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Sample records for straw residue effects

  1. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

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    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  2. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

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    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  3. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

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    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  4. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  5. Toxicity potential of residual ethylene oxide on fresh or frozen embryos maintained in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Pontbriand, D; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    The toxic effects of residual ethylene oxide (EtO), a frequently used gas-sterilant, on embryos either frozen for long-term purposes or stored acutely for 30 min to 9 hr in a fresh condition in 0.25-ml straw containers were evaluated. In Experiment 1, fresh embryos were frozen (using conventional technology) in straws previously aerated for 0 hr to 8 mo after EtO sterilization. With the exception of the 8-mo group in which survival and quality ratings were depressed, embryo viability was not affected significantly by short-term prefreeze and post-thaw exposure to EtO residues. Experiment 2 was conducted to analyze the influence of prefreeze exposure to EtO residues on embryo development in vitro for embryos temporarily stored in previously sterilized straws aerated for different intervals. Compared to non-EtO-sterilized control straws, the development, quality, and viability of embryos exposed to EtO-treated straws were compromised (p less than 0.05) as the aeration interval decreased and the exposure interval increased. The combined results of both experiments indicate that EtO-treated straws can be used to cryopreserve gametes efficiently, but only if the aeration interval is greater than or equal to 72 hr and the prefreeze duration of exposure is less than or equal to 3 hr.

  6. Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass residues: Comparative study of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk.

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    Biswas, Bijoy; Pandey, Nidhi; Bisht, Yashasvi; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-08-01

    Pyrolysis studies on conventional biomass were carried out in fixed bed reactor at different temperatures 300, 350, 400 and 450°C. Agricultural residues such as corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk showed that the optimum temperatures for these residues are 450, 400, 400 and 450°C respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield in case of corn cob, wheat straw, rice straw and rice husk are 47.3, 36.7, 28.4 and 38.1wt% respectively. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. All bio-oils contents were mainly composed of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The higher area percentages of phenolic compounds were observed in the corn cob bio-oil than other bio-oils. From FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectra showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups for all bio-oils and distribution of products is different due to differences in the composition of agricultural biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prokaryote community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure, rice straw and industrial clay residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Janet; Theuerl, Susanne; Bergmann, Ingo; Klocke, Michael; Guerra, Gilda; Romero-Romero, Osvaldo

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of rice straw and clay residuals on the prokaryote methane-producing community structure in a semi-continuously stirred tank reactor fed with swine manure. Molecular techniques, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes, were performed. The results showed a positive effect of clay addition on methane yield during the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw. At the digestion of swine manure, the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae, particularly Methanosarcina species, were predominant. During the co-digestion of swine manure and rice straw the microbial community changed, and with the addition of clay residual, the phylum Bacteroidetes predominated. The new nutritional conditions resulted in a shift in the archaeal family Methanosarcinaceae community as acetoclastic Methanosaeta species became dominant.

  9. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  10. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50 °C min-1. The hemicellulose decomposition peak was absent at the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG...

  11. Investigation of rye straw ash sintering characteristics and the effect of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Becidan, Michael; Li, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rye straw ash has a high sintering tendency at elevated temperatures. • Addition of additive increases melting temperature of the rye straw ash. • Kaolin addition leads to formation of silicates binding K in the ash. • Calcite and Ca-sludge promotes formation of silicates and phosphates in the ash. • Calcite addition restrains attaching and accumulation of rye straw ash melts. - Abstract: The understanding of ash sintering during combustion of agricultural residues is far from complete, because of the high heterogeneity of the content and composition of ash forming matters and the complex transformation of them. In order to make agricultural residues competitive fuels on the energy market, further research efforts are needed to investigate agricultural residues’ ash sintering behavior and propose relevant anti-sintering measures. The aim of this work was to investigate the ash characteristics of rye straw and effects of additives. Three additives were studied regarding their abilities to prevent and abate rye straw ash sintering. Standard ash fusion characterization and laboratory-scale sintering tests were performed on ashes from mixtures of rye straw and additives produced at 550 °C. Ash residues from sintering tests at higher temperatures were analyzed using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM–EDX). High sintering and melting tendency of the rye straw ash at elevated temperatures was observed. Severe sintering of the rye straw ash was attributed to the formation and fusion of low temperature K–silicates and K–phosphates with high K/Ca ratios. Among the three additives, calcite served the best one to mitigate sintering of the rye straw ash. Ca from the calcite promoted formation of high temperature silicates and calcium rich K–phosphates. In addition, calcite may hinder aggregating of ash melts and further formation of large ash slag. Therefore

  12. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Minowa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of agricultural residue in Japan as an energy resource, based on the amounts produced and availability. The main agricultural residues in Japan are rice straw and rice husk. Based on a scenario wherein these residues are collected as is the rice product, we evaluate the size, cost, and CO 2 emission for power generation. Rice residue has a production potential of 12 Mt-dry year -1 , and 1.7 kt of rice straw is collected for each storage location. As this is too small an amount even for the smallest scale of power plant available, 2-month operation per year is assumed. Assuming a steam boiler and turbine with an efficiency of 7%, power generation from rice straw biomass can supply 3.8 billion(kW)h of electricity per year, or 0.47% of the total electricity demand in Japan. The electricity generated from this source costs as much as 25 JPY (kW h) -1 (0.21 US$ (kW h) -1 , 1 US$=120 JPY), more than double the current price of electricity. With heat recovery at 80% efficiency, the simultaneous heat supplied via cogeneration reaches 10% of that supplied by heavy oil in Japan. Further cost incentives will be required if the rice residue utilization is to be introduced. It will also be important to develop effective technologies to achieve high efficiency even in small-scale processes. If Japanese technologies enable the effective use of agricultural residue abroad as a result of Japanese effort from the years after 2010, the resulting reduction of greenhouse gas emission can be counted under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol

  13. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puad, E.; Wan Asma, I; Shaharuddin, H.; Mahanim, S.; Rafidah, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m 3 . Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  15. Comparison of various pretreatments for ethanol production enhancement from solid residue after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Wei; Xu, Dong; Wang, Bei; Yan, Li; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    The rumen digested residue of rice straw contains high residual carbohydrates, which makes it a potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of applying microwave assisted alkali (MAP), ultrasound assisted alkali (UAP), and ball milling pretreatment (BMP) to enhance ethanol production from two digested residues (2.5%-DR and 10%-DR) after rumen fluid digestion of rice straw at 2.5% and 10.0% solid content. Results revealed that 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR had a cellulose content of 36.4% and 41.7%, respectively. MAP and UAP improved enzymatic hydrolysis of digested residue by removing the lignin and hemicellulose, while BMP by decreasing the particle size and crystallinity. BMP was concluded as the suitable pretreatment, resulting in an ethanol yield of 116.65 and 147.42mgg -1 for 2.5%-DR and 10%-DR, respectively. The integrated system including BMP for digested residue at 2.5% solid content achieved a maximum energy output of 7010kJkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  17. Effect of rice straw on the degradation of 14C-parathion in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, K.P.; Sethunathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    Organic matter, either native or applied, influences the persistence of soil-applied pesticides. The effect of rice straw on the metabolism of parathion in an alluvial soil under flooded condition was investigated. Residues were extracted from the soil at periodic intervals after application of ethoxy 14 C-parathion to rice straw amended and unamended soil employing chloroform-diethyl ether. The radioactivity in the solvent and water fractions were estimated. The activity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in the rice straw amended than in unamended soil indicating enhanced degradation of parathion by rice straw amendment. The autoradiograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase revealed the rapid formation of aminoparathion and an unidentified metabolite possessing P-S bond and ethoxy label in amended soil within 3 days. A polar unidentified metabolite was detected in the water phase of the unamended soil at 14 days. (author)

  18. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    the bare control plots to 47 gr in the straw covered plots, which resulted in a low erosion rate when the soil is covered with straw (0.23 Mg ha-1 y-1), but extremely high when the soil is not covered (5.07 Mg ha-1 y-1). The results show also a delayed runoff generation due to the effect of the straw. From ponding to surface runoff the bare plots last 198 seconds, but under straw covered soils the time is 506 seconds. Moreover, when runoff is found on the soil surface the time to reach the plot outlet is much delayed under the straw cover, as range from 156 seconds on the bare plots to 406 to the straw covered plots. The management of the agriculture soils in many parts of the Planet is triggering land degradation (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The most intense soil erosion rates use to affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and in Eastern Spain it was found that citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter, and this is also found in China (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012). The worse land managements found in many of the citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and we can confirm here that the new Persimmon plantations are triggering the same effect and it is necessary to develop new strategies to reduce the soil losses. The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful, but also it is well know the effect of the litter it is a key cover to avoid soil erosion. Meginnis (1935) was one of the pioneers on the research of the cover of litter to avoid

  19. Effect of increasing amounts of straw on pigs’ explorative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S.; Forkman, Björn

    2015-01-01

    According to European legislation, pigs must have permanent access to sufficient quantity of materialto enable manipulation activities. However, few studies have quantified how much straw is needed tofulfil the requirements of growing pigs. We investigated the effect of increasing amount of straw...... on pigs’manipulation of the straw, and hypothesised that after a certain point increasing straw amount will nolonger increase oral manipulation further. From 30 to 80 kg live weight, pigs were housed in 90 groups of18 pigs in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with partly slatted concrete floor and daily provided...... with the percentage ofpigs manipulating straw simultaneously. This was recorded in three 1-h intervals (1 h before and 1 h afterstraw allocation in the morning, as well as from 17 to 18 h in the afternoon). With increasing quantity ofstraw provided, we found a curvilinear (P increase in the time spent in oral...

  20. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China.

  1. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1992-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of doses of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs, as an attempt to improve the nutritive value of these residues in order to utilize theme in animal diets. Ground samples of six residues were irradiated by 137 Cs gamma source (Gammator) at doses of 0, 1, 10, 40, 50, and 100 kilo gray (KGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity, and analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). The results indicate that gamma irradiation has no effect on crude protein whereas decreased crude fat content. Gamma irradiation has a pronounced effect on decreasing crude fibre contents especially at the highest dose (100 KGy) reaching (%): 30, 21, 15, 17, 21 and 16 for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs respectively with increases in NFE values. NDF decreased by 19.7%, 13%, and 11.5% for wheat straw and maize straw respectively, by 9.3% for maize cobs and barley straw and by 6.6% for cottonwood. The reductions in ADF values were: 8% for cottonwood, 7.3% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 5.7% for wheat straw and barley straw. Gamma irradiation lowered ADL content by 29% for maize cobs, 17.2% for barley straw and by 20.8% and 7.4 for wheat straw and cottonwood respectively. Gamma irradiation (100 KGy) has no effect on ADF, ADL, and cellulose for lentils straw and on hemicellulose for cottonwood. (author). 24 refs., 20 tabs., 2 figs

  3. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...... long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate....

  4. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  6. Allelopathic appraisal effects of straw extract wheat varieties on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Ben HM, Ghorbal H, Kremer RJ, Oussama O (2001). Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, 21: 65-71. Dias LS (1991). Allelopathic activity of decomposing straw of wheat and oat and associated soil on some crop species. Soil Till.

  7. Effect of wheat-maize straw return on the fate of nitrate in groundwater in the Huaihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfu; Ruan, Xiaohong; Bai, Ying; Ma, Tianhai; Liu, Congqiang

    2017-08-15

    Straw return is becoming a routine practice in disposing of crop residues worldwide. However, the potential effect of such operation on the chemistry of local groundwater is not well documented. Here, shallow groundwater in an area where wheat-maize straw return is practiced was analyzed, and the seasonal changes in the nitrate concentration and the isotope compositions of NO 3 - and H 2 O were determined along two flow paths. Measured δD and δ 18 O in waters indicated that the groundwater was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, while measured δ 15 N and δ 18 O in nitrate suggested that the sources for groundwater NO 3 - included urea fertilizer, soil nitrogen, and sewage/manure. Reduced NO 3 - concentrations coincided with an enrichment of organic matter in the groundwater of the straw return area, revealing an environmental condition that facilitates nitrate reduction, whereas increased δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - along the flow path suggested the occurrence of denitrification. Further analyses showed that, compared to the cases in the absence of straw return, as much as 80% and 90% of groundwater nitrate was removed in low and high water seasons in the straw return area, pointing to a potential positive effect of straw return to groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  9. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  10. Effects of ditch-buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen leaching and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haishui; Xu, Mingmin; Koide, Roger T; Liu, Qian; Dai, Yajun; Liu, Ling; Bian, Xinmin

    2016-03-15

    Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice-wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1-wheat-rice2 rotation. Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha(-1) reduced, but at 1000 kg ha(-1) and at 1500 kg ha(-1) straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha(-1) buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice-wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of Rice Straw Extract and Alkali Lignin on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiahtul Zulkafli; Norinsan Kamil Othman; Irman Abdul Rahman; Azman Jalar

    2014-01-01

    A paddy residue based corrosion inhibitor was prepared by treating finely powdered rice straw with aqueous ethanol under acid catalyst (0.01 M H 2 SO 4 ). Commercial alkali lignin was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Prior to the corrosion test, the extraction yield and alkali lignin was characterized via FTIR to determine the functional group. The effect of paddy residue extract and commercial alkali lignin on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated through the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract and alkali lignin at different immersion times (3 h, 24 h and 42 h) was evaluated. The results show that the paddy waste extract exhibited lesser weight loss of carbon steel in the acidic medium in comparison to the commercial alkali lignin, suggesting that the paddy residue extract is more effective than the commercial alkali lignin in terms of its corrosion inhibition properties. The results obtained proves that the extract from paddy residue could serve as an effective inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic mediums. (author)

  12. The effect of irradiation on stored straw mushroom and the physiological mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Hui; Chen Jianxun; Yu Rangcai; Chen Qiaoling; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) were irradiated by 60 Co γ ray of different doses and stored at 16 degree C. The experimental results showed that the irradiation treatment inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation and decreased the membrane leakage, therefore, improve the fresh keeping effect of straw mushroom

  13. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  14. [Effects of Phosphate Rock and Decomposed Rice Straw Application on Lead Immobilization in a Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Hu, Hong-qing; Su, Xiao-juan; Fu, Qing-ling; Zhu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The soils treated with phosphate rock (PR) and oxalic acid activated phosphate rock (APR) mixed with decomposed rice straw were incubated in different moisture conditions for 60 days to study the effect on the basic property of the soil and on the speciation variation of Pb. The results showed that all these three types of immobilizing materials increased the pH, the Olsen-P, the exchangeable Ca and the soil cation exchange capacity, and APR showed more obvious effect; the pH and the exchangeable Ca of soil in the flooding treatment were higher than those in normal water treatment (70%), but the Olsen-P of soil in normal water treatment was a little bit more. These materials reduced exchangeable Ph fraction, and converted it into unavailable fraction. But the APR was better than raw PR in immobilizing lead, and the exchangeable Pb fraction was reduced by 40.3% and 24.2%, compared with the control, respectively, and the immobilization effect was positively correlated with the dosage. Decomposed rice straw could transform the exchangeable Ph fraction in soil into organic-bound fraction, while the flooding treatment changed it into the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and residue fractions.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis...

  16. Effect of straw application on nitrogen uptake and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati.

    1990-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted to know the effect of straw application on the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and growth rice plant. The rice straw was applied at different time i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before tranplanting. Soil without rice straw was used as control. Thirty gram of rice straw having 3.61 percent of N-15 atom excess was incorporated into 6 kg of latosol soil originated from Pasar jumat, in which Atomoita I, a lowland rice variety, was planted. Urea was given once at the tranplanting time. The result showed that the longer the time of the rice straw application prior to the transplanting time, the higher the N-straw uptake efficiency in the rice plant at any different stages. The highest efficiency was 6.14 percent, reached with straw applicaions at 4 weeks before tranplanting. Compared to the control, straw applications 2 weeks or more before tranplanting resulted in higher grain production, while application at or before 2 weeks of tranplanting produced lower production. (authors). 9 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  18. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  19. The Effect of Crop Residue Application to Soil Fauna Community and Mungbean Growth (Vigna radata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Litterbag experiment was carried out to determine the effect of crop residue application to soil fauna community and mungbean growth. The experiment arranged in randomized complete design with triplicate. The four treatment application of crotalarian, rice straw and banana’s aerial stem residues as well as without residue application as control. Soil fauna community and mungbean growth measured at 8 weeks after mungbean sown. Soil fauna extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus. Height and dry weight of mungbean measured as crop growth parameters. The results indicated that the soil fauna densities and diversities as well as the growth of mungbean tended to increase by the application of crop residues. The effect of the treatment decreasing in the following order: banana’s aerial stem residue > crotalarian residue > rice straw > without residue application. There were high correlation between mungbean growth and soil fauna diversities.© 2001 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNS SurakartaKey words:

  20. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  1. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  2. Lignocellulosic residues for production of electricity, biogas or second generation biofuel: A case study of technical and sustainable potential of rice straw in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Dembelé, Filifing; Daou, Ibrahima

    2016-01-01

    Biomass from agricultural residues, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is not only seen as a sustainable biomass source for the production of electricity, but increasingly as a resource for the production of biogas and second generation biofuel in developing countries. Based on empirical research...... in an irrigated rice-growing area, Office du Niger, in Mali, this article builds scenarios for the sustainable potential of rice straw. The paper concludes that there is great uncertainty regarding the size of the sustainable resources of rice straw available for energy, but that the most likely scenario...

  3. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  4. Study on the Effect of Straw Fiber on the Performance of Volcanic Slag Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-guang; Liu, Xi-xu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of straw fiber on the working performance, mechanical properties and frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete were studied. The experimental results show that the straw fiber is subjected to surface carbonization treatment and mixed into the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete. The flexural strength and fracture pressure ratio of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete are improved obviously Improved volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete brittleness improves toughness. Carbonized straw fiber greatly improves the frost resistance of volcanic slag lightweight aggregate concrete. So that the volcanic slag light aggregate concrete freeze-thaw cycle can reach 300 times.

  5. The effect of wheat straw quality on the rate of its mineralisation in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatuśko Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

  6. Effect of gamma ray radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw to produce sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunping; Shen Zhiqiang; Yu Guoce; Wang Jianlong

    2009-01-01

    The effect and aftereffect of radiation pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma ray were studied. It is shown that irradiation can cause significant breakdown of the structure of wheat straw. The mass loss of wheat straw increases and the size distribution after crushing moves to fine particles at elevated irradiation doses. A synergistic effect between irradiation and crushing was observed, with a glucose yield of 10.2% at a dose of 500 kGy with powder of 0.109 mm. The aftereffect of irradiation has important impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. The aftereffect of 400 kGy irradiation accounts for 20.1% of the initial effect for glucose production, and the aftereffects of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kGy account for 12.9%, 14.9%, 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively, for reducing sugar production. (authors)

  7. Effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw for producing sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of γ-rays radiation pretreatment on enzymatic of corn straw for producing sugar was studied. The relationship between irradiation-dosage and content of reducing sugar was investigated in DNS method. After 1000 kGy irradiation, the content of reducing sugar reached about 317.35%. A synergistic effect between irradiation and enzyme was observed. The reducing sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 20.51% when the corn straw powder (0.15 mm) irradiated with a dose of 1000 kGy. The result shows that the irradiation had significant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. At the 500 kGy pre-irradiation, compared with initial yield, the maximum sugar yield of sample had increased by 13.68% while the irradiated corn straw stored in 20 days. (authors)

  8. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  9. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  10. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 a...

  11. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  12. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  13. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  14. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  16. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  17. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2012-01-01

    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  18. Effects on soil quality of biochar and straw amendment in conjunction with chemical fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-li; ZHONG Zhe-ke; YANG Hui-min

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on chemical and microbiological properties of paddy soil of short-term biochar,straw,and chemical fertilizers compared with chemical fertilization alone.Five soil fertilization treatments were evaluated:regular chemical fertilizers (RF),straw+regular chemical fertilizers (SRF),straw biochar+regular chemical fertilizers (SCRF),bamboo biochar (BC)+regular chemical fertilizers (BCRF),and straw biochar+70% regular chemical fertilizers (SC+70%RF).Their effects were investigated after approximately 1.5 years.The soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly higher in biochar-treated soils.The soil phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) contents increased with biochar application.The soil Colwell P content was significantly increased with the addition of straw biochar in the treatments of SCRF and SC+70%RF.The oxygen (O):carbon (C) ratio doubled in BC picked from the soil.This indicated that BC underwent a significant oxidation process in the soil.The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of microbial communities differed among the treatments.Soils with added biochar had higher Shannon diversity and species richness indices than soils without biochars.The results suggest that biochar can improve soil fertility.

  19. Effect of Additions on Ensiling and Microbial Community of Senesced Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Joni M. Barnes; Tracy P. Houghton

    2005-04-01

    Crop residues collected during or after grain harvest are available once per year and must be stored for extended periods. The combination of air, high moisture, and high microbial loads leads to shrinkage during storage and risk of spontaneous ignition. Ensiling is a wet preservation method that could be used to store these residues stably. To economically adapt ensiling to biomass that is harvested after it has senesced, the need for nutrient, moisture, and microbial additions must be determined. We tested the ensiling of senesced wheat straw in sealed columns for 83 d. The straw was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and amended with several levels of water and free sugars. The ability to stabilize the straw polysaccharides was strongly influenced by both moisture and free sugars. Without the addition of sugar, the pH increased from 5.2 to as much as 9.1, depending on moisture level, and losses of 22% of the cellulose and 21% of the hemicellulose were observed. By contrast, when sufficient sugars were added and interstitial water was maintained, a final pH of 4.0 was attainable, with correspondingly low (<5%) losses of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results show that ensiling should be considered a promising method for stable storage of wet biorefinery feedstocks.

  20. Effect of oxalic acid and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of UF-bonded rice straw particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy; Altaf H. Basta

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) and steam-pretreatment on the primary performance of rice straw particleboards. In addition, the effect of various treatment conditions on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles was investigated. The results show that steam- and short durations of OA-treatment significantly improved the mechanical...

  1. [Effects of Warming and Straw Application on Soil Respiration and Enzyme Activity in a Winter Wheat Cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Zheng-hua

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the effects of warming and straw application on soil respiration and enzyme activity, a field experiment was performed from November 2014 to May 2015. Four treatments, which were control (CK), warming, straw application, and warming and straw application, were arranged in field. Seasonal variability in soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture for different treatments were measured. Urease, invertase, and catalase activities for different treatments were measured at the elongation, booting, and anthesis stages. The results showed that soil respiration in different treatments had similar seasonal variation patterns. Seasonal mean soil respiration rates for the CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments were 1.46, 1.96, 1.92, and 2.45 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. ANOVA indicated that both warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration compared to the control treatment. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature in different treatments fitted with the exponential regression function. The exponential regression functions explained 34.3%, 28.1%, 24.6%, and 32.0% variations of soil respiration for CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments, respectively. Warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration and urease activity fitted with a linear regression function, with the P value of 0.061. The relationship between soil respiration and invertase (P = 0.013), and between soil respiration and catalase activity (P = 0.002) fitted well with linear regression functions.

  2. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Effects of Crop Straw Returning with Lime on Activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in Paddy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Zhong-ying

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw returning is an important measure for increasing soil carbon fixation and soil fertility in China, but it also may result in some risk of raising activity of heavy metals in the soil. In order to understand the effects of different sources of crop straw on heavy metals activity in soil with different pollution levels, and to take appropriate measures to prevent the activation of heavy metals in the soil, both pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of crop straw returning with lime on activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in paddy soil. The experiments were carried out in the soils with both light and heavy pollution of heavy metals. In the pot experiment, three straws, including rice straw with heavy pollution of heavy metals, rice straw with light pollution of heavy metals, and rape straw with light pollution of heavy metals, were tested. Two dosages of lime(0 kg·hm-2 and 750 kg·hm-2were applied. Field experiment had three treatments, ie., control without application of straw and lime, straw returning and straw returning + lime. Soil available heavy metals, accumulation of heavy metals in rice grain, and chemical forms of soil heavy metals were dynamical monitored. The results showed that crop straw returning increased significantly the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and water soluble heavy metals in paddy soils at the early stage of experiment (in first 20 days. The increase in water soluble heavy metals in the soil with heavy pollution of heavy metals was most obvious as compared with the control treatment. After 60th day of the experiment, the effects of straw returning on the activity of heavy metals in the soil decreased gradually with the time, and became no obvious. The concentrations of water soluble heavy metals in the soil treated with rape straw was generally lower than that of rice straw, while those in the soil treated with heavy pollution of rice straw was higher than low pollution of rice

  5. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  6. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  7. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.J.; Steele, M.A.; DeVries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding

  8. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing period in a cold region in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Yan, Peiru; Li, Tianxiao; Cui, Song; Peng, Li

    2018-04-01

    To study the effect of straw mulching on soil water evaporation, it is necessary to measure soil water evaporation under different conditions of straw mulching during the soil thawing period. A field experiment was conducted in winter, and soil evaporation was measured using a microlysimeter on bare land (LD) and 4500 (GF4500), 9000 (GF9000) and 13500 kg/hm2 (GF13500) straw mulch. The influence of different quantities of straw mulch on soil water evaporation during the thawing period was analyzed using the Mallat algorithm, statistical analysis and information cost function. The results showed that straw mulching could delay the thawing of the surface soil by 3-6 d, decrease the speed at which the surface soil thaws by 0.40-0.80 cm/d, delay the peak soil liquid water content, increase the soil liquid water content, reduce the cumulative evaporation by 2.70-7.40 mm in the thawing period, increase the range of soil evaporation by 0.04-0.10 mm in the early stage of the thawing period, and reduce the range of soil evaporation by 0.25-0.90 mm in the late stage of the thawing period. Straw mulching could reduce the range of and variation in soil evaporation and can reduce the effect of random factors on soil evaporation. When the amount of straw mulch exceeded 9000 kg/hm2, the effect of increasing the amount of straw mulch on daily soil water evaporation was small.

