2x2x4 factorial experimental design was used and total 16 groups (2straws (wheat-soybean), 2 different sepiolite applications (absent-present) and4 additives (control, guar meal,molasses and guar meal +molasses) wereformed.The...

  7. Mechanical properties of mill-annealed Ti6Al4V investment cast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy, produced by investment casting using yttria stabilized zirconia, was machined and then mill-annealed in vacuum furnace. The ultimate strength, yield strength and percentage elongation were largely improved compared to the same alloy...

  8. Evaluation of full strength paper mill effluent for electricity generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0615306y

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... operated in a continuous flow system (Huang et al.,. 2009). Mathuriya and ... Each MFC setup was run for 10 to 14 days and voltage was measured at 2 h .... a bimodal distribution of power densities in most cases. Presumably, E. ... settable solids removal efficiency); however, the drop in glucose removal ...

  9. Characteristic Strength and Treatability of a Recycled Paper Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and is thus suitable for treatment by anaerobic process. In a UASB reactor, about 63 per cent COD removal and total biogas production rate of 0.2 l/g COD were attained at a load of 12 to 15 KgCOD/m3/day. A well-pelletized sludge was formed in the reactor over a period of 4 months. (Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: ...

  10. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  11. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  12. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  13. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  14. Properties of geopolymer binders prepared from milled pond ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Temuujin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated materials were prepared from pond ash from the Darkhan city (Mongolia thermal power station. This ash contains about 60 wt % X-ray amorphous material in addition to quartz, mullite, hematite and magnesioferrite, and presents significant storage problems since it is accumulating in large amounts and is a hazardous waste, containing 90–100 ppm of the heavy metals As, Pb and Cr, and about 800 ppm Sr. Alkali-activated materials synthesized from the as-received pond ash achieved compressive strengths of only 3.25 MPa. Reduction of the particle size by mechanical milling for up to 30 min progressively increases the compressive strength of the resulting alkali-activated geopolymer up to 15.4 MPa. Leaching tests indicate that the combination of milling and alkali treatment does not cause the release of the hazardous heavy metals from the product, making it suitable for construction applications.

  15. A novel micro-straw for cryopreservation of small number of human spermatozoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of few spermatozoa is still a major challenge for male fertility preservation. This study reports use a new micro-straw (LSL straw for freezing few spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Semen samples from 22 fertile donors were collected, and each semen sample was diluted and mixed with cryoprotectant in a ratio of 1:1, and then frozen using three different straws such as LSL straw (50-100 μl, traditional 0.25 ml and 0.5 ml straws. For freezing, all straws were fumigated with liquid nitrogen, with temperature directly reducing to −130-−140°C. Sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and DNA fragmentation index were evaluated before and after freezing. After freezing-thawing, LSL straw group had significantly higher percentage of sperm motility than traditional 0.25 ml and 0.5 ml straw groups (38.5% vs 27.4% and 25.6%, P 0.05. As LSL straws were thinner and hold very small volume, the freezing rate of LSL straw was obviously faster than 0.25 ml straw and 0.5 ml straws. In conclusion, LSL micro-straws may be useful to store few motile spermatozoa with good recovery of motility for patients undergoing ICSI treatment.

  16. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; Silverio Delvasto, A.; Enrique Sanchez, V.; Vicente Amigo, B.

    2013-01-01

    The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash as substitute of the use of feldspar in the white ware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to as triaxial white ware. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages of CTA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. The porosity and the compressive strength of the fired pieces do increase with additions of up to 75% of CTA in substitution of feldspar. Their mineralogical phases were determined by DRX and SEM; grains of quartz, and needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by CTA in white ware pastes. (Author) 22 refs.

  17. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tribological performance of paddy straw reinforced polypropylene (PSRP and unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Nasir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In standard preparation and fabrication of natural-fibre embedded composites, 5 wt. % of natural fibre is enough to strengthen and homogenized in parental matrix as the mechanical strength was observed to increase by more than 25% of pure matrix. Hence, paddy straw and kenaf has been a potential candidate in northern region of Malaysia due to its abundance and easily replenished. A unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK and paddy straws reinforced polypropylene (PSRP was studied focusing on its tribological performance. Meanwhile, friction and wear properties were examined using pin-on-disc machine under ambient temperature with dry contact condition. The tests were conducted at various sliding velocities (1.178-2.749m/s and applied normal loads (9.82-19.64N. The results showed that specific wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with increasing applied normal load and sliding velocity, but the applied normal load was more influential. The coefficient of friction ranges from 0.5 to 4 and wear rate varies from 0.5 to 4 x 10-5 mm3/Nm for PSRP. The friction coefficient of UGPK is within a range of 2.76 to 4.54 at the given test parameters while its wear rate ranging from 0.8 to 1.79 x 10-5mm3/Nm. The failure mode observed during the test was micro-buckling and followed by splitting while fiber-matrix interfacial failure occurred.

  19. Substrate milling pretreatment as a key parameter for Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Hamelin, J; Steyer, J-P; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Dumas, C

    2014-12-01

    The effect of milling pretreatment on performances of Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) of raw lignocellulosic residue is still controverted. Three batch reactors treating different straw particle sizes (milled 0.25 mm, 1 mm and 10 mm) were followed during 62 days (6 sampling dates). Although a fine milling improves substrate accessibility and conversion rate (up to 30% compared to coarse milling), it also increases the risk of media acidification because of rapid and high acids production during fermentation of the substrate soluble fraction. Meanwhile, a gradual adaptation of microbial communities, were observed according to both reaction progress and methanogenic performances. The study concluded that particle size reduction affected strongly the performances of the reaction due to an increase of substrate bioaccessibility. An optimization of SS-AD processes thanks to particle size reduction could therefore be applied at farm or industrial scale only if a specific management of the soluble compounds is established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of various pretreatments for ethanol production enhancement from solid residue after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Wei; Xu, Dong; Wang, Bei; Yan, Li; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    The rumen digested residue of rice straw contains high residual carbohydrates, which makes it a potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of applying microwave assisted alkali (MAP), ultrasound assisted alkali (UAP), and ball milling pretreatment (BMP) to enhance ethanol production from two digested residues (2.5%-DR and 10%-DR) after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw at 2.5% and 10.0% solid content. Results revealed that 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR had a cellulose content of 36.4% and 41.7%, respectively. MAP and UAP improved enzymatic hydrolysis of digested residue by removing the lignin and hemicellulose, while BMP by decreasing the particle size and crystallinity. BMP was concluded as the suitable pretreatment, resulting in an ethanol yield of 116.65 and 147.42mgg -1 for 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR, respectively. The integrated system including BMP for digested residue at 2.5% solid content achieved a maximum energy output of 7010kJkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical modification of straw by alkaline treatment. [Trolmen process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In straw from 9 Swedish cereal cultivars of barley, oats, wheat, and rye, low molecular weight carbohydrates constituted only 0.3-1.4% of the straw with sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the sugar alcohols arabinitol and mannitol as main constituents. Hemicellulose (18-24%), cellulose (27-37%) and Klason-lignin (19-24%) were the main constituents. The ash (3-12%) and silica (0.5-3%) values showed rather high variations. After the Trolmen process, a wet closed NaOH treatment method, there was a slight enrichment of carbohydrates and ash and a decrease of Klason-lignin in the treated straw. About 1% of phenolic acids, mainly alpha ..beta.. -dihydro-p-coumatic, trans-p-coumaric, alpha ..beta.. -dihydroferulic and trans-ferulic acids, were quantified in the black liquid from the Trolmen process. These acids were probably ester-linked to the hemicellulose in the native straw and released during alkali treatment.HOAc, probably from Ac groups in xylan, and some of the silica were also released during the process. Although the amount of dissolved lignin was small, linkages between lignin and hemicellulosic polymers, perhaps also to cellulose, may be broken during the treatment. Linkages of these types may block the carbohydrates from enzymic action and reduce the digestibility. The higher digestibility of alkali-treated straw is probably due both to breaking of such linkages and to swelling of the polysaccharides rather than removal of any large amounts of undigestible components as lignin and silica.

  2. Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H; Pope, C N; Sezgin, E

    2004-01-01

    N = (1, 0) supergravity in six dimensions admits AdS 3 x S 3 as a vacuum solution. We extend our recent results presented in Lue et al (2002 Preprint hep-th/0212323), by obtaining the complete N = 4 Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons supergravity in D = 3, up to quartic fermion terms, by S 3 group manifold reduction of the six-dimensional theory. The SU(2) gauge fields have Yang-Mills kinetic terms as well as topological Chern-Simons mass terms. There is in addition a triplet of matter vectors. After diagonalization, these fields describe two triplets of topologically-massive vector fields of opposite helicities. The model also contains six scalars, described by a GL(3, R)/SO(3) sigma model. It provides the first example of a three-dimensional gauged supergravity that can be obtained by a consistent reduction of string theory or M-theory and that admits AdS 3 as a vacuum solution. There are unusual features in the reduction from six-dimensional supergravity, owing to the self-duality condition on the 3-form field. The structure of the full equations of motion in N = (1, 0) supergravity in D = 6 is also elucidated, and the role of the self-dual field strength as torsion is exhibited

  3. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  4. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  5. 2nd international expert meeting straw power; 2. Internationale Fachtagung Strohenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Within the 2nd Guelzow expert discussions at 29th to 30th March, 2012 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of the utilisation of straw in Germany (A. Schuette); (2) The significance of straw in the heat and power generation in EU-27 member states in 2020 and in 2030 under consideration of the costs and sustainability criteria (C. Panoutsou); (3) State of he art of the energetic utilization of hay goods in Europe (D. Thraen); (4) Incineration technological characterisation of straw based on analysis data as well as measured data of large-scale installations (I. Obernberger); (5) Energetic utilization of hay goods in Germany (T. Hering); (6) Actual state of the art towards establishing the first German straw thermal power station (R. Knieper); (7) Straw thermal power plants at agricultural sow farms and poultry farms (H. Heilmann); (8) Country report power from straw in Denmark (A. Evald); (9) Country report power from straw in Poland (J. Antonowicz); (10) Country report power from straw in China (J. Zhang); (11) Energetic utilisation of straw in Czechia (D. Andert); (12) Mobile pelletization of straw (S. Auth); (13) Experiences with the straw thermal power plant from Vattenfall (N. Kirkegaard); (14) Available straw potentials in Germany (potential, straw provision costs) (C. Weiser); (15) Standardization of hay good and test fuels - Classification and development of product standards (M. Englisch); (16) Measures of reduction of emissions at hay good incinerators (V. Lenz); (17) Fermentation of straw - State of the art and perspectives (G. Reinhold); (18) Cellulosis - Ethanol from agricultural residues - Sustainable biofuels (A. Hartmair); (19) Syngas by fermentation of straw (N. Dahmen); (20) Construction using straw (D. Scharmer).

  6. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıc Unal; Gulecyuz Emre

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV) and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD) of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws), 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available) and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses) in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial...

  7. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  8. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldikova, Eva, E-mail: baldie@email.cz [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid–NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green. - Highlights: • Rye derivatives can be considered as efficient adsorbents for organic dyes. • Magnetic modification of straw by microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxides. • Citric acid–NaOH modification increased the maximum adsorption capacities.

  9. Heat Transfer in a Fixed Bed of Straw Char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Anker

    2003-01-01

    A model for the thermal conductivity of a straw char bed has been developed. The model extends the work of Yagi and Kunii to describe heat transfer in a bed of cylinders, using a relationship between the interparticle distance and the external porosity. To verify the model, thermal conductivity...... the experimental uncertainty over the range of conditions investigated. The heat transfer model was used in a parametric study to evaluate the effect of gas flow rate, particle diameter, porosity, and temperature on the thermal conductivity in a straw char bed....... experiments were performed on shredded and un-shredded straw char samples, varying particle size, bed packing (loose or dense), and temperature. Predictions with the model, using the measured external porosity and particle diameter as input parameters, are in agreement with measurements within...

  10. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  12. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  13. [The influence of straw, particularly rice straw, together with calcium-cyanamide on the microbiological activity of two Portuguese soils (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glathe, H; El Din, A; Scheuer, A

    1976-01-01

    The influence of calcium-cyanamide upon the microbiological activity was tested in pot experiments under controlled conditions in two Portuguese soils (sandy and loamy) after the addition of rice or wheat straw (rice straw 0.275% N, wheat straw 0.307% N). The amount of straw was equalled to 100 dz/ha, the application of calcium-cyanamide to 25, 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In the containers treated with straw the total amount of microorganisms (Koch-method) was higher in sandy than in loamy soil after 30 days, but after 70 days it was higher in loamy soil. The content of active nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) increased, when calcium-cyanamide was added, but decreased after the application of straw. After 70 days sandy soil again showed an increase of active nitrogen. Straw increased the rates of CO2-production considerably, wheat straw was superior to rice straw. Calcium-cyanamide increased the CO2-production more in sandy than in loamy soil or German loess, which was also used for this experiment. Only in the case of rice straw higher doses of calcium-cyanamide had a positive effect. After 70 days the CO2-production rose only when rice straw was applied. The dehydrogenase-activity was increased in both soils, but a superiority of wheat straw occurred in sandy soil only. The microbiological activity in the pots with straw was higher in sandy than in loamy soil, the addition of calcium-cyanamide accelerated it. Doses of 25-50 kg N/ha are sufficient generally. The period of the formation of insoluble organic N-compounds, usually connected with the application of organic matter with a wide N:C-ratio, seems to be reduced by the addition of calcium-cyanamide.

  14. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  15. Urea-ensiled rice straw as a feed for cattle in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    straw. Rice straw contains about 3% crude protein (air- dry basis), 35% crude fiber and 1900kcal DE/kg of straw. Because of its low energy and protein content, ... corn, 9,4 kg soybean meal, 10 kg coconut meal, 2 kg mineral, 2 kg bone meal and 1 kg salt. Table 3 Performance of crossbred heifers fed with different roughages.

  16. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  17. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  18. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to use wheat-straw in diets, this study was conducted (i) to determine the degree whereto the inclusion of wheat-straw in finishing diets for lambs affected digestibility, N retention and animal performance, and (ii) to evaluate ammoniated wheat straw as roughage component in a balanced diet, containing. >60% concentrates ...

  19. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    of metabolites and hormones in pregnant sows. Ten groups of three pregnant sows were housed in pens with concrete floor where a limited amount of chopped straw (approx. 330 g/sow) was provided daily. In 5 of the 10 groups sows had free access to uncut straw in racks in addition to the chopped straw (Ad libitum...

  20. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  1. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 a...