  9. Mechanisms of the stimulatory effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on rice straw hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; He, Guofu; Xu, Yatong [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, Weimin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant, as an addition to rice straw hydrolysis bioprocess, could not only stimulate the hydrolysis rate, but also reduce the requirement for large amount of cellulases and promote its recycling process. In this article, through the observation of the changes of cellulases, microorganism, substrate and their mutual functions, the mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis were investigated. The study found that the addition of rhamnolipid increases the activity of {beta}-glucosidase but stabilizes Cel7A activity. The observed results might be the main mechanisms triggering the stimulatory effect of adding biosurfactants on rice straw hydrolysis. Meanwhile, zeta potential of the substrate increased, which could make the resistance of the cell attached to the substrate weaker. This in turn could facilitate easy adhesion and better retention of the microbial cell in the media. Moreover, we discovered that lignin content played an important role in the stimulatory effect of adding rhamnolipid. The adsorption of rhamnolipid biosurfactant prevented unproductive binding of enzymes to lignin. This could be another important mechanism responsible for the stimulatory effects of adding rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis. (author)

  10. Assessment of effect of chemical treatment to carnauba's fibers straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, T.M.P. de; Carvalho, L.F.M.; Oliveira, R.R. de; Sousa, F.M.S. de; Sousa, R.C. de; Marques, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite materials has been highlighted in the scientific field. However, its application in polymer matrices usually requires surface modifications. The objective of this work was to treat carnauba's straw fibers with NaOH 1 % and NaOH 5% solutions and measure the water absorption. We used the X-ray diffraction (XRD configuration “Bragg- Brentano) for verification of the crystalline phases and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify functional groups. The alkali treatment allowed the solubilization of the hemicellulose and lignin without causing changes to cellulose, as indicated by FTIR spectrophotometry and by the increase in crystallinity content. The samples showed the typical peaks of constituents of the fiber. The natural fiber showed an average water absorption of 256 %; fiber treated with NaOH 1%, 315 %; and treated with NaOH 5%, 405 %. Therefore, it is evident improvement in hydrophilicity, fundamental aspect in the interaction fiber / matrix. (author)

  11. The Effect of wheat straw particle size on the mechanical and water absorption properties of wheat straw/low density polyethylene biocomposites for packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Tajeddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural composites with biodegradability properties can be used as a renewable alternative to replacing conventional plastics. Thus, to reduce the plastics applications in the packaging industry, biocomposites content of wheat straw (with 40, 100, 140 mesh as a natural biodegradable composite and low density polyethylene (LDPE as a common synthetic polymer in the packaging industry were prepared and characterized by the mechanical and water absorption properties. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride was used as a compatibilizer material. Morphology of wheat straw flour was studied by optical microscope to obtain the aspect ratio (L/D. The tensile and flexural tests were applied for determining mechanical properties and scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for particles distribution and sample structures. The water absorption of the samples was calculated by weight difference. The results indicated that the particle size of wheat straw four and the L/D amount are Significantly affected on the tensile strength and water absorption of the samples. However, the effect of wheat sraw particle size on the flexural strength was not significant. Overall conclusions show that by increasing the particle size of the filler (wheat straw, can prepare the biocomposite with better tensile strength and less water absorption compared with smaller particle size.

  12. Effect of fertilizer prepared from human feces and straw on germination, growth and development of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianlei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui; Hu, Dawei; Qin, Youcai; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste treatment is one of the most important rate-limiting steps in the material circulation and energy flow of Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In our previous work, an efficient and controllable solid waste bio-convertor has been built and a solid waste degradation efficiency of 41.0% has been reached during a 105-d BLSS experiment. However, the fermented residues should be further utilized to fulfill the closure of the system. One solution might be to use the residues as the fertilizer for plant cultivation. Thus in this study, substrates were prepared using different ratios of the fermented residues to the vermiculite. And the influences of different ratios of the fermented residues on the seed germination, growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant capacity of wheat were studied. The results showed that the optimal rate of the fermented residue was 5%. With this ratio, the seed germination reached 97.3% with the root length, shoot length and biomass production as 59 mm, 52 mm and 150 mg, respectively, at the 4th day. Besides, the highest straw height of 25.1 cm was obtained at the 21st day. The salinity adversely affected the growth and some relevant metabolic processes of wheat. The Group-40% led to the lowest seed germination of 34.7% and the minimum straw height of 15 cm. This inhibition might be caused by the high Na content of 2118 mg/kg in the fermented residues. Chlorophyll b was more sensitive to the mineral nutrition stress and affects the wheat photosynthetic characteristics. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and reduced antioxidant enzymes may contribute, directly and/or indirectly, to the decline in the observed pigment contents in wheat.

  13. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  14. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-03-15

    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated lands. Therefore, it is necessary to find the right soil practices for more sustainable viticulture. In this regard, straw mulching has proven to be effective in other crop and fire affected soils, but, nonetheless, little research has been carried out in vineyards. This research tests the effect of barley straw mulching on soil erosion and surface runoff on vineyards in Eastern Spain where the soil and water losses are non-sustainable. An experiment was setup using rainfall simulation tests at 55 mm h(-1) over 1h on forty paired plots of 0.24 m(2): twenty bare and twenty straw covered. Straw cover varied from 48 to 90% with a median value of 59% as a result of the application of 75 g of straw per m(2). The use of straw mulch resulted in delayed ponding and runoff generation and, as a consequence, the median water loss decreased from 52.59 to 39.27% of the total rainfall. The straw cover reduced the median sediment concentration in runoff from 9.8 to 3.0 g L(-1) and the median total sediment detached from 70.34 to 15.62 g per experiment. The median soil erosion rate decreased from 2.81 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1)h(-1) due to the straw mulch protection. Straw mulch is very effective in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff, and this benefit was achieved immediately after the application of the straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on particle board properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Naveed, S.; Yousaf, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard. Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110 degree C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 and 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80 degree C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour. (author)

  16. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  17. γ-ray radiation effect on properties of straw powder/PBS composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Luo Yongquan; Liu Wentao; Zhu Jun; Guo Dongquan; Li Zhaopeng; Gen Feng; Qu Lingbo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, with decreasing global fossil resources and increasing 'white pollution', renewable and biodegradable materials attract more and more attentions. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) has good mechanical property, biodegradability and processing performance, which is the focus of hot topics in the study of biodegradable plastic materials, however, being soft and of high cost, it is still limited in application range. Purpose: In order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties, a series of wheat straw powder/PBS composites were prepared by melt extrusion, and then the 60 Co-y ray was directly utilized to irradiate the straw powder/PBS composite. Methods: The influence of TAIC (triallyl isocyanurate) radiation absorbed dose and radiation sensitizer on the mechanical property and thermal performance of straw powder/PBS composite was investigated, and the impact fracture surface morphology of the composite was observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). Results: The tensile strength and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing radiation dosage, and then tend to be stable, the heat distortion temperature also increased but not significantly with increasing radiation dosage. The results show that when TAIC content is 2%, with straw powder/PBS composite irradiated by 30-kGy dose, the tensile strength and flexural strength are increased by 26% and 39.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The radiation modification of composite material has no effect on thermal stability, but do improve the tensile strength and flexural strength when up to 2% of TAIC is integrated and irradiated by certain dose. The interface cohesiveness between straw powder and PBS is strengthened after radiation. (authors)

  18. Pen-mate directed behaviour in ad libitum fed pigs given different quantities and frequencies of straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Lahrmann, H. P.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Straw stimulates explorative behaviour and is therefore attractive to pigs. Further, it can be effective in reducing negative pen-mate directed behaviours. Under most commercial conditions, straw can only be used in limited amounts as it can be difficult to handle in most vacuum slurry systems...... as a control treatment, against which the other treatments (quantities T25 and T50) and frequencies of straw allocations (T2×50 and T4×25) were tested. Three focal pigs per pen were randomly chosen and observed for 15 min per hour where tail-in-mouth, ear-in-mouth, aggression and other pen-mate directed...... behaviour were recorded. In addition, residual straw in the pens was assessed using four categories ranging from straw in a thin layer; little straw; few straws; and soiled straw. Pigs were active for about 30% of the registered time, but overall no differences in total pen-mate directed behaviour (tail...

  19. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  20. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ling Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001. However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001. The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05. Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01 with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001 by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001 increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L.

  1. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. Report from a test series with coconut shells, coconut husks, wheat straw and sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-08-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10 per cent diesel oil and 90 per cent producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present results are not optimal for any of the fuel used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using appropriately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  2. Immediate acoustic effects of straw phonation exercises in subjects with dysphonic voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Higueras, Diego; Fincheira, Catherine; Muñoz, Daniel; Guajardo, Carlos; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study sought to measure any acoustic changes in the speaking voice immediately after phonation exercises involving plastic straws versus phonation exercises with the open vowel /a/. Forty-one primary school teachers with slightly dysphonic voices were asked to participate in four phonatory tasks. Phonetically balanced text at habitual intensity level and speaking fundamental frequency was recorded. Acoustical analysis with long-term average spectrum was performed. Significant changes after therapy for the experimental group include the alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio and ratio between 1-5 kHz and 5-8 kHz. The results indicate that the use of phonatory tasks with straw exercises can have immediate therapeutic acoustic effects in dysphonic voices. Long-term effects were not assessed in this study.

  3. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  4. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  5. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  6. Effects of Straw Return in Deep Soils with Urea Addition on the Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in a Semi-Arid Temperate Cornfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongtao; Ye, Xuhong; Li, Jiaqi; Lu, Jia; Fan, Qingfeng; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yuling; Dang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Returning straw to deep soil layers by using a deep-ditching-ridge-ploughing method is an innovative management practice that improves soil quality by increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. However, the optimum quantity of straw return has not been determined. To solve this practical production problem, the following treatments with different amounts of corn straw were investigated: no straw return, CK; 400 kg ha-1 straw, S400; 800 kg ha-1 straw, S800; 1200 kg ha-1 straw, S1200; and 1600 kg ha-1 straw, S1600. After straw was returned to the soil for two years, the microbial biomass C (MBC), easily oxidized organic C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and light fraction organic C (LFOC) content were measured at three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40 cm). The results showed that the combined application of 800 kg ha-1 straw significantly increased the EOC, MBC, and LFOC contents and was a suitable agricultural practice for this region. Moreover, our results demonstrated that returning straw to deep soil layers was effective for increasing the SOC content.

  7. Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhu

    Full Text Available Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC, dissolved organic C (DOC and microbial biomass C (MBC contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.

  8. Effect of different ratios of cow manure and corn straw on the mixed anaerobic fermentation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshan JIANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of the different ratios on the anaerobic fermentation rate is investigated, and the rate-limiting factors are preliminarily determined, at mesophilic (38±1℃ condition, with anaerobic granular sludge as inoculums, different ratios of cow manure and corn straw are used as substrate for mixed anaerobic fermentation. By measuring daily biogas production, the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 in the marsh gas, TC, the concentration of VFAs and pH value, The results show that under the mixture ratio of 2∶1, the hydrolysis rate constants, cumulative biogas yield and biodegradability CH4 reach their high limits, which are 0.043 7 d-1, 271.93 mL/g and 71.59%, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the concentration of acetic acid is proportional to the amount of cow manure at the beginning (the first day of mixed fermentation, and the concentration of propionicacid is proportional to the amount of corn straw in medium fermentation stage (the fifth day. In addition, rate-limiting step of biogas production is related to the ratio of cow manure and corn in fermentation material. With the increasing of corn straw proportion, on the 1st day, it tends to hydrolysis acidogenesis; from the 2th day to 15th day, it tends to hydrogen-production acetogenisis; and from the 16th day to 30th day, it is hydrolysis acidogenesis. The paper focuses on the relationship between the ratio of cow manure and corn straw and the rate-limiting step for biogas production, which could provide a theoretical and experimental support for improving the efficiency of biogas production in mixed fermentation.

  9. Sugarcane straw harvest effects on soil quality and plant growth: preliminary data synthesis of a multi-local project running in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2017-04-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world, and consequently, it is one of major players in the bioenergy production sector. Despite that, growing demands for bioenergies have raised the interest of Brazilian sugarcane industry to harvest the sugarcane straw left on the field for cellulosic ethanol production and/or bioelectricity cogeneration. However, crop residues have a key role in the soil, affecting directly or indirectly multiple soil functions and related ecosystem services. Therefore, indiscriminate straw harvest could jeopardize soil quality, decreasing its capacity to sustain plant productivity over time. In order to evaluate the potential impacts of sugarcane straw harvest on soil quality and plant growth, we are conducting since 2014 a multi-local project across central-southern Brazil, the main core of sugarcane production in the world. A wide range of soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, as well as, plant biomass production has been quantified under increasing straw harvest intensities. Our preliminary findings have showed that short-term straw harvest management did not affect total organic C stocks; however, high straw harvest led to significant reduction in labile C forms (e.g., microbial biomass C and N), and abundance of microbial communities as well. Sugarcane straw harvest affects soil nutrient cycling, since significant amount of nutrients are removed annually by straw, especially in top (green) leaves. In addition, our data show that straw acts as a thermal insulator, decreasing soil temperature amplitude and keeping soil moisture for a longer time. Straw harvest management did not affect sugarcane yields in the first two crop seasons. Based on this first synthesis of the project, we conclude that short-term sugarcane straw harvest led to soil changes, especially in more sensitive and dynamic properties, which did not affect the plant yield. However, long-term impacts should be monitored towards a better

  10. Effects of sodium carbonate pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linfeng; Cao, Jie; Jin, Yongcan; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard; Li, Zhongzheng

    2012-11-01

    The effects of sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic saccharification of rice straw were investigated. The enzymatic digestibility of rice straw is enhanced after pretreatment since pretreated solids show significant delignification with high sugar availability. During pretreatment, an increasing temperature and Na(2)CO(3) charge leads to enhanced delignification, whereas an increased degradation of polysaccharides as well, of which xylan acts more susceptible than glucan. The sugar recovery of enzymatic hydrolysis goes up rapidly with the total titratable alkali (TTA) increasing from 0% to 8%, and then it reaches a plateau. The highest sugar recovery of rice straw after pretreatment, 71.7%, 73.2%, and 76.1% for total sugar, glucan, and xylan, respectively, is obtained at 140°C, TTA 8% and cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-cellulose. In this condition, the corresponding delignification ratio of pretreated solid is 41.8%, while 95% of glucan and 76% of xylan are conserved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on batch anaerobic digestion of maize straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Shailendra; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Zhang, Wanqin; Li, Jiaxi; Dong, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect of NaOH treatment and Fe dosage to maize straw was investigated. • Combining NaOH treatment and Fe dosing resulted in 57% and 56% higher biogas and methane yield respectively. • Combined treatment shortened the technical digestion time from 48 days to 7 days. • Methane content did not differ significantly among the straw treatments. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated using mesophilic batch reactors. Three straw treatments were investigated as follows: NaOH (4% and 6%) pretreatment, Fe dosage (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and combined NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage. Compared to the control, NaOH pretreatment alone increased methane yield by 3.5% (313.3 mL CH_4/gVS) and 22.5% (370.9 mL CH_4/gVS) and shortened the technical digestion time (TDT) from 48 days to 19 days and 10 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. Moreover, Fe dosing (200–1000 mg/L) alone gave a methane yield higher (9.4%) than that obtained from 4% NaOH and 7.5% less than the methane yield from 6% NaOH pretreatment; however, the TDT was 10 days longer. Combining NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage (200–1000 mg/L) significantly increased the methane yield even further to 21.8% (368.8 mL CH_4/gVS) and 56.2% (472.9 mL CH_4/gVS), and shortened TDT from 48 days to 13 days and 7 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. This synergistic effect may be attributed to the fact that the alkaline treatment improved accessibility of the biodegradable fraction of the straw while Fe contributed to increased microbial enzyme activity.

  12. The effect of pretreatment using sodium hydroxide and acetic acid to biogas production from rice straw waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is agricultural waste containing high potency to be treated to biogas. However, the usage of rice straw is still limited due to high lignin content that will cause low biodegradability. The aim of this research was to study the effect of pretreatment using NaOH and acetic acid to biogas production from rice straw. NaOH was varied from 2%w, 4%w, and 6%w; and acetic acid was varied from 0,075 M, 0,15 M dan 0,75 M. The rice straw was cut into 1 cm size and submerged for 30 minutes in NaOH and acetic acid solution. The rice straw then filtered and neutralized before sending to anaerobic digestion process using rumen fluid bacteria. Biogas produced was measured using water displacement method. The result showed that the optimum concentration of NaOH solution was 4%w that resulted in biogas volume of 21,1 ml/gTS. Meanwhile, the optimum concentration of acetic acid pretreatment was 0,075 M that produced biogas volume of 14,5 ml/gTS. These results suggest that pretreatment using NaOH solution is more effective for decreasing the lignin content from rice straw.

  13. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıc Unal; Gulecyuz Emre

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV) and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD) of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws), 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available) and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses) in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial...

  16. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  17. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  18. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    of metabolites and hormones in pregnant sows. Ten groups of three pregnant sows were housed in pens with concrete floor where a limited amount of chopped straw (approx. 330 g/sow) was provided daily. In 5 of the 10 groups sows had free access to uncut straw in racks in addition to the chopped straw (Ad libitum...

  19. Possibilities for sustainable biorefineries based on agricultural residues – A case study of potential straw-based ethanol production in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Anna; Wallberg, Ola; Joelsson, Elisabeth; Börjesson, Pål

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Biorefineries can produce ethanol, biogas, heat and power efficiently with profit. ► Location of plant is decided by raw material supply in the region. ► Increased production of high value compounds affects profitability. ► Energy efficiency is increased by availability of heat sinks. ► Several locations may be suitable for construction of a biorefinery plant. -- Abstract: This study presents a survey of the most important techno-economic factors for the implementation of biorefineries based on agricultural residues, in the form of straw, and biochemical conversion into ethanol and biogas, together with production of electricity and heat. The paper suggests locations where the necessary conditions can be met in Sweden. The requirements identified are regional availability of feedstock, the possibility to integrate with external heat sinks, appropriate process design and the scale of the plant. The scale of the plant should be adapted to the potential, regional, raw-material supply, but still be large enough to give economies of scale. The integration with heat sinks proved to be most important to achieve high energy-efficiency, but it was of somewhat less importance for the profitability. Development of pentose fermentation, leading to higher ethanol yields, was important to gain high profitability. Promising locations were identified in the county of Östergötland where integration with an existing 1st generation ethanol plant and district heating systems (DHSs) is possible, and in the county of Skåne where both a significant, potential straw supply and integration potential with DHSs are available.

  20. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  2. Effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production kinetics and rumen fermentation profiles of three common straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production (GP and rumen fermentation profiles of common straws, in vitro cultivation was conducted for 96 h with the rumen fluid collected from steers. Different types of straw had various chemical compositions, which were affected by steam explosion (P<0.01. Steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the rate and volume of GP, lag time disappeared and asymptotic GP decreased, which were also affected (P<0.01 by the type of straw. The type of straw influenced (P<0.05 the final pH, while steam explosion exerted an effect (P<0.01 on the ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The proportions of individual volatile fatty acid (VFA, except acetate (A, differed (P<0.05 among the feeds. Steam explosion increased total VFA production and the proportion of propionate (P, while decreased the proportions of A, isobutyrate and valerate as well as the ratio A/P (P<0.01. The type of straw had an effect (P<0.05 on the activities of avicelase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, while steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the activities of avicelase, CMCase, β-glucanase and xylanase. The available energy concentrations and digestibilities differed (P<0.01 in the feeds and were increased (P<0.05 with steam explosion processing. The interaction straw type×treatments was significant (P<0.05 for most monitored parameters. These results suggest that steam explosion could improve rumen fermentability and energy utilisation of straw, being an effective pre-treatment method in feed industry.

  3. Effects of straw incorporation along with microbial inoculant on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Hua, E-mail: hxu@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Qinyan; Yang, Jinghui; Zhuang, Yiqing [Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Science of Hilly Regions in Jiangsu, Jurong 212400 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Incorporation of straw together with microbial inoculant (a microorganism agent, accelerating straw decomposition) is being increasingly adopted in rice cultivation, thus its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions merits serious attention. A 3-year field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate combined effect of straw and microbial inoculant on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a rice field in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. The experiment was designed to have treatment NPK (N, P and K fertilizers only), treatment NPKS (NPK plus wheat straw), treatment NPKSR (NPKS plus Ruilaite microbial inoculant) and treatment NPKSJ (NPKS plus Jinkuizi microbial inoculant). Results show that compared to NPK, NPKS increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 280–1370%, while decreasing N{sub 2}O emission by 7–13%. When compared with NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ increased seasonal CH{sub 4} emission by 7–13% and 6–12%, respectively, whereas reduced N{sub 2}O emission by 10–27% and 9–24%, respectively. The higher CH{sub 4} emission could be attributed to the higher soil CH{sub 4} production potential triggered by the combined application of straw and microbial inoculant, and the lower N{sub 2}O emission to the decreased inorganic N content. As a whole, the benefit of lower N{sub 2}O emission was completely offset by increased CH{sub 4} emission, resulting in a higher GWP for NPKSR (5–12%) and NPKSJ (5–11%) relative to NPKS. Due to NPKSR and NPKSJ increased rice grain yield by 3–6% and 2–4% compared to NPKS, the GHGI values for NPKS, NPKSR and NPKSJ were comparable. These findings suggest that incorporating straw together with microbial inoculant would not influence the radiative forcing of rice production in the terms of per unit of rice grain yield relative to the incorporation of straw alone. - Highlights: • This paper presents 3-year measurements of CH

  4. Microbial Activity and Silica Degradation in Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther Jin-kyung

    Abundantly available agricultural residues like rice straw have the potential to be feedstocks for bioethanol production. Developing optimized conditions for rice straw deconstruction is a key step toward utilizing the biomass to its full potential. One challenge associated with conversion of rice straw to bioenergy is its high silica content as high silica erodes machinery. Another obstacle is the availability of enzymes that hydrolyze polymers in rice straw under industrially relevant conditions. Microbial communities that colonize compost may be a source of enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to products because composting systems operate under thermophilic and high solids conditions that have been shown to be commercially relevant. Compost microbial communities enriched on rice straw could provide insight into a more targeted source of enzymes for the breakdown of rice straw polysaccharides and silica. Because rice straw is low in nitrogen it is important to understand the impact of nitrogen concentrations on the production of enzyme activity by the microbial community. This study aims to address this issue by developing a method to measure microbial silica-degrading activity and measure the effect of nitrogen amendment to rice straw on microbial activity and extracted enzyme activity during a high-solids, thermophilic incubation. An assay was developed to measure silica-degrading enzyme or silicase activity. This process included identifying methods of enzyme extraction from rice straw, identifying a model substrate for the assay, and optimizing measurement techniques. Rice straw incubations were conducted with five different levels of nitrogen added to the biomass. Microbial activity was measured by respiration and enzyme activity. A microbial community analysis was performed to understand the shift in community structure with different treatments. With increased levels of nitrogen, respiration and cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activity

  5. The effect of straw and wood gasification biochar on carbon sequestration, selected soil fertility indicators and functional groups in soil: an incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Annual removal of crop residues may lead to depletion of soil organic carbon and soil degradation. Gasification biochar (GB), the carbon-rich byproduct of gasification of biomass such as straw and wood chips, may be used for maintaining the soil organic carbon content and counteract soil degradat......Annual removal of crop residues may lead to depletion of soil organic carbon and soil degradation. Gasification biochar (GB), the carbon-rich byproduct of gasification of biomass such as straw and wood chips, may be used for maintaining the soil organic carbon content and counteract soil......, the addition of straw resulted in a high soil respiration rate, and about 80% of the added carbonwas respired at the end of the incubation. However, the addition of straw increased aggregate stability and decreased clay dispersibility. Results from Fourier transformed infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy...

  6. Effects of wheat straw incorporation on the availability of soil nutrients and enzyme activities in semiarid areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wei

    Full Text Available Soil infertility is the main barrier to dryland agricultural production in China. To provide a basis for the establishment of a soil amelioration technical system for rainfed fields in the semiarid area of northwest China, we conducted a four-year (2007-2011 field experiment to determine the effects of wheat straw incorporation on the arid soil nutrient levels of cropland cultivated with winter wheat after different straw incorporation levels. Three wheat straw incorporation levels were tested (H: 9000 kg hm(-2, M: 6000 kg hm(-2, and L: 3000 kg hm(-2 and no straw incorporation was used as the control (CK. The levels of soil nutrients, soil organic carbon (SOC, soil labile organic carbon (LOC, and enzyme activities were analyzed each year after the wheat harvest. After straw incorporation for four years, the results showed that variable straw amounts had different effects on the soil fertility indices, where treatment H had the greatest effect. Compared with CK, the average soil available N, available P, available K, SOC, and LOC levels were higher in the 0-40 cm soil layers after straw incorporation treatments, i.e., 9.1-30.5%, 9.8-69.5%, 10.3-27.3%, 0.7-23.4%, and 44.4-49.4% higher, respectively. On average, the urease, phosphatase, and invertase levels in the 0-40 cm soil layers were 24.4-31.3%, 9.9-36.4%, and 42.9-65.3% higher, respectively. Higher yields coupled with higher nutrient contents were achieved with H, M and L compared with CK, where these treatments increased the crop yields by 26.75%, 21.51%, and 7.15%, respectively.

  7. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıc Unal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws, 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial design. A Daisy incubator was used to determine the IVTD of the feeds. According to the results, molasses and guar meal increased the RFV of soybean straws, while molasses and guar meal treatments and sepiolite did not affect the RFV of wheat straws. It was observed that sepiolite increased the RFV’s of soybean straw for guar meal and guar meal+molasses. The higher IVTD’s were found for guar meal (without sepiolite treatment of soybean straw and guar meal (with sepiolite treatment of wheat straw. Molasses and guar meal addition to wheat and soybean straws improved the crude protein contents. In conclusion, straw pelleting can be used as an alternative forage conservation method to close the gap in forage supply during the winter.

  8. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Ling Zhang; Yong Chen; Xiao Li Xu; Yu Xia Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  9. Effect of low doses of X-rays on grain and straw yield of Setaria italica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Fendrik, I.

    1976-01-01

    Dry or pre-soaked seeds were irradiated with 250-1,500 R/h of X-rays at a dose rate of 1,000 R/h and sown into pots. Till harvest normal cultural practices were employed. A stimulation of grain and straw yield was only obtained by irradiation of dry seeds. Irradiation of pre-soaked seeds was ineffective or somewhat harmful. The absence of any effects in post-soaked seeds indicated that early hydration of seeds after irradiation results in a stabilization of the damage. (MG) [de

  10. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether 137 Cs and 90 Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with 137 Cs and 90 Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. - Highlights: ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.

  11. Herbicide effect on 14C cellulose and 14C straw decomposition in soils. Influence of phenylcarbamates on biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, T.; Bellinck, Celine; Mayaudon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Aniline, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, simazine and paraquat have no effect on cellulose decomposition in soils. The monophenylcarbamates SN 38210, IPC and CIPC, applied at 500 ppm exert per contra an important inhibitory effect. The decomposition of straw is little influenced by the phenylcarbamates, 100 ppm of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T or simazine significantly increase the decomposition of straw in a sandy soil. The diphenylcarbamate SN 38584 has little effect on biological activity of soils; this is strongly inhibited by application of 500 ppm of SN 38210. This inhibition may be reduced by amending the soil with lignin but addition of straw or cellulose doesn't enhance biological activity of soil. Addition of 5000 ppm of soil extract or humic acids reduces somewhat the toxicity of SN 38210 [fr

  12. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  13. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  14. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  15. Effects of Crop Straw Returning with Lime on Activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in Paddy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    NI Zhong-ying; SHEN Qian; ZHANG Ming-kui

    2017-01-01

    Crop straw returning is an important measure for increasing soil carbon fixation and soil fertility in China, but it also may result in some risk of raising activity of heavy metals in the soil. In order to understand the effects of different sources of crop straw on heavy metals activity in soil with different pollution levels, and to take appropriate measures to prevent the activation of heavy metals in the soil, both pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of crop s...

  16. Co-production of bio-ethanol, xylonic acid and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer from low-cost straw pulping solid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Yang; Zhou, Xuelian; He, Juan; Huang, Caoxing; Lai, Chenhuan; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    A novel bio-refinery sequence yielding varieties of co-products was developed using straw pulping solid residue. This process utilizes neutral sulfite pretreatment which under optimal conditions (160 °C and 3% (w/v) sulfite charge) provides 64.3% delignification while retaining 90% of cellulose and 67.3% of xylan. The pretreated solids exhibited excellent enzymatic digestibility, with saccharification yields of 86.9% and 81.1% for cellulose and xylan, respectively. After pretreatment, the process of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) and bio-catalysis was investigated. The results revealed that decreased ethanol yields were achieved when solid loading increased from 5% to 30%. An acceptable ethanol yield of 76.8% was obtained at 20% solid loading. After fermentation, bio-catalysis of xylose remaining in fermentation broth resulted in near 100% xylonic acid (XA) yield at varied solid loadings. To complete the co-product portfolio, oxidation ammoniation of the dissolved lignin successfully transformed it into biodegradable slow-release nitrogen fertilizer with excellent agricultural properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct conversion of straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum: effect of cellulose crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece))

    1991-03-01

    Wheat straw was successfully fermented to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 in a one-step process. Cellulose crystallinity was found to be a major factor in the bioconversion process. Ethanol yields increased linearly with decreasing crystallinity index. Approximately 80% of straw carbohydrates were converted directly to ethanol with a yield of 0.28 g ethanol/g{sup -1} of straw when the crystallinity index was reduced to 23.6%. (author).

  18. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor.......In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...

  19. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results......: A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large......-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly...

  20. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from ...

  1. Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of solid state fermentation for the improvement of the quality of rice straw as animal feed. Rice straw was fermented using Aspergillus niger (K8) with and without additional nitrogen source (urea). Cellulose, hemicelluloses, organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), acid ...

  2. Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yiyun; Wang, Xiahui; Chen, Xingxuan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian; Li, Jixiang

    2017-06-01

    Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification were investigated in this study. All cellulases tested increased the contents of phenolic acids during saccharification. However, few free phenolic acids were detected, as they were present in conjugated form after saccharification when the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger were used. On the other hand, phenolic acids were present in free form when the Acremonium cellulolyticus cellulase was used. Assays of enzyme activity showed that, besides high cellulase activity, the A. cellulolyticus cellulase exhibited high feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity. A synergistic interaction between FAE and cellulase led to the increase in free phenolic acids, and thus an increase in antioxidative and antiradical activities of the phenolic acids. Moreover, a cost estimation demonstrated the feasibility of phenolic acids as value-added products to reduce the total production cost of ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of urea treatment on digestibility and utilization of sorghum straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine male goats and nine castrated lambs were randomly divided into three groups of six animals to receive one of three experimental diets in a digestion trial. Diet S, provided chopped sorghum straw (SS, 28/ concentrate (C and 10/ Dolichos lablab hay (D. Diet Su1 provided SS containing 2/ urea, 24/ C and 12/ D, and diet Sue1 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 25/ C and 14/ D. Twenty four lambs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals to receive one of three diets in a 56-day growth trial; diet S2 provided SS plus 60/ C; diet Su2 provided SS containing 2/ urea plus 60/ C, and diet Sue2 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 60/ C. The digestion trial showed higher (P<.05 daily intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber for S, than for Sue1 and Su1. Dry matter intake was 55.93; 39.42 and 42.34 g[kgE0.75E-1 for S1, Su1 and Sue1, respectively. Dry matter intake was slightly higher for lambs [50 g[kgE0.75E-1] than for goats [42 g[kE0.75E-1]. There was no effect of dietary treatments on apparent nutrient digestibility. During the growth trial, intake of straw varied from 17.97 (S2 to 24.78 g[kgE0.75E-1 (Sue2, but differences were not significant. Daily gain did not differ between treatments. Total feed intake and feed efficiency were only slightly affected by dietary treatments. Average feed intake was 4.36/ of body weight. High concentrate intakes may have upset the effect of urea treatment and silo fermentation in this study.

  4. Effect of sodium hydroxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on the composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ghedalia, D.; Miron, J.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat straw was treated with 5% sodium hydroxide, ozone, and 5% sulphur dioxide at 70 C for 72 h, and the effect of treatments on the composition and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) by rumen microorganisms was studied. Ozone and SO/sub 2/ solubilised most or all of the straw hemicellulose, converting it into cell solubles, whereas sodium hydroxide exerted a limited effect in this direction. The level of cell solubles increased from 31.8 to 48.2 and 52.2% and that of the reducing sugars from 2.2 to 15.6 and 24.3%, by ozone and SO/sub 2/ treatments, respectively. The IVOMD of straw was significantly increased by 80% (from 44 to 80%) with SO/sub 2/, whereas NaOH and ozone improved the IVOMD by only 50% (from 44 to 66%). The initial digestibility (ID at 6 h) suggested to represent substrate fermentability was significantly increased by SO/sub 2/ from 7.4 to 29.3%. In the present study, SO/sub 2/ was found to be the most efficient treatment for wheat straw in terms of overall degradability and fermentability. The technological advantage of the proposed treatment lies in the low moisture content (40%) and the moderate temperature required (70/sup 0/C), conditions which could be attained by solar systems. 19 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  6. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical modelling of straw combustion in a 38 MWe power plant furnace and effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Bin Yang; Robert Newman; Vida Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank; John Ariss [Sheffield University, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2007-01-15

    As one of the most easily accessible renewable energy resources, straw can be burned to provide electricity and heat to local communities. In this paper, mathematical modelling methods have been employed to simulate the operation of a 38 MWe straw-burning power plant to obtain detailed information on the flow and combustion characteristics in the furnace and to predict the effect on plant performance of variation in operating conditions. The predicted data are compared to measurements in terms of burning time, furnace temperature, flue gas emissions (including NOx), carbon content in the ash and overall combustion efficiency. It is concluded that straw burning on the grate is locally sub-stoichiometric and most of the NO is formed in the downstream combustion chamber and radiation shaft; auxiliary gas burners are responsible for the uneven distribution of temperature and gas flow at the furnace exit; and fuel moisture content is limited to below 25% to prevent excessive CO emission without compromising the plant performance. The current work greatly helps to understand the operating characteristics of large-scale straw-burning plants. 33 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  9. ‘Steam explosion’ treated straw in mixed feeds for ewes: effect on milk production

    OpenAIRE

    C. Cosentino; M. Palazzo; F. Zimbardi; E. Gambacorta

    2011-01-01

    The use of by-products in animal nutrition is known since long time and considerable importance, from a quantitative point of view, is gived to straws from cereals in particular (Cianci et al., 1982; Vazhapilly et al., 1984). Straws are used as litter material or in paper industry but they are also utilised in ruminant nutrition even though the very low content in fermentable sugars. Straws are on the contrary characterised by a high cell lignified wall content that reduces digestibility by d...

  10. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  11. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    Keywords: straw mulching, soil water evaporation, soil thawing period, freezing depth, soil liquid water .... moisture and the soil water evaporation process. The Songnen Plain ...... soils on soil infiltration and evaporation: Water Sci. Technol.

  12. The effect of temperature on the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheat straw. Urea was added at 75 g/kg throughout. Treated straw was sealed in 96 airtight plastic bottles of. 1000 ml for periods of 0, 1,2,4,6 and 8 weeks. Samples were dried at 59°Cin a fan-oven and subsequently analysed according to the in vitro technique (Engels & Van der. Merwe, 1967) for organic matter digestibility ...

  13. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  14. Adsorption of Pb(II from Aqueous Solutions on Wheat Straw: Effects of Humification and Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is one of the methods used for the separation of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to investigate wheat straw humification and the capability of its microorganisms for the biosorption of Pb from aqueous solutions. Wheat straw (3 solution (0.001 N with different Pb concentrations at pH 6. Among the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkine models, only the latter failed to fit Pb adsorption data. The highest sorption capacities (qmax were obtained by the Langmuir model for the humified and unsterile sample (108.41 mg g‒1 and the lowest was obtained for the fresh and sterile sample (63.36 mg g‒1. Lead adsorption increased significantly with incubation time and its highest values were recorded with unsterile straw samples taken on days 1, 20, and 60 which were equal to 32.21, 43, and 60.96%, respectively, for the highest Pb concentration. The Langmuir constant (Kl and Freundlich constants (Kf and n were significantly higher for the more humified wheat straw samples compared to those for raw straw. All the adsorption parameters recorded higher values with the unsterile wheat straw compared to the sterile one, indicating the ability of the microorganisms to adsorb Pb from aqueous solutions.

  15. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and/or rice straw amendment on methanogenic archaeal communities and methane production from a rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qiongli; Huang, Yizong; Wang, Fenghua; Nie, Sanan; Nicol, Graeme W; Yao, Huaiying; Ding, Longjun

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and returning straw to paddy soil are important factors that regulate CH4 production. To evaluate the effect of rice straw and/or nitrate amendment on methanogens, a paddy soil was anaerobically incubated for 40 days. The results indicated that while straw addition increased CH4 production and the abundances of mcrA genes and their transcripts, nitrate amendment showed inhibitory effects on them. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis based on mcrA gene revealed that straw addition obviously changed methanogenic community structure. Based on mcrA gene level, straw-alone addition stimulated Methanosarcinaceaes at the early stage of incubation (first 11 days), but nitrate showed inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae was also stimulated by straw addition during the first 11 days. Furthermore, Methanosaetaceae were enriched by nitrate-alone addition after 11 days, while Methanocellaceae were enriched by nitrate addition especially within the first 5 days. The transcriptional methanogenic community indicated more dynamic and complicated responses to straw and/or nitrate addition. Based on mcrA transcript level, nitrate addition alone resulted in the increase of Methanocellaceae and the shift from Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae during the first 5 days of incubation. Straw treatments increased the relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae after 11 days. These results demonstrate that nitrate addition influences methanogens which are transcriptionally and functionally active and can alleviate CH4 production associated with straw amendment in paddy soil incubations, presumably through competition for common substrates between nitrate-utilizing organisms and methanogens.

  16. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  17. Allelopathic Effect of Wheat and Barley Residues on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. and Weeds Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahbyki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weeds are a major constraint limiting crop yield in agricultural systems and in organic systems in particular. Although herbicides are efficient for weed control, continuous use has caused the development of resistance in weeds against several herbicides. Furthermore, herbicides also pollute the soil, water and aerial environments and herbicide residues in food have deteriorated food quality and enhanced the risk of diseases. Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known to be allelopathic against crops and weeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effect of wheat and barley residues on weeds control and cowpea yield. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l. of Agricultural Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology in 2015. Treatments were included; weeding all season, no weeding, trifluralin according to the recommended dose (2 ton ha-1, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of wheat straw extract (concentration of 100%, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 2 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 4 ton ha-1, the application of wheat residue mixed with the soil at a rate of 8 ton ha-1, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 50%, foliar application of barley straw extract (concentration of 100%. Statistical analysis of data was performed with MSTAT-C software and means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of treatments was significant (P 0.01 on weed density and dry weight. Soil incorporation with wheat

  18. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  19. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds of rice straw formed by saccharification during ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiahui; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Xiubing; Cui, Shouqing; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, it was found that the type of phenolic acids derived from rice straw was the major factor affecting ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on ethanol fermentation with rice straw. Different cellulases produced different ratios of free phenolic acids to soluble conjugated phenolic acids, resulting in different fermentation efficiencies. Free phenolic acids exhibited much higher inhibitory effect than conjugated phenolic acids. The flow cytometry results indicated that the damage to cell membranes was the primary mechanism of inhibition of ethanol fermentation by phenolic acids. The removal of free phenolic acids from the hydrolysates increased ethanol productivity by 2.0-fold, indicating that the free phenolic acids would be the major inhibitors formed during saccharification. The integrated process for ethanol and phenolic acids may constitute a new strategy for the production of low-cost ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of straw returning combined with medium and microelements application on soil organic carbon sequestration in cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen Hui; Shi, Jiang Lan; Jia, Zhou; Ding, Ting Ting; Tian, Xiao Hong

    2016-04-22

    A 52-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of maize straw decomposition with combined medium element (S) and microelements (Fe and Zn) application on arable soil organic carbon sequestration. During the straw decomposition, the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content and CO 2 -C mineralization rate increased with the addition of S, Fe and Zn, respectively. Also, the cumulative CO 2 -C efflux after 52-day laboratory incubation significantly increased in the treatments with S, or Fe, or Zn addition, while there was no significant reduction of soil organic carbon content in the treatments. In addition, Fe or Zn application increased the inert C pools and their proportion, and apparent balance of soil organic carbon, indicating a promoting effect of Fe or Zn addition on soil organic carbon sequestration. In contrast, S addition decreased the proportion of inert C pools and apparent balance of soil organic carbon, indicating an adverse effect of S addition on soil organic carbon sequestration. The results suggested that when nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied, inclusion of S, or Fe, or Zn in straw incorporation could promote soil organic carbon mineralization process, while organic carbon sequestration was favored by Fe or Zn addition, but not by S addition.

  1. Autointoxication mechanism ofOryza sativa : III. Effect of temperature on phytotoxin production during rice straw decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C H; Chiang, Y C; Chfng, H H

    1981-07-01

    The phytotoxicity produced during decomposition of rice straw in soil was evaluated under both constant and changing temperature conditions. Bioassay tests showed that the aqueous extract from a soilstraw mixture after incubation at constant temperature was more than twice as phytotoxic as the extract from soil incubated alone. The phytotoxicity was highest at 20-25 ° C. Temperatures above 25 ° C enhanced rice straw decomposition and also degraded the phytotoxic substances more rapidly. After incubation of soil mixtures under changing temperature regimes in a phytotron, the phytotoxicy of the soil aqueous extracts increased in the following order: soil alone lettuce or rice seedlings was also at the highest at the temperature range of 25-30 ° C irrespective of the direction of temperature changes from either low to high or vice versa. Five phytotoxic phenolics,p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic,p-coumaric, syringic, and ferulic acids, were obtained from both the aqueous extract and residue of the incubated soil samples and were quantitatively estimated by chromatography. The amount of phytotoxins found in various soil mixtures followed the same increasing order as that found by the seed bioassay test. Although no definite distribution pattern of the phenolics in the incubated soil samples can be attributed to temperature variations, the amount of the phenolics was likely higher in the samples incubated at 25 ° C than at either 15 ° C or 35 ° C. The quantity of toxins released during decomposition of rice straw in soil reached highest levels six weeks after incubation and gradually disappeared after twelve weeks.

  2. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  3. Effect of pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw with laccase-displaying yeast on ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jun Gu; Fukai, Kotaro; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences; Nakatani, Masato [Daiwa Kasei, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    A gene encoding laccase I was identified and cloned from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Ha1. Laccase I contained 10 introns and an original secretion signal sequence. After laccase I without introns was prepared by overlapping polymerase chain reaction, it was inserted into expression vector pULD1 for yeast cell surface display. The oxidation activity of a laccase-I-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst was examined with 2,2{sup '}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and the constructed yeast showed a high oxidation activity. After the pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw (HPRS) with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS, fermentation was conducted with yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase with HPRS. Fermentation of HPRS treated with laccase-I-displaying yeast was performed with 1.21-fold higher activities than those of HPRS treated with control yeast. The results indicated that pretreatment with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS was effective for direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase. (orig.)

  4. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  5. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of Co-firing with Straw and Coal on High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    As a part of ELSAMS development programme into alternative energy sources, various concepts of straw-firing have been investigated. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate observed in straw-fired power plants. Co-firing with coal reduces the amount of potassium......: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing superheaters. A range of austenitic and ferritic steels was exposed in the steam temperature region of 520-580°C. The flue gas temperature ranged from 925-1100°C....... The corrosion products for the various steel types were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion mechanisms for the austenitic and ferritic steels are presented. These are discussed in relation to temperature and deposit composition. Co-firing with coal has removed potassium...

  7. Effect of Crop-Straw Derived Biochars on Pb(II) Adsorption in Two Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tian-yu; XU Ren-kou; GU Tian-xia; JIANG Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two variable charge soils were incubated with biochars derived from straws of peanut, soybean, canola, and rice to investigate the effect of the biochars on their chemical properties and Pb(II) adsorption using batch experiments. The results showed soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH signiifcantly increased after 30 d of incubation with the biochars added. The incorporation of the biochars markedly increased the adsorption of Pb(II), and both the electrostatic and non-electrostatic adsorption mechanisms contributed to Pb(II) adsorption by the variable charge soils. Adsorption isotherms illustrated legume-straw derived biochars more greatly increased Pb(II) adsorption on soils through the non-electrostatic mechanism via the formation of surface complexes between Pb(II) and acid functional groups of the biochars than did non-legume straw biochars. The adsorption capacity of Pb(II) increased, while the desorption amount slightly decreased with the increasing suspension pH for the studied soils, especially in a high suspension pH, indicating that precipitation also plays an important role in immobilizing Pb(II) to the soils.

  8. Effects of Corn Straw Returning and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Methods on N2O Emission from Wheat Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a wheat field experiment, the effect of four treatments such as no-straw returning (SN, straw returning (SR, control release fertilizer application(SRC and nitrogen drilling(SRR on N2O emission was studied using the static chamber method and the gas chromatographic technique. The results indicated that the wheat field was the sources of N2O emission. The N2O emission peaks followed each time of fertilizer application and irrigation, and usually continued for 1~2 weeks. N2O emissions accounted for more than 40% of total emissions during the N2O emission peak. The amount of N2O emission during three growing stage of wheat from high to low was arranged in turn pre-wintering period, post-wintering period and wintering period. N2O emission could be increased by straw returning. Compared with SN, N2O emission could be enhanced by 48.6% under SR. Both SRC and SRR could decrease the N2O emission, increase wheat yield and economic benefit, especially the latter. Nitrogen drilling is a good method for yield increment and N2O abatement.

  9. The Effects of Rice Straw and Biochar Applications on the Microbial Community in a Soil with a History of Continuous Tomato Planting History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial abundance and diversity change constantly in continuous cropping systems, resulting in the prevalence of soil-borne pathogens and a decline in crop yield in solar greenhouses. To investigate the effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial abundance and diversity in soils with a history of continuous planting, three treatments were examined: mixed rice straw and biochar addition (RC, rice straw addition (R, and biochar addition (C. The amount of C added in each treatment group was 3.78 g kg−1 soil. Soil without rice straw and biochar addition was treated as a control (CK. Results showed that RC treatment significantly increased soil pH, available nitrogen (AN, available phosphorus (AP, and potassium (AK by 40.3%, 157.2%, and 24.2%, respectively, as compared to the CK soil. The amount of soil labile organic carbon (LOC, including readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and light fraction organic carbon (LFOC, was significantly greater in the RC, R, and C treatment groups as compared to CK soil. LOC levels with RC treatment were higher than with the other treatments. Both rice straw and biochar addition significantly increased bacterial and total microbial abundance, whereas rice straw but not biochar addition improved soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity. Thus, the significant effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity were attributed to the quantity of DOC in the treatments. Therefore, our results indicated that soil microbial diversity is directly associated with DOC. Based on the results of this study, mixed rice straw and biochar addition, rather than their application individually, might be key to restoring degraded soil.

  10. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  11. Effect of hiding places, straw and territory on agression in group-housed rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Group-housing of rabbit does may be preferred from welfare point of view. However, group-housing causes agonistic behaviour which may cause severe injuries. Severe injuries may be prevented by offering hiding places for attacked does. Providing enrichment (straw) may reduce agonistic behaviour by

  12. effect of mixing cereal and legume straws on yield of grey oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of different agricultural wastes as mushroom substrates (Chitamba ... nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) for maize straw is about 66.31% ... white as a result of successful spawn run. Sterile blades were used to slit surface of the bags, at a ... the concave shape was done by gently twisting the fruiting ..... Chitamba, J. 2007. Evaluation of ...

  13. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    Keywords: straw mulching, soil water evaporation, soil thawing period, freezing depth, soil liquid water content. 1. Introduction. The Songnen Plain, located in northeastern China, has 594×104 ha of cultivated land area and a grain yield of 395×108 kg. It is one of the most important food production bases in China (Yan et al.

  14. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal ( sp. Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1, 33 (TMR2, 67 (TMR3, and 100% (TMR4 fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6 according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  15. The mineral composition and the effect of particle size of carbonized rice straw as colorant of a traditional cake kue jongkong Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtini, E. S.; Yuwono, S. S.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Carbonized rice straw (CRS) is a term defined for the residue of incomplete combustion of rice straw. Utilization of CRS as a natural food coloring agent has been the local Indonesian wisdom. However, study of this local food coloring agent is rare in the literature. This study was aimed to determine the mineral composition of the CRS, and to investigate the effect of particle size of the CRS to the black color intensity of a traditional Indonesian cake called kue jongkong Surabaya. The mineral content of the CRS was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The CRS was grounded and sieved passing through different screen sizes (40, 80, 100, 120 and 200 mesh).The particle size distribution was measured using particle size analyzer. The CRS with different particle sizes were then applied as a natural coloring agent of the kue jongkong, from which the intensity of black color was determined using a color reader. It was found that the dominant minerals of the CRS were SiO2, carbon, and K2O. Other trace elements found were Cl, CaO, Na2O, MgO, P, S, Fe, Al2O3 and Mn. The CRS which passed to the sieve of 40 mesh has particle size distribution of 28μm, 115μm, and 348μm for a standard of D10, D50, and D90, respectively. However, CRS that passing through the sieve of 60-200 mesh have similar particle sizes (D10: 12-14μm, D50: 49-60μm, and D90: 114-145 μm). The smaller of CRS particle size produced a darker color of the kue jongkong due to better molecule dispersion and wider surface area.

  16. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant (P<0.05) increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues

  17. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 20, 50, 100, 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs. The results indicate that , there were significant increase in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. compared with the control, the increase in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, the increase was only 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased by 1165, 1621, 1540, and 1130 MJ/kg dry matter, for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs, and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (author)

  18. Changes in digestible energy values of some agricultural residues treated with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 100 and 150 kGy) on gross energy (GE), in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and digestible energy (IVDE), have been evaluated in barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs. The results indicate that, there were significant increases in IVOMD and IVDE values, especially, at the dose of 150 kGy. The increases in IVOMD were 22, 21 and 23% for barley straw, sorghum straw, and wheat chaffs, respectively; whereas, such an increase was 12% for maize cobs. Digestible energy values increased over the control by 1165, 1621, 1540 and 1130 kJ/kg dry matter for barley straw, sorghum straw, wheat chaffs and maize cobs, respectively. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiation on GE values for the studied agricultural residues. (authors)

  19. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  20. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Ulrik B. Henriksen; Anand R. Sanadi

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of wheat straw as a renewable energy resource is limited due to its low bulk density. Pelletizing wheat straw into fuel pellets of high density increases its handling properties but is more challenging compared to pelletizing wood biomass. Straw has a lower lignin content and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit...