  2. Analysis of energetic exploitation of straw in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Popov, Stevan D.; Zekic, Vladislav N.; Rodic, Vesna O.; Tica, Nedeljko Lj.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The average yearly quantity of the cellulose wastes in Vojvodina amounts to about 9 millions tons barely in the agriculture, and the same potential on the level of Serbia estimates to almost 13 million tons. This study gives the analysis of energetic exploitation of straws from stubble cereals processed in different forms. Costs for the equipment that uses biomass in the EU are approximately two times higher with respect to those for the equipment for combustion of natural gas or of fuel oil. Costs of investments for combustion of biomass in Vojvodina if compared with the cited data are approximately for 40-50% lower. The difference of the investment costs for the construction of such units is because units for straw combustion designed and constructed in our country, have neither the complicated devices for manipulation of fuels, nor the devices for the waste gasses processing. The definite conclusions about the economic justification of the energetic exploitation of stubble straws can be obtained only by comparison of costs of the so obtained energy, with the costs of energy obtained through the combustion of classical fuels. Previous comparisons were the most often based on the comparisons of value of prices of the equivalent straw quantity with the process of fuel oil of other classical fuels. Such the comparisons leaded to the very positive evaluations of the economical effects of straws, without taking into account the realizability of the named method. Namely, comparisons of straw and fuel oil hardly could lead to the conclusion that these two fuels are mutually substitutable. According to its physical properties, straw is most similar to firewood, but the preciousness and lacking of this the very resource excludes it from the comparative analysis, so

  3. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  4. Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

  5. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments......, grinding the most. The effect of each treatment declined with an increasing number of successive additions of straw. The ratio between CO2 evolved after grinding and fumigation, respectively, revealed that grinding also exposed non-biomass material to accelerated decomposition. The effects of the stress...

  6. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a plastic drinking straw as a rigid beam, is briefly described with some slight convenient modifications. Different placements of the center of gravity are considered analytically to explain the equilibrium neutrality, stability, and instability of such beam balances as the microbalance, the playground "seesaw" or "teeter-totter," the "dipping bird," and other toys and magic tricks.

  7. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  8. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Pawlowski, Z.; Konarzewski, B.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. They have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, their approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors

  9. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Pawlowski, Z.; Konarzewski, B.

    2000-02-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. They have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, their approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors.

  10. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Marzec, J; Pawlowski, Z; Konarzewski, B

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. We have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, our approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors. (7 refs).

  11. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  12. Method of Black Liquor Combustion to Remove Silicon from Wheat Straw Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate on physical and chemical properties of wheat straw pulp black liquor were studied. Results showed that the expansion rate was enhanced by increasing the aluminum salt content; furthermore, the effect of sodium aluminate was better than that of aluminum sulfate. The maximum desilication rate of 92.31% was reached with the addition of 3% sodium aluminate. A rheometer showed that aluminum salt had little impact on the viscosity of thick black liquor, so even at a high temperature it could be conveyed by pumps in paper mill at 110 °C. The effect of aluminium salt on the silicon removal rate during black liquor combustion was also studied. The experimental results showed that both aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate helped to remove silicon. The desilication rate of sodium aluminate reached 62.33%, higher than that of aluminum sulphate. SEM-EDX illustrated that the aluminum and silicon ions were formed into insoluble precipitates. It was optimal to use 3% sodium aluminate as desilication agent.

  13. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  14. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  15. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  16. Mill tailings based composites as paste backfill in mines of U-bearing dolomitic limestone ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Panchal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the development of paste backfill using mill tailings generated during the processing of a uranium ore deposit hosted in dolomitic limestone. The tailings have been characterized in terms of the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Time-dependent rheological behaviors and geotechnical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB are also determined. The studies show that the mill tailing has the potential to form paste and the CPB has adequate strength to provide support to mine pillars, roofs, and walls. Keywords: Mining engineering, Uranium ore deposit, Tailings, Cemented paste backfill (CPB, Rheology, Compressive strength

  17. An automatic system for controlling the quality of straws installed in the ATLAS TRT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Golunov, A O; Gousakov, Yu V; Kekelidze, G D; Livinski, V V; Mouraviev, S V; Parzycki, S S; Peshekhonov, V D; Price, M J; Savenkov, A A

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an automatic system to control the quality of straws installed in the wheels of the end-cap Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment. The system tests both the straightness and the electrical insulation of the straws during installation. The testing time per straw is 9s; consequently it takes about 2h to measure one layer of straws. The off-line analysis takes 20s per straw. With this system defects can be immediately detected and corrected. This clearly influences the future performance of the detector.

  18. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  19. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  20. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  2. Allelopathic appraisal effects of straw extract wheat varieties on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Ben HM, Ghorbal H, Kremer RJ, Oussama O (2001). Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, 21: 65-71. Dias LS (1991). Allelopathic activity of decomposing straw of wheat and oat and associated soil on some crop species. Soil Till.

  3. The Straw Tube Trackers of the PANDA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Boca, G.L.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montanga, P.; Rotondi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Vasile, M.E.; Pietreanu, D.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Korcyl, G.; Palka, M.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Przyborowski, D.; Korcyl, K.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Dobbs, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Bettoni, D.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Kozlov, V.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Ritman, J.; Serdyuk, V.; Wintz, P.; Spataro, S.

    2013-06-01

    The PANDA experiment will be built at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany) to perform accurate tests of the strong interaction through p-bar p and p-bar A annihilation's studies. To track charged particles, two systems consisting of a set of planar, closed-packed, self-supporting straw tube layers are under construction. The PANDA straw tubes will have also unique characteristics in term of material budget and performance. They consist of very thin mylar-aluminized cathodes which are made self-supporting by means of the operation gas-mixture over-pressure. This solution allows to reduce at maximum the weight of the mechanical support frame and hence the detector material budget. The PANDA straw tube central tracker will not only reconstruct charged particle trajectories, but also will help in low momentum (< 1 GeV) particle identification via dE/dx measurements. This is a quite new approach that PANDA tracking group has first tested with detailed Monte Carlo simulations, and then with experimental tests of detector prototypes. This paper addresses the design issues of the PANDA straw tube trackers and the performance obtained in prototype tests. (authors)

  4. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  5. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Front-end electronics for long straw tube systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulos, J.J.; Blake, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several critical issues in the readout of long, small diameter plastic straw tubes for central tracking subsystems. Of particular concern are signal attentuation in long straw tubes and signal reflections which arise from improper termination at the ends of the tube. This work is part of a 12 institution collaboration to design and validate a hybrid central tracking chamber (HCTC) utilizing both straw tube and scintillating fiber components. The HCTC design calls for 4 mm diameter plastic straw tubes spanning the entire central tracking region (6-8 m) with readout electronics at both ends. An electrical isolator may be used at the center of each wire to separate each tube into two electrically isolated regions so as to reduce occupancy by a factor of two. With this scheme, no track is farther than 4 m from the associated readout electronics. The HCTC collaboration includes the participation of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania who have contributed a preamplifier and shaper ship which is used in the simulations presented here. A more complete discussion of the HCTC design can be found in the paper by Dr. Alfred Goshaw

  7. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  8. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  9. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  10. Characteristics and community diversity of a wheat straw-colonizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A microbial community named WSD-5 was successfully selected from plant litter and soil after longterm directed acclimation at normal temperature. After 15 days of cultivation at 30°C, the degradation rate of wheat straw by WSD-5 was 75.6%. For cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the degradation rates were 94.2, 81.9 ...

  11. Edafic fauna under different straw levels in sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiana Ribeiro Lino de Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The organisms that constitute the soil fauna are highly relevant to the litter-soil compartments, because they act in important processes, such as fragmentation of the plant material, decomposition and nutrients cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the invertebrate fauna community in soil cultivated with sugarcane harvested without burning, considering the maintenance of different straw levels on the soil surface. Treatments consisted of different amounts of sugarcane straw: T0% (0 Mg ha-1; T25% (2.2 Mg ha-1; T50% (5.1 Mg ha-1; T75% (7.8 Mg ha-1; and T100% (12.0 Mg ha-1. Samples were collected in the dry season and late wet season, with "Pitfall" traps. The number of individuals per trap per day during the dry period ranged from 11.1 (T0% to 14.7 (T25% and, in the rainy season, from 15.11 (T0% to 33.15 (T75%. The highest Shannon values were observed during the rainy season, and the lowest values for diversity and equitability resulted in a higher incidence of Araneae and Formicidae groups. The amount of straw on soil showed no significant influence on ecological indices and total and average wealth. The harvest time affected the number of individuals, species wealth and Shannon and Pielou's indices. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface benefitted the soil fauna, concerning the conventional crop management.

  12. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  13. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... rape straw substrate and the secretion of ligninolytic enzyme system including laccase (Lac), manganese ... results are mostly fields burning or natural degradation. The former ... Microbial conversion, especially fungal bio- conversion ... out at 27°C in plastic bags containing 200 g of lignocellulosic substrate ...

  14. Substitution of lucerne hay by ammoniated wheat straw in growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucerne hay (LH) was substituted by urea-ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) in four lamb-growth diets, all containing 60% roughage. ... Die ekonomiese voordeel van die verplasing van 'n hoë kwaliteit ruvoer, soos LH, met'n goedkoper bron (AKS), moet opgeweeg word teen die laer DMI en GDT, sowel as die nadelige effek ...

  15. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldíková, E.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, APR 2015 (2015), s. 181-185 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Rye straw * Adsorbent * Dyes removal * Magnetic modification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  16. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıc Unal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws, 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial design. A Daisy incubator was used to determine the IVTD of the feeds. According to the results, molasses and guar meal increased the RFV of soybean straws, while molasses and guar meal treatments and sepiolite did not affect the RFV of wheat straws. It was observed that sepiolite increased the RFV’s of soybean straw for guar meal and guar meal+molasses. The higher IVTD’s were found for guar meal (without sepiolite treatment of soybean straw and guar meal (with sepiolite treatment of wheat straw. Molasses and guar meal addition to wheat and soybean straws improved the crude protein contents. In conclusion, straw pelleting can be used as an alternative forage conservation method to close the gap in forage supply during the winter.

  17. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  18. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  20. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  1. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  2. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  3. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using rice straw as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Nandita; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.

    2017-06-01

    Phenol is an environmental pollutant; the present study was conducted to examine the adsorption of phenol by rice straw. For this purpose raw (untreated), physically treated (boiled and dried) and thermally treated (heated at 230 °C for 3 h to produce ash) rice straw were selected to determine phenol removal efficiency at different contact times and adsorbent dosages for 1 and Percentage of removal of phenol increased as the adsorbent dose increase. The removal efficiency increase in the order of: raw rice straw ash) rice straw. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm was developed for 1 and ash) treated rice straw. Freundlich isotherm best fit the equilibrium data for 1 mm thermally treated rice straw. The results showed that thermally treated rice straw (ash) can be developed as a potential adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution.

  4. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasker, Marwen; Belayachi, Naima; Hoxha, Dashnor; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2014-04-11

    The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  5. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  6. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  7. Agglomeration during wet milling of LAST (lead-antimony-silver-tellurium) powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.D.; Case, E.D.; Ren, F.; Johnson, J.R.; Timm, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    LAST (lead-antimony-silver-tellurium) compounds comprise a family of semiconducting materials with good thermoelectric properties. However, the as-cast form of LAST exhibits large grain size and hence low mechanical strength. Powder processing can produce a fine powder particle size that enhances fracture strength, however the powders tend to agglomerate if the individual powder diameters are less than a few microns across. Dry milling or wet milling (hexane additions of 0 cm 3 and 10 cm 3 ) produced hard agglomerates roughly 40 μm in diameter while wet milling with hexane additions of 25 cm 3 , 30 cm 3 or 50 cm 3 resulted in small, porous agglomerates roughly 20 μm in diameter. Thus, by adjusting the amount of milling liquid used while milling LAST powders, one can shift from hard to soft agglomerates, where the literature shows that soft agglomerates are less harmful to the final, sintered product. Also, in agreement with the results from the literature on other materials, wet milling of LAST powders produced smaller particle sizes but required longer times to reach the grindability limit

  8. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  9. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  10. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-01-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10 −16 , 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  11. Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass residues: Comparative study of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Pandey, Nidhi; Bisht, Yashasvi; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-08-01

    Pyrolysis studies on conventional biomass were carried out in fixed bed reactor at different temperatures 300, 350, 400 and 450°C. Agricultural residues such as corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk showed that the optimum temperatures for these residues are 450, 400, 400 and 450°C respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield in case of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk are 47.3, 36.7, 28.4 and 38.1wt% respectively. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. All bio-oils contents were mainly composed of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The higher area percentages of phenolic compounds were observed in the corn cob bio-oil than other bio-oils. From FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups for all bio-oils and distribution of products is different due to differences in the composition of agricultural biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, H., E-mail: hajime.nishiguchi@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Evtoukhovitch, P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Fujii, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), 19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan district, Beijing 1000049 (China); Hamada, E.; Mihara, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Moiseenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J. [Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Ueno, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Volkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10{sup −16}, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  13. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  14. Defect induced electronic states and magnetism in ball-milled graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Adriyan; Dissanayake, D M A S; Kannangara, G S K; Kumarasinghe, A R

    2013-10-14

    The electronic structure and magnetism of nanocrystalline graphite prepared by ball milling of graphite in an inert atmosphere have been investigated using valence band spectroscopy (VB), core level near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements as a function of the milling time. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of graphite milled for 30 hours shows simultaneous evolution of new states at ~284.0 eV and at ~290.5 eV superimposed upon the characteristic transitions at 285.4 eV and 291.6 eV, respectively. The modulation of the density of states is explained by evolution of discontinuities within the sheets and along the fracture lines in the milled graphite. The magnetic measurements in the temperature interval 2-300-2 K at constant magnetic field strength show a correlation between magnetic properties and evolution of the new electronic states. With the reduction of the crystallite sizes of the graphite fragments, the milled material progressively changes its magnetic properties from diamagnetic to paramagnetic with contributions from both Pauli and Curie paramagnetism due to the evolution of new states at ~284 and ~290.5 eV, respectively. These results indicate that the magnetic behaviour of ball-milled graphite can be manipulated by changing the milling conditions.

  15. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  16. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  17. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  18. Component optimization of dairy manure vermicompost, straw, and peat in seedling compressed substrates using simplex-centroid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longyuan; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Luoa, Shuai; Liu, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Vermicomposting is a promising method to disposal dairy manures, and the dairy manure vermicompost (DMV) to replace expensive peat is of high value in the application of seedling compressed substrates. In this research, three main components: DMV, straw, and peat, are conducted in the compressed substrates, and the effect of individual components and the corresponding optimal ratio for the seedling production are significant. To address these issues, the simplex-centroid experimental mixture design is employed, and the cucumber seedling experiment is conducted to evaluate the compressed substrates. Results demonstrated that the mechanical strength and physicochemical properties of compressed substrates for cucumber seedling can be well satisfied with suitable mixture ratio of the components. Moreover, DMV, straw, and peat) could be determined at 0.5917:0.1608:0.2475 when the weight coefficients of the three parameters (shoot length, root dry weight, and aboveground dry weight) were 1:1:1. For different purpose, the optimum ratio can be little changed on the basis of different weight coefficients. Compressed substrate is lump and has certain mechanical strength, produced by application of mechanical pressure to the seedling substrates. It will not harm seedlings when bedding out the seedlings, since the compressed substrate and seedling are bedded out together. However, there is no one using the vermicompost and agricultural waste components of compressed substrate for vegetable seedling production before. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of individual components to seedling production, and to determine the optimal ratio of components.