  1. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  2. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw

  3. Initial contents of residue quality parameters predict effects of larger soil fauna on decomposition of contrasting quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratikorn Sanghaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-week decomposition study employing the soil larger fauna exclusion technique through litter bags of two mesh sizes (20 and 0.135 mm was conducted in a long-term (18 yr field experiment. Organic residues of contrasting quality of N, lignin (L, polyphenols (PP and cellulose (CL all in grams per kilogram: rice straw (RS: 4.5N, 22.2L, 3.9PP, 449CL, groundnut stover (GN: 21.2N, 71.4L, 8.1PP, 361CL, dipterocarp leaf litter (DP: 5.1N, 303L, 68.9PP, 271CL and tamarind leaf litter (TM: 11.6N, 190L, 27.7PP, 212CL were applied to soil annually to assess and predict soil larger fauna effects (LFE on decomposition based on the initial contents of the residue chemical constituents. Mass losses in all residues were not different under soil fauna inclusion and exclusion treatments during the early stage (up to week 4 after residue incorporation but became significantly higher under the inclusion than the exclusion treatments during the later stage (week 8 onwards. LFE were highest (2–51% under the resistant DP at most decomposition stages. During the early stage (weeks 1–4, both the initial contents of labile (N and CL and recalcitrant C, and recalcitrant C interaction with labile constituents of residues showed significant correlations (r = 0.64–0.90 with LFE. In the middle stage (week 16, LFE under resistant DP and TM had significant positive correlations with L, L + PP and L/CL. They were also affected by these quality parameters as shown by the multiple regression analysis. In the later stages (weeks 26–52, the L/CL ratio was the most prominent quality parameter affecting LFE. Keywords: Mesofauna and macrofauna, Microorganisms, Recalcitrant and labile compounds, Residue chemical composition, Tropical sandy soil

  4. Residual effects of hypnotics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I

    1991-07-01

    The sedative/hypnotic benzodiazepines introduced worldwide in the early 1960s were acclaimed for their low chemical toxicity and safety in clinical use. A decade later, some researchers and clinicians found that while all the drugs had undoubted potency and efficacy as sleep inducers and maintainers, the trade-off in residual effects (e.g., excessive daytime tiredness, poor concentration, impaired psychomotor performance, lowered mental abilities) was cause for concern. These sequelae not only affected patients' safety and ability to perform daytime tasks, but were also counter-therapeutic; the daytime sleep that was produced interfered with the natural nocturnal sleep. In a recent study, the degree to which patient abilities were impaired was measured by a number of psychomotor tests. Benzodiazepines with a duration of clinical effect of less than 8 to 10 hours produced fewer, less frequent residual effects than those with a measurable activity in excess of the normal nocturnal sleep period.

  5. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  6. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  7. EFFECT OF TARTARIC ACID ADDITION ON RUMEN FERMENTATION, METHANE PRODUCTION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN DIFFERENT DIETS CONTAINING WHEAT STRAW IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. SIROHI; P. PANDEY; N. GOEL; M. MOHINI; S.S. KUNDU

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of tartaric acid addition in diets on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Different levels of tartaric acid (5, 10, and 15 ppm) were tested for their effect on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and digestibility in three wheat straw containing diets i.e. Low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C), medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C) and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C). Evaluation of tartaric acid was carried out using in vitro ga...

  8. [Effect of straw-returning on the storage and distribution of different active fractions of soil organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hul; Wang, Xu-dong; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of straw mulching and returning on the storage of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and their proportions to the total organic carbon (TOC) were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that compared to the treatment of wheat straw soil-returning (WR), the storage of TOC and MOC decreased by 4.1% and 9.7% respectively in 0-20 cm soil in the treatment with wheat straw mulching (WM), but the storage of DOC and POC increased by 207.7% and 11.9%, and TOC and POC increased significantly in 20-40 cm soil. Compared to the treatment with maize straw soil-returning (MR), the storage of TOC and MOC in the plough pan soil of the treatment with maize straw mulching (MM) increased by 13.6% and 14.6% , respectively. Compared to the WR-MR treatment, the storage of TOC and MOC in top soil (0-20 icm) significantly decreased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively in WM-MM treatment. The storage of TOC, and POC in top soil was significantly higher in the treatments with maize straw soil-returning or mulching than that with wheat straw. Compared to the treatment without straw (CK), the storage of TOC in top soil increased by 5.2% to 18.0% in the treatments with straw returning or mulching in the six modes (WM, WR, MM, MR, WM-MM,WR-MR) (Porganic carbon fraction in soil, straw soil-returning had the potential to accumulate stable organic carbon fraction. Considering organic carbon sequestration in cropland in the region of Guanzhong plain, maize straw mulching or soil-returning was better than wheat straw, and wheat straw and maize straw soil-returning (WR-MR) were better than wheat and maize straw mulching (WM-MM).

  9. The effects of gamma irradiation in combination with NaCl treatment on digestibility of rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Z.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatments have been conducted to increase the nutritive value of rice straw as an animal feed. Rice straw was sprayed by sodiumchloride solution prior to gamma irradiation. The sodiumchloride concentration in straw were 0, 1, and 2% ( gNaCl/100 g rice straw), and irradiation dose were 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mrad. Result indicated that the combined treatments significantly increased (p<0.01) dry matter digestibility of rice straw. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction between gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatment was observed. (authors). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  12. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  13. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  14. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  15. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  16. Assessment of Ex-Vitro Anaerobic Digestion Kinetics of Crop Residues Through First Order Exponential Models: Effect of LAG Phase Period and Curve Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor.

  17. Assessment of ex-vitro anaerobic digestion kinetics of crop residues through first order exponential models: effect of lag phase period and curve factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents), TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids) with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor. (author)

  18. Efficient Hydrolysis of Rice Straw into Xylose and Glucose by a Two-step Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Lu-lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of rice straw into xylose and glucose in dilute sulfuric acid aqueous solution was studied with a two-step process in batch autoclave reactor. The results showed that compared with the traditional one-step acid hydrolysis, both xylose and glucose could be produced in high yields from rice straw by using the two-step acid hydrolysis process. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of rice straw and acid concentration on the hydrolysis of rice straw were systematically studied, and showed that except initial rice straw loading amount, the other parameters had remarkable influence on the products distribution and yields. In the first-step of the hydrolysis process, a high xylose yield of 162.6 g·kg-1 was obtained at 140℃ after 120 min reaction time. When the solid residues from the first step were subjected to a second-step hydrolysis, a glucose yield as high as 216.5 g·kg-1 could be achieved at 180℃ after 120 min. This work provides a promising strategy for the efficient and value-added utilization of agricultural wastes such as rice straw.

  19. Influência da cobertura morta no comportamento dos herbicidas imazaquin e clomazone The influence of straw mulch on the behaviour of the residual herbicides imazaquin and clomazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de campo e bioensaios em casa-de-vegetação foram realizados para se estudar a influência da cobertura morta de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no comportamento dos herbicidas imazaquin {ácido 2-[4,5 dihidro-4-metil-4-(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-3-quinolinacarboxílico} e clomazone {2-[(2-clorofenilmetil]-4,4-dimetil-3-isoxazolidinona}, aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merril], no sistema de plantio direto. O clomazone mostrou evidências de ter sido interceptado pela cobertura morta. A presença da cobertura morta não influiu na retenção do imazaquin, sendo este lixiviado da palha para o solo com as chuvas que ocorreram após a aplicação.Field experiments and glass house bioassays were conducted to determine the influence of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. straw mulch on the behaviour of the herbicides imazaquin {2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-ethyl-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid} and clomazone {2-[(2-chlorophenylmethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-3- isoxazolidinone}, wich had been applied to pre-emergence soybean (Glycine maxin a no-till system. There was evidence that clomazone had been intecepted by the straw whilst imazaquin was leached into the soil by rain.

  20. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migwi, P.K; Gallanga, J.R; Barneveld, R.J

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some

  1. Effects of a Straw Phonation Protocol on Acoustic Measures of an SATB Chorus Singing Two Contrasting Renaissance Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manternach, Jeremy N; Clark, Chad; Daugherty, James F

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others. Results of studies with individual singers, then, may not be directly applicable to choral settings. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of an SOVT protocol (ie, straw phonation) on acoustic changes of conglomerate, choral sound. This is a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest design. Participants in this study constituted an intact SATB choir (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) (N = 15 singers) who performed from memory two unaccompanied pieces of varied tempos from memory, participated in a 4-minute straw phonation protocol with a small stirring straw, and then sang each piece a second time. The long-term average spectrum results indicated small, statistically significant increases in spectral energy for both pieces in the 0-10 kHz (.32 and .20 dB Sound Pressure Level) and 2-4 kHz regions (.46 and .25 dB SPL). These results, although not likely audible to average hearing humans, seem consistent with the assertion that singers enjoy vocal benefits with consistent or increased vocal output. SOVT exercises, therefore, may be useful as a time-efficient way to evoke more efficient and economical singing during choral warm-up and voice building procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  3. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  4. Utilization of poor quality roughages III. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and structural polysaccharides utilization of straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.N.; Mudgal, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The wheat and paddy straws were irradiated with 60 Co gamma source in doses of 10 5 and 10 6 rad, respectively. The data indicated that these doses applied to straws were not sufficient to bring the appreciable changes in the chemical composition in wheat straw. However, the cell wall constituents, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin : cellulose ratio and acid insoluble ash decreased (P < 0.05), while cell contents increased (P < 0.01) in irradiated samples of paddy straw. The findings further revealed that small changes in chemical composition due to irradiation could not bring any significant changes in the in vitro digestibility values for any of the fibre components in both the straws, except in paddy straw, where the in vitro acid detergent fibre digestibility was reduced (P < 0.05), while availability index increased (P < 0.05) due to irradiation. (author)

  5. Some characteristics of the long straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Ivanov, A.B.; Livinskij, V.V.; Lobastov, S.P.; Lysan, V.M.; Mishin, S.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    This article represents the construction and testing of the long straw drift tubes of different types. The diameter and the length of each straw were equal to 15 mm and 3 m respectively. The cathode resistance of these straws has a small value, i.e. about 100 Ohm/m. Thus, they do not have a large attenuation length. Installation of the spacers reduces the effective straw length by 0.5 % per meter, at least

  6. Embrittling effects of residual elements on steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, J.M.; King, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    In a review of work related to reheat cracking in nuclear pressure vessel steels, Dhooge et al referred to work of the authors on the relative embrittling parameter for SA533B steels. The poor agreement when these parameters were applied to creep ductility data for SA508 class 2 lead the reviewers to conclude that the relative importance of impurity elements is a function of base alloy composition. The authors briefly describe some of their more recent work which demonstrates that when various mechanical, and other, effects are taken into consideration, the relative effects of the principal residual elements are similar, despite differing base compositions, and that the embrittling parameters derived correlate well with the data for SA Class 2 steel. (U.K.)

  7. Effects of corn straw or mixed forage diet on rumen fermentation parameters of lactating cows using a wireless data logger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chunfu; Bu, Dengpan; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different forage types on rumen fermentation parameters and profiles using a wireless data logger. Eight lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments with a low forage diet with corn straw (CS) or a high forage diet with mixed forage (MF) as the forage source, respectively. Dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content was 11.3% greater in CS. Dry matter intake and milk fatty acid content decreased upon CS (P rumen fermentation parameters were affected by forage types and dietary peNDF content might be predominant in ruminal pH regulation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. [Effects of corn and soybean straws returning on CO2 efflux at initial stage in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-yi; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Liang, Ai-zhen; Jia, Shu-xia; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Sun, Bing-jie; Chen, Sheng-long; Yang, Xue-ming

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the CO2 emission characteristics and its relationships with C and N concentration in soil amended with different types of residues were studied by thermostatic incubation method to investigate the decomposition characteristics of different types of residues after adding to the soil and the effect of C, N concentration in residues on carbon sequestration. The results showed that during 61 days incubation, the CO2 efflux rates in the soils added with the different residues changed over time and exhibited an initial decrease, followed by a stable low plateau, and then an increase to a high plateau and finally followed by a decrease. The characteristics of CO2 emissions varied with residues, with the differences mainly occurring in the starting and duration of the high plateau CO2 emission period. The cumulative CO2-C emission was significantly affected by residue type. The cumulative CO2-C emissions from soils amended with corn roots, bottom corn stalks, corn leaves, and soybean leaves (about 160 µmol · g(-1) of soil and residue) were significantly greater than those from soils amended with other residues for the initial 21 days. Except for soybean leaves, the cumulative soil CO2 emissions over the 61 day incubation period from soils amended with soybean residues were higher than that from soil amended with corn residues. There were significant linear relationships between the ratio of cumulative CO2-C emission to residue carbon concentration (CR), and both C/N and nitrogen concentration of residues in the initial 21 days incubation, but not for the entire 61 days incubation. Our study suggested that soil CO2 emission was closely dependent upon the type of residue. Soybean residues decomposed more easily than corn residues. However, the decay rate of soybean residues was slower than that of corn residues at the initial stage of incubation. Soil CO2 emission was significantly affected by the C/N ratios and nitrogen concentrations of crop residues only

  9. Wheat straw as ruminant feed : effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw

  10. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  11. The effect of cellulose crystallinity on the in vitro digestibility and fermentation, kinetics of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Fonseca, A.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Sequeria, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cellulose crystallinity on in vitro digestibility (IVD) and fermentation kinetics was investigated in samples of meadow hay and barley, wheat and rice straws. A saturated solution of potassium permanganate was used to isolate the celluloses, and their crystallinity was evaluated in a

  12. Effects of pregelatinized vs. native potato starch on intestinal weight and stomach lesions of pigs housed in barren pens or on straw bedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Staals, S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 groups of 12 pigs (approximately 25 kg) were assigned to either barren or straw housing and to native or pregelatinized potato starch included in the diet (35%) to investigate effects on intestinal weight and gastric lesions. Pigs were fed restrictedly (2.5 ×

  13. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... and mixed to a slurry. After 4 weeks of storage under anaerobic conditions at 15 degrees C, the NH4+ N content exceeded the original urinary N content of the slurry; the NH4+ content increased only slightly during the following 16 weeks of storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the proportion of slurry C...... in volatile fatty acids (VFA) amounted to 10% and increased to 15% after 20 weeks. Straw addition to the slurry caused an increase of VFA-C in stored slurry, but had a negligible influence on the proportion of slurry N in the form of NH4+. Slurries subjected to different storage conditions were added...

  14. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20......-40% to become approximate to 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis...

  15. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple semen straws on conception rate to timed AI in suckled multiparous Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L Z; Arruda, R P; de Andrade, A F C; Santos, R M; Beletti, M E; Peres, R F G; Martins, J P N; de Lima, V F M Hossepian

    2012-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sequence of insemination after simultaneous thawing of multiple 0.5 mL semen straws on conception rate in suckled multiparous Nelore cows. The effect of this thawing procedure on in vitro sperm characteristics was also evaluated. All cows (N = 944) received the same timed AI protocol. Ten straws (0.5 mL) of frozen semen from the same batch were simultaneously thawed at 36 °C, for a minimum of 30 sec. One straw per cow was used for timed AI. Frozen semen from three Angus bulls was used. Timed AI records included sequence of insemination (first to tenth) and time of semen removal from thawing bath. For laboratory analyses, the same semen batches used in the field experiment were evaluated. Ten frozen straws from the same batch were thawed simultaneously in a thawing unit identical to that used in the field experiment. The following sperm characteristics were analyzed: sperm motility parameters, sperm thermal resistance, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, chromatin structure, and sperm morphometry. Based on logistic regression, there were no significant effects of breeding group, body condition score, AI technician, and sire on conception rate, but there was an interaction between sire and straw group (P = 0.002). Semen from only one bull had decreased (P conception rates at timed AI, depending on the sire used. Nevertheless, the effects of this thawing environment on in vitro sperm characteristics, remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasri, M R [Department of Radiation Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commision, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs.

  19. Adsorption, immobilization and activity of cellulase in soil: the impacts of maize straw and its humification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study some aspects of sorption and immobilization of cellulase molecules on soil components by the analysis of the reactions of cellulase in a soil treated with different levels of maize residue and incubated for 90 days. The analysis of variance showed that the effects of the treatments of maize straw, incubation time and their interaction on cellulase adsorption, desorption and immobilization were statistically significant. The adsorption and immobilization capacities of soil by application of maize straw increased significantly. However they decreased with decreasing the soil organic matter (SOM after 45 days of incubation. The desorption of adsorbed cellulase molecules from the soil by washing with distilled water depended on the SOM contents and its humification. The binding strength of cellulase molecule with fresh miaze straw was significantly stronger than that with humified maize straw. The immobilized cellulase activity, particularly its specific activity increased significantly by increasing the OC contents in the soil treated with maize straw.

  20. Extraction of microcrystalline cellulose from rice straw and its effect on polyvinyl alcohol biocomposites film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kwok-Mern; Ting, Sam Sung; Lin, Ong Hui; Owi, Wei Tieng

    2017-07-01

    The poor management and underutilization of agricultural wastes had proliferated interest of researchers around the world to find alternatives to utilize them as potential value-added products. One of the green alternatives is by extracting cellulose from these waste materials and incorporating them in polymer as reinforcement fillers. The surging amount of plastic waste also posed major issues to the environment due to its recalcitrance to degrade. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC-RS) was extracted from rice straw through cyclic alkaline and bleaching treatment to remove hemicellulose and lignin respectively. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) was chosen as the matrix and different ratios of PVOH / MCC-RS films were prepared (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0wt% of MCC) through solution casting method and its tensile, thermal and morphological properties were studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed increased crystallinity of MCC-RS after chemical treatment (from 44.5% to 60.8%) due to the successful removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which was then confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. For the biocomposites, both tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films increased with increasing MCC-RS content up until 7.5wt%, supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results which depicted improvement in the interfacial adhesion between MCC-RS and PVOH. From the overall results, the improvement in properties of biocomposite from cellulose-based microfiller had shown promising future in application of the water soluble plastic packaging industry.

  1. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  2. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  3. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Rice Straw to Produce Biogas using Semi-Continuous Flow Digester: Effect of Urea Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, A.; Sugara, B. P.; Telaumbanua, M.; Rosadi, R. A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The objective this research was to investigate the effect of urea addition on the biogas yield from co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung using semi-continuous anaerobic digester. The experiment was conducted by using self-made semi-continuous anaerobic digester having a working volume of 30 L. Cow dung was provided from Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Lampung; while rice straw was collected from farmer at Way Galih, Tanjung Bintang, South Lampung. Rice straw was sun-dried to about 12% of moisture content and then ground into fine particles. Cow dung and ground straw were mixed at a dung-to-straw ratio of 3:1 based on total solid (TS) and four different urea additions (0, 0.25, 0.65, and 1.30 g/L) were applied to have a C/N ratio between 20 and 30. The mixture was diluted with water to create TS content of 10%. As much as 30 L of the substrate mixture was introduced into the digester as a starting load. The same substrate was added daily at a loading rate of 0.5 L/d. The experiment was made in triplicate and observation was performed for two months. Total and volatile solids of influent and effluent and daily biogas production were observed. The biogas quality was measured by its methane content using gas chromatography. Results showed that urea addition influenced the biogas yield and its quality. Substrate mixture with urea addition of 0.25 g/L (C/N ratio of 27.3) was the best in terms of biogas yield (434.2 L/kgVSr), methane content (50.12%), and methane yield (217.6 L/kgVSr).

  4. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  5. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  6. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  7. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naihao Ye

    Full Text Available Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3, whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2. The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1, respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  8. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

    2010-09-10

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  9. Comparison of The Effects of Vitrification on Gene Expression of Mature Mouse Oocytes Using Cryotop and Open Pulled Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Amidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an essential part of the assisted reproductive technology (ART, which was recently introduced into clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two vitrification systems-Cryotop and Open Pulled Straw (OPS-on mature oocytes gene expressions. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the survival rate of metaphase II (MII mouse oocytes were assessed after cryopreservation by vitrification via i. OPS or ii. Cryotop. Then we compared the fertilization rate of oocytes produced via these two methods. In the second experiment, we determined the effects of the two vitrification methods on the expression of Hspa1a, mn-Sod, and ß-actin genes in vitrified-warmed oocytes. Denuded MII oocytes were vitrified in two concentrations of vitrification solution (VS1 and VS2 by Cryotop and straw. We then compared the results using the two vitrification methods with fresh control oocytes. Results mn-Sod expression increased in the vitrified-warmed group both in OPS and Cryotop compared with the con- trols. We only detected Hspa1a in VS1 and control groups using Cryotop. The survival rate of the oocytes was 91.2% (VS1 and 89.2% (VS2 in the Cryotop groups (P=0.902 and 85.5% (VS1 and 83.6% (VS2 in the OPS groups (P=0.905. There were no significant differences between the Cryotop and the OPS groups (P=0.927. The survival rate in the Cryotop or the OPS groups was, nevertheless, significantly lower than the control group (P<0.001. The fertilization rates of the oocytes were 39% (VS1 and 34% (VS2 in the Cryotop groups (P=0.902 and 29 %( VS1 and 19.7% (VS2 in the OPS groups (P=0.413. The fertilization rates were achieved without significant differences among the Cryotop and OPS groups (P=0.755. Conclusion Our results indicated that Cryotop vitrification increases both cooling and warming rates, but both Cryo- top and OPS techniques have the same effect on the mouse oocytes after vitrification.

  10. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  11. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  12. Effects of thermo-chemical pretreatment plus microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on saccharification and lignocellulose degradation of corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Wang, Erzhu; Zhu, Qun; Song, Andong; Lu, Fushan

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase corn straw degradation, the straw was kept in the combined solution of 15% (w/w) lime supernatant and 2% (w/w) sodium hydroxide with liquid-to-solid ratio of 13:1 (mL/g) at 83.92°C for 6h; and then added with 3% (v/v) H2O2 for reaction at 50°C for 2h; finally cellulase (32.3 FPU/g dry matter) and xylanase (550 U/g dry matter) was added to keep at 50°C for 48 h. The maximal reducing sugars yield (348.77 mg/g) was increased by 126.42% (Pcellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated corn straw with enzymatic hydrolysis were increased by 40.08%, 45.71% and 52.01%, compared with the native corn straw with enzymatic hydrolysis (P<0.05). The following study indicated that the combined microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis could further increase straw degradation and reducing sugar yield (442.85 mg/g, P<0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In-situ injection of potassium hydroxide into briquetted wheat straw and meadow grass - Effect on biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Moset, Veronica; Li, Wanwu; Chen, Chang; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass. The highest biomethane yield from wheat straw briquettes of 353mL.g -1 VS was obtained with 6.27% (w/w) potassium hydroxide injection, which was 14% higher than from untreated wheat straw. The hydrolysis rates of wheat straw and meadow grass increased from 4.27×10 -2 to 5.32×10 -2 d -1 and 4.19×10 -2 to 6.00×10 -2 d -1 , respectively. The low water usage and no wastewater production make this a promising technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time on Anaerobic Digestion of Wheat Straw in the Semicontinuous Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Shuang Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three semicontinuous continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR operating at mesophilic conditions (35°C were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw. The results showed that the average biogas production with HRT of 20, 40, and 60 days was 46.8, 79.9, and 89.1 mL/g total solid as well as 55.2, 94.3, and 105.2 mL/g volatile solids, respectively. The methane content with HRT of 20 days, from 14.2% to 28.5%, was the lowest among the three reactors. The pH values with HRT of 40 and 60 days were in the acceptable range compared to that with HRT of 20 days. The propionate was dominant in the reactor with HRT of 20 days, inhibiting the activities of methanogens and causing the lower methane content in biogas. The degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose based on XRD was also strongly influenced by HRTs.

  15. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  16. A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholder profit. Mitigating the risk perception of farmers is expected to significantly advance the development of the biomass power generation industry, increase stakeholder profit, and decrease the amount of incentives needed.

  17. Obtaining of Peracetic Cellulose from Oat Straw for Paper Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Zelenchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of technology for obtaining peracetic pulp from oat straw and its use in the production of one of the paper mass types. Objective. Determination of peracetic cooking technological parameters’ optimal values for oat straw peracetic cellulose quality indicators. Methods. The oat straw cooking was carried out with peracetic acid at 95 ± 1 °C from 90 to 180 min for hydromodulus 8:1 and 7:1, using a sodium tungstate catalyst. To determine the oat straw peracetic cellulose mechanical indexes, laboratory samples of paper weighing 70 g/m2 were made. Results. Technological parameters’ optimum values (temperature, cooking duration, hydromodulus, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid concentration for the oat straw delignification process were established. It is shown that the sodium tungstate catalyst addition to the cooking solution at a rate of up to 1 % of the plant raw material weight helps to reduce the lignin content in cellulose to 15 %. A diagram of the cellulose yield dependence on its residual lignin content for various methods of non-wood plant material species delignification is constructed. The high efficiency of the peracetic method for obtaining cellulose from non-wood plant raw materials, in particular from oat straw, has been confirmed. It is determined that the obtained peracetic cellulose from oat straw has high mechanical indexes. Conclusions. Oat straw peracetic cellulose can be used for the production of paper and cardboard mass types, in particular wrapping paper.