  19. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  20. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  1. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  2. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  3. Yang-Mills gravity in biconformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B; Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills-type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat-space Yang-Mills theories. By applying the biconformal extension to a 4-dim pure Yang-Mills theory with conformal symmetry, we establish a 1-1, onto mapping between a set of gravitational gauge theories and 4-dim, flat-space gauge theories

  4. Barriers and incentives to the production of bioethanol from cereal straw: A farm business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    The EU renewable energy directive stipulates a requirement for 10% of transport fuels to be derived from renewable sources by 2020. Second generation biofuels offer potential to contribute towards this target with cereal straw representing a potentially large feedstock source. From an on-farm survey of 240 arable farmers, timeliness of crop establishment and benefits of nutrient retention from straw incorporation were cited as reasons for straw incorporation. However, two-thirds (one-third) of farmers would supply wheat (barley) straw for bioenergy. The most popular contract length and continuous length of straw supply was either 1 or 3 years. Contracts stipulating a fixed area of straw supply for a fixed price were the most frequently cited preferences, with £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price that farmers would find acceptable. Arable farmers in England would be willing to sell 2.52 Mt of cereal straw for bioenergy purposes nationally and 1.65 Mt in the main cereal growing areas of Eastern England. Cereal straw would be diverted from current markets or on-farm uses and from straw currently incorporated into soil. Policy interventions may be required to incentivise farmers to engage in this market, but food and fuel policies must increasingly be integrated to meet societal goals. - Highlights: • English arable farmer survey to determine potential supply for straw based biofuel. • Two-thirds of farmers would supply wheat straw for bioenergy. • Farmers willing to sell 1.65 Mt of cereal straw from the main cereal producing regions. • Farmer preference for a fixed area of straw supply for a contracted fixed price. • £50 t −1 the most frequently cited minimum contract price farmers find acceptable

  5. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  6. Analytic supersymmetric regularization for the pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Jasinschi, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate for the pure N=1 super-Yang-Mills model the quantum correction to the background field strength up to two loops. In using background field method, analytic regularization and Seeley coefficient expansion we show how these corrections arise. Our method differs from the dimensional regularization via dimensional reduction scheme in various respects, in particular to the origin of the background field strength as appearing in the divergent expressions. (orig.)

  7. FPGA Online Tracking Algorithm for the PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yutie; Ye, Hua; Galuska, Martin J.; Gessler, Thomas; Kuhn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soren; Wagner, Milan N.; Liu, Zhen'an; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2017-06-01

    A novel FPGA based online tracking algorithm for helix track reconstruction in a solenoidal field, developed for the PANDA spectrometer, is described. Employing the Straw Tube Tracker detector with 4636 straw tubes, the algorithm includes a complex track finder, and a track fitter. Implemented in VHDL, the algorithm is tested on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FX60 FPGA chip with different types of events, at different event rates. A processing time of 7 $\\mu$s per event for an average of 6 charged tracks is obtained. The momentum resolution is about 3\\% (4\\%) for $p_t$ ($p_z$) at 1 GeV/c. Comparing to the algorithm running on a CPU chip (single core Intel Xeon E5520 at 2.26 GHz), an improvement of 3 orders of magnitude in processing time is obtained. The algorithm can handle severe overlapping of events which are typical for interaction rates above 10 MHz.

  8. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  9. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  10. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  11. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...... of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw oils......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...

  12. The impact of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) application on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is considered an efficient soil conditioner due to its high organic contents but the presence of phenol compounds limits their widespread use in agriculture. In the present study, POME was subjected to both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition to reduce its organic strength and degrade its ...

  13. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  14. Logistics and feed preparation of straw for gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The system for supply of biomass comprises the entire chain from harvest to feeding. The subsequent energy process makes demands on the quality of the biomass that is supplied. The process, moreover, makes a number of demands on the preceding pretreatment and the equipment subsequently utilised. The straw delivery and handling system ought therefore to be considered as a coherent unit whole consisting of the following: harvesting and collection; storage; transportation; fragmentizing; drying; densification; handling at the plants; feeding; `subsequent process`. (EG)

  15. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, A J; Ball, A S [Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology

    1990-01-01

    This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from thermophilic strains and the general neutral to alkali pH optima offer advantages in certain process situations. Actinomycetes are a particularly rich source of xylanases for commercial application and can rapidly solubilise a lignocarbohydrate fraction of straw which may have both product and pretreatment potential. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were compa...... mixing in the furnace is a key issue leading to these problems. q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  18. Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH - /kg volatile solids, at 90 0 C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 0 C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemicellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium- and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments

  19. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  20. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wu, Min; Lin, Xiaobo; Huang, Pei; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe 3 O 4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe 3 O 4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe 3 O 4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L -1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  1. Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Hayam; El-Gendy, Ahmed; El-Haggar, Salah

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb 2+ ) is a heavy metal which is utilized in several industries and can have severe impact on the environment and human health. Research work has been carried out lately on the feasibility of using various low cost materials in the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, the feasibility of utilizing raw rice straw for removal of Pb 2+ from water through biosorption was investigated using batch equilibrium experiments. The effect of several operating parameters on the removal of Pb 2+ using rice straw was studied, revealing the optimum parameters at an initial Pb 2+ concentration of 40 mg/l were: 30 min contact time at a pH of 5.5, particle size 75-150 μm and a dose of 4 g/l. A maximum removal of 94% was achieved under optimum conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the evaluation of the equilibrium experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity of rice straw calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 42.55 mg/g.

  2. A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation.

  3. First straw straightness measurements on a 4-plane end-cap ATLAS TRT wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Lucotte, A; Mitsou, V A; Mouraviev, S V; Nadtochy, A

    2001-01-01

    This document reports the first results and their interpretation of the straw straightness measurements that have been performed on the first 4-plane end-cap prototype of the ATLAS TRT. Section 2 presents the experimental setup used for the measurements, as well as a review of the data sample used to perform this study. It also provides a description of the method used to assess straw straightness, which is based on the measurements of the maximal gas gain deviation (``straw eccentricity'') seen along the straw. Section 3 reports the results of straw straightness for the 4-plane module, including corrections due to the gas flow. The effect of energy resolution degradation is also explained and results in terms of wire offset are reported. In Section 4, the straw bending due to an applied lateral deformation is measured, and finally Section 5 reviews the conclusions.

  4. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  5. Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

    2013-04-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  6. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  7. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  8. Direct conversion of straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum: effect of cellulose crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece))

    1991-03-01

    Wheat straw was successfully fermented to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 in a one-step process. Cellulose crystallinity was found to be a major factor in the bioconversion process. Ethanol yields increased linearly with decreasing crystallinity index. Approximately 80% of straw carbohydrates were converted directly to ethanol with a yield of 0.28 g ethanol/g{sup -1} of straw when the crystallinity index was reduced to 23.6%. (author).

  9. Results from beam tests of a 2.4 m straw chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizeron, R.; Fournier, D.; Noppe, J.M.; Perdereau, O.; Schaffer, A.C.

    1991-03-01

    Straw chambers have been shown to have good position resolution. By virtue of their cylindrical geometry they are capable of operating in vacuum, which opens the interesting possibility of tracking with a minimum of material. The feasibility of constructing a large surface straw chamber has been studied. A prototype chamber with 2.4 m long straws capable of operating in vacuum has been developed and tested in beams at CERN

  10. Fibres and energy from wheat straw by simple practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leponiemi, A.

    2011-06-15

    The overall purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibilities of wheat straw for fibre and energy production and address the question of whether or not it is possible to develop a cost-effective process for producing good quality pulp from wheat straw for current paper or paperboard products. In addition, in light of the green energy boom, the question of whether fibre production could give added value to energy production using wheat straw is addressed. Due to the logistics of the bulky raw material, the process should be applied on a small scale that determines the requirements for the process. The process should be simple, have low chemical consumption and be environmentally safe. The processes selected for the study were based on an initial hot water treatment. Actual defibration in the 'chemical' approach was then performed using a subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching process or in the 'mechanical' approach through mechanical refining. In both approaches, energy can be produced from lower quality material such as dissolved solids or fines. In this work, one of the primary aims besides the development of the above-mentioned process is to investigate the chemical storage of wheat straw which decays easily between harvesting periods and examine its effects on pulping and pulp properties. In addition, the aim of this work is to determine the market potential for non-wood pulp and evaluate non-wood pulp production. The results showed that the 'chemical' approach produced fibres for printing and writing. The quality of the pulp was relatively good, but the chemical consumption at the target brightness of 75% was high, indicating that a chemical recovery would be needed unless the brightness target could be significantly reduced. The 'mechanical' approach produced unbleached fibres for fluting and the energy production from fines and dissolved solids generated additional income. The results also showed that it is possible

  11. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  12. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  13. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  14. Composition of the enzymatic and acid hydrolyzates of gamma-irradiated rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Banzon, R.B.; Rosa, A. de la

    1989-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was utilized to induce structural changes in rice straw that would enhance the conversion of its cellulose and ligno-cellulosic components to glucose and other reducing sugars. With the appropriate fermentation conditions these sugars can eventually be converted into alcohol. Rice straw materials were irradiated at varying doses (0-500 kgy) and hydrolyzed by the use of a) cellulose enzyme and b) 1% sulfuric acid. The composition of the hydrolyzates of rice straw was studied by thin layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with the Nelson-Somogyi test for its quantification. Acid hydrolyzates of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 16.46% in its total reducing sugars at 300 Kgy. TLC of the acid hydrolyzates of rice straw revealed the presence of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose. However, it was only with xylose that a significant increase in yield was observed with the non-irradiated straw 12.55% xylose yield was noted while with rice straw-irradiated at 400 Kgy a maximum yield of 15.90% xylose was obtained. Total reducing sugar of the enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw showed a maximum increase of 205% at 500 Kgy. TLC revealed that only glucose was present in the enzymatic hydrolyzate. Glucose yield increase from 2.49% (0 Kgy) to 7.31% (500 Kgy). The results showed that radiation pre-treatment of rice straw induces significant increases in reducing sugar for both enzymatic and hydrolyzate. (Auth.). 2 tabs.; 1 fig

  15. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjin; Trunov, Mikhaylo A.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dave, Rajesh N.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  16. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010, petitioners requested administrative [[Page 49525

  17. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  18. Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2013-09-01

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  20. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  1. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and glucose fermentation using a Vertical Ball Mill Bioreactor (VBMB): Impact of operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Rafael C.A.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Roberto, Inês C.

    ). This bioreactor was equipped with adjustable flat round plate impellers, allowing its operation with glass spheres as shear agent. For enzymatic hydrolysis, the spheres were the only variable with significant impact on the results, being achieved 87% cellulose conversion after 24 h when using the highest level...... saccharification and fermentation, in batch or fed-batch configurations, and with possibilities of operating at high solids content. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (2013/13953-6 and 2015/24813-6) and CNPq....

  3. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  4. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  5. Large-scale straw supplies to existing coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Thellesen, H.Z.; Keller, P.

    1992-08-01

    It is considered that large-scale supply of straw to power stations and decentral cogeneration plants could open up new economical systems and methods of organization of straw supply in Denmark. This thesis is elucidated and involved constraints are pointed out. The aim is to describe to what extent large-scale straw supply is interesting with regard to monetary savings and available resources. Analyses of models, systems and techniques described in a foregoing project are carried out. It is reckoned that the annual total amount of surplus straw in Denmark is 3.6 million tons. At present, use of straw which is not agricultural is limited to district heating plants with an annual consumption of 2-12 thousand tons. A prerequisite for a significant increase in the use of straw is an annual consumption by power and cogeneration plants of more than 100.000 tons. All aspects of straw management are examined in detail, also in relation to two actual Danish coal-fired plants. The reliability of straw supply is considered. It is concluded that very significant resources of straw are available in Denmark but there remain a number of constraints. Price competitiveness must be considered in relation to other fuels. It is suggested that the use of corn harvests, with whole stems attached (handled as large bales or in the same way as sliced straw alone) as fuel, would result in significant monetary savings in transport and storage especially. An equal status for whole-harvested corn with other forms of biomass fuels, with following changes in taxes and subsidies could possibly reduce constraints on large scale straw fuel supply. (AB) (13 refs.)

  6. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  7. Kaluza-Klein straw as a string-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Zamir, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic strings may acquire topological stability by wrapping around the fifth dimension, in which case the Kaluza-Klein ''straw'' plays the role of a string-guide. The only fundamental velocity of the string is then the speed of light, decomposed into the center-of-mass velocity in four dimensions and the group velocity around the fifth dimension. The energy/momentum singularity, on the other hand, is associated with a critical phase velocity. A linear electromagnetic mass formula is derived. (orig.)

  8. Radiation damage studies of straw tube and scintillating fiber elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.; Elleman, T.S.; Goshaw, A.T.; Oh, S.H.; Robertson, W.J.; Grimes, A.; Leedom, I.; Reucroft, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the results of mixed-field irradiations of straw-tube, plastic scintillating fiber, and avalanche photodiode components. These irradiations are being carried out at the one-MW PULSTAR research reactor facility at North Carolina State University. A special sample holder was designed that allows relatively uniform irradiation of samples up to 5 ft long, without bending or coiling. A systematic irradiation program is underway that allows study of total fluence, fluence-rate, and neutron spectral effects. Samples have been exposed to neutron fluences as high as 2 x 10 16 cm -2

  9. Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion...... for metal temperatures above 520 C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the secondary superheater showed deposits rich in potassium and chlorine and to a lesser extent in silicon, calcium, and sulfur. Potassium and chlorine make up 40-80 wt% of the deposits. Mechanisms of deposit...

  10. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa; Edstroem, M [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  11. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    2014) at 3.50 and 3.95 $ per kg product (for S1 and S2 respectively) and a plant capacity of 10,000 tonnes indicated an internal rate of return of 14.92% and 12.42% and payback time of 4.28 and 4.70 years for S1 and S2 respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that under the assumptions of the present......The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification...

  12. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these

  13. The effect of irradiation on stored straw mushroom and the physiological mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Hui; Chen Jianxun; Yu Rangcai; Chen Qiaoling; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) were irradiated by 60 Co γ ray of different doses and stored at 16 degree C. The experimental results showed that the irradiation treatment inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation and decreased the membrane leakage, therefore, improve the fresh keeping effect of straw mushroom

  14. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  15. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  16. Radiation pre-treating straw hydrolyzed by cellulase resulted from immobilized Trichoderma reesei growing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Minoru Kumakura

    1992-01-01

    Wheat and rice straw was irradiated by electron beam with different dose at the presence of 4% NaOH or without 4% NaOH. The powder fraction above 200 meshes in pretreated rice straw increased with increasing doses and it was more at presence of 4% NaOH than that without 4% NaOH. The pretreated straw was hydrolyzed with 1% cellulase at 40 degree C for 48 h. The glucose yield (%) was given a rise with the increase of irradiation dose and it was 70% and 80% over that of un-pretreated rice and wheat straw, respectively. At the presence of 4% NaOH, the glucose yield increased as the irradiation dose increased from 0 to 5 x 10 5 Gy, reaching a maximum, 35% for wheat straw and 36.6% for rice straw, which increased by about 2.5 times in comparison with un-pretreated straw, then decrease with increasing the irradiation dose to 10 x 10 5 Gy. The glucose yield reached 19% and 22% for rice and wheat straw in 6 days of hydrolysis, respectively

  17. The possibility of using flue gases as a medium for straw drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryl Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of drying straw in dedicated and innovative straw dryers with a modified drying system. The basic problem behind the use of bales of straw as a fuel is their moisture content. The moisture content is mostly dependent on the time of harvest and the conditions of storage. The humidity level of dry straw may be as low as 10%, however harvesting the straw during unfavourable weather conditions may cause the moisture level to increase up to 60–70% of the relative humidity, a value often observed for fresh biomass. Experimental studies were conducted to examine the effectiveness of drying and heat transfer in the straw bale. The studies have shown that the inner layers of the bale heat up much faster and achieve significantly higher temperatures than the outer ones. With the application of dedicated straw dryers, a homogenous field of moisture content in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  18. Wood strands as an alternative to agricultural straw for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy B. Foltz; James H. Dooley

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural straw is used in forested areas of the United States for erosion control on burned areas, harvest landings, decommissioned road prisms, road cuts and fills, and other areas of disturbed soil. However, an increased agronomic and ecological value for straw; an increased utilization for energy production, fiber panels, and other higher value uses; a...

  19. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  20. Effect of straw application on nitrogen uptake and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati.

    1990-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted to know the effect of straw application on the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and growth rice plant. The rice straw was applied at different time i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before tranplanting. Soil without rice straw was used as control. Thirty gram of rice straw having 3.61 percent of N-15 atom excess was incorporated into 6 kg of latosol soil originated from Pasar jumat, in which Atomoita I, a lowland rice variety, was planted. Urea was given once at the tranplanting time. The result showed that the longer the time of the rice straw application prior to the transplanting time, the higher the N-straw uptake efficiency in the rice plant at any different stages. The highest efficiency was 6.14 percent, reached with straw applicaions at 4 weeks before tranplanting. Compared to the control, straw applications 2 weeks or more before tranplanting resulted in higher grain production, while application at or before 2 weeks of tranplanting produced lower production. (authors). 9 refs.; 5 tabs

  1. Influence of rice straw-based polyols on the morphology, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement of rice straw-based polyols produced closed cell structures suitable for insulation material as revealed in Scanning electron microscope images. Higher percentage of rice straw-based polyols replacement will trigger cell wall structure rapturing that will deteriorate the properties of polyurethane foam.

  2. Preference by horses for bedding pellets made from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bedding system used for stalled horses can impact their health and well-being. This study examined the saponin concentration in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw, and bedding pellets made from switchgrass straw. Further, this study determined the palatability of bedding pellets made from sw...

  3. LHCb: Ageing Phenomena in the Straw Tube Tracker (Outer Tracker) of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Bachmann, S

    2009-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer is built in the straw tube technology. In tota it consists of 53760 straw of 2.5m length. Thorough investigations have been performed to study the detector performance under long-term irradiations. Problems occuring caused by ageing are discussed and solutions are presented.

  4. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  5. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw-fired...

  6. Melting Behavior of ashes from the co-combustion of coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    . The use of straw as a co-firing feedstock in traditional coal-fired plants is associated with operational problems, such as deposition, agglomeration, and/or corrosion, mainly because of the higher amounts of alkali metals and chlorine in straw compared to coal. This may lead to unscheduled shutdowns...

  7. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  8. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  9. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suramaythangkoor, Tritib; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJ e (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJ e but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJ e . However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJ h . Based on its properties (Slagging index, R s = 0.04; fouling index, R f 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  10. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analisi Termostrutturale del Sistema Clessidra-Straws dell'Eesperimento FINUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, S

    2000-01-01

    È stato studiato il comportamento termostrutturale del sistema Clessidra-StrawTubes dell¹esperimento FINUDA. In particolare è stata studiata l¹influenza della temperatura sulla sagitta e sulla freccia dei fili di tungsteno e degli $9 straws in relazione alla deformazione termica della clessidra su cui sono vincolati.

  12. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from ...

  13. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble

  14. Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of solid state fermentation for the improvement of the quality of rice straw as animal feed. Rice straw was fermented using Aspergillus niger (K8) with and without additional nitrogen source (urea). Cellulose, hemicelluloses, organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), acid ...

  15. Construction and manufacture of large size straw-chambers of the COMPASS spectrometer tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Gorbacheva, N.M.; Gusakov, Yu.V.

    2002-01-01

    We report the construction and preliminary testing of 3.6 and 3.2 m long straw tube drift chambers consisting of 672 and 864 channels, respectively. The design considerations, the development of several new techniques are described. The 15 two-layer straw drift chambers have been built for the experiment COMPASS at CERN

  16. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  17. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  18. Soil aggregate and organic carbon distribution at dry land soil and paddy soil: the role of different straws returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Lan, Muling; Liu, Jiang; Gao, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture wastes returning to soil is one of common ways to reuse crop straws in China. The returned straws are expected to improve the fertility and structural stability of soil during the degradation of straw it selves. The in situ effect of different straw (wheat, rice, maize, rape, and broad bean) applications for soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution were studied at both dry land soil and paddy soil in this study. Wet sieving procedures were used to separate soil aggregate sizes. Aggregate stability indicators including mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, mean weight of specific surface area, and the fractal dimension were used to evaluate soil aggregate stability after the incubation of straws returning. Meanwhile, the variation and distribution of SOC in different-sized aggregates were further studied. Results showed that the application of straws, especially rape straw at dry land soil and rice straw at paddy soil, increased the fractions of macro-aggregate (> 0.25 mm) and micro-aggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). Suggesting the nutrients released from straw degradation promotes the growing of soil aggregates directly and indirectly. The application of different straws increased the SOC content at both soils and the SOC mainly distributed at  0.25 and 0.25-0.053 mm aggregates with dry land soil. Rape straw in dry land and rice straw in paddy field could stabilize soil aggregates and increasing SOC contents best.

  19. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Ulrik B. Henriksen; Anand R. Sanadi

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing wood biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit...

  20. The optical method of the straw selection for the MPD end-cap tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigalashvili, N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Myalkovskij, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the optical method for measurement of the straightness deviation in the straws with a diameter of 4 mm and a length of 60 cm mounted in the ring frames of the detector and for defining the parameters for the straw selection. With this method, the maximal acceptable deviation from straightness in a straw does not exceed 400 microns and the changes of the amplitudes of signals from a 55 Fe source along the straw do not exceed 9%. The results of the optical straightness control are in good agreement with the data obtained with a more accurate method of determining the offset of the anode from the straw axis by measuring amplitude characteristics with the use of the 55 Fe source.

  1. Determination of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a Straw Bale Partition Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslík, Jiří; Fabian, Radek; Hrubá, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a scientific project focused on determining of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a peripheral non-load bearing wall made of straw bales expressed by Weighted Sound Reduction Index. Weighted Sound Reduction Index was determined by measuring in the certified acoustic laboratory at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Brno University of Technology. The measured structure of the straw wall was modified in combinations with various materials, so the results include a wide range of possible compositions of the wall. The key modification was application of plaster on both sides of the straw bale wall. This construction as is frequently done in actual straw houses. The additional measurements were performed on the straw wall with several variants of additional wall of slab materials. The airborne sound insulation value has been also measured in separate stages of the construction. Thus it is possible to compare and determinate the effect of the single layers on the airborne sound insulation.

  2. Potential of pelleted wheat straw as an alternative bedding material for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chickens are commonly placed on wood shavings as litter, but alternative litter sources are required due to the scarcity of wood shavings in many parts of the world. This study aimed to compare pelleted straw, chopped wheat straw, wood shavings, rice hulls, and shredded paper as litter candidates. Three-hundred-sixty Ross 308 one-day-old male chicks were used in this study. There were 5 litter treatments with 6 replicate pens, each with 12 birds. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds reared on pelleted straw was improved compared (P Litter source did not affect the occurrence of breast blisters at d 24, 29, or 35. On d 24, 29, and 35, pelleted straw litter was less caked than chopped straw and shredded paper (P broiler health, performance, and welfare are needed to determine the economic benefits of pelleted litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  4. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  5. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by microbial inoculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...

  6. Optimisation of milling parameters using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipski Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and test an intelligent computer software developed with the purpose of increasing average productivity of milling not compromising the design features of the final product. The developed system generates optimal milling parameters based on the extent of tool wear. The introduced optimisation algorithm employs a multilayer model of a milling process developed in the artificial neural network. The input parameters for model training are the following: cutting speed vc, feed per tooth fz and the degree of tool wear measured by means of localised flank wear (VB3. The output parameter is the surface roughness of a machined surface Ra. Since the model in the neural network exhibits good approximation of functional relationships, it was applied to determine optimal milling parameters in changeable tool wear conditions (VB3 and stabilisation of surface roughness parameter Ra. Our solution enables constant control over surface roughness parameters and productivity of milling process after each assessment of tool condition. The recommended parameters, i.e. those which applied in milling ensure desired surface roughness and maximal productivity, are selected from all the parameters generated by the model. The developed software may constitute an expert system supporting a milling machine operator. In addition, the application may be installed on a mobile device (smartphone, connected to a tool wear diagnostics instrument and the machine tool controller in order to supply updated optimal parameters of milling. The presented solution facilitates tool life optimisation and decreasing tool change costs, particularly during prolonged operation.

  7. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  8. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid

    2008-01-01

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  9. Colour, compressive strength and workability of mortars with an iron rich sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the colour, compressive strength and workability of mortar when cement is partly replaced by sewage sludge ash (SSA). In the study, an iron rich SSA was dry milled into six different fractions. The results showed that the colour, compressive strength and workability...

  10. Influence of rice straw amendment on mercury methylation and nitrification in paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Dong, Ji-Xin; Han, Li-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Currently, rice straw return in place of burning is becoming more intensive in China than observed previously. However, little is known on the effect of returned rice straw on mercury (Hg) methylation and microbial activity in contaminated paddy fields. Here, we conduct a microcosm experiment to evaluate the effect of rice straw amendment on the Hg methylation and potential nitrification in two paddy soils with distinct Hg levels. Our results show that amended rice straw enhanced Hg methylation for relatively high Hg content soil, but not for low Hg soil, spiking the same additional fresh Hg. methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was significantly correlated to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and relative abundance of dominant microbes associated with Hg methylation. Similarly, amended rice straw was found to only enhance the potential nitrification rate in soil with relatively high Hg content. These findings provide evidence that amended rice straw differentially modulates Hg methylation and nitrification in Hg contaminated soils possibly resulting from different characteristics in the soil microbial community. This highlights that caution should be taken when returning rice straw to contaminated paddy fields, as this practice may increase the risk of more MeHg production. Main finding: Rice straw amendment enhanced both Hg methylation and nitrification potential in the relatively high, but not low, Hg soil. - Highlights: • Rice straw enhanced Hg methylation in relatively high Hg content paddy soils. • Microbial community directly correlated to the Hg methylation. • Mercury methylation in soils depend on Hg bioavailability and microbial activities. • Hg input affects microbial community associated with decomposition of rice straw.

  11. Modeling the greenhouse gas budget of straw returning in China: feasibility of mitigation and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua

    2010-05-01

    Straw returning is considered to be one of the most promising carbon sequestration measures in China's cropland. A compound model, namely "Straw Returning and Burning Model-Expansion" (SRBME), was built to estimate the net mitigation potential, economic benefits, and air pollutant reduction of straw returning. Three scenarios, that is, baseline, "full popularization of straw returning (FP)," and "full popularization of straw returning and precision fertilization (FP + P)," were set to reflect popularization of straw returning. The results of the SRBME indicated that (1) compared with the soil carbon sequestration of 13.37 Tg/yr, the net mitigation potentials, which were 6.328 Tg/yr for the FP scenario and 9.179 Tg/yr for the FP + P scenario, had different trends when the full budget of the greenhouse gases was considered; (2) when the feasibility in connection with greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, economic benefits, and environmental benefits was taken into consideration, straw returning was feasible in 15 provinces in the FP scenario, with a total net mitigation potential of 7.192 TgCe/yr and the total benefits of CNY 1.473 billion (USD 216.6 million); (3) in the FP + P scenario, with the implementation of precision fertilization, straw returning was feasible in 26 provinces with a total net mitigation potential of 10.39 TgCe/yr and the total benefits of CNY 5.466 billion (USD 803.8 million); (4) any extent of change in the treatment of straw from being burnt to being returned would contribute to air pollution reduction; (5) some countermeasures, such as CH(4) reduction in rice paddies, precision fertilization, financial support, education and propaganda, would promote the feasibility of straw returning as a mitigation measure.

  12. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirena, Fernando; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air

  13. Extraction of microcrystalline cellulose from rice straw and its effect on polyvinyl alcohol biocomposites film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwok-Mern; Ting, Sam Sung; Lin, Ong Hui; Owi, Wei Tieng

    2017-07-01

    The poor management and underutilization of agricultural wastes had proliferated interest of researchers around the world to find alternatives to utilize them as potential value-added products. One of the green alternatives is by extracting cellulose from these waste materials and incorporating them in polymer as reinforcement fillers. The surging amount of plastic waste also posed major issues to the environment due to its recalcitrance to degrade. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC-RS) was extracted from rice straw through cyclic alkaline and bleaching treatment to remove hemicellulose and lignin respectively. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was chosen as the matrix and different ratios of PVOH / MCC-RS films were prepared (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0wt% of MCC) through solution casting method and its tensile, thermal and morphological properties were studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed increased crystallinity of MCC-RS after chemical treatment (from 44.5% to 60.8%) due to the successful removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which was then confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. For the biocomposites, both tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films increased with increasing MCC-RS content up until 7.5wt%, supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results which depicted improvement in the interfacial adhesion between MCC-RS and PVOH. From the overall results, the improvement in properties of biocomposite from cellulose-based microfiller had shown promising future in application of the water soluble plastic packaging industry.