  18. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  19. Effects of co-inoculating rice straw with ruminal microbiota and anaerobic sludge: digestion performance and spatial distribution of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuying; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    Ruminal microbiota (RM) were co-inoculated with anaerobic sludge (AS) at different ratios to study the digestion of rice straw in batch experiments. The CH 4 yield reached 273.64 mL/g volatile solid (VS) at a co-inoculum ratio of 1:1. The xylanase and cellulase activities were 198.88-212.88 and 24.51-29.08 U/mL in co-inoculated samples, respectively, and were significantly different compared to the results for single inoculum (p rumen did not settle in the co-inoculated system, whereas Clostridiales members became the main polysaccharide degraders. Microbial interactions involving hydrolytic bacteria and acetoclastic methanogens in the residue were considered to be significant for hydrolysis activities and methane production. Syntrophy involving propionate oxidizers with associated methanogens occurred in the liquid phase. Our findings provide a better understanding of the anaerobic digestion of rice straw that is driven by specific microbial populations.

  20. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  1. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  2. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  3. 2nd international expert meeting straw power; 2. Internationale Fachtagung Strohenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Within the 2nd Guelzow expert discussions at 29th to 30th March, 2012 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of the utilisation of straw in Germany (A. Schuette); (2) The significance of straw in the heat and power generation in EU-27 member states in 2020 and in 2030 under consideration of the costs and sustainability criteria (C. Panoutsou); (3) State of he art of the energetic utilization of hay goods in Europe (D. Thraen); (4) Incineration technological characterisation of straw based on analysis data as well as measured data of large-scale installations (I. Obernberger); (5) Energetic utilization of hay goods in Germany (T. Hering); (6) Actual state of the art towards establishing the first German straw thermal power station (R. Knieper); (7) Straw thermal power plants at agricultural sow farms and poultry farms (H. Heilmann); (8) Country report power from straw in Denmark (A. Evald); (9) Country report power from straw in Poland (J. Antonowicz); (10) Country report power from straw in China (J. Zhang); (11) Energetic utilisation of straw in Czechia (D. Andert); (12) Mobile pelletization of straw (S. Auth); (13) Experiences with the straw thermal power plant from Vattenfall (N. Kirkegaard); (14) Available straw potentials in Germany (potential, straw provision costs) (C. Weiser); (15) Standardization of hay good and test fuels - Classification and development of product standards (M. Englisch); (16) Measures of reduction of emissions at hay good incinerators (V. Lenz); (17) Fermentation of straw - State of the art and perspectives (G. Reinhold); (18) Cellulosis - Ethanol from agricultural residues - Sustainable biofuels (A. Hartmair); (19) Syngas by fermentation of straw (N. Dahmen); (20) Construction using straw (D. Scharmer).

  4. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  5. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell-wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 150 kilogray (kGy) of γ irradiation on cell-wall constituents of cottonwood (CW), lentils straw (LS), apple pruning products (AP) and olive cake (OC) were investigated. Samples were irradiated by γ irradiation at a dose level of 150 kGy under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation decreased CF contents by about 29% for CW, LS and AP and by 17% for OC. NDF values were also decreased by about 4% for CW and OC, and by about 12% for LS and AP. γ irradiation treatment also decreased ADF values only for CW by 8%. ADL contents decreased by 8% for CW and 5% for OC with no effects for LS and AP. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 30, 34, 38 and 20% for CW, LS, AP and OC, respectively. Also, the percentage of hemicellulose (HCL):CF increased for 57% for CW and 16% for OC and decreased by 7% for LS and AP. The percentage of HCL:ADL increased by 22% for CW but decreased by 33% for LS and AP with no changes for OC. There were no changes in CL:ADL ratio for all residues. (Author)

  8. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  9. Effect of γ-rays irradiation and alkali solution pretreatment on hydrolyzing enzyme and microcosmic structure of core straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongtao; Wang Feng; Li Weiming; Li An; Ha Yiming; Li Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    To increase yield of reducing sugar enzymatic hydrolyzed from corn straw yield of corn stalk on Enzymatic hydrolysis, γ-rays radiation and NaOH solution pretreatment were used. The changes of microstructure of the corn straw before and after pretreatments were characterized by IR, X-rays diffraction and SEM. The results shows that the γ-rays radiation can significantly decrease the essential concentration of NaOH solution and shorten the immersion time, but it could not affected the yield of reducing sugar remarkably. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the sample which was treated at the 200 kGy irradiation dose and NaOH solution circumstance has the biggest surface area increase. The reducing sugar content of enzyme hydrolyzed corn straw treated at 200 kGy irradiation dose and 2% NaOH solution was achieved 48.34%, which provides the theoretical basis for industry ethanol production using enzyme hydrolyzed corn straw. (authors)

  10. The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g

  11. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were

  12. Effect of ferrous chloride on biogas production and enzymatic activities during anaerobic fermentation of cow dung and Phragmites straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Yonglan; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Chai, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ferrous (added as FeCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation (COD) and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that Fe(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by 18.1 % by extending the peak period with high daily biogas yields. Meanwhile, the methane (CH4) contents in the Fe(2+) added groups were generally higher than the control group before the 15th day. The pH values were not significantly impacted by Fe(2+) concentrations during the fermentation process. The COD concentrations, cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase activities varied with the added Fe(2+) concentrations and the stages of the fermentation process. At the beginning stage of fermentation (4th day), Fe(2+) addition increased the biogas production by improving the cellulase and dehydrogenase activities which caused a decline in COD. At the peak stage of fermentation (8th day), Fe(2+) addition enhanced the cellulase and protease activities, and resulted in lower COD contents than the control group. When the biogas yields decreased again (13th day), the COD contents varied similar with the protease and dehydrogenase activities, whilst cellulase activities were not sensitive to Fe(2+) concentrations. At the end of fermentation (26th day), Fe(2+) addition decreased the cellulase activities, led to lower COD contents and finally resulted the lower biogas yields than the control group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Fe(2+) addition on biogas yields was mainly attributed to the extension of the gas production peak stage and the improvement of cellulase activities.

  13. Radiation effects on residual voltage of polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyokane, Jun; Park, Dae-Hee; Yoshino, Katsumi.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that diagnosis of deterioration in insulating materials for electric cables used in nuclear power plants and outer space (communications satellite in particular) can be effectively performed based on measurements of residual voltage. In the present study, polyethylene films are irradiated with γ-rays or electron beam to examine the changes in residual voltage characteristics. Irradiation of electron beam and γ-rays are carried out to a dose of 0 - 90 Mrad and 0 - 100 Mrad, respectively. Measurements are made of the dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage, electron beam and γ-ray irradiation, annealing temperature and annealing time. Results show that carriers, which are once trapped after being released from the electrode, move within the material after the opening of the circuit to produce resiual voltage. The residual voltage increases with increasing dose of electron beam or γ-ray and levels off at high dose. Residual voltage is increased about several times by either electron beam or γ-rays, but electron beam tends to cause greater residual voltage than γ-ray. Polyethylene films irradiated with electron beam can recover upon annealing. It is concluded from observations made that residual voltage has close relations with defects in molecular structures caused by radiations, particularly the breaking of backbone chains and alteration in superstructures. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kouping; Yang, Xing; Gielen, Gerty; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Xu, Song; Yuan, Guodong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokai; Liu, Dan; Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Xingyuan; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    Biochar has emerged as an efficient tool to affect bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Although partially understood, a carefully designed incubation experiment was performed to examine the effect of biochar on mobility and redistribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sandy loam soil collected from the surroundings of a copper smelter. Bamboo and rice straw biochars with different mesh sizes (Heavy metal concentrations in pore water were determined after extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 . Phytoavailable metals were extracted using DTPA/TEA (pH 7.3). The European Union Bureau of Reference (EUBCR) sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine metal partitioning and redistribution of heavy metals. Results showed that CaCl 2 -and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were significantly (p soils, especially at 5% application rate, than those in the unamended soil. Soil pH values were significantly correlated with CaCl 2 -extractable metal concentrations (p metal fractions, and the effect was more pronounced with increasing biochar application rate. The effect of biochar particle size on extractable metal concentrations was not consistent. The 5% rice straw biochar treatment reduced the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Cd metals were mainly bound in the soil organic matter fraction. The results demonstrated that the rice straw biochar can effectively immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  16. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Olsson, Lisbeth; Thomsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195degreesC) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low......-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested...

  17. Effect of freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw viability of boar spermatozoa frozen in FlatPacks and Maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-11-01

    The effects of different freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa, processed as split samples in Maxi-straws or flat PET-plastic packages (FlatPack) were studied. A programmable freezing device was used to obtain freezing rates of either 20, 50 or 80 degrees C/min. Thawing of the samples was performed in a bath of circulating water; for 40s at 50 degrees C or 27s at 70 degrees C for Maxi-straws and 23s at 35 degrees C, 13s at 50 degrees C or 8s at 70 degrees C for the FlatPacks. Sperm motility was assessed both visually and with a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) apparatus, while plasma membrane integrity was assessed using the fluorescent probes Calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1. Temperature changes during freezing and thawing were monitored in both forms of packaging. Values for motile spermatozoa, sperm velocity and lateral head displacement variables were significantly (pstraws, with superior results at higher thawing rates. Freezing at 50 degrees C/min yielded better motility than 20 or 80 degrees C/min, although the effect was rather small. Neither freezing rate nor thawing rate had any effect on membrane integrity (p>0.05). A significant boar effect was seen for several parameters. The most striking difference in temperature courses between containers was a 4-5-fold lowering of the thawing rate, between -20 and 0 degrees C, in the center of the Maxi-straw, compared with the FlatPack. This is apparently due to the insulating effect of the thawed water in the periphery of the Maxi-straw. The improvement in sperm motility seen when using the FlatPack appears to be related to the rapid thawing throughout the sample, which decreases the risk of cell damage due to recrystallization during thawing. Since sperm motility patterns have been reported to be correlated with fertility both in vitro and in vivo it is speculated that the use of the FlatPack might improve the results when using frozen

  18. The Effect of Straw Fibers in Printing Papers on Dot Reproduction Attributes, as Realized by UV Inkjet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper performance qualities strongly depend on the origin of cellulose fibers. Awareness of environmental issues and sustainable development has led to the increase in the use of recycled printing papers. Recovered fibers are often used as a substitute for virgin wood fibers in the production of certain types of papers. As recovered fibers cannot provide the same quality level of paper products as virgin wood fibers, alternative sources of virgin cellulose fibers need to be identified. The aim of this research was to analyze the printability of laboratory papers made of different contents of straw pulp. Therefore, the printing papers were formed using straw pulp of three different cereal species (wheat, barley, and triticale and mixing them with recycled newsprint in different weight ratios. The printability of these laboratory papers was analyzed by classifying dot reproduction quality based on four dot reproduction attributes. Printed dot reproduction greatly affects the quality of reproduction in graphic products, as dots are the most important element in multi-color reproduction of texts and images. It was confirmed that laboratory papers containing straw pulp provide the same or even better dot reproduction quality than laboratory control papers formed only of recycled newsprint.

  19. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  20. The effect of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiangyu; Wu, Yanping; Cai, Min; Mu, Chunlong; Luo, Weihong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw. The field experiment was carried out from November 2012 to June 2013 at Changshu (31?32?93?N, 120?41?88?E) agro-ecological experimental station. A total of three treatments were set. The concentration of CO2 was increased to 500??mol/mol in the first treatment (CO2 grou...

  1. Effect of amount of straw provided to growing/finishing pigs on gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Jespersen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum......-cannulated pigs (initial BW 36.6±2.8 kg) following a double 4x4 Latin Square design. The control and three enzyme diets, each containing 96% DDGS, were supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, 500 FTU phytase/kg feed, dust-binder and chromic oxide (3 g/kg). The pigs were fed 3 times daily for 1 week...

  2. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC, no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisation. The carbon neutral assumption applied to crop residues is, however, a rough simplification. Crop residues, indeed, should not be viewed simply as a waste to be disposed, because they play a critical role in sustaining soil organic matter and therefore have an inherent C-capturing value. Moreover, considering straws as an energy feedstock, its status of co-product is clearly recognised and its availability could be obtained according to different cropping systems, corresponding to different primary energy costs and GHG emissions. This paper highlights some hidden features in the assessment of agricultural energy and carbon balance, still very difficult to be detected and accounted for. Although they are frequently disregarded, these features (such as long term dynamic trend of soil organic carbon and annual nitrous oxide emissions from the soil should be carefully considered in assembling the energy and emission balance. By using a crop simulation model, the long-term soil organic matter and annual N2O soil emissions were estimated. Consequently, a comprehensive energy and GHG balance was determined in accordance with the life cycle assessment methodology. Contrasting methods of straw management and wheat cultivation were compared: straw retention vs removal from the soil; conventional vs conservation tillage; wheat cropping system as a single-crop or in rotation. The resulting carbon footprint of straws has different magnitudes with respect to the several

  3. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these

  5. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  6. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  7. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  8. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  9. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M.; Said, S. D.

    2018-04-01

    The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia. In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system. Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass (mixed SCP biomass) composition, such as total crude protein (analyzed by kjedhal method) and lignin content (TAPPI method).The results showed that crude protein content in mixed SCP biomassincreases with the increasing in fermentation time, otherwise it decreases with the increasing insubstrate carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Residual lignin content in mixed SCP biomass decreases from 7% to 0.63% during fermentationproceeded of 21 days. The highest crude protein content in mixed SCP biomasswas obtained at substrate C/N ratio 20:1 of 25%.

  10. Comparison of the effects of ploughing and mulching with straw on water economy in the groundnut-millet system in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopart, J.L.; Nicou, R.; Vachaud, G.

    1979-01-01

    In Senegal water availability is very often the principal factor limiting crop yields, and it is necessary to develop techniques for making optimum use of the low rainfall. To this end a comparison was made of the effects on the water economy of (a) post-harvest oxen ploughing and (b) straw mulching with minimum tillage. A neutron probe and tensiometers were used to determine the water balance. It was found that mulching has no effect on water storage during the dry season, if it is not accompanied by a weed-control treatment, but does help to contain evaporation in the rainy season. On the other hand, ploughing reduces water losses in the dry season, and in the wet season helps to increase water uptake by the plant by stimulating root growth. In 1977, a very dry year, the yield of the groundnut plant was increased by 52% by ploughing as compared with a 27% increase from mulching and minimum tillage combined with weed-killing in the dry season; mulching and minimum tillage have no effect (on yield) if no weed-killing treatment is applied during the dry season. As straw mulching is in any case more difficult to practise than post-harvest ploughing in Senegalese agricultural conditions, the latter technique is obviously to be preferred for improving the utilization of available water by crops. (author)

  11. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  13. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  14. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  15. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  16. Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NOx multifuel burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    2010-01-01

    A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles...... and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the particle size and shape distribution, the modification of particle motion and heating due to the departure from the spherical ideal, the devolatilization rate of straw......, the influence of inlet boundary conditions and the effect of particles on the carrier phase turbulence. It is concluded that straw combustion is associated with a significantly longer flame and smaller recirculation zones compared to coal combustion for the present air flow specifications. The particle size...

  17. Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Kondo, K.; Kaji, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Structural materials in fusion reactor with water cooling system will undergo corrosion in aqueous environment and heavier irradiation than that in LWR. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion (IASCC) may be induced in stainless steels exposed in these environment for a long term of reactor operation. The IASCC is considered to be caused in a welding zone. It is difficult to predict and estimate the IASCC, because several irradiation effects (irradiation hardening, swelling, irradiation induced stress relaxation, etc) work intricately. Firstly, effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were investigated in stainless steels. Specimens used in this study were SUS316 and SUS316L. By bending deformation, the specimens with several % plastic strain, which corresponds to weld residual stress, were prepared. Ion irradiations of 12 MeV Ni{sup 3+} were performed at 330, 400 and 550 deg. C to 45 dpa in TIARA facility at JAEA. No bent specimen was simultaneously irradiated with the bent specimen. The residual stress was estimated by X-ray residual stress measurements before and after the irradiation. The micro-hardness was measured by using nano-indenter. The irradiation hardening and the stress relaxation were changed by irradiation under bending deformation. The residual stress did not relax even for the case of the higher temperature aging at 500 deg. C for the same time of irradiation. The residual stress after ion irradiation, however, relaxed at these experimental temperatures in SUS316L. The hardness was obviously suppressed in bent SUS316L irradiated at 300 deg. C to 6 or 12 dpa. It was evident that irradiation induced stress relaxation occasionally suppressed the irradiation hardening in SUS316L. (authors)

  18. Effect of B-mercaptoethanol on the viability of IVM/IVF/IVC bovine embryos during long-distance transportation in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Kuwayama, M; Hamano, S; Takahashi, M; Okano, A; Kadokawa, H; Kariya, T; Nagai, T

    1996-10-15

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) on the quality and viability of bovine blastocysts derived from in-vitro culture (IVC) of in-vitro matured and fertilized (TVM-IVF) oocytes during their transport between 2 distant places. Follicular oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained at a slaughterhouse and were cultured for 20 to 21 h in modified TCM-199. The IVM oocytes were fertilized in vitro with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Fertilized oocytes were cultured for 7 d, and embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage were used for the experiments. The blastocysts, packed in straws with transportation medium that consisted of modified TCM-199 with HEPES equilibrated in air and supplemented with 20 % calf serum and 0, 10, 50, 100 or 150 microM beta-ME, were transported at 37 degrees C from Tokyo to Sapporo by air (18.3 h). The quality of blastocysts was assessed and ranked as excellent (A), good (B), fair (C) or poor (D) after transportation. The percentages of blastocysts ranked as A or B were significantly higher (P plastic straws for several hours without control of CO2 and that the concentration of beta-ME used in this experiment is not detrimental to the blastocysts.

  19. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  20. The combinatorial effect of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing methods on the post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T-W; Cheng, F-P; Chen, I-H; Yang, C-H; Tsai, M-Y; Chang, M-H; Wang, J-H; Wu, J-T

    2013-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the combinatorial effect (14 treatments, A-N) of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing method on the post-thaw boar semen quality. Two ejaculates were collected from each of nine boars (three boars from each of three breeds). Semen was diluted in extenders with different concentrations of Equex STM paste and different cryoprotectants [glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)] before cryopreserving via liquid nitrogen or dry ice. Motility, viability, percentage of spermatozoa with intense acrosomal staining and with normal morphology of post-thaw sperm were evaluated. The qualities of thawed semen were best preserved in treatment H (extender with 0.5% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol and freezing by dry ice) and were worst in treatment B (extender with 0% Equex STM paste and 5% DMA and freezing by dry ice). Significant difference (p 0.05). Moreover, statistical analysis suggests that no significant difference was present in semen quality among breed or individual donors (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that Equex STM paste improved the cryosurvival efficiency of boar sperm, and the favourable straw-freezing method changes between glycerol and DMA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AERATION ON THE BIOLOGICAL DELIGNIFICATION OF CORN STRAW USING Trametes sp 44

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Quintanar Gómez,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Straw is an agricultural byproduct that can be utilized to obtain bioethanol without affecting animal or human sustinence. This process involves recovering the sugars and reducing the lignin content present through the use of ligninolytic fungi such as the basidiomycete Trametes sp. 44. Fermentation was carried out using particle sizes 4 (4.76 mm, No. 4 sieve and 8 (2.30 mm, No. 8 sieve, and two velocities of airflow (100 and 200 mL/min. Study results showed that particle size affected the production of hydrolytic enzymes, as particle size 8 favored the expression of cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, both aeration and particle size affected the expression of ligninolytic enzymes, as it was observed that with particle size 8 and airflow of 200 mL/min, the study detected 63 AU/mL of LiP and 11 AU/mL of MnP. In the case of laccase, the enzymatic activity detected reached 220 AU/mL using particle size 8 and an airflow velocity of 200 mL/min. Statistical analysis indicated that the treatment that produced the highest biological delignification occurred when Trametes sp. 44 was grown on corn straw at particle size 4 and airflow of 100 mL/min, conditions that yielded 34% delignification at day 12 of fermentation.

  2. Environmentally Friendly Utilization of Wheat Straw Ash in Cement-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The open burning of biomass residue constitutes a major portion of biomass burning and leads to air pollution, smog, and health hazards. Various alternatives have been suggested for open burning of crop residue; however, each of them has few inherent drawbacks. This research suggests an alternative method to dispose wheat straw, i.e., to calcine it in a controlled environment and use the resulting ash as a replacement of cement by some percentage in cement-based composites. When wheat straw, an agricultural product, is burned, it is very rich in SiO2, which has a pozzolanic character. However, the pozzolanic character is sensitive to calcination temperature and grinding conditions. According to the authors’ best knowledge, until now, no systematic study has been devised to assess the most favorable conditions of burning and grinding for pozzolanic activity of wheat straw ash (WSA. Hence, a systematic experimental program was designed. In Phase I, calcination of WS was carried out at 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C for 2 h. The resulting ashes were tested for color change, weight loss, XRD, XRF, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and pozzolanic activity index (PAI tests. From test results, it was found that beyond 600 °C, the amorphous silica transformed into crystalline silica. The WSA calcined at 600 °C was found to satisfy Chapelle and Fratini tests requirements, as well as the PAI requirement of ASTM at 28 days. Therefore, WSA produced at 600 °C (WSA600 showed the best pozzolanic performance. In Phase II, WSA600 was ground for various intervals (15–240 min. These ground ashes were tested for SEM, Blaine fineness, Chapelle activity, Fratini, and PAI tests. From test results, it was observed that after 120 min of grinding, there was an increase of 48% in Blaine surface area, with a consequence that WSA-replaced cement cubes achieved a compressive strength almost similar to that of the control mix. Conclusively, wheat straw calcined at

  3. Effects of straw processing and pen overstocking on the growth performance and sorting characteristics of diets offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Esser, N M; Ogden, R K; Gelsinger, S L

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the growth performance, feed-bunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers. Two corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets diluted with wheat straw were offered; diet composition was identical, except that one diet contained short (well-processed) straw (SS; 46.0% neutral detergent fiber, 12.9% crude protein, 60.7% total digestible nutrients, TDN), and the other long (poorly processed) straw (LS; 46.5% neutral detergent fiber, 12.6% crude protein, 60.0% TDN; % of dry matter basis). A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (SS or LS) and pen-stocking-density [100, 125, or 150% of capacity] treatments was evaluated with 240 Holstein dairy heifers (410 ± 56.3 kg) that were blocked by weight, and then assigned to 24 pens with 4 pens/interactive treatment. For 91 d, diets were dispersed at 1100 h daily, and bunks were sampled subsequently at 1300, 1600, 1900, 2200, 0100, and 0600 h during 3 evaluation periods throughout the trial. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake, but with minimal orts (19 mm) particles increased linearly from 1.26 to 2.82 across sampling times, differing from the SS diet at 2200, 0100, 0600, and 0900 h (orts). Similar factors calculated for the SS diet also increased linearly across sampling times, but these responses were less severe (1.27 to 1.97). Overall, particle-size concentration factors for physically effective fiber exhibited responses similar to those observed for large particles, except they were limited to narrower ranges for both the SS (1.04 to 1.14) and LS (1.03 to 1.26) diets. Despite these differences, daily dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 9.65 kg of dry matter/d), nor was daily intake of TDN (mean = 5.92 kg of TDN/d). For SS, heifers housed within overstocked pens exhibited reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared with the 100% stocking rate (0.93 vs. 0.99 kg/d). With LS processing, ADG

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  5. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  6. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  7. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots re...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues.......The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...... receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley...