  14. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15 N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15 N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system, labeled with 15 N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15 N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15 N-urea, 15 N-SS and 15 N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  15. [Effect of straw-returning on the storage and distribution of different active fractions of soil organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hul; Wang, Xu-dong; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of straw mulching and returning on the storage of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and their proportions to the total organic carbon (TOC) were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that compared to the treatment of wheat straw soil-returning (WR), the storage of TOC and MOC decreased by 4.1% and 9.7% respectively in 0-20 cm soil in the treatment with wheat straw mulching (WM), but the storage of DOC and POC increased by 207.7% and 11.9%, and TOC and POC increased significantly in 20-40 cm soil. Compared to the treatment with maize straw soil-returning (MR), the storage of TOC and MOC in the plough pan soil of the treatment with maize straw mulching (MM) increased by 13.6% and 14.6% , respectively. Compared to the WR-MR treatment, the storage of TOC and MOC in top soil (0-20 icm) significantly decreased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively in WM-MM treatment. The storage of TOC, and POC in top soil was significantly higher in the treatments with maize straw soil-returning or mulching than that with wheat straw. Compared to the treatment without straw (CK), the storage of TOC in top soil increased by 5.2% to 18.0% in the treatments with straw returning or mulching in the six modes (WM, WR, MM, MR, WM-MM,WR-MR) (Porganic carbon fraction in soil, straw soil-returning had the potential to accumulate stable organic carbon fraction. Considering organic carbon sequestration in cropland in the region of Guanzhong plain, maize straw mulching or soil-returning was better than wheat straw, and wheat straw and maize straw soil-returning (WR-MR) were better than wheat and maize straw mulching (WM-MM).

  16. Analysis of the influence of two different milling processes in the properties of precursor powder and [Beta]-TCP cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, H.A.I.; Pereira, C.H.R.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several characteristics that put calcium phosphate cements in evidence, like its bioactivity and in vivo resorption. The influence of two milling processes in the morphological properties of the [beta]-tricalcium phosphate powder, [beta]-TCP, and in the mechanical properties of the cement were analyzed. The powder was obtained by solid state reaction of CaCO_3 and CaHPO_4 at 1050 ° C. It showed high phase purity and absence of toxic elements. The powder was processed in ball mill (A) and high-energy vibratory mill (B), with posterior analyze by SEM and particle size distribution. The powders showed different average and distribution of grain size. Finally, the cement obtained by the process (B) showed values of axial tensile strength significantly greater than that obtained by the process (A). The milling process (B) is much more efficient than the process (A). (author)

  17. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-01-01

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using 13 C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ( 13 C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO 2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg −1 soil h −1 ) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and 13 C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 13 C-labeled straw amended soil than the 13 C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the 13 C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of 13 C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the

  18. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fuxia [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yaying [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); Chapman, Stephen James [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Khan, Sardar [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Yao, Huaiying, E-mail: hyyao@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using {sup 13}C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ({sup 13}C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO{sub 2} emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg{sup −1} soil h{sup −1}) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and {sup 13}C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in {sup 13}C-labeled straw amended soil than the {sup 13}C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the {sup 13}C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of {sup 13}C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest

  19. Investigation of rye straw ash sintering characteristics and the effect of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Becidan, Michael; Li, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rye straw ash has a high sintering tendency at elevated temperatures. • Addition of additive increases melting temperature of the rye straw ash. • Kaolin addition leads to formation of silicates binding K in the ash. • Calcite and Ca-sludge promotes formation of silicates and phosphates in the ash. • Calcite addition restrains attaching and accumulation of rye straw ash melts. - Abstract: The understanding of ash sintering during combustion of agricultural residues is far from complete, because of the high heterogeneity of the content and composition of ash forming matters and the complex transformation of them. In order to make agricultural residues competitive fuels on the energy market, further research efforts are needed to investigate agricultural residues’ ash sintering behavior and propose relevant anti-sintering measures. The aim of this work was to investigate the ash characteristics of rye straw and effects of additives. Three additives were studied regarding their abilities to prevent and abate rye straw ash sintering. Standard ash fusion characterization and laboratory-scale sintering tests were performed on ashes from mixtures of rye straw and additives produced at 550 °C. Ash residues from sintering tests at higher temperatures were analyzed using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM–EDX). High sintering and melting tendency of the rye straw ash at elevated temperatures was observed. Severe sintering of the rye straw ash was attributed to the formation and fusion of low temperature K–silicates and K–phosphates with high K/Ca ratios. Among the three additives, calcite served the best one to mitigate sintering of the rye straw ash. Ca from the calcite promoted formation of high temperature silicates and calcium rich K–phosphates. In addition, calcite may hinder aggregating of ash melts and further formation of large ash slag. Therefore

  20. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  1. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertello, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author) [es

  2. Elaboration of a Platform for Increasing Straw Combustion in Sweden, based on Danish Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinge, Joergen (Danish Technological Inst. (Denmark))

    2009-05-15

    The report forms the background for planning a straw-fired CHP plant through recommendations based on Danish experiences. Almost all straw for large scale combustion in Denmark is produced and handled as 'big bales' (500-600 kg). Other systems with chaffed straw and straw pellets have been investigated. But even though 120,000 tonnes of straw pellets is used annually at one plant, this is not considered a feasible alternative to handling in big bales--especially not when considering establishment a new plant. In general, there are no major problems with straw quality. Quality measures are regulated in the contract/terms of delivery between producer and buyer, and each load of straw bales is visually inspected, whereas moisture content is measured automatically. Up to 20% average moisture content is in general acceptable (although not ideal), and most plants are quite flexible with regard to type of straw. Experiences and data have been collected from a number of plants. The plants were selected, so that the different combustion principles were represented. Special attention has been given to the choice of technical solutions at the most recently established plant at Fynsvaerket. Co-firing of coal and straw has proved a viable technology with low investment costs, when an existing conventional coal-fired boiler is modified for co-combustion. Corrosion has not been a problem, as ash from coal is considered to neutralize the difficult substances (chloride, potassium) from straw combustion. The limiting factor can however be whether legislation permits the utilization of the mixed ash for concrete production; Danish legislation has been adapted to this. A separate boiler can be built and operated without any major problems. The investments are much higher for a given amount of straw to be burnt, than the co-firing technology. However, separate biomass boilers offer the opportunity of using different types of biomass in varying combinations. Problems with

  3. The effects of gamma irradiation in combination with NaCl treatment on digestibility of rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Z.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatments have been conducted to increase the nutritive value of rice straw as an animal feed. Rice straw was sprayed by sodiumchloride solution prior to gamma irradiation. The sodiumchloride concentration in straw were 0, 1, and 2% ( gNaCl/100 g rice straw), and irradiation dose were 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mrad. Result indicated that the combined treatments significantly increased (p<0.01) dry matter digestibility of rice straw. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction between gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatment was observed. (authors). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  5. Combined bioaugmentation with anaerobic ruminal fungi and fermentative bacteria to enhance biogas production from wheat straw and mushroom spent straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Alberto; Dottorini, Giulia; Massini, Giulia; Mazzurco Miritana, Valentina; Signorini, Antonella; Lembo, Giuseppe; Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2018-07-01

    Bioaugmentation with anaerobic ruminal fungi and a pool of hydrogen-producing fermenting bacteria was tested on wheat straw (WS) and mushroom spent straw (MSS) with the aim of improving anaerobic digestion performance. Batch tests were set up to simulate a Bioaugmentation Anaerobic Digestion (BAD) treatment comparing single- (I-BAD) and two-stage (II-BAD) process configurations, at two reactor scales, 120 and 1200 ml (×10). In both cases, higher CH 4 cumulative production was obtained in the II-BAD configuration on WS (65.1 ± 8.9 Nml and 922 ± 73.8 Nml respectively). The II-BADx10 tests allowed increasing CH 4 production (≃290% and ≃330% on WS and MSS, respectively) when compared to the unaugmented condition. Final results highlighted the achievable advantages of the two stage configuration in terms of CH 4 production enhancement. Microbial community investigations confirmed the efficiency of the bioaugmentation treatment and revealed that such a result was mainly related to the Methanosarcinales increase, mostly composed by Methanosaeta. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  7. Production of β-xylosidase from Trichoderma asperellum KIF125 and its application in efficient hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw with fungal cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kitao, Chiaki; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    On-site cellulase and hemicellulase production is a promising way to reduce enzyme cost in the commercialization of the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process. A hemicellulase-producing fungal strain suitable for on-site enzyme production was selected from cultures prepared using wet disc-milling rice straw (WDM-RS) and identified as Trichoderma asperellum KIF125. KIF125 hemicellulase showed uniquely high abundance of β-xylosidase in the xylanolytic enzyme system compared to other fungal hemicellulase preparations. Supplementation of Talaromyces cellulolyticus cellulase with KIF125 hemicellulase was more effective than that with the hemicellulases from other fungal sources in reducing the total enzyme loading for the improvement of xylose yield in the hydrolysis of ball-milling RS, due to its high β-xylosidase dominance. β-Xylosidase in KIF125 hemicellulase was purified and classified as a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 enzyme with relatively high specificity for xylobiose. The production of KIF125 β-xylosidase in the fermentor was estimated as 118 U/g-WDM-RS (2350 U/L culture) at 48 h. These results demonstrate that KIF125 is promising as a practical hemicellulase source to combine with on-site cellulase production using T. cellulolyticus.

  8. Prediction of heating value of straw by proximate data, and near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Caijin; Han Lujia; Yang Zengling; Liu Xian

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of straw resources for energy production has been attracting agricultural scientists and engineers for decades. And the heating value of straw has always been the focus when initiating a straw-based biomass energy project. Nevertheless determination of heating values of straw needs delicate and expensive calorimeter, and is time-consuming. It's quite desirable to develop quick and easy model predicting heating values of straw. In this study, we proposed three applicable models, first two are multiple linear regression (MLR) equations by contents of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, the other one is based on the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology. All the models provide satisfactory estimations of heating values of straw samples. The adjusted determination coefficients for MLR models were 0.9049 and 0.9039, and determination coefficients of calibration for NIRS model was 0.9604; When evaluated on independent validation, the determination coefficients were 0.8595, 0.8524 and 0.8946, respectively. The results indicated that both MLR models and NIRS model have the potential to predict the heating values of straw, while the NIRS model presented better accuracy

  9. Carbon dioxide emission from maize straw incubated with soil under various moisture and nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.A.; Tian, X.; Hussain, Q.; Talpur, M.; Singh, U.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil amended with nitrogen (N) and moisture (M) levels. Clay loam topsoil amended with maize straw was adjusted to four initial nitrogen treatments (C/N ratios of 72, 36, 18, and 9) and four moisture levels (60%, 70%, 80% and 90 % of field capacity) for the total of 16 treatments and incubated at 20 deg. C for 51 days. CO/sub 2/-C evolved was regularly recorded for all treatments during entire incubation period. Results showed that the mixing of straw with soil accelerated decomposition rates and enhanced cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production. The incorporation of straw brought about 50% increase in the cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production as compared with controls. About 45% of added maize straw C was mineralized to CO/sub 2/-C in 51 days. We conclude that incorporation of straw into soil along with the addition of N and moisture levels significantly affected CO/sub 2/-C evolution, cumulative CO/sub 2-C/, C mineralization and soil organic carbon deposition. The CO/sub 2/ emission was in positive correlation with (R2=0.99) N, moisture and incubation time (days). The straw returning into soil may enhance carbon pools and, thus will improve soil and environmental quality. (author)

  10. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  11. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED OPTIONS OF STRAW USE DEPENDING ON HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest straw deserves particular attention among agricultural raw materials. It can be intended for sale, applied as litter material in animal husbandry or used in field fertilization. To a lesser extent it can be used for fodder production, covering mounds of roots and tubers and the production of insulation materials in horticulture and building construction. Using surplus straw directly for energy generation, including production of pellets and briquettes, should also be considered rational. Several applications were analyzed. The main purpose of the research is to determine the profitability level of winter wheat cultivation and of energy use of the straw obtained. Among others, they included situations in which obtained straw was used in the production of pellets, in fertilization after prior grinding and mixing with manure or used for direct sale. For our calculations, the costs/ha of wheat cultivation and then straw collection were estimated. The comparative analysis of various options of wheat straw utilization shows the highest profitability in the option of selling the straw and mineral fertilization.

  13. The effect of wheat straw quality on the rate of its mineralisation in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatuśko Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

  14. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  15. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...... and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy...

  17. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zhiyuan; Long, Donglei; Mao, Hongxiang; Wen, Jiangnan; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure, while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 dry matter (DM), respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in three replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on soil bacterial community structure and function in a rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Xun, Weibing; Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Qiwei; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer on bacterial community structure and biological traits, a 3-year field experiments, including four treatments: control without fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation (NPKS), and chemical fertilizer plus 7500 kg ha -1 straw incorporation and 300 kg ha -1 straw decomposer (NPKSD), were performed in a rice-wheat cropping system in Changshu (CS) and Jintan (JT) city, respectively. Soil samples were taken right after wheat (June) and rice (October) harvest in both sites, respectively. The NPKS and NPKSD treatments consistently increased crop yields, cellulase activity, and bacterial abundance in both sampling times and sites. Moreover, the NPKS and NPKSD treatments altered soil bacterial community structure, particularly in the wheat harvest soils in both sites, separating from the CK and NPK treatments. In the rice harvest soils, both NPKS and NPKSD treatments had no considerable impacts on bacterial communities in CS, whereas the NPKSD treatment significantly shaped bacterial communities compared to the other treatments in JT. These practices also significantly shifted the bacterial composition of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rather than shared OTUs. The relative abundances of copiotrophic bacteria (Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) were positively correlated with soil total N, available N, and available P. Taken together, these results indicate that application of straw incorporation with and without straw decomposer could particularly stimulate the copiotrophic bacteria, enhance the soil biological activity, and thus, contribute to the soil productivity and sustainability in agro-ecosystems.