  8. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF FURFURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic saccharification of pretreated furfural residues with different lignin content was studied to verify the effect of lignin removal in the hydrolysis process. The results showed that the glucose yield was improved by increasing the lignin removal. A maximum glucose yield of 96.8% was obtained when the residue with a lignin removal of 51.4% was hydrolyzed for 108 h at an enzyme loading of 25 FPU/g cellulose. However, further lignin removal did not increase the hydrolysis. The effect of enzyme loading on the enzymatic hydrolysis was also explored in this work. It was concluded that a high glucose yield of 90% was achieved when the enzyme dosage was reduced from 25 to 15 FPU/g cellulose, which was cost-effective for the sugar and ethanol production. The structures of raw material and delignified samples were further characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  9. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  10. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  11. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  12. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  13. Immediate effects of the phonation into a straw exercise Efeitos imediatos do exercício de fonação no canudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barsanelli Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Immediate effects of an exercise with the vocal tract semi-closed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immediate effects of the phonation exercise in a straw in individuals with and without vocal fold lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study. 48 individuals, aged between 18 and 55 years participated in the study, and they were distributed into two groups: GL- with a benign vocal fold lesion; GSL- without a lesion. The following analyses were carried out before and after the straw phonation exercises: voice self-analysis, [ε] vowel auditory-perception analysis, selected parameters acoustics (VoxMetria 2. 6 and videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: The vocal self assessment indicated a statistically significant improvement on voice emission in GL individuals (p=0. 015. There were no statistically significant differences before and after the exercise and between the groups, in the videolaryngoscopy, acoustic and auditory-perception assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The straw phonation exercise caused positive effects, seen upon voice self-assessment, indicating an easier and better voice upon phonationEfeitos imediatos de um exercício de trato vocal semiocluído. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos imediatos do exercício de fonação no canudo em indivíduos com e sem lesão nas pregas vocais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo Prospectivo. Participaram deste estudo 48 indivíduos, entre 18 e 55 anos, distribuídos em dois grupos: GL- com lesão benigna na prega vocal; GSL- sem lesão. Foram realizadas antes e após a realização do exercício de fonação no canudo as seguintes análises: autoavaliação da voz, análises perceptivo-auditiva da vogal [ε], acústica de parâmetros selecionados (VoxMetria 2.6 e videolaringoscopia. RESULTADOS: A autoavaliação vocal indicou melhora estatisticamente significante na emissão da voz no GL (p=0,015. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos momentos pré e pós-exercício e entre os grupos, nas avalia

  14. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  15. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus Supplementation on in-vivo Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Population in Goats Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan, N.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Four fistulated Boer cross-bred bucks with 25 kg average body weight was used to test the effects of dietary treated rice straw supplemented with A. paniculata and O. stamineus on in-vivo rumen parameters and microbial population in goats. The study was conducted in 4 periods (4 x 4 Latin square design, where each period was for a duration of 22 d; 10 dof adaptation period, 5 dof sampling and 7 dof change-over. The animals were fed once daily at 0800 (3% body weight with 60% of urea-treated rice straw and 40 % of one of four concentrate diets: T1-basal diet + 1% A. paniculata, T2-basal diet + 1% O. stamineus, T3-basal diet + 0.5% of A. paniculata and 0.5% O. stamineus (AO and T4-basal diet without supplementation of herbs. Clean water was provided ad libitum and the animals were individually penned. Rumen contents were sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 hafter the onset feeding and the pH was recorded. Rumen pH, VFA's, concentration of ammonia and microbial population in the rumen fluid were measured. The mean rumen pH was the highest (P<0.05 at 2 h in T3 after the onset feeding while the mean concentration (mg/L of ammonia in the rumen fluid was the lowest at 6 and 12 h in T2 (P<0.05. The molar proportion of valerate was higher (P<0.05 at 6 h in T1. Meanwhile, the acetate to propionate ratio was affected by time where it was significantly higher at 12 h in T3. Significant reduction of total protozoa, methanogens, F. succinogens and R. albus number was observed in the herb-supplemented groups (P<0.05. The results suggest that urea-treated rice straw with herbs supplementation can be fed to goats without impairing their performance. However, further study could be done by increasing the supplementation of herbs in order to observe more effective results.

  16. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  17. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen.

  18. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasker, Marwen; Belayachi, Naima; Hoxha, Dashnor; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2014-04-11

    The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  19. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  20. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  1. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  2. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  3. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  4. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  5. Study of straw chamber lifetime with argon ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cheu, E.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Stockhausen, W.; Toki, W.; Wadley, W.; Wood, C.; Mir, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present detailed laboratory measurements of the lifetime of a small test chamber, simulating the Mark III straw vertex chamber conditions. The tests were carried out with an argon-ethane 50/50 gas mixture at 3 atm absolute pressure and 3.9 kV applied to the wires. After the accumulation of ≅ 0.02 C/cm on a single straw, continuous discharges began. The addition of alcohol or water vapor to the gas mixture was found to extend the lifetime of the straws. Continuous flow of the gas mixture with water vapor through the straws prolonged the lifetime significantly. We present results on the effects of changing the gas mixture inside the straws at regular time intervals. Adding a small percentage of water vapor to the argon-ethane gas and flowing the gas mixture in the straws can improve the lifetime by more than an order of magnitude. An accumulated charge of 1.0 C/cm on a single straw has been obtained. (orig.)

  6. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [The influence of straw, particularly rice straw, together with calcium-cyanamide on the microbiological activity of two Portuguese soils (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glathe, H; El Din, A; Scheuer, A

    1976-01-01

    The influence of calcium-cyanamide upon the microbiological activity was tested in pot experiments under controlled conditions in two Portuguese soils (sandy and loamy) after the addition of rice or wheat straw (rice straw 0.275% N, wheat straw 0.307% N). The amount of straw was equalled to 100 dz/ha, the application of calcium-cyanamide to 25, 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In the containers treated with straw the total amount of microorganisms (Koch-method) was higher in sandy than in loamy soil after 30 days, but after 70 days it was higher in loamy soil. The content of active nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) increased, when calcium-cyanamide was added, but decreased after the application of straw. After 70 days sandy soil again showed an increase of active nitrogen. Straw increased the rates of CO2-production considerably, wheat straw was superior to rice straw. Calcium-cyanamide increased the CO2-production more in sandy than in loamy soil or German loess, which was also used for this experiment. Only in the case of rice straw higher doses of calcium-cyanamide had a positive effect. After 70 days the CO2-production rose only when rice straw was applied. The dehydrogenase-activity was increased in both soils, but a superiority of wheat straw occurred in sandy soil only. The microbiological activity in the pots with straw was higher in sandy than in loamy soil, the addition of calcium-cyanamide accelerated it. Doses of 25-50 kg N/ha are sufficient generally. The period of the formation of insoluble organic N-compounds, usually connected with the application of organic matter with a wide N:C-ratio, seems to be reduced by the addition of calcium-cyanamide.

  8. Effect of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinck, C.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14 C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14 C phenmedipham and its 14 C residues after one year incubation were studied. The N and NPK fertilizers, glucose, cellulose and amorphous calcic humates had a positive effect on the mineralization of the herbicide. Straw, NAFS extract and amorphous lignin had little influence while colloidal lignin and colloidal calcic humates had a negative effect on the mineralization. All the amendments tested increased the quantity of 14 C substances fixed on the soil constituents and so decreased pollution. Calculation of the quantity of free 14 C in the soil after one year incubation showed for the various amendments values comprised between 56 and 93% of that of the control [fr

  9. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  10. Effect of urea treatment on the nutritive value of local sorghum and millet straw: a comparative study on growing performance of Djallonke rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kanwe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two tons of and chopped millet and sorghum straws have been treated with an urea solution at 5% (100 kg of straw, sprinkled with 50 lt. of solution. Treated straws were used as basic diet (900 g day associated to 100 g of cotton cake for 24 growing Djallonke rams in comparison to non treated straws. Four groups of animals were fed for 98 days with: urea treated sorghum (UTSS, not treated sorghum straw (NTSS, treated millet (UTMS, non treated millet straw (NTMS. Treated straws presented an increase of NDF of about 9%, of total nitrogen from 2 to 3 times while digestibility of dry matter increased respectively by 8,8% and 23,0% respectively in treated sorghum and millet. Also dry matter intake increased by 4,5% and 15,5% for treated sorghum and millet respectively compared to non treated. Mean weekly weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.05 for UTSS e UTMS compared to NTSS e NTMS. While the weekly weight gain, did not differed between UTSS vs. UTMS and NTSS vs. NTMS. At the end of the trial the UTSS and UTMS group presented a weight gain of about 40% and 38.7%, of their initial weight; while the gain for both NTSS and NTMS was respectively of 31.1% and 29.5%.

  11. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  12. Effect of tillage and crop residues management on mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) crop yield, nitrogen fixation and water use efficiency in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, W.; Shehzadi, S.; Shah, S.M.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N at the rate of 20: P at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess at the rate of 90 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in notillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha/sup -1/) and WUE (6.61kg ha/sup -1 mm/sup -1/) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha/sup -1/) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as

  13. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO2 fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg−1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure. PMID:26927136

  14. Effect of pre-treatments on methane production potential of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaki, A.; Ronkainen; Rintala, J.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences; Viinikainen, T.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Energy crops, that is, crops grown specifically for energy purposes are an alternative to food production in areas with sufficient agricultural land. Crop residues are also a potential source of energy. The anaerobic digestion of solid materials is limited by hydrolysis of complex polymeric substances such as lignocellulose. The methane producing potential of ligno cellulosic material is to pretreat the substrate in order to break up the polymer chains to more easily accessible soluble compounds. In this study, three different substrates were used: sugar beet tops, grass hay, and straw of oats. Biological pretreatments were the following: enzyme treatment, composting, white-rot fungi treatment. Also, pretreatment in water was tried. Chemical pretreatments included peracetic acid treatment, and treatment with two different alkalis. Alkaline pretreatments of hay and sugar beet tops have the potential to improve the methane yield. For instance, the yield of grass hay was increased 15 per cent by one particular alkaline treatment. Straw did not respond to any of the treatments tried. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Effect of iron salt type and dosing mode on Fenton-based pretreatment of rice straw for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Si-Li; Dai, Xiao; Wu, Han; Xiong, Zi-Yao; Qin, Yuan-Hang; Ma, Jiayu; Yang, Li; Wu, Zai-Kun; Wang, Tie-Lin; Wang, Wei-Guo; Wang, Cun-Wen

    2018-06-15

    Fenton-based processes with four different iron salts in two different dosing modes were used to pretreat rice straw (RS) samples to increase their enzymatic digestibility. The composition analysis shows that the RS sample pretreated by the dosing mode of iron salt adding into H 2 O 2 has a much lower hemicellulose content than that pretreated by the dosing mode of H 2 O 2 adding into iron salt, and the RS sample pretreated by the chloride salt-based Fenton process has a much lower lignin content and a slightly lower hemicellulose content than that pretreated by the sulphate salt-based Fenton process. The higher concentration of reducing sugar observed on the RS sample with lower lignin and hemicellulose contents justifies that the Fenton-based process could enhance the enzymic hydrolysis of RS by removing hemicellulose and lignin and increasing its accessibility to cellulase. FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O adding into H 2 O 2 is the most efficient Fenton-based process for RS pretreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  17. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  18. The Short-Term Effects of Rice Straw Biochar, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Properties in a Cold Waterlogged Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising management approach to eliminating these obstacles. However, little is known about the performance of biochar when combined with N fertilizer and P fertilizer in cold waterlogged soils. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the main effects and interactive effects of rice straw biochar, N and P fertilizer on rice growth and soil properties in a cold waterlogged paddy field. The field treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two biochar levels (0 and 2.25 t ha−1, two N fertilizer levels (120.0 and 180.0 kg ha−1 and two P fertilizer levels (37.5 and 67.5 kg ha−1 which were arranged in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Results confirmed that biochar application caused a significant increase in the soil pH due to its liming effect, while this application resulted in a significant decrease in soil exchangeable cations, such as exchangeable Ca, Mg, Al and base cations. The interactive effect of N fertilizer, P fertilizer and biochar was significant for soil total N. Moreover, a negative effect of biochar on the internal K use efficiency suggested that K uptake into rice may benefit from biochar application. According to the partial Eta squared values, the combined application of N fertilizer and biochar was as effective as pure P fertilization at increasing straw P uptake. The addition of biochar to farmers’ fertilization practice treatment (180.0 kg N ha−1, 67.5 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 67.5 kg K2O ha−1 significantly increased rice yield, mainly owing to improvements in grains per panicle. However, notable effects of biochar on rice yield and biomass production were not detected

  19. Investigation of additives for preventing ash fouling and sintering during barley straw combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Becidan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Formation of potassium chloride reduces ash sintering temperature and causes fouling deposits in biomass combustion applications. In the present work, the capacity of two mineral additives zeolite 24A and kaolin to capture KCl were investigated. A series of thermogravimetric experiments were carried out to measure fractions of KCl retained in the two additives as function of reaction temperature and heating time. The residues from additive-KCl mixtures after heating treatment were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). When heated at 900 °C for 1 h, the overall KCl capturing efficiencies of the two additives were 60% and 45% for zeolite 24A and kaolin respectively, which slightly decreased to 50% and 43% as the heating time increased to 12 h. At 1000 °C, the fractions of KCl captured by zeolite 24A and kaolin significantly decreased from 50% and 40% to 26% and 17%, as the KCl-additive mixtures were heated for 1 and 12 h, respectively. The decrease in of the overall KCl capturing efficiencies is mainly attributed to reduction of surface areas and chemically active compounds of the two additives with increasing temperature and heating time. The XRD analysis results showed that both zeolite 24A and kaolin can react with KCl to form different potassium aluminium silicates. It indicates that chemical reactions play an important role in the overall capturing process. The effects of zeolite 24A and kaolin on sintering behaviors of the barley straw ash were also investigated. The residues from sintering tests were analyzed by a combination of X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The barley straw ash melted intensively at elevated temperatures. Together with XRD analysis, the SEM-EDX analysis results revealed that severe melting of the barley straw ash was due to formation and fusion of low temperature melting potassium silicates. Addition of kaolin and zeolite 24A significantly

  20. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  1. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  2. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication.

  3. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  4. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  5. Determining In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics and Methane Production of Wheat Straw and Soybean Straw Pelleted with Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEÇYÜZ, Emre; KILIÇ, Ünal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed todetermine the effects of pelletting on the invitro gas productions (IVGP), invitro digestibilities and methane productions of wheat straw and soy strawpelletted with different additives such as molasses, guar meal and sepolite. Inthe study, 2x2x4 factorial experimental design was used and total 16 groups (2straws (wheat-soybean), 2 different sepiolite applications (absent-present) and4 additives (control, guar meal,molasses and guar meal +molasses) wereformed.The...

  6. The effect of prefreezing the diluent portion of the straw in a step-wise vitrification process using ethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone to preserve bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtango, N R; Varisanga, M D; Dong, Y J; Otoi, T; Suzuki, T

    2001-03-01

    A total of 678 bovine blastocysts, which had been produced by in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, were placed into plastic straws and were vitrified in various solutions of ethylene glycol (EG) + polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Part of the straw was loaded with TCM199 medium + 0.3 M trehalose as a diluent; the diluent portions of the straw were prefrozen to either -30 or -196 degrees C. Then, the embryos suspended in the vitrification solution were pipetted into the balance of the straw and vitrified by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen. For thawing, the straws were warmed for 3 s in air and 20 s in a water bath at 39 degrees C and then agitated to mix the diluent and cryoprotectant solution for 5 min followed by culture in TCM199 + 10% FCS + 5 + microg/ml insulin + 50 microg/ml gentamycin sulfate for 72 h. Variables that were examined were the time of exposure to EG prior to vitrification, the PVP concentration, and the temperature of exposure to EG + PVP prior to vitrification. Survival and hatching rates of the blastocysts exposed to 40% EG in four steps at 4 degrees C were higher than those of embryos exposed in two steps (81.3 +/- 4.3% and 80.2 +/- 3.4% vs 67.6 +/- 4.5% and 71.5 +/- 4.7%, respectively; P straws do favor developmental competence of in vitro produced embryos.

  7. Effective conversion of maize straw wastes into bio-hydrogen by two-stage process integrating H2 fermentation and MECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Bai, Yan-Xia; Pan, Chun-Mei; Li, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Nan; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced H2 production from maize straw had been achieved through the two-stage process of integrating H2 fermentation and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) in the present work. Several key parameters affecting hydrolysis of maize straw through subcritical H2O were optimized by orthogonal design for saccharification of maize straw followed by H2 production through H2 fermentation. The maximum reducing sugar (RS) content of maize straw reached 469.7 mg/g-TS under the optimal hydrolysis condition with subcritical H2O combining with dilute HCl of 0.3% at 230 °C. The maximum H2 yield, H2 production rate, and H2 content was 115.1 mL/g-TVS, 2.6 mL/g-TVS/h, and 48.9% by H2 fermentation, respectively. In addition, the effluent from H2 fermentation was used as feedstock of MECs for additional H2 production. The maximum H2 yield of 1060 mL/g-COD appeared at an applied voltage of 0.8 V, and total COD removal reached about 35%. The overall H2 yield from maize straw reached 318.5 mL/g-TVS through two-stage processes. The structural characterization of maize straw was also carefully investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra.

  8. Additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Peripolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral and protein-energy (MPES, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplements (ES, combination of MPES + ES, and straw without supplement (WS on digestibility, fermentation kinetic parameters, cumulative gas production, methane, CO2 production, and volatile fatty acid concentration of rice straw of low and high nutritional value, estimated by in vitro techniques. The experimental design was randomized and factorial 2 × 4: two straws (low and high nutritional value incubated with four supplements (MPES, ES, MPES + ES, and WS and their interactions. Four experimental periods were used, totaling four replications per treatment over time. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of the rice straw with high nutritional value was improved by MPES, while the combination of MPES + ES supplements inhibited the digestibility of this straw. Dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen increased through MPES and MPES + ES supplements resulted in an increase in NH3-N concentration and a decrease in CO2 production due to the microbial mass formation. However, this increase was not enough to improve organic matter degradability parameters, cummulative gas production, gas production kinetics, and acetate:propionate ratio and reduce methane emissions. The straw with high nutritional value showed greater content of nitrogen fraction a, effective degradability, cummulative gas production, and methane and CO2 productions comparing with low-nutritional value straw. The use of MPES and MPES + ES supplements can be used as strategy to mitigate CO2 in ruminant production systems that use rice straw.

  9. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  11. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  12. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  13. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  14. Energetic utilization and recycling of straw; Energetische und stoffliche Verwertung von Stroh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea; Engler, Nils; Weissbach, Gunter; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide arising significant emissions caused by the burning of rice straw on the field. The combined energetic and material utilization of rice straw offers the production possibility of various usable bioenergy and the closing of nutrient cycles by the return of the conversion residues. Thereby the soil quality can be improved and an important contribution to climate protection and resource conservation be realized. In the German-Egyptian project CEMUWA, the options of material and energetic use of rice straw are investigated. It is used as substrate for plant cultivation and for the production of ethanol, butanol and biogas. In this paper first results are presented. (orig.)

  15. Soil aggregate and organic carbon distribution at dry land soil and paddy soil: the role of different straws returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Lan, Muling; Liu, Jiang; Gao, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture wastes returning to soil is one of common ways to reuse crop straws in China. The returned straws are expected to improve the fertility and structural stability of soil during the degradation of straw it selves. The in situ effect of different straw (wheat, rice, maize, rape, and broad bean) applications for soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution were studied at both dry land soil and paddy soil in this study. Wet sieving procedures were used to separate soil aggregate sizes. Aggregate stability indicators including mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, mean weight of specific surface area, and the fractal dimension were used to evaluate soil aggregate stability after the incubation of straws returning. Meanwhile, the variation and distribution of SOC in different-sized aggregates were further studied. Results showed that the application of straws, especially rape straw at dry land soil and rice straw at paddy soil, increased the fractions of macro-aggregate (> 0.25 mm) and micro-aggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). Suggesting the nutrients released from straw degradation promotes the growing of soil aggregates directly and indirectly. The application of different straws increased the SOC content at both soils and the SOC mainly distributed at  0.25 and 0.25-0.053 mm aggregates with dry land soil. Rape straw in dry land and rice straw in paddy field could stabilize soil aggregates and increasing SOC contents best.

  16. Use of rice straw ash as substitute of feldspar in triaxial porcelain

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Álvaro; Delvasto, Silvio; Sánchez, Enrique; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash (RSA) as substitute of the use of feldspar in the whiteware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to...

  17. Biodegradation of wheat straw by different isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Astaraei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of agricultural wastes due to their recycling and possible production of cost effective materials, have economic and ecological advantages. A biological method used for degrading agricultural wastes is a new method for improving the digestibility of these materials and favoring the ease of degradation by other microorganisms. This research was carried out to study the possible biodegradation of wheat straw by different species and isolates of Trichoderma fungi. Two weeks after inoculation of wheat straw by different isolates, oven drying in 75◦C, the samples were weighted and (Acid Detergent Fiber ADF and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber reductions of each sample under influence of fungal growth were compared with their controls. The results showed that biodegradation of wheat straw were closely related to fungi species and also its isolates. The Reductions in NDF and ADF of wheat straw by T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum were more pronounced compared to others, although T. reesei was superior in ADF of wheat straw reduction. It is concluded that for improving in digestibility and also shortening the timing of composting process, it is recommended to treat the wheat straw with Trichoderma fungi and especially with T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum that performed well and had excellent efficiencies.

  18. Straw-to-soil or straw-to-energy? An optimal trade off in a long term sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, Massimo; Cammerino, Anna Rita Bernadette; Garofalo, Pasquale; Delivand, Mitra Kami

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy balance and GHG savings of a straw-to-electricity value chain were determined. • An “expanded” LCA was performed, from farm field to electricity delivery. • Both direct and indirect factors of land use change have been considered in the analysis. • No-tillage and crop rotation significantly improved the system performance. • A win–win, sustainable solution for the energy use of straw has been identified. - Abstract: This study examined some management strategies of wheat cultivation system and its sustainability in using straw as an energy feedstock. According to the EU regulatory framework on biofuels, no GHG emissions should be assigned to straws when they are used for energy. Given this relevance in the current energy policy, it is advisable to include all possible marginal effects related to land use, resource utilization and management changes in the comparison of different biomass options. Coherently, an expanded life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to include the upstream cultivation phase and to make a comparison between “straw to soil” and “straw to energy”. Different crop management conditions in Southern Italy were simulated, by using the CropSyst model, to estimate the long-term soil organic carbon and annual N 2 O soil emissions. Three wheat cropping systems were considered: the conventional single wheat system without straw removal (W0) and with partial straw removal (W1), together with a no-tillage “wheat-wheat-herbage” rotation system with partial straw removal (W2). The results of the simulations were integrated in the LCA to compare fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of straw-to-electricity with respect to the fossil-based electricity system. The “improved” rotational wheat cropping system (W2) gave the best performance in terms both of GHG savings and fossil displacement, thus stressing that straw use for energy generation in parallel with the optimization of the

  19. Effect of electron beam radiation processing on mechanical and thermal properties of fully biodegradable crops straw/poly (vinyl alcohol) biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Fully biodegradable biocomposites based on crops straw and poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared through thermal processing, and the effect of electron beam radiation processing with N,N-methylene double acrylamide as radiation sensitizer on mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites were investigated. The results showed that, when the radiation dose were in the range of 0-50 kGy, the mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites could be improved significantly through the electron beam radiation processing, and the interface compatibility was also improved because of the formation of stable cross-linked network structure, when the radiation dose were above the optimal value (50 kGy), the comprehensive properties of the biocomposites were gradually destroyed. EB radiation processing could be used as an effective technology to improve the comprehensive performance of the biocomposites, and as a green and efficient processing technology, radiation processing takes place at room temperature, and no contamination and by-product are possible.

  20. Estimation of Total Saponins and Evaluate Their Effect on in vitro Methanogenesis and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Wheat Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Goel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to estimate the total saponins and evaluate their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation by in vitro gas production techniques. Three plant material, rough chaff tree seed (Achyranthus aspara, T1, gokhru seed (Tribulus terrestris, T2 and Siris seed (Albizia lebbeck, T3 were selected for present study. The total saponins content in T1, T2 and T3 were 45.75, 25.65 and 48.26% (w/w, respectively. Three levels of each saponins (3, 6 and 9% on DM basis and wheat straw based (50R:50C medium fiber diet (200±10 mg were used for the evaluation of their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern. Results showed the maximum methane reduction (49.66% in term of mM/gDDM and acetate propionate ration (35.08% were found in T1 at 6 and 3% levels. Result show that propionate production (mM/ml was increased; protozoa population decreased (75% significantly on addition with T3 at 6% level. No significant variation was found in dry matter digestibility in all cases. The present results demonstrate that total saponins extracted from different herbal plants are a promising rumen modifying agent. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  1. First straw straightness measurements on a 4-plane end-cap ATLAS TRT wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Lucotte, A; Mitsou, V A; Mouraviev, S V; Nadtochy, A

    2001-01-01

    This document reports the first results and their interpretation of the straw straightness measurements that have been performed on the first 4-plane end-cap prototype of the ATLAS TRT. Section 2 presents the experimental setup used for the measurements, as well as a review of the data sample used to perform this study. It also provides a description of the method used to assess straw straightness, which is based on the measurements of the maximal gas gain deviation (``straw eccentricity'') seen along the straw. Section 3 reports the results of straw straightness for the 4-plane module, including corrections due to the gas flow. The effect of energy resolution degradation is also explained and results in terms of wire offset are reported. In Section 4, the straw bending due to an applied lateral deformation is measured, and finally Section 5 reviews the conclusions.

  2. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  3. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  4. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  5. Effect of a screen with flaps and straw on behaviour, stress response, productive performance and meat quality in indoor feedlot lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Miranda-de la Lama, G C; María, G A

    2015-07-01

    We analysed the effect of a modified pen using a wooden screen with flaps and cereal straw as forage and bedding, on behaviour, stress response, performance and meat quality variables of lambs housed in feedlots. Sixty male lambs were placed in enriched (ESF) or conventional (CO) pens (3 pens/treatment, 10 lambs/pen). The CO environment was barren. The ESF lambs showed a great preference for the provided items, which encouraged more natural and richer behaviour, reducing stereotypies and lamb aggressions, and increasing affiliations (P ≤ 0.05), which improves group cohesion. However, ESF lambs also developed a more natural coping style to the handling, evidenced by the higher cortisol levels (65.4 vs. 43.8 nmol/L) and a higher eye temperature as response to the reactivity test (38.1 vs. 37.8 °C). The ESF lambs had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) slaughter weight (27.2 vs. 26.3 kg), conformation score (7.38 vs. 6.07) and pH 24 (5.63 vs. 5.56) but lower cooking losses (12.9 vs. 14.9%) than CO lambs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of biochars derived from chicken manure and rape straw on speciation and phytoavailability of Cd to maize in artificially contaminated loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baowei; Xu, Renzhi; Ma, Fengfeng; Li, Yewei; Wang, Lu

    2016-12-15

    While biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in acidic soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain, conditions for alkaline soils such as loess soils with high pH values, high carbonate content and low organic matter content remain unclear. Pot experiments were conducted to assess the effects of four rates (1%, 5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) of biochars prepared at 600 °C from chicken manure and rape straw (CBC and RBC) on soil properties, Cd speciation and phytoavailability, and plant growth in Cd contaminated (20 mg kg -1 ) light sierozem using maize (Zea mays L.) as an indicator plant. Biochar additions significantly (P soil pH values, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil organic matter (OM). The results showed that Cd speciation turned somewhat into stable state as biochar application increased. When CBC and RBC was applied at the rate of 15%, the content of acid-extractable Cd decreased only by 16.3% and 11.64%, respectively. The uptake of Cd by maize shoots scarcely decreased with CBC and RBC amendment at the rate of 1% and 5%, respectively. Although it seemed that additions of more than 5% CBC or RBC significantly (P soil pH. These results could provide different implications for immobilization remediation of loess soils (e.g., light sierozem) contaminated with Cd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the methane yield of maize straw: Focus on the effects of pretreatment with fungi and their secreted enzymes combined with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Zehui; Cai, Yafan; Wen, Boting; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the methane yield, the alkaline and biological pretreatments on anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. Three treatments were tested: NaOH, biological (enzyme and fungi), and combined NaOH with biological. The maximum reducing sugar concentrations were obtained using Enzyme T (2.20 mg/mL) on the 6th day. The methane yield of NaOH + Enzyme A was 300.85 mL/g TS, 20.24% higher than the control. Methane yield obtained from Enzyme (T + A) and Enzyme T pretreatments were 277.03 and 273.75 mL/g TS, respectively, which were as effective as 1% NaOH (276.16 mL/g TS) in boosting methane production, and are environmentally friendly and inexpensive biological substitutes. Fungal pretreatment inhibited methane fermentation of maize straw, 15.68% was reduced by T + A compared with the control. The simultaneous reduction of DM, cellulose and hemicellulose achieved high methane yields. This study provides important guidance for the application of enzymes to AD from lignocellulosic agricultural waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of peanut shell and wheat straw biochar on the availability of Cd and Pb in a soil-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Chen, Hao-Xiang; Xiang, Qian; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Huang, Dao-You; Zhang, Yang-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Soil amendments, such as biochar, have been used to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted to immobilize the available cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil using peanut shell biochar (PBC) and wheat straw biochar (WBC), and to observe the accumulation of these heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBC and WBC led to significantly higher pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in paddy soil, while the content of MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb was lower than that of untreated soil. MgCl 2 -extractable Cd and Pb showed significant negative correlations with pH, SOC, and CEC (p rice plants. Specially, when compared to the corresponding concentrations in rice grown in control soils, 5% PBC addition lowered Cd and Pb concentrations in grains by 22.9 and 12.2%, respectively, while WBC addition lowered them by 29.1 and 15.0%, respectively. Compared to Pb content, Cd content was reduced to a greater extent in grain by PBC and WBC. These results suggest that biochar application is effective for immobilizing Cd and Pb in contaminated paddy soil, and reduces their bioavailability in rice. Biochar could be used as a soil amendment for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. Cryotops versus open-pulled straws (OPS) as carriers for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes: effects on spindle and chromosome configuration and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Roser; Izquierdo, Dolors; Paramio, Maria Teresa; Mogas, Teresa

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments were designed to assess the effectiveness of cryopreserving bovine MII oocytes using cryotops as the carrier system for vitrification. In the first experiment, we examined the developmental competence of oocytes after: (i) vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS method); or (ii) vitrification in plastic handle (Cryotop method). In the second experiment, warmed oocytes that had been vitrified in OPS or cryotops were fixed to analyze spindle and chromosome configuration. In all experiments both cow and calf oocytes were used. Significantly different fertilization rates were observed between the vitrification groups: 31.5% and 20.2% for the cow and calf oocytes vitrified in OPS, respectively, versus 46.1% and 46.4% for the oocytes vitrified using cryotops. After in vitro fertilization, 3.8% of the calf oocytes and 5.3% of the cow oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. All blastocysts from vitrified oocytes resulted from the Cryotop method. A significantly lower percentage of the OPS-vitrified calf oocytes showed a normal spindle configuration (37.8%) compared to control fresh oocytes (69.9%), while normal spindle and chromosome configurations were observed in a significantly higher proportion of the cryotop-vitrified calf oocytes (60.2%). For the cow oocytes, 60.6% in the OPS group and 60.3% in the Cryotop group exhibited a normal morphology after warming. These findings suggest the cryotop system is a more efficient carrier for vitrification than OPS for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes.

  10. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  11. Flavonoid glycosides from leaves and straw of Oryza sativa and their effects of cytotoxicity on a macrophage cell line and allelopathic on weed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new flavonoids namely, 5-hydroxy-6-isoprenyl-7,4′-dimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-d-arabinofuranoside (1, 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-d-arabinopyranosyl-2′′-n-decan-1′′′-oate (2, 3-butanoyl-5,6,8-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavonol--5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, 7, 4′-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyflavone-5-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2′′ → 1′′′-O-α-d-arabinopyranoside (4, and 5,6-dihydroxy-7, 4′-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-d-glucopyranoside (5, together with two known compounds, were isolated from the methanol extract of Oryza sativa leaves and straw. Their structures of new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectral methods, viz: COSY, HMBC and HSQC aided by mass techniques and IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of these compounds (1–7 were assessed by using (RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages cell line, and allelopathic effects of compounds (1–7 on the germination characteristics of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola and pigweed (Chenopodium album L. were also evaluated. The compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cytotoxicity and compounds 1–7 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on the seed germination of two weed species.

  12. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  13. Effects of different swine manure to wheat straw ratios on antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different mass ratios of swine manure relative to wheat straw (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3, i.e., control reactors C1, C2, and C3, respectively) on variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas production volumes were 1711, 3857, and 3226mL in C1, C2, and C3, respectively. After AD, the total relative abundance of ARGs decreased by 4.23 logs in C3, whereas the reductions were only 1.03 and 1.37 logs in C1 and C2, respectively. Network analysis showed that the genera Solibacillus, Enterococcus, Facklamia, Corynebacterium_1, and Acinetobacter were potential hosts of ermB, sul1, and dfrA7. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial communities and environmental factors played important roles in the variation in ARGs. Thus, reductions in ARGs should be considered before reusing animal manure treated by AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryopreservation of boar semen. II: Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau on boar semen frozen in mini- and maxi-straws and plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    The post-thaw motility and the acrosome integrity of semen from 4 boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini (0.25 ml) and maxi (5 ml) plastic straws and in 10 x 5 cm Teflon FEP-plastic bags (0.12 mm thick, 5 ml), were compared. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermo-couples placed in the straws and the bags. Three freezing programmes were used, namely A: from +5 degrees C, at a rate of 3 degrees C/min, to -6 degrees C, held for 1 min at -6 degrees C, and followed by a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min to -100 degrees C; B: a similar curve except that there was no holding time at -6 degrees C and that the cooling rate was 30 degrees C/min, and C: from +5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 35 degrees C/min, followed by storage in liquid N2. Despite the freezing curve assayed, both the mini-straws and the bags depicted much shorter freezing point plateaus as compared to the maxi-straws. Post-thaw sperm motility as well as the amount of normal apical ridges were equally significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws or in bags than in maxi-straws. Significant differences in these post-thawing parameters were obtained between the freezing curves used. The stepwise freezing procedure A appeared as the best alternative for boar semen, considering this in vitro evaluation.

  15. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  16. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  17. Effect of straw size and microbial amendment of litter on certain litter quality parameters, ammonia emission, and footpad dermatitis in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić Stojčić, Mirjana; Bjedov, Siniša; Žikić, Dragan; Perić, Lidija; Milošević, Niko

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter amendment (microbiological product – Micropan complex) and straw size (unchopped and chopped straw) on pH, moisture level, ammonia emission, and footpad dermatitis in broilers. A total of 1200 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments (2  ×  2 factorial arrangement), with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of 75 as-hatched birds per pen. The first factor consiste...

  18. Saccharification of rice straw by cellulase from a local Trichoderma harzianum SNRS3 for biobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Nooshin; Foo, Hooi Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini; Ariff, Arbakariya; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom

    2014-12-12

    Rice straw has shown to be a promising agricultural by-product in the bioconversion of biomass to value-added products. Hydrolysis of cellulose, a main constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is a requirement for fermentable sugar production and its subsequent bioconversion to biofuels such as biobutanol. The high cost of commercial enzymes is a major impediment to the industrial application of cellulases. Therefore, the use of local microbial enzymes has been suggested. Trichoderma harzianum strains are potential CMCase and β-glucosidase producers. However, few researches have been reported on cellulase production by T. harzianum and the subsequent use of the crude cellulase for cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. For cellulose hydrolysis to be efficiently performed, the presence of the whole set of cellulase components including exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase at a considerable concentration is required. Biomass recalcitrance is also a bottleneck in the bioconversion of agricultural residues to value-added products. An effective pretreatment could be of central significance in the bioconversion of biomass to biofuels. Rice straw pretreated using various concentrations of NaOH was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. The saccharification of rice straw pretreated with 2% (w/v) NaOH using crude cellulase from local T. harzianum SNRS3 resulted in the production of 29.87 g/L reducing sugar and a yield of 0.6 g/g substrate. The use of rice straw hydrolysate as carbon source for biobutanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 resulted in an ABE yield, ABE productivity, and biobutanol yield of 0.27 g/g glucose, 0.04 g/L/h and 0.16 g/g glucose, respectively. As a potential β-glucosidase producer, T. harzianum SNRS3 used in this study was able to produce β-glucosidase at the activity of 173.71 U/g substrate. However, for cellulose hydrolysis to be efficient, Filter Paper Activity at a considerable concentration is also required to initiate the

  19. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...... and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy...

  1. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zhiyuan; Long, Donglei; Mao, Hongxiang; Wen, Jiangnan; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure, while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 dry matter (DM), respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in three replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... testing and use in the field, consequences and recommendations are given. Failures, caused by harsh[1] customer environments, are not covered in this paper....

  3. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  4. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  5. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  6. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  7. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  8. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  10. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  11. Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingting; Huang Jun; Deng Shubo; Yu Gang

    2011-01-01

    Open burning of crop residues has been identified as an important emission source of PCDD/PCDF to the environment. This paper presents the first known data on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land considering the influence of pesticides applied in crops planting. Emission factor for PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straw with pesticides contamination ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned with a mean value of 0.24 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned and median value of 0.20 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned, respectively. The concentration was 35 to 270 times higher than that without additional pesticide contaminated. Initial observation was that emission factor for PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues was overestimated in the former UNEP Dioxin Toolkit. Pesticides contamination should be considered in some hotpots where special and over dosed pesticides has been sprayed especially in developing countries. - Highlights: → Pesticides applied on the corn straws would influence the emission of PCDD/PCDF in the open burning process of the straws. → Contaminated straw released 35 to 270 times higher PCDD/PCDF than that without. → Pesticides contamination should be included in hotpots about PCDD/PCDF emission. - Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues is of great importance for the Dioxin Toolkit update.

  12. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  13. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  14. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  15. Ammoniated maJze residue for the fattening of lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blems involved with caustic soda treatment of straw, other alkalis have enjoyed attention recently. Ammonia is ... Ammoniation of this maize residue increased its in vitro organic matter digestibility from 55,8 to 67,0V0 and its .... AM- monium hydroxide treatment of wheat straw. J. Anim.Sci. 49,802. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 1983, l3(l)

  16. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  17. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including β-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for

  19. Effect of fast pyrolysis conditions on biomass solid residues at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with corresponding data from a wire mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400)°C, biomass origin (pinewood, beechwood, wheat straw, alfalfa straw), and heating rate (103 °C/s, 104 °C...... in its half-width with respect to the parental fuel, whereas the alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered at higher temperatures. Soot particles in a range from 60 to 300 nm were obtained during fast pyrolysis. The soot yield from herbaceous fuels was lower than from wood samples, possibly due...

  20. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... measured at PACU entry. Zero out of 74 sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch® SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], P

  1. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) with a view to analyzing the environment aspects of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. It also compares rice straw-based power generation with that of coal and natural gas. GHG (Greenhouse gas) emission savings were calculated. It finds that rice straw power generation can save GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of about 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal-based and 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh with natural gas based power generation. While the development of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia is still in its early stage, these paddy residues offer a large potential to generate electricity because of their availability. Rice straw power plants not only could solve the problem of removing rice straw from fields without open burning, but also could reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change, acidification, and eutrophication, among other environmental problems. - Highlights: • Overall rice straw preparations contribute 224.48 g CO 2 -eq/kg rice straw. • The most constraints due to GHG (greenhouse gas) emission is from transportation. • Distance collection centre to plant less than 110 km to obtains minimum emissions. • Rice straw can save GHG emissions 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal power. • GHG saving 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to natural gas based power generation

  3. Environmental performance of straw-based pulp making: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Wang, Yutao; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO 2 -eq, 4550kg CO 2 -eq, 16.43kg SO 2 -eq and 2.56kg Phosphate-eq respectively. The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical (NaOH, ClO 2 ) input. Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood-based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw-based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements. However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw-based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw-based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Since wheat straw-based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Straw Appliqué Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... colours. This combination make up the costumed part; and the exposed part of the skin; ... Bits of different geometric shapes, sizes, and tones are combined to create the forms from the ... Acrylic, Poster//Water-colour and Pastel. ... (Enenajor 2004) where all aspects of the work is filled with straw medium.

  5. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  6. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments......, grinding the most. The effect of each treatment declined with an increasing number of successive additions of straw. The ratio between CO2 evolved after grinding and fumigation, respectively, revealed that grinding also exposed non-biomass material to accelerated decomposition. The effects of the stress...

  7. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Sieverts Nielsen, Per; Pedro Nunes, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana’s energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70–90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made...... for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10km) was 2.64USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66......–72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46–48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic...

  9. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sakhawy, M M; Hassan, M L [Cellulose and Paper Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide of cell wall constituents and digestibility energy of some agricultural residues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma irradiation (0,100,150,200 KGy) and different concentrations of sodium hydroxide on crude fibre (CF), Cell-wall constituents (NDF, ADF, ADL), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), gross energy (GE), in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of wheat straw (W.S) cotton seed shall (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (SB.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeeled seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that HaOH in the concentrations at (4 and 6%) had significant effects on the CF content of W.S and P.S, E.U.E, SB.S, C.S.S, O.C.E; respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaoH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the NDF level. Irradiation dose of 200 KGy decreased CF for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and SB.S. However, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S, P.S and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. The digestible energy values (kJ/Kg DM) increased by 1120,1 220, 2110 (W.S); 620, 830, 1000 for P.S; 240, 500, 580 for O.C.E; 500, 850, 870 for S.U.E; 550, 1060, 1200 for SB.S and 1260, 1710, 2070 for C.S.S using 100, 150, 200, KGy respectively, in comparison to unirradiated controls. Also, the IVDE values (Kj/Kg DM) increased by 560, 1050, 1590 for W.S; 310, 460, 650 for P.S; 170, 760, 1530 for C.S.S; 450, 990, 1190 for O.C.E using 2%, 4%, 6% NaOH respectively, in comparison to controls. No changes in the IVDE values for S.U.E and SB.S. Combined treatment resulted in an even better increase in the digestible energy, except S.U.E and SB.S. (Author). 37 refs., 22 tabs., 18 figs

  13. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  14. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment.

  15. The possibility of using flue gases as a medium for straw drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryl Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of drying straw in dedicated and innovative straw dryers with a modified drying system. The basic problem behind the use of bales of straw as a fuel is their moisture content. The moisture content is mostly dependent on the time of harvest and the conditions of storage. The humidity level of dry straw may be as low as 10%, however harvesting the straw during unfavourable weather conditions may cause the moisture level to increase up to 60–70% of the relative humidity, a value often observed for fresh biomass. Experimental studies were conducted to examine the effectiveness of drying and heat transfer in the straw bale. The studies have shown that the inner layers of the bale heat up much faster and achieve significantly higher temperatures than the outer ones. With the application of dedicated straw dryers, a homogenous field of moisture content in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  16. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  17. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  18. Effect of mungbean residue and nitrogen levels on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Muhammad, Z.; Daur, I.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha/sup -1/), nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and their interaction. Emergence m/sup -2/ (50), plant height (109 cm), leaf area tiller-1 (106 cm/sup 2/), lodging score (5.55), termites attack (3.4%), grains spike-1 (67), biological yield (12.80 Mg ha/sup -1/) and grain yield (2.32 Mg ha/sup -1/) were significantly (p=0.05) higher for 30 Mg ha/sup -1/ mungbean residue compared to other levels. Similarly plant height (110 cm), lodging score (5.29) and biological yield (13.75 Mg ha/sup -1/) were higher at 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N compared to other levels of N. Productive tillers m/sup -2/, grains spike/sup -1/, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were optimum at 50 kg ha-1 N as compared to 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N that encouraged lodging. Interaction between residue and nitrogen indicated that 10 Mg residue and 50 kg N ha/sup -1/ is recommended to achieve maximum net return under comparable conditions. (author)

  19. The allelopathic effects of three crop residues on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... maize inflorescences showed significant differences when compared to the control. No growth was recorded in the radicle until 96 hrs of the experiment in all the extract – treated seeds from the three crop residues while the control germinated at 72 hours. Keywords: Allelopathy, allelochemical, biomolecules, Sphenostylis ...

  20. Hastelloy X fuel element creep relaxation and residual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case, seven element, asymmetric fuel, thermal environment was assumed and a creep relaxation analysis generated. The fuel element clad is .020 inch Hastelloy X. The contact load decreased from 11.6 pounds to 5.87 pounds in 100,000 hours. The residual stresses were then computed for various shutdown times. (U.S.)

  1. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  2. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, H. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hattingh, D.G. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Steuwer, A. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); FaME38 at the ILL-ESRF, 6 rue J Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steuwer@ill.fr; James, M.N. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    This paper investigates the effect of varying welding parameters on the residual stress profiles in friction stir welds of aluminium alloy AA5083-H321, which were created on a fully instrumented friction welding machine. The residual stresses were determined non-destructively using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width and maximum of the residual stress profile show clear correlation with the heat input, and in particular feed rate, which was found to be the dominant parameter.

  3. Heat Transfer in a Fixed Bed of Straw Char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Anker

    2003-01-01

    A model for the thermal conductivity of a straw char bed has been developed. The model extends the work of Yagi and Kunii to describe heat transfer in a bed of cylinders, using a relationship between the interparticle distance and the external porosity. To verify the model, thermal conductivity...... the experimental uncertainty over the range of conditions investigated. The heat transfer model was used in a parametric study to evaluate the effect of gas flow rate, particle diameter, porosity, and temperature on the thermal conductivity in a straw char bed....... experiments were performed on shredded and un-shredded straw char samples, varying particle size, bed packing (loose or dense), and temperature. Predictions with the model, using the measured external porosity and particle diameter as input parameters, are in agreement with measurements within...

  4. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  5. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by ¤Thermoanaerobacter mathranii¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/l sodium carbonate, and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degreesC) was used for pre-treating wheat straw (60 g/l), resulting in a hemicellulose-rich hydrolysate and a cellulose-rich solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (9 g....../l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...

  6. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  7. Effect of additional heating, floor lenght, straw quantity and piglet nest accessibility on piglet losses in organic farrowing pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Houwers, H.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Newborn piglets on organic pig farms have a lower chance to survive their first week than conventional piglets. Poorer climatic conditions, a loose housed mother, large litters with low birth weights are some of the causes. In a series of experiments the effect of housing and climate measures were

  8. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  9. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  10. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  11. Determination of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a Straw Bale Partition Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslík, Jiří; Fabian, Radek; Hrubá, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a scientific project focused on determining of the Airborne Sound Insulation of a peripheral non-load bearing wall made of straw bales expressed by Weighted Sound Reduction Index. Weighted Sound Reduction Index was determined by measuring in the certified acoustic laboratory at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Brno University of Technology. The measured structure of the straw wall was modified in combinations with various materials, so the results include a wide range of possible compositions of the wall. The key modification was application of plaster on both sides of the straw bale wall. This construction as is frequently done in actual straw houses. The additional measurements were performed on the straw wall with several variants of additional wall of slab materials. The airborne sound insulation value has been also measured in separate stages of the construction. Thus it is possible to compare and determinate the effect of the single layers on the airborne sound insulation.

  12. Eficácia de herbicidas em diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia Effectiveness of herbicides through different amounts of sugar-cane straw on the Ipomoea grandifolia control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Monquero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, colhida sem queima prévia do canavial, na eficácia de alguns herbicidas no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia. O experimento foi desenvolvido em campo no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras (SP. Os tratamentos consistiram dos herbicidas ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium (1463 + 37 g ha-1, imazapic (84 g ha-1, imazapyr (200 g ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1170 + 330 g ha-1 e ²diuron + hexazinone (1330 + 160 g ha-1 aplicados em pré-emergência de I. grandifolia e de cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. A eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Com a adição de palha (15 e 20 t ha-1 ao solo foi reduzida a população de I. grandifolia. À medida que a quantidade de palha foi aumentada, reduziu-se a eficácia dos herbicidas; com 15 t ha-1 de palha, o controle foi considerado insatisfatório para todos os tratamentos utilizados. Com 20 t ha-1 nenhum herbicida foi eficaz, entretanto, a palha foi eficiente na supressão desta espécie, verificando-se que o número de plantas emergidas foi menor mesmo na testemunha.This work had as objective studies the effect of different amounts of sugarcane straw picked without burns about effectiveness of some herbicides in the I. grandifolia control. The experiment was conduced in field in the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The treatments consisted of herbicides herbicidas ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium (1463 + 37 g ha-1, imazapic (84 g ha-1, imazapyr (200 g ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1170 + 330 g ha-1 and ²diuron + hexazinone (1330 + 160 g ha-1 applied in pre emergence of Ipomoea grandifolia and on five growing amounts of sugarcane straw ( 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. The effectiveness of control of weeds was evaluated to the 7, 14, 21 and 28

  13. Cover crop residue effects on machine-induced soil compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ess, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    Crop production systems which utilize the biomass produced by rye (Secale cereale ) to suppress weed growth and conserve soil moisture have been developed at Virginia Tech. The success of alternative, reduced-input crop production systems has encouraged research into the potential for breaking the traffic-tillage cycle associated with conventional tillage crop production systems. The fragile residues encountered in agricultural crop production, whether incorporated into the ...

  14. Elaboration of a Platform for Increasing Straw Combustion in Sweden, based on Danish Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinge, Joergen (Danish Technological Inst. (Denmark))

    2009-05-15

    corrosion in boilers seem to have been overcome by using the resistant 'TP 347' material in superheaters. Fluidized bed technology has a number of potential advantages, among these: reduced NOx-formation; very flexible to different fuel mixtures. However, it is not considered a viable technology for straw combustion for two main reasons. The low ash melting point of straw may result in the melted ash particles making the sand particles in the fluid bed stick together, thereby preventing the sand particles from staying fluidized. Therefore, the amount of straw in a coal/straw fuel mixture can be maximum 50%. And whereas 100% of other types of biomass--for instance wood chips--can be used, a 50-50% mixture of wood chips and straw is not applicable. Therefore coal and straw have to be co-combusted in a fluidized bed boiler. Besides coal and straw ash, the mixed ash product from this combustion contains limestone residues and desulphurization products. This mixed ash product cannot be utilized as fertilizer or other known purposes, and therefore it has to be landfilled. A system with the combination of a separate straw boiler and a wood-chip fired superheater has been developed in order to prevent the 'usual' problems with corrosion of straw-fired boilers running at temperatures above 500 deg C by keeping the temperature at 470 deg C. However, after several years of experience with use of new materials for straw-fired boilers, it is no longer considered a problem to operate these at 540 deg C. Therefore, the construction with a combination of two separate boilers will probably not be repeated. And then raise the temperature of the steam to app. 540 deg C in the wood chip-fired superheater. Co-firing of coal and straw (max. 20% straw) in a 'conventional' suspension fired coal boiler will by far be the most feasible solution due to of low investments. If it is not relevant to establish co-firing of coal and straw, a separate boiler with vibrating

  15. Structural Changes of Lignin from Wheat Straw by Steam Explosion and Ethanol Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol were evaluated relative to the structural changes of lignin from the pretreated pulp. The lignin from steam explosion pulp (LS, lignin from steam blasting residual liquid (LL, lignin from ethanol pretreatment pulp (LE, lignin from black liquor (LB, and lignin from wheat straw (LW were separated, and the structural characteristics of the lignin fractions were compared based on analyses of Fourier transform-infrared, ultraviolet, thermogravimetric, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The proportions of the three structural units in all lignin fractions clearly changed during the pretreatment process because of inter-conversion reactions. The conjugated structure of lignin was destroyed in the pretreatment process and was also affected by the alkali extraction process. The alcoholic hydroxyl links on the aliphatic side chain were partly transformed into carbonyl groups during ethanol pretreatment. Demethoxylation occurred in all lignin fractions during the ethanol pretreatment and steam explosion process. The thermal stability of the LB fraction was relatively high because of the condensation reaction.

  16. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan; Agapol Junpen; Orachorn Kamnoet; Savitri Garivait

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plant...