  19. MCNPX Simulation Study of STRAW Neutron Detectors - Summary Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Mitchell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A novel prototype fission meter is being designed at National Security Technologies, LLC, using a thin uniform coating (only 1 micron thick) of 10 B as a neutron converter inside a large array of thin (4 mm diameter) copper tubes. The copper tubes are only 2 mils thick, and each holds the stretched anode wire under tension and high voltage. The tubes are filled with proportional counter gas (a mixture of 90%/10% of Ar/CO 2 ). The tubes operate in proportional counter mode and attract mobile charged particles (α's) created in the nuclear interaction 10 B(n, 4 He) 7 Li. However, a single tube has about 1/7th the sensitivity of a 3 He tube. Modeling is required to determine if enough such tubes could be placed in a neutron detection assembly of the current size to give comparable sensitivity to 3 He. Detectors lined with 10 B lie between 3 He and 10 BF 3 proportional counters and fission chambers in terms of neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray insensitivity. The mean free path of thermal neutrons in 10 B is about 18 (micro)m. It takes about 60 (micro)m of 10 B layer to completely stop thermal neutrons, but the energetic α-particles generated in the reaction have a range of only 3.3 (micro)m in 10 B environment - hence the thin layer of boron coating on the copper tube. The prototype design is shown in Figure 1. It consists of two panels of three staggered rows of 500-mm-long, 4-mm-diameter straws, with 20 in each row, embedded in 30-mm-thick high density polyethylene (HDPE). The project demonstrates a new application of thin neutron and gamma converter technique (1 micron thin 10 B coated copper tube). It exploits fast timing from multiple straw detectors to count multiplicity of both gamma and neutrons from fissioning materials. The objective is to find a near-term replacement of 3 He gas in neutron detection and measurement (with a very large neutron detection area). All the solid-state detectors developed thus far are small and inefficient. The thin size

  20. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  1. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  2. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, C.H.; Ring, R.J.; McNaughton, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  3. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) with a view to analyzing the environment aspects of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. It also compares rice straw-based power generation with that of coal and natural gas. GHG (Greenhouse gas) emission savings were calculated. It finds that rice straw power generation can save GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of about 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal-based and 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh with natural gas based power generation. While the development of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia is still in its early stage, these paddy residues offer a large potential to generate electricity because of their availability. Rice straw power plants not only could solve the problem of removing rice straw from fields without open burning, but also could reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change, acidification, and eutrophication, among other environmental problems. - Highlights: • Overall rice straw preparations contribute 224.48 g CO 2 -eq/kg rice straw. • The most constraints due to GHG (greenhouse gas) emission is from transportation. • Distance collection centre to plant less than 110 km to obtains minimum emissions. • Rice straw can save GHG emissions 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal power. • GHG saving 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to natural gas based power generation

  4. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  5. Environmental performance of straw-based pulp making: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Wang, Yutao; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO 2 -eq, 4550kg CO 2 -eq, 16.43kg SO 2 -eq and 2.56kg Phosphate-eq respectively. The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical (NaOH, ClO 2 ) input. Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood-based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw-based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements. However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw-based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw-based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Since wheat straw-based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energetic utilization and recycling of straw; Energetische und stoffliche Verwertung von Stroh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea; Engler, Nils; Weissbach, Gunter; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide arising significant emissions caused by the burning of rice straw on the field. The combined energetic and material utilization of rice straw offers the production possibility of various usable bioenergy and the closing of nutrient cycles by the return of the conversion residues. Thereby the soil quality can be improved and an important contribution to climate protection and resource conservation be realized. In the German-Egyptian project CEMUWA, the options of material and energetic use of rice straw are investigated. It is used as substrate for plant cultivation and for the production of ethanol, butanol and biogas. In this paper first results are presented. (orig.)

  7. Deep freezing of cattle embryos in glass ampules or French straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massip, A; Van der Zwalmen, P; Ectors, F; De Coster, R; D'Ieteren, G; Hanzen, C

    1979-08-01

    Ninety four cow embryos recovered on day 7-8 after onset of oestrus were frozen by the "Two Step" freezing procedure: 49 in pyrex glass ampules and 45 in .25 ml French semen straws. The overall survival rate was 33.7% (36.2% for embryos frozen in glass ampules; 31.1% for embryos frozen in plastic straws). 45.2% of transferred embryos resulted in pregnancies (35.7% after freezing in glass ampules v.s 52.9% after freezing in plastic straws).

  8. Evaluation of the feeding value of straw. A comparison of laboratory methods in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstoel, F; Kossila, V; Theander, O; Thomsen, K V

    1978-01-01

    Straw from Scandinavian countries had in vivo (sheep) organic matter digestibilities of 42 to 68%. In vitro digestibilities were 59.0 to 70.4%, and increased with enzyme-soluble organic matter contents. Acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were not correlated strongly enough with alkali treated straw to be used for prediction of nutritional value. There was a correlation between N content and digestibility in NH/sub 3/-treated straw. As long as standard measuring techniques were used, determinations of dry matter, ash, acid and neutral detergent fiber, lignin, sugars, and cellulose were correlated well among different testing laboratories.

  9. ‘Steam explosion’ treated straw in mixed feeds for ewes: effect on milk production

    OpenAIRE

    C. Cosentino; M. Palazzo; F. Zimbardi; E. Gambacorta

    2011-01-01

    The use of by-products in animal nutrition is known since long time and considerable importance, from a quantitative point of view, is gived to straws from cereals in particular (Cianci et al., 1982; Vazhapilly et al., 1984). Straws are used as litter material or in paper industry but they are also utilised in ruminant nutrition even though the very low content in fermentable sugars. Straws are on the contrary characterised by a high cell lignified wall content that reduces digestibility by d...

  10. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  11. A Large Tracking Detector In Vacuum Consisting Of Self-Supporting Straw Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintz, P.

    2004-02-01

    A novel technique to stretch the anode wire simply by the gas over-pressure inside straw drift tubes reduces the necessary straw weight to an absolute minimum. Our detector will consist of more than 3000 straws filling up a cylindrical tracking volume of 1m diameter and 30cm length. The projected spatial resolution is 200μm. The detector with a total mass of less than 15kg will be operated in vacuum, but will have an added wall thickness of 3mm mylar, only. The detector design, production experience and first results will be discussed.

  12. A Large Tracking Detector In Vacuum Consisting Of Self-Supporting Straw Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintz, P.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique to stretch the anode wire simply by the gas over-pressure inside straw drift tubes reduces the necessary straw weight to an absolute minimum. Our detector will consist of more than 3000 straws filling up a cylindrical tracking volume of 1m diameter and 30cm length. The projected spatial resolution is 200μm. The detector with a total mass of less than 15kg will be operated in vacuum, but will have an added wall thickness of 3mm mylar, only. The detector design, production experience and first results will be discussed

  13. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  14. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either discharge no visible emissions to the outside air from that asbestos mill, including fugitive sources, or...

  15. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  16. Effect of milling parameters on sinterability, mechanical and electrical properties of Cu-4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Mohammed A., E-mail: mtahanrc@gmail.com [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Nassar, Amira H. [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Zawrah, M.F. [Ceramics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Mechanical alloying was used to produce Cu matrix nanocomposite reinforced by 4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different milling time up to 16 h and ball-to-powder ratios (BPRs) up to 40:1. The milled nanocomposite powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To study the sinterability, the milled powders were cold pressed and sintered at 800 °C for 1 h in argon atmosphere. In order to investigate the relative density and microstructures of the sintered nanocomposites, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were employed. The electrical and mechanical properties of the sintered nanocomposites were also examined. The results revealed that a uniform distribution of ZrO{sub 2} reinforcement in Cu matrix was successfully obtained and the agglomeration, crystal and particle sizes were decreased after either milling times and/or BPRs. The results also pointed out that the relative density, microhardness, compressive strength and electrical conductivity of the sintered nanocomposite samples were increased with the increasing of milling time and/or BPRs while apparent porosity was decreased. The maximum values of microhardness, compressive strength and electrical conductivity were 872 MPa, 304 MPa and 45.9% IACS, respectively for the milled sample for 16 h and BRP 40:1. - Highlights: • Cu-4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different parameter by mechanical alloying. • The increased milling times and/or BPRs led to a decrease in the particle size. • Microhardness is increased with increasing ball-to-powder weight ratios. • Compressive strength is increased with increasing milling time. • Electrical conductivity of the samples was increasing with increase milling time.

  17. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  18. Intrinsic kinetics and devolatilization of wheat straw during torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2013-01-01

    analyzer by coupling with a mass spectrometer. The kinetic parameters obtained by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking initial dynamic heating period into account can accurately describe the experimental results with different heating programs. Activation energies and pre......-exponential parameters obtained for the two steps are: 71.0 and 76.6 kJ mol−1, 3.48 × 104 and 4.34 × 103 s−1, respectively. The model and these parameters were also proven to be able to predict the residual mass of wheat straw in a batch scale torrefaction reactor. By analyzing the gas products in situ, the formation...... of water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, methyl chloride, traces of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were found at torrefaction temperatures of 250 and 300 °C. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  19. Treatment of wheat straw pulp wastewater by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianmin; Deng Yu; Li Lanqingzi

    2005-01-01

    A microwave treatment has been developed for decoloration of wheat straw pulp wastewater. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and steel slag are used as catalyst. Effective factors on chrominance removal, such as quantity and ratio of the mixed catalyst, microwave power, and reaction time, were studied. Over 95% of chrominance removal from 50 mL wastewater could be achieved by putting in it 10 gram of GAC and steel slag at a ratio of 1:23 and operating the microwave oven at 800 W for 10 minutes. It was find that when the catalyst was used for the fourth time, the chrominance removal could still be more than 80%. A kinetics study on the treatment suggested that the decoloration process accorded to a fist-order reaction. (authors)

  20. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  2. Assessment of effect of chemical treatment to carnauba's fibers straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, T.M.P. de; Carvalho, L.F.M.; Oliveira, R.R. de; Sousa, F.M.S. de; Sousa, R.C. de; Marques, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite materials has been highlighted in the scientific field. However, its application in polymer matrices usually requires surface modifications. The objective of this work was to treat carnauba's straw fibers with NaOH 1 % and NaOH 5% solutions and measure the water absorption. We used the X-ray diffraction (XRD configuration “Bragg- Brentano) for verification of the crystalline phases and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify functional groups. The alkali treatment allowed the solubilization of the hemicellulose and lignin without causing changes to cellulose, as indicated by FTIR spectrophotometry and by the increase in crystallinity content. The samples showed the typical peaks of constituents of the fiber. The natural fiber showed an average water absorption of 256 %; fiber treated with NaOH 1%, 315 %; and treated with NaOH 5%, 405 %. Therefore, it is evident improvement in hydrophilicity, fundamental aspect in the interaction fiber / matrix. (author)

  3. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Aab, A; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Csapó, A; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Klask, L; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leiber, S; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Sowa, C; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K T; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Kube, M; Pitka, A; Quagli, T; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Walther, D; Wendel, C; Würschig, T; Zaunick, H G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Pantea, D; Pantelica, D; Pietreanu, D; Serbina, L; Tarta, P D; Kaplan, D; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, M; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Czech, B; Kistryn, M; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek\\inst, A; Jowzaee, S; Kajetanowicz, M; Kamys, B; Kistryn, S; Korcyl, G; Korcyl, K; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Palka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wrońska\\inst, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Flemming, H; Gerhardt, A; Götzen, K; Jordi, A F; Kalicy, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Patsyuk, M; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Traxler, M; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Zühlsdorf\\inst, M; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefiev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Festchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevskiy, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Ramusino, A Cotta; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Bianchi, N; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Orecchini, D; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Bracco, G; Macri, M; Parodi, R F; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eissner, T; Föhl, K; Galuska, M; Gessler, T; Hayrapetyan, A; Hu, J; Koch, P; Kröck, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Münchow, D; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Ullrich, T; Werner, M; Xu, H; Euan, C; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Keri, T; Montgomery, R; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Babai, M; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Lindemulder, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Moeini, H; Schakel, P; Schreuder, F; Smit, H; Tambave, G; Weele, J C van der; Veenstra\\inst, R; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Deermann, D; Dosdall, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Henssler, S; Herten, A; Hu, Q; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Kozlov, V; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Orfanitski, S; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Schadmand, S; Serdyuk, V; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Rigato, V; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Bleser, S; Cahit, U; Cardinali, M; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Merkel, H; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Müller, U; Pochodzalla, J; Prometeusz, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Schlimme, S; Sfienti, C; Weber\\inst, M Thiel T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Varentsov, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Böhmer, F; Dørheim, S; Ketzer, B; Paul, S; Hergemöller, A K; Khoukaz, A; Köhler, E; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Varma, R; Chaterjee, A; Jha, V; Kailas, S; Roy, B; Yan, Y; Chinorat, K; Khanchai, K; Ayut, L; Pomrad, S; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Boucher, J; Chambert, V; Dbeyssi, A; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Ma, B; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Wiele, J Van de; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Abramov, V; Belikov, N; Davidenko, A; Derevschikov, A; Goncharenko, Y; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Kormilitsin, V; Melnik, Y; Levin, A; Minaev, N; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D; Nogach, L; Poslavskiy, S; Ryazantsev, A; Ryzhikov, S; Semenov, P; Shein, I; Uzunian, A; Vasiliev, A; Yakutin, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Makónyi, K; Tegnér, P E; Würtemberg, K M von; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kashchuk, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Levitskaya, O; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Mori, F De; Destefanis, M; Fava, L; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Zotti, L; Calvo, D; Coli, S; Remigis, P De; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Morra, O; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Younis, H; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galander, B; Balkestal, L Caldeira; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kosinski, K; Melnychuk, D; Wasilewski, A; Wojciechowski, M; Wronka, S; Wysocka, A; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Hartman, O; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Suzuki, K; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM-stations. The tasks of the STT are the measurement of the particle momentum from the reconstructed trajectory and the measurement of the specific energy-loss for a particle identification. Dedicated simulations with full analysis studies of certain proton-antiproton reactions, identified as being benchmark tests for the whole \\Panda scientific program, have been performed to test the STT layout and performance. The results are presented, and the time lines to construct the STT are described.

  4. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  5. Adsorption Removal of 17β-Estradiol from Water by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ni; Liu, Yunguo; Jiang, Luhua; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Zhihong; Tian, Sirong; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-11

    Rice straw biochar that produced at three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500 and 600 °C) were used to investigate the adsorption properties of 17β-estradiol (E2). The biochar samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis and BET surface area measurements. The influences of pyrolysis temperature, E2 concentration, pH, ionic strength, background electrolyte and humic acid were studied. Kinetic and isotherm results illustrated that the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Experimental results showed that ionic strength had less influence on the adsorption of E2 by 500 and 600 °C rice straw biochar. Further, multivalent ions had positive impact on E2 removal than monovalent ions and the influence of the pyrolysis temperature was unremarkable when background electrolyte existed in solutions. The adsorption capacity of E2 decreased with the pH ranged from 3.0 to 12.0 and the humic acid concentration from 2 to 10 mg L -1 . Electrostatic attractions and π-π interaction were involved in the adsorption mechanisms. Compared to low-temperature biochar, high-temperature biochar exhibited a better adsorption capacity for E2 in aqueous solution, indicated it had a greater potential for E2 pollution control.

  6. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  7. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  8. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  9. Two loop diagrams in Yang Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.T.

    1974-01-01

    A calculation of the renormalization constants of the Yang Mills field to 0(g 4 ) is presented. The function β(g) is hence evaluated to 0(g 5 ) and possible implications for gauge theories of the strong interactions discussed

  10. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  11. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  13. The influence of mechanical properties of workpiece material on the main cutting force in face milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekulić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research into cutting forces in face milling of three different materials: steel Č 4732 (EN42CrMo4, nodular cast iron NL500 (EN-GJS-500-7 and silumine AlSi10Mg (EN AC-AlSi10Mg. Obtained results show that hardness and tensile strength values of workpiece material have a significant influence on the main cutting force, and thereby on the cutting energy in machining.

  14. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Joy O. Iwuagwu; J. Obeta Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the ...

  15. “Under the Skin of the Story”: An Interview with Lia Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Mar González-Arias

    2011-03-01

    Lia Mills is currently working on a historical novel and has published numerous short-stories and essays in literary journals like The Stinging Fly and The Dublin Review. She has lectured in University College Dublin and often facilitates creative writing workshops. Lia Mills’ varied literary production is a good example of the strength and energies of modern Irish fiction.

  16. Infrared finiteness in Yang--Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Carazzone, J.; Kluberg-Stern, H.; Roth, M.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared divergences of renormalizable theories with coupled massless fields (in particular, the Yang--Mills theory) are shown to cancel for transition probabilities corresponding to finite-energy-resolution detectors, just as in quantum electrodynamics. This result is established through lowest nontrivial order in perturbation theory for the detection of massive muons in a quantum electrodynamic theory containing massless electrons or the detection of massive quarks in a Yang--Mills theory

  17. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  18. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  19. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  20. Yang Mills instantons, geometrical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1977-09-01

    The word instanton has been coined by analogy with the word soliton. They both refer to solutions of elliptic non linear field equations with boundary conditions at infinity (of euclidean space time in the first case, euclidean space in the second case) lying on the set of classical vacua in such a way that stable topological properties emerge, susceptible to survive quantum effects, if those are small. Under this assumption, instantons are believed to be relevant to the description of tunnelling effects between classical vacua and signal some characteristics of the vacuum at the quantum level, whereas solitons should be associated with particles, i.e. discrete points in the mass spectrum. In one case the euclidean action is finite, in the other case, the energy is finite. From the mathematical point of view, the geometrical phenomena associated with the existence of solitons have forced physicists to learn rudiments of algebraic topology. The study of euclidean classical Yang Mills fields involves naturally mathematical items falling under the headings: differential geometry (fibre bundles, connections); differential topology (characteristic classes, index theory) and more recently algebraic geometry. These notes are divided as follows: a first section is devoted to a description of the physicist's views; a second section is devoted to the mathematician's vie

  1. Consolidation of mechanically milled powder mixture of aluminum and quasicrystalline particle; Mechanical milling shita junkessho ryushi / aluminium gokin funmatsu no koka seikeisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, E.; Kawamura, C.; Sugiyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    A quasi-crystalline Al65Cu20Fe15 powder prepared from alloy cast rapidly solidified by metal-mold casting, and then it was mixed to aluminum powder with various volume fractions by mechanical milling. The powder milled for above 50ks made homogeneous dispersion of quasi-crystalline phase with particle size less than 1{mu}m. The powder was hot-pressed under various conditions and then its features of consolidation were examined by the observation of microstructure and fracture strength in 3-point-bending of the compacts. When the milled powder was hot-pressed at higher compacting temperature than 673K for 3.6ks under pressure of 600MPa, the compact became to dense. Hardness of the obtained compact increases and its fracture strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of quasi-crystalline particles. Intermetallic compound Al7Cu2Fe forms in the interface of aluminum matrix and quasi-crystalline particle. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  3. Design and operation of large straw-tube drift chamber planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, C; Brown, D; Huston, J; Maul, A; Miller, R; Nyugen, A; Sorrell, L; Yosef, C [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Mani, S [Physics Dept., Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Choudhary, B C; Kapoor, V; Shivpuri, R [Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi Univ. (India); Baker, W; DeSoi, W; Johnstone, C; Kourbanis, I; Lukens, P; Skow, D; Wu, G H [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Alverson, G; Chang, P; Dlugosz, W; Faissler, W; Garelick, D; Glaubman, M; Lirakis, C; Pothier, E; Yasuda, T [Dept. of Physics, Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Gutierrez, P [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Hartman, K; Oh, B Y; Toothacker, W; Whitmore, J [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Blusk, S R; Chung, W H; Engels, E Jr; Shepard, P F; Weerasundara, D D.S. [Dept. of Physics and

    1991-10-01

    We describe the design, construction and operation of a straw-tube drift chamber consisting of four X and four Y planes of 16 mm diameter straw-tubes, each 280 cm long. Straws were glued together for rigidity and were mounted into a frame which served as a gas manifold and maintained wire-to-wire precision. A novel conductive gasket was used to seal the tubes and provide electrical contact to the aluminized surface of the straws. The chamber has been successfully used in a high rate experiment (E706 at Fermilab) and has achieved its design resolution of better than 250 {mu}m per tube averaged over the whole chamber. (orig.).

  4. Effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw for producing sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic of corn straw for producing sugar was studied. The relationship between irradiation-dosage and content of reducing sugar was investigated in DNS method. After 1000 kGy irradiation, the content of reducing sugar reached about 317.35%. A synergistic effect between irradiation and enzyme was observed. The reducing sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 20.51% when the corn straw powder (0.15 mm) irradiated with a dose of 1000 kGy. The result shows that the irradiation had significant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. At the 500 kGy pre-irradiation, compared with initial yield, the maximum sugar yield of sample had increased by 13.68% while the irradiated corn straw stored in 20 days. (authors)

  5. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    Keywords: straw mulching, soil water evaporation, soil thawing period, freezing depth, soil liquid water .... moisture and the soil water evaporation process. The Songnen Plain ...... soils on soil infiltration and evaporation: Water Sci. Technol.

  6. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... The concentration and rate of glucose production was observed to depend on pretreatment of ... cerning reaction rate parameters for rice straw hydrolysis. The generation of such ... The experiment and glucose analysis was ...

  7. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...... of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0...... increased.Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C.The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw...

  10. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part I Straw firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, A; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted. Three types of exposure were undertaken......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam temperature range of 450-600°C...

  11. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose...

  12. Effect of rice straw on the degradation of 14C-parathion in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, K.P.; Sethunathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    Organic matter, either native or applied, influences the persistence of soil-applied pesticides. The effect of rice straw on the metabolism of parathion in an alluvial soil under flooded condition was investigated. Residues were extracted from the soil at periodic intervals after application of ethoxy 14 C-parathion to rice straw amended and unamended soil employing chloroform-diethyl ether. The radioactivity in the solvent and water fractions were estimated. The activity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in the rice straw amended than in unamended soil indicating enhanced degradation of parathion by rice straw amendment. The autoradiograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase revealed the rapid formation of aminoparathion and an unidentified metabolite possessing P-S bond and ethoxy label in amended soil within 3 days. A polar unidentified metabolite was detected in the water phase of the unamended soil at 14 days. (author)

  13. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  14. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  15. Characteristics of Wheat Straw Lignins from Ethanol-based Organosolv Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Telysheva, G.; Arshanitsa, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Wild, de P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-purified lignins resulting from ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw were characterized for the presence of impurities (carbohydrates and ash), functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl), phenyl-propanoid structural moieties, molar mass distribution and thermal

  16. Effect of gamma ray radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunping; Shen Zhiqiang; Yu Guoce; Wang Jianlong

    2009-01-01

    The effect and aftereffect of radiation pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma ray were studied. It is shown that irradiation can cause significant breakdown of the structure of wheat straw. The mass loss of wheat straw increases and the size distribution after crushing moves to fine particles at elevated irradiation doses. A synergistic effect between irradiation and crushing was observed, with a glucose yield of 10.2% at a dose of 500 kGy with powder of 0.109 mm. The aftereffect of irradiation has important impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The aftereffect of 400 kGy irradiation accounts for 20.1% of the initial effect for glucose production, and the aftereffects of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kGy account for 12.9%, 14.9%, 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively, for reducing sugar production. (authors)

  17. Safety of cryopreservation straws for human gametes or embryos: a preliminary study with human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benifla, J L; Letur-Konïrsch, H; Collin, G; Devaux, A; Kuttenn, F; Madelenat, P; Brun-Vezinet, F; Feldmann, G

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary experimental study was to test the stability of cryopreservation straws to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Three kinds of straws were tested: four polyvinyl chloride (PVC), four polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) and 20 high-security ionomeric resin (IR). The PVC and PETG straws were sealed ultrasonically, and the IR straw by thermosoldering. Each sealed straw was cut in half to produce two demi-straws and then filled with 100 microl of HIV-1-containing supernatant (reverse transcriptase activity: 15 000 c.p.m./50 microl). The unsealed cotton end of PVC and PETG straws and the two halves of the IR straws (cotton and plastic plug ends) were tested. Each demi-straw was two- thirds submerged in RPMI medium at 37 degrees C, and RPMI samples were withdrawn on days 3, 7 and 11. Viral RNA was extracted from the medium and then amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by nested PCR using primers specific to HIV-1 protease. On day 7, no HIV-1 RNA was detected in any of the different samples of medium that had surrounded the unsealed PVC and PETG straws with cotton ends, but three IR specimens were positive. On day 11, PVC and PETG remained negative but HIV-1 RNA was detected in RPMI samples for two more IR demi-straws (n = 5). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions (at 37 degrees C), the unsealed cotton end PVC, PETG and thermosoldered cotton end IR demi-straws appeared to be safe for HIV-1, while IR straws, sealed or unsealed with a plastic plug and with unsealed cotton ends, leaked.

  18. Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, A; Chen, X; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2013-11-01

    Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm(2)) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (pglass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of straw as a fermentation substrate by means of digestion of straw; Einsatz von Stroh als Gaersubstrat durch technischen Strohaufschluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droege, Stefan [Pruef- und Forschungsinstitut Pirmasens (Germany); Pacan, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Energy plants play an increasingly dominant role with regard to the starting materials in agricultural biogas plants. Here, the agricultural by-product straw has a significant energy potential. However, the structure of this highly lignified biomass are opposed to the utilization of straw for the production of biogas. An alternative to the purely mechanical or chemical pulping process is the hydrothermal digestion by means of a thermal pressure hydrolysis. The thermal hydrolysis of biomass is carried out at temperatures between 120 and 220 Celsius in special pressure reactors. A major advantage of this method are the structural disintegration of lignified biomass and the appropriate use of waste heat produced. Under this aspect, the Pruef- und Forschungsinstitut e.V. Pirmasens (Pirmasens, Federal Republic of Germany) performed studies on the hydrothermal digestion of straw and on a subsequent biogas production.

  20. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  1. The local strength of microscopic alumina reinforcements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žagar, Goran; Pejchal, Václav; Mueller, Martin G.; Rossoll, Andreas; Cantoni, Marco; Mortensen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We measure, using an adaptation of a method designed for ceramic ball bearings, the local strength of a brittle second phase that serves to reinforce a metal. The method uses focused ion beam milling and a nanoindentation device, and is free of artifacts commonly present in micromachined specimens. It is demonstrated on Nextel 610™ nanocrystalline alumina fibers embedded in an aluminum matrix composite. Results reveal a size effect that does not follow, across size scales, usual Weibull statistics: the fiber strength distribution differs between measurements at the microscale and macroscopic tensile testing. This implies that, in micromechanical analysis of multiphase materials, highly localized events such as the propagation of internal damage require input data that must be measured at the same, local, microscale as the event; the present work opens a path to this end.

  2. Improving Strength-Ductility Balance of High Strength Dual-Phase Steels by Addition of Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Hua, M.; Uusitalo, J.; DeArdo, A. J.

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance, especially after cold forming. For good corrosion resistance, the coating must have sufficient coverage, be of uniform thickness, and most importantly, the coating must survive the cold stamping or forming operation. The purpose of this paper is to present research aiming at improving the steel substrate, such that high strength can be obtained while maintaining good global formability (tensile ductility), local formability (sheared-edge ductility), and good spot weldability. It is well-known that the strength of DP steels is controlled by several factors, including the amount of martensite found in the final microstructure. Recent research has revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). Current experiments have explored the combination of pre-annealing conditions and four annealing practices to help define the best practice to optimize the strength-formability balance in these higher strength DP steels. The steels used in these experiments contained (i) low carbon content for good spot weldability, (ii) the hardenability additions Mo and Cr for strength, and (iii) V for grain refinement, precipitation hardening and temper resistance. When processed correctly, these steels exhibited UTS levels up to 1000MPa, total elongation to 25%, reduction in area to 45%, and Hole Expansion Ratios to 50%. The results of this program will be presented and discussed.

  3. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a Nieto, Paulino Jos?; Garc?a-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ord??ez Gal?n, Celestino; Bernardo S?nchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism i...

  4. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Álvaro; Delvasto, Silvio; Sánchez, Enrique; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash (RSA) as substitute of the use of feldspar in the whiteware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to...

  6. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  7. Chemical composition and utilization of rice straw by goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuen, A.A.; Mahyuddin Dahan, M.

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the nutritive value of various types of rice straw for use by goats. In Experiment 1, four varieties of rice straw were exposed to heavy rain and sunshine for 10 days to assess the change in chemical composition and degradation in the rumen. The exposure led to a reduction in the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus. The degradation in the rumen of the samples exposed to the above weather conditions varied from 20.9 to 34.5%. In Experiment 2, the intake and digestion of untreated, urea supplemented, and urea treated rice straw of unknown variety were investigated using six male goats. Treating with urea resulted in significantly higher intake (p 3 ) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and negative N retention were obtained when the goats were fed on untreated straw. With urea treated straw, however, higher concentrations of NH 3 and VFAs and positive N retention were obtained. From the isotope dilution measurement it was observed that the amount of dietary P absorbed was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in goats fed untreated straw than in those fed urea treated straw. In Experiment 3, the rate of passage of small particles through the digestive tract of goats fed the diets in Experiment 2 was measured. The mean rumen retention time ranged from 31.2 to 38.7 h. Although not significantly different, there was a tendency for the transit time to be longer in goats fed the urea treated straw than those on other diets. 43 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-09-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  9. Electrical properties of various types of straw tubes considered for the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V

    2001-01-01

    Because of the appreciable length (up to 3.6 m) of the straw tube modules of the Outer Tracker, transmission line effects will have impact on their operational properties. These effects were clearly observed in a 1.6 m long prototype. A few types of straw tubes have been examined from the point of view of electrical properties, with emphasis on the study of signal transmission and cross-talk.

  10. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorine M. Rommers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine, straw in a plastic bin (Straw, a compressed wooden block (Ply or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine. The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparous lactating hybrid (Hycole rabbit does. Behavioural observations were conducted in the first 4 wk of 2 successive lactations of 6 wk each, twice a week from 15:00 to 18:30 h. Once every week the consumption of gnawing materials and soiling of the cages was scored. More does were significantly occupied with Straw and Ply than with Pine (24±20, 11±9 and 4±3% of does, respectively for a longer duration (4±4, 2±2, 0.1±0.2% of observed time, respectively. In does of Straw+Pine group, the pinewood was barely touched and straw was preferred. It can be concluded that straw (loose material and wooden block are used by the animals as enrichment material to gnaw or chew on. The materials remain attractive for the 2 lactations which were measured. The pinewood stick as provided in this study was rarely used and it may be questioned whether it is sufficient as enrichment material or if it should be provided in another way than hanging on the roof of the cage. This study provides a first step towards a positive list of enrichment materials that can be used in commercial rabbit farming in The Netherlands.

  11. The effect of temperature on the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheat straw. Urea was added at 75 g/kg throughout. Treated straw was sealed in 96 airtight plastic bottles of. 1000 ml for periods of 0, 1,2,4,6 and 8 weeks. Samples were dried at 59°Cin a fan-oven and subsequently analysed according to the in vitro technique (Engels & Van der. Merwe, 1967) for organic matter digestibility ...

  12. Grain and straw for whole plant: implications for crop management and genetic improvement strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiere, J.B.; Joshi, A.L.; Seetharam, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Goodchild, A.V.; Deinum, B.; Keulen, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    Straws and stovers are often called `by-products` of grain production even though they are increasingly important, e.g. for animal feed, thatching, soil improvement, mushroom production and industrial use. As a result, plant breeders, agronomists, economists and animal nutritionists have to pay more attention than before to the total value of crops, i.e. whole plant value in which straws and grain both play a part. This paper reviews literature about the technical potential of breeding and/or...

  13. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising.

  14. Evaluation of Serial Thawing-Refreezing on Human Spermatozoa Resistance Using Cryovials and Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghasemian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We designed this study to detect the cryoinjury rate on human sperm after serialfreezing and thawing, taking into consideration the effects of using cryovials and straws.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, semen specimens obtained from 15 subjectswere divided into normozoospermic and oligozoospermic groups. Each of the normozoospermicand oligozoo spermic semen specimens were additionally divided into two groups: i. washed andii. unwashed. Specimens were repeatedly freeze-thawed by using cryovials and straws with thefast liquid nitrogen vapor method, until no motile sperm remained. Sperm motility, recovery, andmorphology rate were then determined after thawing, and compared between the groups whiletaking into consideration the effects of using cryovials and straws.Results: Motile spermatozoa were observed in all normozoospermic samples up to thaw 6 with bothcryovials and straws while in oligozoospermic specimens up to thaw 4 (straw and thaw 3 (cryovialin the freeze-thawing cycle. Normozoospermic sample analysis showed no significant difference inmorphology rate. There was a significant increase in motility and recovery percentages for washedsamples, which was observed with straws in compared to the unwashed groups. Oligozoospermicsample analysis indicated a significant increase in motility, recovery (p<0.01, and morphology(p<0.001 rates in washed specimens compared to unwashed specimens using straws. Theimportance of washing sperm was obvious for oligozoospermic specimens.Conclusion: Normozoospermic sperm resisted freezing longer than oligozoospermic sperm. Use ofstraws and cryovials made significant differences in motility, recovery, and morphology of sperm ineach thaw. This difference was slightly higher for oligozoospermic specimens. Results indicated thatthe percentage of motility was higher for washed normozoospermic specimens in each thaw whenstraws were used, whereas the percentage of motility, recovery, and

  15. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 ìm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 ...

  16. A two meter long straw tube prototype for the FINUDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype using several 10mm and 20mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method for measuring straw eccentricity and correcting for the corresponding systematics has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40μm can be reached. (orig.)

  17. The Use of Mg(OH2 in the Final Peroxide Bleaching Stage of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alkali is an attractive alkaline source for the peroxide bleaching of high-yield pulp. However, little information is available on Mg(OH2 application in the final peroxide bleaching stage of wheat straw pulp. The use of Mg(OH2 was demonstrated as a partial replacement for NaOH in the peroxide bleaching of a chelated oxygen-delignified wheat straw pulp. The yield, viscosity, and strength properties of bleached pulp significantly increased with increasing replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, while the chemical oxygen demand load (COD of filtrate was decreased. For similar brightness of bleached pulp at a 24% replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, the tensile and tear indices were higher, by 2.1 Nm.g-1 and 1.75 mN*m2.g-1, respectively, than that of control pulp bleached with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When the MgSO4 was eliminated and the dosage of Na2SiO3 was decreased in the bleaching process, the tear and burst indices of the bleached pulp were also enhanced, with the brightness maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that more swelling occurred in the fibers of bleached pulp from the Mg(OH2-based bleaching process. Fiber analysis indicated that peroxide bleaching with Mg(OH2 increased the proportion of fiber lengths between 0.20 to 1.20 mm and 1.20 to 7.60 mm.

  18. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  19. [Influence of straw manuring on the biological activity of a lessivé chernozem (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, W; Seeboldt, M

    1979-01-01

    In a long-term experiment, the influence of straw manuring in spring and autumn on the biological activity of a lessive chernozem soil was examined. The quantity of carbon dioxide, evolved by the plots during May and June, showed an increase in soil respiration by straw manuring. Increasing amounts of nitrogen, given together with straw, had no significant influence on the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved. The base respiration, however, showed increasing rates proportional to increasing amounts of nitrogen. The variants manured with straw in autumn were superior to those manured in spring. For covering the efficiency of soil respiration, the field method applied noes not seem suitable. With high N-supply (200 kg/ka), the relative respiration rates show good stability of the organic substance, present in soil. This stability is higher with straw manuring in spring than in autumn. Straw supply in autumn influences the yield more favourably. Direct relation between the quantity of carbon dioxide evolved and yield cannot be inferred.

  20. Biosorption of aqueous lead (II) on rice straws (oryza sativa) by flash column process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, H.N.; Hassan, M.U.; Jamil, N.; Ahmad, D.; Bushra, H.; Khatoon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb (II) on rice straws has been studied with the variation in the parameters and on modified rice straws by flash column process. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, initial concentration of metal ions, length and width of columns were studied. A comparative study of modification of adsorbent was also done for which rice straws were modified with EDTA, acids, bases, and volatile organic solvents. Base modified adsorbents have shown an increase in adsorption capacity while acid modified adsorbents proved to be the poor adsorbents for metal ions similarly ash of rice straws used as adsorbent given higher adsorption and EDTA modified adsorbents have shown least adsorption of metal ions. Polar volatile organic solvents modified adsorbent gave less adsorption efficiency and non polar adsorbent shown no influence on Pb (II) uptake capacity of rice straws. Rice straws proved to be the best biosorbent for Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  1. Efficient Hydrolysis of Rice Straw into Xylose and Glucose by a Two-step Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Lu-lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of rice straw into xylose and glucose in dilute sulfuric acid aqueous solution was studied with a two-step process in batch autoclave reactor. The results showed that compared with the traditional one-step acid hydrolysis, both xylose and glucose could be produced in high yields from rice straw by using the two-step acid hydrolysis process. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of rice straw and acid concentration on the hydrolysis of rice straw were systematically studied, and showed that except initial rice straw loading amount, the other parameters had remarkable influence on the products distribution and yields. In the first-step of the hydrolysis process, a high xylose yield of 162.6 g·kg-1 was obtained at 140℃ after 120 min reaction time. When the solid residues from the first step were subjected to a second-step hydrolysis, a glucose yield as high as 216.5 g·kg-1 could be achieved at 180℃ after 120 min. This work provides a promising strategy for the efficient and value-added utilization of agricultural wastes such as rice straw.

  2. Removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejiao Tong; Renkou Xu

    2013-01-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(Ⅱ)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola,rice,soybean and peanut straws was investigated.The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(Ⅱ) from the effluent,mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation,and neutralized its acidity.The removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ) by the biochars followed the order:peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char >> a commercial activated carbonaceous material,which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars.The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ)by biochars.Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from it.The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400℃ for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment,and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  3. Toxicity potential of residual ethylene oxide on fresh or frozen embryos maintained in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Pontbriand, D; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    The toxic effects of residual ethylene oxide (EtO), a frequently used gas-sterilant, on embryos either frozen for long-term purposes or stored acutely for 30 min to 9 hr in a fresh condition in 0.25-ml straw containers were evaluated. In Experiment 1, fresh embryos were frozen (using conventional technology) in straws previously aerated for 0 hr to 8 mo after EtO sterilization. With the exception of the 8-mo group in which survival and quality ratings were depressed, embryo viability was not affected significantly by short-term prefreeze and post-thaw exposure to EtO residues. Experiment 2 was conducted to analyze the influence of prefreeze exposure to EtO residues on embryo development in vitro for embryos temporarily stored in previously sterilized straws aerated for different intervals. Compared to non-EtO-sterilized control straws, the development, quality, and viability of embryos exposed to EtO-treated straws were compromised (p less than 0.05) as the aeration interval decreased and the exposure interval increased. The combined results of both experiments indicate that EtO-treated straws can be used to cryopreserve gametes efficiently, but only if the aeration interval is greater than or equal to 72 hr and the prefreeze duration of exposure is less than or equal to 3 hr.

  4. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  5. Ash Deposit Formation and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    ). The shedding investigation was also made when the nearby plant sootblower (4m below) was working. It was identified that the mass uptake signal remained stable and the deposits in small pieces were continuously removed during 35% and 65% straw-firing. Previous findings of Vattenfall indicated that a mixture...... was limited to two weeks when 100% straw was fired due to ash deposition in the superheater region that has tube spacing specified for coal-firing (113mm). A series of 3-5 days deposit probe experiments were conducted utilizing 35 to 100% straw with wood on mass basis. The applied deposit probe was water...... two hours deposit mass uptake rate was 52.8 (g/m2/h), while it was 353.8 (g/m2/h) during 100% straw-firing. All tests in the superheater region for all applied straw shares indicated that with increase in straw share, final deposit mass uptake increased. The comparison of current and previous full...

  6. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  7. Efficient bioconversion of rice straw to ethanol with TiO2/UV pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Doman

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw is a lignocellulosic biomass that constitutes a renewable organic substance and alternative source of energy; however, its structure confounds the liberation of monosaccharides. Pretreating rice straw using a TiO(2)/UV system facilitated its hydrolysis with Accellerase 1000(™), suggesting that hydroxyl radicals (OH·) from the TiO(2)/UV system could degrade lignin and carbohydrates. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment was an essential step for conversion of hemicellulose to xylose; optimal conditions for this conversion were a TiO(2) concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and an irradiation time of 2 h with a UV-C lamp at 254 nm. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the sugar yields from rice straw pretreated with these parameters were 59.8 ± 0.7% of the theoretical for glucose (339 ± 13 mg/g rice straw) and 50.3 ± 2.8% for xylose (64 ± 3 mg/g rice straw). The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates containing 10.5 g glucose/L and 3.2 g xylose/L with Pichia stipitis produced 3.9 g ethanol/L with a corresponding yield of 0.39 g/g rice straw. The maximum possible ethanol conversion rate is 76.47%. TiO(2)/UV pretreatment can be performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and demonstrates potential in large-scale production of fermentable sugars.

  8. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  9. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation–alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules. - Highlights: • Pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH was investigated. • Irradiation pretreatment can significantly decrease NaOH consumption. • Reducing sugar yield reached 72.67% at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h.

  10. Adsorption of Pb(II from Aqueous Solutions on Wheat Straw: Effects of Humification and Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is one of the methods used for the separation of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to investigate wheat straw humification and the capability of its microorganisms for the biosorption of Pb from aqueous solutions. Wheat straw (3 solution (0.001 N with different Pb concentrations at pH 6. Among the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkine models, only the latter failed to fit Pb adsorption data. The highest sorption capacities (qmax were obtained by the Langmuir model for the humified and unsterile sample (108.41 mg g‒1 and the lowest was obtained for the fresh and sterile sample (63.36 mg g‒1. Lead adsorption increased significantly with incubation time and its highest values were recorded with unsterile straw samples taken on days 1, 20, and 60 which were equal to 32.21, 43, and 60.96%, respectively, for the highest Pb concentration. The Langmuir constant (Kl and Freundlich constants (Kf and n were significantly higher for the more humified wheat straw samples compared to those for raw straw. All the adsorption parameters recorded higher values with the unsterile wheat straw compared to the sterile one, indicating the ability of the microorganisms to adsorb Pb from aqueous solutions.

  11. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha -1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Fermentation of Rice Straw Uses Mix Inoculum of Anaerobe Facultative Bacteria Isolate from Buffalo Rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasongko, W. T.; Irawan Sugoro

    2004-01-01

    Rice straw quality could be increased as feed by fermentation which has been mixed with bacteria inoculum from buffalo rumen. This experiment used rice straw from Atomita 4, four treatments and one control, i.e. A (rice straw, molasses 5 %, urea 5 %, and inoculum 10 %), B (rice straw, molasses 5 %, and urea 5 %), C (rice straw, molasses 5 %, and inoculum 10 %), D (rice straw and molasses 5 %), and K (control) have been used in this experiment. The parameters were digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, VFA, ammonia and in vitro gas production. The result, showed that the highest gas production, dry matter and organic matter digestibility occurred on A i.e. 17.48 ml/200 mg, 57.78%, and 52.39 %. The highest ammonia occurred on D (32.99 mg/100 ml) and the highest VFA occurred on C (12.36 mmol/100 ml). The concentration of ammonia and VFA of A significant to treatment of D and C). It may be concluded that the A treatment is the best and have potency to be develop. (author)

  13. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  14. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

  15. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  16. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  17. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  18. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.E.; Schuman, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  19. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  20. Decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill on bacteria in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotome, Itaru; Nei, Daisuke; Tsuda, Masuko; Mohammed, Sharif Hossen; Takenaka, Makiko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2011-06-01

    The decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill was investigated by counting the number of bacteria in brown and white rice flour with mean particle diameters of 3, 20, and 40µm prepared by the jet mill. In the jet mill, the particles are crushed and reduced in size by the mechanical impact caused by their collision. Although the brown and white rice grains were contaminated with approximately 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/g bacteria, the microbial load of the rice flour decreased as the mean particle diameter decreased, ultimately decreasing to approximately 104 and 103 CFU/g in the brown and white rice flour. The temperature and pressure changes of the sample were not considered to have an effect on reducing the bacterial count during the milling. Hence, it was thought that the rice flour was decontaminated by other effects.