  18. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  19. Nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 of palisadegrass and residual effect on subsequent no-tillage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Borghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is required in large amounts by plants and their dinamics in corn and perennial forages intercropped is little known. This study analyzed the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 applied after corn grain harvest to palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in intercrops sown at two times, as well as the N residual effect on the subsequent corn crop. The field experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil, on a structured Alfisol under no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a split plot scheme with four replications. The main plots consisted of two intercropping systems (corn and palisadegrass sown together and palisadegrass sown later, at corn top-dressing fertilization. The subplots consisted of four N rates (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N. The subplots contained microplots, in which enriched ammonium nitrate (15NH4NO3 was applied at the same rates. The time of intercrop sowing affected forage dry matter production, the amount of fertilizer-derived N in and the N use efficiency by the forage plants. Nitrogen applied in autumn to palisadegrass intercropped with corn, planted either at corn sowing or at N top-dressing fertilization, increased the forage yield up to a rate of 60 kg ha-1. The amount of fertilizer-derived N by the forage plants and the fertilizer use efficiency by palisadegrass were highest 160 days after fertilization for both intercrop sowing times, regardless of N rates. Residual N did not affect the N nutrition of corn plants grown in succession to palisadegrass, but increased grain yield at rates of 60 and 120 kg ha-1 N, when corn was grown on palisadegrass straw from the intercrop installed at corn fertilization (top-dressing. Our results indicated that the earlier intercropping allowed higher forage dry matter production. On the other hand, the later intercrop allowed a higher corn grain yield in succession to N-fertilized palisadegrass.

  20. Degradation of 14C - DDT in soils under moist and flooded conditions with rice straw and green manure amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.; Dubey, P.S.; Kale, S.P.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C - DDT in moist and flooded soils was studied with rice straw and green manure amendments for 100 days. The mineralization of DDT was not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. Rice straw and green manure in flooded soil brought about decrease in extractable 14 C - residues with concomitant increase in soil bound residues. DDT has a very short residence in flooded soils though radiocarbon was more in extractable residues. DDD is the major degradation product in flooded soils. (author)

  1. Influence of rice straw amendment on mercury methylation and nitrification in paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Dong, Ji-Xin; Han, Li-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Currently, rice straw return in place of burning is becoming more intensive in China than observed previously. However, little is known on the effect of returned rice straw on mercury (Hg) methylation and microbial activity in contaminated paddy fields. Here, we conduct a microcosm experiment to evaluate the effect of rice straw amendment on the Hg methylation and potential nitrification in two paddy soils with distinct Hg levels. Our results show that amended rice straw enhanced Hg methylation for relatively high Hg content soil, but not for low Hg soil, spiking the same additional fresh Hg. methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was significantly correlated to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and relative abundance of dominant microbes associated with Hg methylation. Similarly, amended rice straw was found to only enhance the potential nitrification rate in soil with relatively high Hg content. These findings provide evidence that amended rice straw differentially modulates Hg methylation and nitrification in Hg contaminated soils possibly resulting from different characteristics in the soil microbial community. This highlights that caution should be taken when returning rice straw to contaminated paddy fields, as this practice may increase the risk of more MeHg production. Main finding: Rice straw amendment enhanced both Hg methylation and nitrification potential in the relatively high, but not low, Hg soil. - Highlights: • Rice straw enhanced Hg methylation in relatively high Hg content paddy soils. • Microbial community directly correlated to the Hg methylation. • Mercury methylation in soils depend on Hg bioavailability and microbial activities. • Hg input affects microbial community associated with decomposition of rice straw.

  2. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Sadeghi; Reza Valizadeh; Abasali naserian; Abdolmansoor Tahmasebi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for the...

  3. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  4. Renewable energy from pyrolysis using crops and agricultural residuals: An economic and environmental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines pyrolysis-based electricity generation and ethanol production using various crops and agricultural residuals in Taiwan. It analyzes the net economic and environmental effects within the framework of the Extended Taiwanese Agricultural Sector Model by incorporating ongoing and potential gasoline, coal and GHG (greenhouse gas) prices. The study discusses the effects of agricultural shifts, which have several important implications for the Taiwanese bioenergy development. First, the cost of collecting rice straw is much lower than the production cost of other energy crops, implying that the efficient use of agricultural waste may eventually result in positive social effects in terms of farmers' revenue, the renewable energy supply and GHG emissions offset. Second, farmers with idle land usually suffer a lower steady income. Encouraging the development of the renewable energy industry increases the demand of raw feedstocks, which involves converting the idle land into cultivation and increasing farmers' revenue. Third, agricultural waste is usually burned and emits CO_2, which accelerates the global climate shift. Approximately one third of emissions could be offset by rice straw-based bioenergy in certain cases. Turning this waste into bioenergy, which offsets net GHG emissions, has positive effects on the climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • Pyrolyzing rice straw provides considerable energy supply (max 4.68 billion kWh). • High emission offset when combined with rice straw (max 2.73 million tons). • Affordable government subsidy ($204 million a year). • Collection and transportation costs of wastes could impact the result significantly.

  5. The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation during anodization of aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al films of varying residual stress were prepared by sputtering. •Variation of the residual stress in the Al films influences pore growth during anodization. •The change in average pore size with residual stress is fairly small. •Interaction of residual stress with oxide growth stress leads to change in structure. •Residual tensile stress increases the pore density of porous alumina. -- Abstract: The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) have been investigated into anodizing the various-residual-stresses aluminium films. The plane stresses were characterised by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method. The pore density roughly linearly increased with residual stress from 64.6 (−132.5 MPa) to 90.5 pores/μm 2 (135.9 MPa). However, the average pore size around 40 nm was not changed significantly except for the rougher film. The tensile residual stress lessened the compressive oxide growth stress to reduce AAO plastic deformation for higher pore density. The findings provide new foundations for realizing AAO films on silicon

  6. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.

    1978-11-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking

  7. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  9. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  10. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  11. The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  12. Analysis of energetic exploitation of straw in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Popov, Stevan D.; Zekic, Vladislav N.; Rodic, Vesna O.; Tica, Nedeljko Lj.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The average yearly quantity of the cellulose wastes in Vojvodina amounts to about 9 millions tons barely in the agriculture, and the same potential on the level of Serbia estimates to almost 13 million tons. This study gives the analysis of energetic exploitation of straws from stubble cereals processed in different forms. Costs for the equipment that uses biomass in the EU are approximately two times higher with respect to those for the equipment for combustion of natural gas or of fuel oil. Costs of investments for combustion of biomass in Vojvodina if compared with the cited data are approximately for 40-50% lower. The difference of the investment costs for the construction of such units is because units for straw combustion designed and constructed in our country, have neither the complicated devices for manipulation of fuels, nor the devices for the waste gasses processing. The definite conclusions about the economic justification of the energetic exploitation of stubble straws can be obtained only by comparison of costs of the so obtained energy, with the costs of energy obtained through the combustion of classical fuels. Previous comparisons were the most often based on the comparisons of value of prices of the equivalent straw quantity with the process of fuel oil of other classical fuels. Such the comparisons leaded to the very positive evaluations of the economical effects of straws, without taking into account the realizability of the named method. Namely, comparisons of straw and fuel oil hardly could lead to the conclusion that these two fuels are mutually substitutable. According to its physical properties, straw is most similar to firewood, but the preciousness and lacking of this the very resource excludes it from the comparative analysis, so

  13. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  14. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  15. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  16. Exchangeable basic cations and nitrogen distribution in soil as affected by crop residues and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of N fertilization and residues of pearl millet, black oats and oilseed radish on pH and Ca, Mg, K, NO3-, and NH4+ distribution within the profile of a Distroferric Red Latosol. The equivalent of 8 t ha-1 of plant residues were placed on soil surface. Lime was applied on the soil surface and nitrogen was applied over the straw at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, as ammonium nitrate. Corn was grown for 57 days. Calcium contents and pH in the soil profile were decreased by Pearl millet residue, while black oat and oilseed radish increased Ca contents and these effects are not related with Ca contents in residue tissue. However, the presence of plant residues increased nitrate, ammonium, and potassium contents in the deeper layers of the pots.

  17. Decomposition of Rice Straw and Corn Straw Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw at aerobic and anaerobic condition were investigated under the simulated condition in the lab. Results showed that two stages, i.e. the rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 3 months, and the slow one between 3 and 12 months, of decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw were found under anaerobic and aerobic incubation condition, and more than 55%of rice straw and corn mass was lost at the initial 3 months incubation period. The half times(t1/2of rice straw and corn straw mass lost under aerobic condition were 59.2 d and 52.9 d, which were short than those(72.6 d and 79.9 dunder the anaerobic condition, respectively. Carbon release constants from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.61 and 0.60 per month, which were higher than those (0.55 and 0.57 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The nitrogen release from crop straw followed the same rule as the carbon release from straw. The constants of nitrogen released from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.25 and 2.36 per month, which were higher than those(0.16 and 2.32 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The losses of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were also higher than those under anaerobic condition. In summary, the aerobic environment increases de composition and release of organic and inorganic substances from crop straw.

  18. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plants (VSPPs in Thailand. According to the results obtained during the crop season of 2015/2016, approximately 26 Mt of rice straws were generated upon the harvesting process. The net potential of rice straws, including those that were burned and those that were left in the fields, was only about 15% or 3.85 Mt, which could be used for heat and electricity production at 1331 kilotons of oil equivalent (ktoe or 457 MWe. As agro-residues vary by seasonality, the peak season of rice straws was in November, where approximately 1.64 Mt (43% were generated, followed by December, at 1.32 Mt (34%. On the basis of the results, rice straw has the potential to serve as a fuel supply for VSPPs at 14.2%, 21.6%, 26.3%, and 29.0% for the radii of compilation at 24, 36, 48 km and 60 km, respectively.

  19. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  20. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: evelina.brannvall@ltu.se [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  1. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Estrine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals.

  2. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  3. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  4. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wu, Min; Lin, Xiaobo; Huang, Pei; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe 3 O 4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe 3 O 4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe 3 O 4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L -1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  5. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  6. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15 N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15 N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system, labeled with 15 N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15 N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15 N-urea, 15 N-SS and 15 N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  7. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  8. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  9. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-01-01

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using 13 C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ( 13 C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO 2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg −1 soil h −1 ) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and 13 C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 13 C-labeled straw amended soil than the 13 C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the 13 C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of 13 C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the

  10. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fuxia [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yaying [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); Chapman, Stephen James [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Khan, Sardar [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Yao, Huaiying, E-mail: hyyao@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using {sup 13}C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ({sup 13}C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO{sub 2} emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg{sup −1} soil h{sup −1}) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and {sup 13}C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in {sup 13}C-labeled straw amended soil than the {sup 13}C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the {sup 13}C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of {sup 13}C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest

  11. The effect of processing on veterinary residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was also studied. Time and temperature of heating were more easily controlled in liquid media, but results in actual meat products are more indicative of actual cooking processes. Ordinary cooking procedures for meat, even to "well-done", cannot be relied on to inactivate even the more heat sensitive compounds such as penicillins and tetracyclines. More severe heating as for canning or prolonged cooking with moist heat can inactivate the more heat sensitive compounds. The relevance to food safety is uncertain since the nature of the degradation products is unknown in most cases.

  12. Residual stress effects on the impact resistance and strength of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Equations have been derived to predict degradation effects of microresidual stresses on impact resistance of unidirectional fiber composites. Equations also predict lamination residual stresses in multilayered angle ply composites.

  13. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  14. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  15. Effects of magnetic core geometry on false detection in residual current sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Bruno; Chillet, Christian; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Mas, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Under high-supply current, residual circuit breakers are subject to abnormal tripping, caused by false residual currents. Geometric or magnetic anomalies in the circuit breaker ring core seem to be responsible for these abnormal currents. This paper studies a few anomalies (spiral shape effect, conductor eccentricity, lamination effect) and calculates different contributions using the finite element simulations. The results show that the ring core, made of thin wound magnetic tape, is particularly sensitive to primary conductor eccentricity

  16. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage is likely to be a dominant effect on the formation of compressive residual stresses along the clad. Furthermore, martensitic structure and unequal concentration of alloying elements was observed on...

  17. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw...

  18. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  19. Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha−1 y−1 and 2.13 t C ha−1 y−1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT, daily mean temperature (Tmean, and water-filled pore space (WFPS were significant.

  20. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  2. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  3. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  4. Effect of urea level and treating time on ruminal degradability of urea-treated rice straw evaluated by in sacco method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promma, S.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the dry matter disappearance and potential degradability of urea-treated rice straw (UTS. Five kg of non-glutinous rice straw (RS was chopped and treated with urea solution and kept in a double sheet polyethylene bag. The ratio of RS to water was 1:1. The urea concentration was 4, 5 and 6% by weight of RS and the duration of treatment was 7, 14 and 21 days. There were 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The dry and ground UTS were weighted into nylon bags and incubated in 3 fistulated cows. The dry matter disappearance was detected at different incubation times. The result showed that CP content of UTS was higher than RS and the amount increased with the increasing level of urea. The longer treatment duration caused depletion in CP content. Nitrogen was lost as ammonia when UTS was dried, which led to the lower CP than fresh UTS. The duration of treating of 7, 14 and 21 days caused no-significant difference in potential degradability (71.61±2.59, 72.38±2.80 and 72.70±2.44%, respectively, P> 0.05, but 6% UTS has higher potential degradability than 4 % UTS (74.24± 0.53 and 69.84±1.03%, respectively, P< 0.05

  5. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  6. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.

  7. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  8. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  9. Straw enhanced CO2 and CH4 but decreased N2O emissions from flooded paddy soils: Changes in microbial community compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Yu, Jian-Guang; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Lena Q.; Li, Hong-Bo

    2018-02-01

    To explore microbial mechanisms of straw-induced changes in CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from paddy field, wheat straw was amended to two paddy soils from Taizhou (TZ) and Yixing (YX), China for 60 d under flooded condition. Illumia sequencing was used to characterize shift in bacterial community compositions. Compared to control, 1-5% straw amendment significantly elevated CO2 and CH4 emissions with higher increase at higher application rates, mainly due to increased soil DOC concentrations. In contrast, straw amendment decreased N2O emission. Considering CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions as a whole, an overall increase in global warming potential was observed with straw amendment. Total CO2 and CH4 emissions from straw-amended soils were significantly higher for YX than TZ soil, suggesting that straw-induced greenhouse gas emissions depended on soil characteristics. The abundance of C-turnover bacteria Firmicutes increased from 28-41% to 54-77% with straw amendment, thereby increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. However, straw amendment reduced the abundance of denitrifying bacteria Proteobacteria from 18% to 7.2-13% or increased the abundance of N2O reducing bacteria Clostridium from 7.6-11% to 13-30%, thereby decreasing N2O emission. The results suggested straw amendment strongly influenced greenhouse gas emissions via alerting soil properties and bacterial community compositions. Future field application is needed to ascertain the effects of straw return on greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  11. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  12. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  13. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  14. Straw Combustion in a Grate Furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    1998-01-01

    Fixed-bed combustion of straw has been conducted in a 15 cm diameter and 137 cm long cylindrical reactor. Air, which could be preheated, was introduced through the bottom plate. The straw was ignited at the top with a radiation heater. After ignition, when a self-sustaining reaction front...

  15. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  16. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  17. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  18. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  19. Effect of Sowing Quantity on Soil Temperature and Yield of Winter Wheat under Straw Strip Mulching in Arid Region of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xuemei; Chai, Yuwei; Li, Rui; Li, Bowen; Cheng, Hongbo; Chang, Lei; Chai, Shouxi

    2018-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics and relationship between soil temperature and yield of winter wheat, under different sowing quantities conditions of straw mulching conventional drilling in Northwest China, this study took Lantian 26 as material, under the whole corn mulching conventional drilling in Changhe town and Pingxiang town, setting up 3 different seeding quantities of 270 kg/ha (SSMC1), 324 kg/ha (SSMC2) and 405 kg/ha (SSMC3), to study the difference of soil temperature during the growth period of winter wheat and its correlation with yield components. Results showed: the average soil temperature of 0∼25cm in two ecological zones in the whole growth period have a significant change with the increase of sowing quantities; too much seeding had a sharp drop in soil temperature; the highest temperature of SSMC in Changhe town was the middle quantity of SSMC 2; the highest temperature of SSMC in Pingxiang town was the lowest sowing quantity of SSMC1. Diurnal variation of soil temperature at all growth stages showed: with the increase of SSMC, in the morning it increased with the increase of soil depth, noon and evening reducing with the depth of the soil. The average soil temperature of SSMC2 was higher than that of in all the two ecological zones in the whole growth period of SSMC.The maximum day temperature difference of each treatment was at noon. With the increase of SSMC, the yield increase varied with two ecological zones. SSMC of the local conventional sowing quantity of 270kg/ha SSMC1 yield was the highest in Changhe Town. SSMC of the middle sowing quantity SSMC2 of 324kg/ha yield was the highest in Pingxiang town. The difference of grain number per spike was the main cause of yield difference among these 3 treatments. Correlation analysis showed: the correlation among the yield and yield components, growth index and soil temperature varied with different ecological zones; thousand kernel weight and grain number per ear (.964** and.891**) had a

  20. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-01-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10 −16 , 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  1. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, H., E-mail: hajime.nishiguchi@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Evtoukhovitch, P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Fujii, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), 19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan district, Beijing 1000049 (China); Hamada, E.; Mihara, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Moiseenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J. [Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Ueno, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Volkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10{sup −16}, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  2. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  3. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xuefei; Jiao Bining; Fu Chenmei; Qian Yongzhong; Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  4. Effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in stored corn and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, A.W.; Calumpang, S.M.F.; Gambalan, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in rice and corn was determined. Chlorpyrifos solution (0.1%) sprayed on jute sacks containing corn resulted in absorption of residues in kernel and cob up to six months. A similar trend was observed in rice. Radiotracer studies revealed very low levels of bound residues (0.2 - 0.8 mg/kg) present in rice only. The usual practice of washing rice and corn before cooking reduced chlorpyrifos residues as much as 57% to 100%. Residues in wash water declined with each washing. Cooking further reduced the residues of chlorpyrifos only when volatilization was possible. Chlorpyrifos appeared to be persistent. Cooking rice in plot with the lid on did not produce any substantial reduction in the chlorpyrifos content. The practice of storing rice and corn in the Philippines does not give rice to chlorpyrifos residues which may exceed the recommended daily intake of 0.01 mg/kg-bw. (Auth.) 13 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  6. Electrical properties of various types of straw tubes considered for the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V

    2001-01-01

    Because of the appreciable length (up to 3.6 m) of the straw tube modules of the Outer Tracker, transmission line effects will have impact on their operational properties. These effects were clearly observed in a 1.6 m long prototype. A few types of straw tubes have been examined from the point of view of electrical properties, with emphasis on the study of signal transmission and cross-talk.

  7. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  8. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Menke, Christoph; Wassmann, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    abstract: Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions.

  9. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  10. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  11. Black liquor-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chenxi; Zhu, Linfeng; Shen, Feng; Qi, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. The highest TRS yield of 63.4% was achieved at 140°C for 120min, which was much higher than that obtained from crude rice straw under the same reaction conditions (36.6% TRS yield). Overall, this study provides a renewable strategy for the utilization of all components of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  13. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  14. Efeito do tipo de solo na imobilização do azoto por palha em decomposição no Sul de Portugal Effect of soil type on the N immobilization by decomposing straw at the South of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alpendre

    2007-01-01

    diferentes consoante o solo. A incorporação de 15NO3 foi maior no solo Bvc, ocorrendo o oposto com 15NH4 no solo Pmg.In many agricultural systems in the south of Portugal leaving crop residues on the soil surface after cropping is a common practice. During autumn these residues are either burned or incorporated in the soil. The latter is preferable as the residues are rich in C and consequently promoting mineral nitrogen immobilization both from the soil organic matter and residues mineralization. This reducing nitrate potential high loss by leaching caused by the high rainfall, which usually, occurs in autumn and winter in southern Portugal. It is necessary to find ways to reduce N loss by leaching, understand how different agricultural systems influence this process and identify ways to retain N for a longer period in the system soil-plant. One possibility is the synchronization of the N mineralization with either their consumption by the plants, through N immobilization in the residues rich in C. The goal of this work was to study the effect of two soils of contrasting fertility in N immobilization and subsequent mineralization, namely a sandy-loam soil (Pmg in Évora and a clay soil (Bvc in Beja. Wheat straw was incubated in nylon net bags for one year, with sampling periods of 1, 4, 8 and 12 months. The trial was composed of 3 treatments: without N, with addition of 15NH4NO3 and with addition of NH4(15NO3. N and C total concentration in the straw and soil was determined and 15N abundance was measured. The remaining proportion of the initial quantity of straw was incubated and the residuals total N concentration and 15N immobilization was compared. During the first month as 15N was being incorporated in the soil the residual mass and total N content decreased. Subsequently net immobilization started to occur and total N content increased, though with different rates according to the soil type. In Bvc soil 15 NO3 highest incorporation was observed while in Pmg soil the

  15. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  16. The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated

  17. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  18. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hiroko; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations

  19. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Hiroko E-mail: hirokok@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations.

  20. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exact means of humidity interacting with hydropho- bic graphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene surfaces with surface ... temperature quantum Hall effect, linear electron dispersion at the vicinity of the ...

  1. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  2. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The use of steam explosion to increase the nutrition available from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Kunjie; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Chao; Shao, Qianjun; Sun, Qian; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rice straw was pretreated using steam-explosion (ST) technique to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of potential reducing sugars for feed utilization. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the effects of steam pressure, pressure retention time, and straw moisture content on the yield of reducing sugar. All the investigated variables had significant effects (P steam pressure, 1.54 MPa; pressure retention time, 140.5 Sec; and straw moisture content, 41.6%. The yield after thermal treatment under the same conditions was approximately 16%. Infrared (IR) radiation analysis showed a decrease in the cellulose IR crystallization index. ST noticeably increases reducing sugars in rice straw, and this technique may also be applicable to other cellulose/lignin sources of biomass. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Optimization of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with filter cake: Effects of macronutrients supplementation on conversion kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F; Schüch, Andrea; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with sugarcane filter cake was investigated with a special focus on macronutrients supplementation for an optimized conversion process. Experimental data from batch tests and a semi-continuous experiment operated in different supplementation phases were used for modeling the conversion kinetics based on continuous stirred-tank reactors. The semi-continuous experiment showed an overall decrease in the performance along the inoculum washout from the reactors. By supplementing nitrogen alone or in combination to phosphorus and sulfur the specific methane production significantly increased (P0.99), the use of the depicted kinetics did not provide a good estimation for process simulation of the semi-continuous process (in any supplementation phase), possibly due to the different feeding modes and inoculum source, activity and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  6. Effect of paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber on hemato-biochemical and mineral profile of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Chacko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF on hemato-biochemical and mineral parameters of lactating dairy cows. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 6 months in 18 lactating dairy cows, divided into three groups of six each, by feeding them on paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations containing different levels of NDF, in two phases of 3 months (90 days each, being the early and mid lactation phases, respectively. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric complete rations, T1, T2 and T3 with 25%, 30% and 35% NDF, respectively, were fed to the experimental animals. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each of the two phases to estimate the different hematological, plasma protein, and mineral parameters to know the overall health status of the animals and standard methods were followed to analyze the samples. Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in various hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN in blood; plasma protein parameters such as total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin: globulin ratio and mineral parameters such as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels at the beginning and end of Phase I (1st day and 90th day and Phase II (91st day and 180th day as well as between the three dietary treatments, with all the values being in the normal range for lactating dairy cows. Even though nonsignificant (p>0.05, the BUN values of animals fed on ration T1, both at the beginning and end of Phase I, were higher than that of animals fed on rations T2 and T3 because the diet T1 with lowest NDF and the highest soluble carbohydrate content underwent rapid fermentation in the rumen, produced more energy, which was utilized by the rumen microbes to degrade the protein in the feed to ammonia, the excess

  7. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) for treated canola straw were significantly higher than that of untreated canola straw (control) (p<0.001). Gas productions at 24 h for untreated canola straw (control) and treated canola straw were 20.03 and 27.07 ml, respectively.

  8. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  9. ‘Overall Regional Planning, Whole Advancement, and Terminal Offer’is the Fundamental Outset for Prohibition of Burning Straw in Field and Total Utilization of Straws in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG Zhi-zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Straw burning is a serious problem, which draws high attention from the whole society. In this study, the issues of management, policy and techniques regarding to the straw burning and its integrated utilization were analyzed. Based on the analysis results, a novel strategy, i.e., overall regional planning, village basis, combination of collection and returning, policy guidance and market operation, was raised to inhibit straw burning and enhance the efficiency of straw utilization. In technology, the methods of regional control, balance of harvest and return, effective collection, improving application, creative mechanism were emphasized. In addition, the effect of total utilization replying on the method of overall regional planning and whole advancement was presented on the village-scale. The application results in Chemen Township, Sihong County, Jiangsu Province showed that the goal of total utilization of straws and prohibition of burning in the regional scale could be achieved according to the novel strategy.

  10. Energy and environmental impact analysis of rice cultivation and straw management in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Sampattagul, Sate; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2018-04-17

    Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation. The data were collected from the rice production cooperative in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, via onsite records and face-to-face questionnaires in 2016. The environmental impacts were evaluated from cradle-to-farm gate. The results showed that the total GHG emissions were 0.64 kg CO 2 -eq per kilogram of paddy rice, the total energy use was 1.80 MJ per kilogram of paddy rice and the PM10 emissions were 0.42 g PM10-eq per kilogram of paddy rice. The results of rice straw management scenarios showed that rice straw open burning had the highest GHG and PM10 emissions. However, rice straw utilization by incorporation into soil and direct combustion for electricity generation could reduce these impacts substantially.

  11. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesoph