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Sample records for stratum granulosum-like layer

  1. Zebra layers and Paleoenvironment of Late Miocene Stratum in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    paleotopography rather than soil creep, and that they were not deposited in a .... Four groups of orientated samples were collected from the Zebra layers of the ..... However, it can take hundreds or even thousands of years to develop a layer.

  2. Penetration of gold nanoparticles across the stratum corneum layer of thick-Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gayathri; Katiyar, Neeraj; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Shankarappa, Sahadev A

    2018-02-01

    Transdermal particulate penetration across thick-skin, such as that of palms and sole, is particularly important for drug delivery for disorders such as small fiber neuropathies. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery across skin is believed to have much translational applications, but their penetration especially through thick-skin, is not clear. This study specifically investigates the effectiveness of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for thick-skin penetration, especially across the stratum corneum (SC) as a function of particle size. The thick-skinned hind-paw of rat was used to characterize depth and distribution of AuNPs of varying sizes, namely, 22±3, 105±11, and 186±20nm. Epidermal penetration of AuNPs was characterized both, in harvested skin from the hind-paw using a diffusion chamber, as well as in vivo. Harvested skin segments exposed to 22nm AuNPs for only 3h demonstrated higher penetration (pthick-skin allows nanoparticle penetration and acts as a depot for release of AuNPs into circulation long after the initial exposure has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sampling the stratum corneum for toxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Blattner, Collin M; Andersen, Rosa; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure is an important pathway in environmental health. Exposure comes from contaminated water, soil, treated surfaces, textiles, aerosolized chemicals, and agricultural products. It can occur in homes, schools, play areas, and work settings in the form of industrial sources, consumer products, or hazardous wastes. Dermal exposure is most likely to occur through contact with liquids, water, soil, sediment, and contaminated surfaces. The ability to detect and measure exposure to toxic materials on the skin is an important environmental health issue. The stratum corneum is the skin's first and principal barrier layer of protection from the outside world. It has a complex structure that can effectively protect against a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological contaminants. However, there are a variety of chemical agents that can damage the stratum corneum and the underlying epidermis, dermis and subcutis, and/or enter systemic circulation through the skin. There are numerous ways of sampling the stratum corneum for these toxic materials like abrasion techniques, biopsy, suction blistering, imaging, washing, wipe sampling, tape stripping, and spot testing. Selecting a method likely depends on the particular needs of the situation. Hence, there is a need to review practical considerations for their use in sampling the stratum corneum for toxins.

  4. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  5. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    method and analysed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. RESULTS: For the ceramide/cholesterol ratio we found statistically significant differences between groups, with Asians having the highest ratio (P

  6. Effectiveness of Sunscreen at Preventing Solar UV-Induced Alterations of Human Stratum Corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, O.; Dauskardt, R.; Biniek, K.; Novoa, F.

    2012-12-01

    The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, protects the body from harmful environmental conditions by serving as a selective barrier. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most common conditions the body encounters and is responsible for many negative skin responses, including compromised barrier function. UV exposure has dramatic effects on stratum corneum cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the stratum corneum's intercellular lipids. Hypothesis Sunscreen contains chemicals that absorb UV radiation to prevent the radiation from penetrating the skin. Thus, it is expected that the application of sunscreen on human stratum corneum will reduce UV-induced alterations of human stratum corneum. Procedures/Equipment Human tissue was processed in order to isolate the stratum corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Double cantilever beam (DCB) testing was used to study the effect of UV radiation on human stratum corneum. Two different types of DCB samples were created: control DCB samples with the application of carrier and UV light to the stratum corneum and DCB samples with the application of sunscreen and UV light to the stratum corneum. For the control sample, one side of the stratum corneum was glued to a polycarbonate beam and carrier was applied. Then, the sample was placed 10 cm away from the UV lamp inside of the environmental chamber and were exposed to UV dosages of about 800 J/cm2. Once this step was complete, a second polycarbonate beam was glued to the other side of the stratum corneum. The steps were similar for the DCB sample that had sunscreen applied and that was exposed to UV light. After gluing one side of the stratum corneum to a polycarbonate beam, Octinoxate sunscreen was applied. The next steps were similar to those of the control sample. All DCB samples were then let out to dry for two hours in a dry box in order for the moisture from the lab to be extracted. Each DCB sample was tested

  7. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  8. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  9. Study on the lipid organization of stratum corneum lipid models by (cryo-) electron diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgram, GSK; Pelt, AMEV; Oostergetel, GT; Koerten, HK; Bouwstra, JA

    The barrier function of the skin resides in the stratum corneum (SC), This outermost layer consists of protein-rich corneocytes and lipid-rich intercellular domains. These domains form the rate-limiting step for transepidermal water loss and the penetration of substances from the environment. To

  10. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G

    2000-01-01

    emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures......Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...

  11. Mechanics, morphology, and mobility in stratum corneum membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter; Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of skin, and serves as a protective barrier against external agents, and to control moisture. It comprises keratin bodies (corneocytes) embedded in a matrix of lipid bilayers. Unlike the more widely studied phospholipid bilayers, the SC bilayers are typically in a gel-like state. Moreover, the SC membrane composition is radically different from more fluid counterparts: it comprises single tailed fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol; with many distinct ceramides possessing different lengths of tails, and always with two tails of different lengths. I will present insight from computer simulations into the morphology, mechanical properties, and diffusion (barrier) properties of these highly heterogeneous membranes. Our results provide some clue as to the design principles for the SC membrane, and is an excellent example of the use of wide polydispersity by natural systems.

  12. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, An-Lun; Lin, Chih-Yung; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-12-01

    Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this downstream substrate. Here, using R7 terminals as references, we generated a 3D volume model of the M6 stratum, which revealed a retinotopic map for UV representations. Using this volume model as a common 3D framework, we compiled and analyzed the spatial distributions of more than 200 single M6-specific local neurons (M6-LNs). Based on the segregation of putative dendrites and axons, these local neurons were classified into two families, directional and nondirectional. Neurotransmitter immunostaining suggested a signal routing model in which some visual information is relayed by directional M6-LNs from the anterior to the posterior M6 and all visual information is inhibited by a diverse population of nondirectional M6-LNs covering the entire M6 stratum. Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  14. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  15. Aspen Forest Cover by Stratum/Plot (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Average percent coverage and standard deviation of each canopy stratum from subplots at each aspen site during the SNF study in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota

  16. Dehydration of multilamellar fatty acid membranes: Towards a computational model of the stratum corneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermaid, Christopher M.; DeVane, Russell H.; Klein, Michael L.; Fiorin, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The level of hydration controls the cohesion between apposed lamellae of saturated free fatty acids found in the lipid matrix of stratum corneum, the outermost layer of mammalian skin. This multilamellar lipid matrix is highly impermeable to water and ions, so that the local hydration shell of its fatty acids may not always be in equilibrium with the acidity and relative humidity, which significantly change over a course of days during skin growth. The homeostasis of the stratum corneum at each moment of its growth likely requires a balance between two factors, which affect in opposite ways the diffusion of hydrophilic species through the stratum corneum: (i) an increase in water order as the lipid lamellae come in closer contact, and (ii) a decrease in water order as the fraction of charged fatty acids is lowered by pH. Herein molecular dynamics simulations are employed to estimate the impact of both effects on water molecules confined between lamellae of fatty acids. Under conditions where membrane undulations are energetically favorable, the charged fatty acids are able to sequester cations around points of contact between lamellae that are fully dehydrated, while essentially maintaining a multilamellar structure for the entire system. This observation suggests that the undulations of the fatty acid lamellae control the diffusion of hydrophilic species through the water phase by altering the positional and rotational order of water molecules in the embedded/occluded "droplets."

  17. Stratum corneum molecular mobility in the presence of natural moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Andersson, Jenny Marie; Pham, Quoc Dat; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma

    2014-07-07

    The outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), is a lipid-protein membrane that experiences considerable osmotic stress from a dry and cold climate. The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) comprises small and polar substances, which like osmolytes can protect living systems from osmotic stress. NMF is commonly claimed to increase the water content in the SC and thereby protect the skin from dryness. In this work we challenge this proposed mechanism, and explore the influence of NMF on the lipid and protein components in the SC. We employ natural-abundance (13)C solid-state NMR methods to investigate how the SC molecular components are influenced by urea, glycerol, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), and urocanic acid (UCA), all of which are naturally present in the SC as NMF compounds. Experiments are performed with intact SC, isolated corneocytes and model lipids. The combination of NMR experiments provides molecularly resolved qualitative information on the dynamics of different SC lipid and protein components. We obtain completely novel molecular information on the interaction of these NMF compounds with the SC lipids and proteins. We show that urea and glycerol, which are also common ingredients in skin care products, increase the molecular mobility of both SC lipids and proteins at moderate relative humidity where the SC components are considerably more rigid in the absence of these compounds. This effect cannot be attributed to increased SC water content. PCA has no detectable effect on SC molecular mobility under the conditions investigated. It is finally shown that the more apolar compound, UCA, specifically influences the mobility of the SC lipid regions. The present results show that the NMF components act to retain the fluidity of the SC molecular components under dehydrating conditions in such a way that the SC properties remain largely unchanged as compared to more hydrated SC. These findings provide a new molecular insight into how small

  18. Prolonged sojourn of developing pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus and their settling in the stratum pyramidale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In radiograms of rat embryos that received a single dose of [3H]thymidine between days E16 and E20 and were killed 24 hours after the injection, the heavily labeled cells (those that ceased to multiply soon after the injection) form a horizontal layer in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus, called the inferior band. The fate of these heavily labeled cells was traced in radiograms of the dorsal hippocampus in embryos that received [3H]thymidine on day E18 and were killed at different intervals thereafter. Two hours after injection the labeled proliferative cells are located in the Ammonic neuroepithelium. The heavily labeled cells that leave the neuroepithelium and aggregate in the inferior band 1 day after the injection become progressively displaced toward the stratum pyramidale 2-3 days later, and penetrate the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region on the 4th day. In the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, farther removed from the Ammonic neuroepithelium, the heavily labeled cells are still sojourning in the intermediate zone 4 days after labeling. Observations in methacrylate sections suggest that two morphogenetic features of the developing hippocampus may contribute to the long sojourn of young pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone: the way in which the stratum pyramidale forms and the way in which the alveolar channels develop. The stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region forms before that of the CA3 region, which is the reverse of the neurogenetic gradient in the production of pyramidal cells. We hypothesize that this is so because the pyramidal cells destined to settle in the CA3 region, which will be contacted by granule cells axons (the mossy fibers), have to await the formation of the granular layer on days E21-E22

  19. Effect of stratum corneum heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry and follicular pathway on transdermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2017-08-28

    The impact of the complex structure of the stratum corneum on transdermal penetration is not yet fully described by existing models. A quantitative and thorough study of skin permeation is essential for chemical exposure assessment and transdermal delivery of drugs. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy, asymmetry, follicular diffusion, and location of the main barrier of diffusion on percutaneous permeation. In the current study, the solution of the transient diffusion through a two-dimensional-anisotropic brick-and-mortar geometry of the stratum corneum is obtained using the commercial finite element program COMSOL Multiphysics. First, analytical solutions of an equivalent multilayer geometry are used to determine whether the lipids or corneocytes constitute the main permeation barrier. Also these analytical solutions are applied for validations of the finite element solutions. Three illustrative compounds are analyzed in these sections: diethyl phthalate, caffeine and nicotine. Then, asymmetry with depth and follicular diffusion are studied using caffeine as an illustrative compound. The following findings are drawn from this study: the main permeation barrier is located in the lipid layers; the flux and lag time of diffusion through a brick-and-mortar geometry are almost identical to the values corresponding to a multilayer geometry; the flux and lag time are affected when the lipid transbilayer diffusivity or the partition coefficients vary with depth, but are not affected by depth-dependent corneocyte diffusivity; and the follicular contribution has significance for low transbilayer lipid diffusivity, especially when flux between the follicle and the surrounding stratum corneum is involved. This study demonstrates that the diffusion is primarily transcellular and the main barrier is located in the lipid layers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Construction of horizontal stratum landform-like composite foams and their methyl orange adsorption capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhan, Yingfei; Qiu, Xiaodan; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CS/REC/CNTs composite foams were prepared by unidirectional freeze-casting. • Horizontal stratum landform-like structure was successful built up in foam. • The addition of REC and CNTs promoted the mechanical properties of foam. • The introduction of REC and CNTs enhanced the adsorption capacity of foam on dye. - Abstract: Chitosan (CS)/rectorite (REC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite foams with good mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by unidirectional freeze-casting technique. The morphology of the foam showed the well-ordered porous three-dimensional layers and horizontal stratum landform-like structure. The holes on the layers looked like the wings of butterfly. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicated the successful addition of CNTs and REC. The intercalated REC with CS chains was confirmed by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The surface structure of the foams was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption experiments showed that when the mass ratio of CS to REC was 10:1 and CNTs content was 20%, the composite foam performed best in adsorbing low concentration methyl orange, and the largest adsorption capacity was 41.65 mg/g.

  1. Construction of horizontal stratum landform-like composite foams and their methyl orange adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhan, Yingfei; Qiu, Xiaodan; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing, E-mail: hbdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • CS/REC/CNTs composite foams were prepared by unidirectional freeze-casting. • Horizontal stratum landform-like structure was successful built up in foam. • The addition of REC and CNTs promoted the mechanical properties of foam. • The introduction of REC and CNTs enhanced the adsorption capacity of foam on dye. - Abstract: Chitosan (CS)/rectorite (REC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite foams with good mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by unidirectional freeze-casting technique. The morphology of the foam showed the well-ordered porous three-dimensional layers and horizontal stratum landform-like structure. The holes on the layers looked like the wings of butterfly. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicated the successful addition of CNTs and REC. The intercalated REC with CS chains was confirmed by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The surface structure of the foams was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption experiments showed that when the mass ratio of CS to REC was 10:1 and CNTs content was 20%, the composite foam performed best in adsorbing low concentration methyl orange, and the largest adsorption capacity was 41.65 mg/g.

  2. Geochemical assessment of application effectiveness of the loess-like loamy stratum for shielding phytotoxic mining rock in the Western Donets Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kharitonov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Main environmental threats of the excavated rocks and gobs in theWestern Donbassare pollution of soils and subterranean waters by toxic salts and heavy metals. Use of the three-layered models with a stratum of protective shield of the loess-like loamy soil for the restoration considerably decreases this negative impact.

  3. Synchrotron X-ray scattering study on stratum corneum of skin. Toward applied research based upon basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    On considering the applied research on stratum corneum of skin, it is indispensable to know the structure at the molecular level. However, there is even now in a controversy among the researchers who are performing its X-ray scattering study. Here we introduce our solution for the two problems: One is the correlation between the lamellar structures and hydrocarbon-chain packings in intercellular lipid matrix and the other is the existence of water layers in the short lamellar structure. These studies have become possible for the first time by making good use of synchrotron small-angle/wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Based upon the structural evidence, we can further carry out the applied research in stratum corneum. (author)

  4. Incomplete KLK7 Secretion and Upregulated LEKTI Expression Underlie Hyperkeratotic Stratum Corneum in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Satomi; Kishibe, Mari; Minami-Hori, Masako; Honma, Masaru; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Junko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murakami, Masamoto; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic AD lesions present hyperkeratosis, indicating a disturbed desquamation process. KLK7 is a serine protease involved in the proteolysis of extracellular corneodesmosome components, including desmocollin 1 and corneodesmosin, which leads to desquamation. KLK7 is secreted by lamellar granules and upregulated in AD lesional skin. However, despite increased KLK7 protein levels, immunostaining and electron microscopy indicated numerous corneodesmosomes remaining in the uppermost layer of the stratum corneum from AD lesions. We aimed to clarify the discrepancy between KLK7 overexpression and retention of corneodesmosomes on AD corneocytes. Western blot analysis indicated abnormal corneodesmosin degradation patterns in stratum corneum from AD lesions. The KLK activity of tape-stripped corneocytes from AD lesions was not significantly elevated in in situ zymography, which was our new attempt to detect the protease activity more precisely than conventional assays. This ineffective KLK activation was associated with impaired KLK7 secretion from lamellar granules and increased expression of LEKTI in AD. Such imbalances in protease-protease inhibitor interactions could lead to abnormal proteolysis of corneodesmosomes and compact hyperkeratosis. Upregulated expression of LEKTI might be a compensatory mechanism to prevent further barrier dysfunction in AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the cosmetic ingredient distribution in the stratum corneum using NanoSIMS imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, N.; Okamoto, M.; Katayama, Y.; Hosokawa, M.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of cosmetic ingredients, it is important to establish the distribution of the component agents within the epidermis of the skin. To date, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. However, it is technically difficult to investigate the distribution of the agents in the stratum corneum using TOF-SIMS. Therefore, an analytical method with higher spatial resolution is required. In this study, we investigated an imaging analysis technique based on NanoSIMS to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. Pig skin was used as a model for human skin. The sample was treated with a cosmetic formulation containing 15 N-labelled pseudo-ceramide (SLE). The sample was frozen with liquid nitrogen and cross-sections were cut using a cryomicrotome. As a result, the fine layer structure of the corneocytes was clearly observed by using NanoSIMS. Our studies indicate that SLE penetrates into the stratum corneum via an intercellular route. We conclude that application of NanoSIMS analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the function of cosmetic ingredients in the skin.

  6. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a

  7. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  8. Multi-Stratum Networks: toward a unified model of on-line identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons behind the success of Social Network Analysis is its simple and general graph model made of nodes (representing individuals) and ties. However, when we focus on our daily on-line experience we must confront a more complex scenario: people inhabitate several on-line spaces...... interacting to several communities active on various technological infrastructures like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube or FourSquare and with distinct social objectives. This constitutes a complex network of interconnected networks where users' identities are spread and where information propagates navigating...... through different communities and social platforms. In this article we introduce a model for this layered scenario that we call multi-stratum network. Through a theoretical discussion and the analysis of real-world data we show how not only focusing on a single network may provide a very partial...

  9. Stratum corneum lipids, skin barrier function and filaggrin mutations in patients with atopic eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars; Jungersted, JM

    2010-01-01

    chromatography. In addition, TEWL, erythema, skin hydration and pH were measured. In 27 of the 49 individuals, a 24-h irritation patch test with sodium lauryl sulphate was performed. For the analysis, both the AD group and the control group were stratified by FLG mutation status (FLGmut/FLGwt). Results......Background: Prior to the discovery of filaggrin (FLG) mutations, evidence for an impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been documented, and changes in ceramide profile, altered skin pH and increased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with AD have been reported. Until now......, no studies have analysed stratum corneum (SC) lipids combined with skin barrier parameters in subjects of known FLG genotype. Methods: A cohort of 49 German individuals genotyped for the most common FLG mutations (R501X, 2282del4) had SC samples taken for lipid analysis by high-performance thin layer...

  10. Interactions of inertial cavitation bubbles with stratum corneum lipid bilayers during low-frequency sonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Ahmet; Mitragotri, Samir

    2003-12-01

    Interactions of acoustic cavitation bubbles with biological tissues play an important role in biomedical applications of ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation plays a particularly important role in enhancing transdermal transport of macromolecules, thereby offering a noninvasive mode of drug delivery (sonophoresis). Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal transport is mediated by inertial cavitation, where collapses of cavitation bubbles microscopically disrupt the lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum. In this study, we describe a theoretical analysis of the interactions of cavitation bubbles with the stratum corneum lipid bilayers. Three modes of bubble-stratum corneum interactions including shock wave emission, microjet penetration into the stratum corneum, and impact of microjet on the stratum corneum are considered. By relating the mechanical effects of these events on the stratum corneum structure, the relationship between the number of cavitation events and collapse pressures with experimentally measured increase in skin permeability was established. Theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally measured parameters of cavitation events.

  11. Which Stratum of Urban Elderly Is Most Vulnerable for Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many factors associated with a patient's lifestyle may disrupt timely access to dementia diagnosis and management. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of lifestyle factors at the time of initial evaluation for dementia across degrees of dementia, and to identify risk factors relating to late detection of dementia, in order to understand the various lifestyle barriers to timely recognition of the disease. We reviewed medical records of 1,409 subjects who were diagnosed as dementia among 35,723 inhabitants of Gwangjin-gu. Dementia severity was divided into three degrees. Age, sex, education, income, smoking, heavy drinking, physical activity, religion, and living conditions were evaluated. There was a significantly greater proportion of individuals who were old age, female, less educated, who had never smoked or drank heavily, without physical activity, with no religious activity and living with family other than spouse in the severe dementia group. The lifestyle risks of late detection were old age, lower education, less social interactions, less physical activity or living with family. We can define this group of patients as the vulnerable stratum to dementia evaluation. Health policy or community health services might find ways to better engage patients in this vulnerable stratum to dementia. PMID:27550494

  12. A mechanistic insight into the mechanical role of the stratum corneum during stretching and compression of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Mendivil, Maria F; Page, Anton; Bressloff, Neil W; Limbert, Georges

    2015-09-01

    The study of skin biophysics has largely been driven by consumer goods, biomedical and cosmetic industries which aim to design products that efficiently interact with the skin and/or modify its biophysical properties for health or cosmetic benefits. The skin is a hierarchical biological structure featuring several layers with their own distinct geometry and mechanical properties. Up to now, no computational models of the skin have simultaneously accounted for these geometrical and material characteristics to study their complex biomechanical interactions under particular macroscopic deformation modes. The goal of this study was, therefore, to develop a robust methodology combining histological sections of human skin, image-processing and finite element techniques to address fundamental questions about skin mechanics and, more particularly, about how macroscopic strains are transmitted and modulated through the epidermis and dermis. The work hypothesis was that, as skin deforms under macroscopic loads, the stratum corneum does not experience significant strains but rather folds/unfolds during skin extension/compression. A sample of fresh human mid-back skin was processed for wax histology. Sections were stained and photographed by optical microscopy. The multiple images were stitched together to produce a larger region of interest and segmented to extract the geometry of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis and dermis. From the segmented structures a 2D finite element mesh of the skin composite model was created and geometrically non-linear plane-strain finite element analyses were conducted to study the sensitivity of the model to variations in mechanical properties. The hybrid experimental-computational methodology has offered valuable insights into the simulated mechanics of the skin, and that of the stratum corneum in particular, by providing qualitative and quantitative information on strain magnitude and distribution. Through a complex non-linear interplay

  13. A method for processing the critical zone of a carbonate stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytyuk, L T; Barsukov, A V; Bragina, O A; Kalabina, A V; Samakayev, R Kh

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for processing the critical zone of a carbonate stratum by pumping a carbonate rock solvent into it. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the penetration depth of the solvent into the stratum by reducing the speed of interaction of the solvent, a solution of beta-phenoxyvinylphosphonic acid is pumped into the critical zone of the stratum.

  14. Water distribution and related morphology in human stratum corneum at different hydration levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, J.A.; Graaff, de A.; Gooris, G.S.; Nijsse, J.; Wiechers, J.W.; Aelst, van A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on the water distribution in human stratum corneum and on the swelling of the corneocytes. For this purpose stratum corneum was hydrated to various levels and used either for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or for cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The images were analyzed

  15. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-12-15

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments. Furthermore, we compared covalently bound lipids with CWL and intercellular lipids in the lark family (Alaudidae). We found that CWL increases in birds from more mesic environments, and this increase was related to changes in intercellular SC lipid composition. The most consistent pattern that emerged was a decrease in the relative amount of cerebrosides as CWL increased, a pattern that is counterintuitive based on studies of mammals with Gaucher disease. Although covalently bound lipids in larks did not correlate with CWL, we found that covalently bound cerebrosides correlated positively with intercellular cerebrosides and intercellular cholesterol ester, and intercellular cerebrosides correlated positively with covalently bound free fatty acids. Our results led us to propose a new model for the organization of lipids in the avian SC, in which the sugar moieties of cerebrosides lie outside of intercellular lipid layers, where they may interdigitate with adjacent intercellular cerebrosides or with covalently bound cerebrosides.

  16. Modeling the Effects of Lipid Composition on Stratum Corneum Bilayers Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzil, J. Torin; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Kohandel, Mohammad; Foldvari, Marianna

    2011-11-01

    The advancement of dermal and transdermal drug delivery requires the development of delivery systems that are suitable for large protein and nucleic acid-based therapeutic agents. However, a complete mechanistic understanding of the physical barrier properties associated with the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures within the stratum corneum, has yet to be developed. Here, we describe the assembly and computational modeling of stratum corneum lipid bilayers constructed from varying ratios of their constituent lipids (ceramide, free fatty acids and cholesterol) to determine if there is a difference in the physical properties of stratum corneum compositions.

  17. Hydration effects on the barrier function of stratum corneum lipids: Raman analysis of ceramides 2, III and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Jamal, Dima; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-11-07

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin; its barrier function is highly dependent on the composition and the structure as well as the organization of lipids in its extracellular matrix. Ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol represent the major lipid classes present in this matrix. They play an important role in maintaining the normal hydration levels required for the normal physiological function. Despite the advancement in the understanding of the structure, composition and the function of the stratum corneum (SC), the concern of "dry skin" remains important in dermatology and care research. Most studies focus on the quantification of water in the skin using different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, while the studies that investigate the effect of hydration on the quality of the barrier function of the skin are limited. Raman spectroscopy provides structural, conformational and organizational information that could help elucidate the effect of hydration on the barrier function of the skin. In order to assess the effect of relative humidity on the lipid barrier function; we used Raman spectroscopy to follow-up the evolution of the conformation and the organization of three synthetic ceramides (CER) differing from each other by the nature of their polar heads (sphingosine, phytosphingosine and α hydroxyl sphingosine), CER 2, III and 5 respectively. CER III and 5 showed a more compact and ordered organization with stronger polar interactions at intermediate relative humidity values, while CER 2 showed opposite tendencies to those observed with CER III and 5.

  18. Structure of lamellar lipid domains and corneocyte envelopes of murine stratum corneum. An X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; Mirejovsky, D.; King, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid of the outermost layer of the skin is confined largely to the extracellular spaces surrounding the corneocytes of the stratum corneum where it forms a multilamellar adhesive matrix to act as the major permeability barrier of the skin. Knowledge of the molecular architecture of these intercellular domains is important for understanding various skin pathologies and their treatment, percutaneous drug delivery, and the cosmetic maintenance of the skin. The authors have surveyed by X-ray diffraction the structure of the intercellular domains and the extracted lipids of murine stratum corneum (SC) at 25, 45, and 70 0 C which are temperatures in the vicinity of known thermal phase transitions. The intercellular domains produce lamellar diffraction patterns with a Bragg spacing of 131 +/- 2 A. Lipid extracted from the SC and dispersed in excess water does not produce a simple lamellar diffraction pattern at any temperature studied, however. This and other facts suggest that another component, probably a protein, must be present to control the architecture of the intercellular lipid domains. They have also obtained diffraction patterns attributable to the protein envelopes of the corneocytes. The patterns suggest a β-pleated sheet organizational scheme. No diffraction patterns were observed that could be attributed to keratin

  19. Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

    2008-02-28

    Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability.

  20. In vivo studies of aquaporins 3 and 10 in human stratum corneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Bomholt, Julie; Bajraktari, Niada

    2013-01-01

    migration and proliferation with consequences for the antimicrobial defense of the skin. AQP3 and AQP10 are aqua-glyceroporins, known to transport glycerol as well as water. AQP3 is the predominant AQP in human skin and has previously been demonstrated in the basal layer of epidermis in normal human skin......, but not in stratum corneum (SC). AQP10 has not previously been identified in human skin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of AQP3 and AQP10 mRNA in keratinocytes. In this study, our aim was to investigate if these aquaporin proteins were actually present in human SC cells. This can be seen as a first...... step toward elucidating the possible functional role of AQP3 and AQP10 in SC hydration. Specifically we investigate the presence of AQP3 and AQP10 in vivo in human SC using “minimal-invasive” technique for obtaining SC samples. SC samples were obtained from six healthy volunteers. Western blotting...

  1. Skin hydration: interplay between molecular dynamics, structure and water uptake in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojumdar, Enamul Haque; Pham, Quoc Dat; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma

    2017-11-16

    Hydration is a key aspect of the skin that influences its physical and mechanical properties. Here, we investigate the interplay between molecular and macroscopic properties of the outer skin layer - the stratum corneum (SC) and how this varies with hydration. It is shown that hydration leads to changes in the molecular arrangement of the peptides in the keratin filaments as well as dynamics of C-H bond reorientation of amino acids in the protruding terminals of keratin protein within the SC. The changes in molecular structure and dynamics occur at a threshold hydration corresponding to ca. 85% relative humidity (RH). The abrupt changes in SC molecular properties coincide with changes in SC macroscopic swelling properties as well as mechanical properties in the SC. The flexible terminals at the solid keratin filaments can be compared to flexible polymer brushes in colloidal systems, creating long-range repulsion and extensive swelling in water. We further show that the addition of urea to the SC at reduced RH leads to similar molecular and macroscopic responses as the increase in RH for SC without urea. The findings provide new molecular insights to deepen the understanding of how intermediate filament organization responds to changes in the surrounding environment.

  2. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  3. Differences in the stratum corneum of Indonesian infants and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Fujimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although understanding the stratum corneum (SC of infant skin is important to avoid skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, there has been no such investigation in Indonesian infants to date. Objective  To obtain a basic knowledge of SC characteristics in Indonesian infants in order to develop methods for infant-specific skin care and to prevent dermatitis and infection. Methods Seventy-two healthy, full term infants aged 1 to 24 months who were native Indonesians residing in Jakarta were enrolled in this study. Some of the mothers were also enrolled in the study as adults (n=30. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration of the SC (capacitance on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured after sufficient acclimation in an air-conditioned room, in both infants and mothers. Results The SC hydration was significantly higher in infants than adults at all sites measured, including the buttocks, which is a diaper area. Infant TEWL values were also significantly higher than in adults at all sites. Hydration of the SC and TEWL values showed no significant correlation with age of infant for any site. The SC hydration and TEWL values of Indonesian infants did not decrease to adult values within 24 months, which indicates that the SC characteristics in infants continue to develop after 24 months of age. Conclusion  Indonesian infants aged 0-24 months have significantly higher SC hydration and TEWL values than Indonesian mothers. However, infant age has no correlation to SC hydration or to TEWL values.

  4. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10 5 -10 6 M -1 ) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction

  5. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-06-24

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  6. Direct visualization of lipid domains in human skin stratum corneum's lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Norlen, Lars; Bagatolli, Luis

    2007-01-01

    scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and two-photon excitation and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Here we show that hydrated bilayers of human skin stratum corneum lipids express a giant sponge-like morphology with dimensions corresponding to the global three......-dimensional morphology of the stratum corneum extracellular space. These structures can be directly visualized using the aforementioned fluorescence microscopy techniques. At skin physiological temperatures (28 degrees C-32 degrees C), the phase state of these hydrated bilayers correspond microscopically (radial...

  7. Presence and persistence of a highly ordered lipid phase state in the avian stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Pigg, Victoria A; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2018-06-07

    To survive high temperatures in a terrestrial environment, animals must effectively balance evaporative heat loss and water conservation. In passerine birds, cutaneous water loss (CWL) is the primary avenue of water loss at thermoneutral temperatures and increases slightly as ambient temperature increases, indicating a change in the permeability of the skin. In the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, lipids arranged in layers called lamellae serve as the primary barrier to CWL in birds. The permeability of these lamellae depends in large part on the ability of lipid molecules to pack closely together in an ordered orthorhombic phase state. However, as temperature increases, lipids of the SC become more disordered, and may pack in more permeable hexagonal or liquid crystalline phase states. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the phase state of lipids in the SC of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) at skin temperatures ranging from 25 to 50°C. As temperature increased, lipids became slightly more disordered, but remained predominantly in the orthorhombic phase, consistent with the small increase in CWL observed in house sparrows as ambient temperature increases. These results differ considerably from studies on mammalian SC, which find a predominantly hexagonal arrangement of lipids at temperatures above 37°C, and the increased order in avian SC may be explained by longer lipid chain length, scarcity of cholesterol and the presence of cerebrosides. Our results lend further insight into the arrangement and packing of individual lipid molecules in avian SC. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Lecithin-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, characterizations, and in vitro release and penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Fitsum F; Metz, Hendrik; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2013-02-01

    To improve the solubility and penetration of Ceramide AP (CER [AP]) into the stratum corneum that potentially restores the barrier function of aged and affected skin. CER [AP] microemulsions (MEs) were formulated using lecithin, Miglyol® 812 (miglyol) and water-1,2 pentandiol (PeG) mixture as amphiphilic, oily and hydrophilic components, respectively. The nanostructure of the MEs was revealed using electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) was used to measure the sizes and shape of ME droplets. The release and penetration of the CER into the stratum corneum was investigated in vitro using a multi-layer membrane model. The MEs exhibited excellent thermodynamic stability (>2 years) and loading capacity (0.5% CER [AP]). The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the MEs were obtained and PCS results showed that the droplets are spherical in shape and bigger in size. In vitro investigations showed that the MEs exhibited excellent rate and extent of release and penetration. Stable lecithin-based CER [AP] MEs that significantly enhance the solubility and penetration of CER [AP] into the stratum corneum were developed. The MEs also have better properties than the previously reported polyglycerol fatty acid surfactant-based CER [AP] MEs.

  9. Mechanical properties of striped bass fish skin: Evidence of an exotendon function of the stratum compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Teleost fish skin is a multifunctional natural material with high penetration resistance owing to specialized puncture mechanisms of both the individual scale and the intact scaled integument. In this paper, we explore the possible additional role of the skin in fish undulatory locomotion by examining the structural and mechanical properties of the dermal stratum (s.) compactum layer of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) skin. The structure, mechanical response and function of s. compactum was investigated by combining several methods: optical microscopy and histology, tensile tests on descaled skin specimens in different anatomical locations and orientations, puncture tests, and flexural tests on whole fish with disruption of the s. compactum. Local histological features of the s. compactum, such as collagen fiber angle and degree of crimping, were shown to explain corresponding patterns determined for the tensile properties of the skin along the long axis of the fish, including changes in stiffness, strength and locking strain at stiffening. The fish bending tests demonstrated a tendon-like response of the whole fish and a significant contribution of the s. compactum to the flexural stiffness of the fish. Collectively, the findings show that the s. compactum is a strong tissue with a tendon-like nonlinear response, and which provides an appreciable mechanical protection against sharp puncture and lacerations. Our results also support the theory of an exotendon function of the s. compactum in teleost fish skin. These findings may inspire the design of new multifunctional protective and locomotory systems for a variety of engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-03

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of stratum corneum lipid mixtures: A multiscale perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy C; Iacovella, Christopher R; Leonhard, Anne C; Bunge, Annette L; McCabe, Clare

    2018-03-29

    The lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC) layer of skin is essential for human survival; it acts as a barrier to prevent rapid dehydration while keeping potentially hazardous material outside the body. While the composition of the SC lipid matrix is known, the molecular-level details of its organization are difficult to infer experimentally, hindering the discovery of structure-property relationships. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations, which give molecular-level resolution, have begun to play an increasingly important role in understanding these relationships. However, most simulation studies of SC lipids have focused on preassembled bilayer configurations, which, owing to the slow dynamics of the lipids, may influence the final structure and hence the calculated properties. Self-assembled structures would avoid this dependence on the initial configuration, however, the size and length scales involved make self-assembly impractical to study with atomistic models. Here, we report on the development of coarse-grained models of SC lipids designed to study self-assembly. Building on previous work, we present the interactions between the headgroups of ceramide and free fatty acid developed using the multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion method. Validation of the new interactions is performed with simulations of preassembled bilayers and good agreement between the atomistic and coarse-grained models is found for structural properties. The self-assembly of mixtures of ceramide and free fatty acid is investigated and both bilayer and multilayer structures are found to form. This work therefore represents a necessary step in studying SC lipid systems on multiple time and length scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular analysis of ivy cells of the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum using spectral identification of immunofluorophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsef eSomogyi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase-expressing (NOS+ GABAergic interneurons are common in hippocampal stratum radiatum, but these cells are less well characterised than NOS+ ivy cells in stratum pyramidale or neurogliaform cells in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Here we have studied the laminar distribution of the axons and dendrites, and the immunoreactivity of these neurons recorded in rat hippocampal slices. We have used spectral analysis of antibody- or streptavidin conjugated fluorophores to improve recognition of genuine signals in reactions for molecules such as NOS and neuropeptide-Y, when immunolabelling was low in the recorded cell. We found that most NOS+ cells with soma in the CA1 area stratum radiatum exhibit characteristic properties of ivy cells; all tested cells were positive for NPY and negative for reelin. However, laminar distributions of their neurites differ from original characterization of ivy cells with the soma close to stratum pyramidale. Both their dendrites and axon are mainly in stratum radiatum and to a lesser extent in stratum oriens. In addition, both the dendrites and axons often extend to stratum lacunosum-moleculare. We conclude that ivy cells in stratum radiatum are predominantly feedforward inhibitory interneurons in the CA1 area, and their axonal output delivering GABA, NPY and NO can influence both the entorhinal cortex innervated and the CA3 innervated zones pre- and postsynaptically. Spectral analysis of fluorophores provides an objective algorithm to analyze signals in immunoreactions for neurochemical markers.

  13. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method for the col......Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...

  14. Assessing The Most Suitable Valuation Approaches And Methodologies For Stratum Title In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sr. Faziah Abd Rasid

    2015-01-01

    The National Land Code (NLC) was amended in 1990 to enable the state authority to issue stratum title for underground space. Stratum Title can be separated from land titles issued for surface land. This is stipulated in Part 5(A) under Section 92A to 92G. According to Section 92G (1), underground land can be used for any purpose provided approval is obtained from the authority, which is the federal government.In relation to underground development with many utilities, the appraisal of real es...

  15. Iron behaviour in the process of stratum-infiltration uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmariovich, E.M.; Golubev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated has been the behaviour of iron in the process of stratum infiltration uranium mineralization. Iron is partially avacuated from the forward part of the stratum oxidation zone during the development of infiltration uranium mineralization in pyritiferous rocks. This phenomenon is characterized quantitatively and described on the basis of equations of physical chemistry and dynamics of geochemical processes. Local regions of epigenetic ferruginization caused by opposite diffusion of iron and its precipitation in oxygenous conditions often occur at the sections of sharp moderation of limonitization zone advance. Formation of similar ferruginous margins takes place in a very short geological period (less than thousand years)

  16. Natural moisturizing factor components in the stratum corneum as biomarkers of filaggrin genotype: evaluation of minimally invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, S.; Kammeyer, A.; Calkoen, F.; Fluhr, J. W.; Bos, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The carriers of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) have reduced levels of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum. The concentration of NMF components which are formed by filaggrin protein breakdown in the stratum corneum might therefore be useful as a

  17. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  18. Relationship between soft stratum thickness and predominant frequency of ground based on microtremor observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kenny; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-07-01

    Despite categorized as low seismicity group, until being affected by distant earthquake ground motion from Sumatra and the recent 2015 Sabah Earthquake, Malaysia has come to realize that seismic hazard in the country is real and has the potential to threaten the public safety and welfare. The major concern in this paper is to study the effect of local site condition, where it could amplify the magnitude of ground vibration at sites. The aim for this study is to correlate the thickness of soft stratum with the predominant frequency of soil. Single point microtremor measurements were carried out at 24 selected points where the site investigation reports are available. Predominant period and frequency at each site are determined by Nakamura's method. The predominant period varies from 0.22 s to 0.98 s. Generally, the predominant period increases when getting closer to the shoreline which has thicker sediments. As far as the thickness of the soft stratum could influence the amplification of seismic wave, the advancement of micotremor observation to predict the thickness of soft stratum (h) from predominant frequency (fr) is of the concern. Thus an empirical relationship h =54.917 fr-1.314 is developed based on the microtremor observation data. The empirical relationship will be benefited in the prediction of thickness of soft stratum based on microtremor observation for seismic design with minimal cost compared to conventional boring method.

  19. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p skin friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p skin friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Interactions of Inertial Cavitation Bubbles with Stratum Corneum Lipid Bilayers during Low-Frequency Sonophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Tezel, Ahmet; Mitragotri, Samir

    2003-01-01

    Interactions of acoustic cavitation bubbles with biological tissues play an important role in biomedical applications of ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation plays a particularly important role in enhancing transdermal transport of macromolecules, thereby offering a noninvasive mode of drug delivery (sonophoresis). Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal transport is mediated by inertial cavitation, where collapses of cavitation bubbles microscopically disrupt the lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum. In...

  1. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  2. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  3. Clustering network layers with the strata multilayer stochastic block model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Natalie; Shai, Saray; Taylor, Dane; Mucha, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks are a useful data structure for simultaneously capturing multiple types of relationships between a set of nodes. In such networks, each relational definition gives rise to a layer. While each layer provides its own set of information, community structure across layers can be collectively utilized to discover and quantify underlying relational patterns between nodes. To concisely extract information from a multilayer network, we propose to identify and combine sets of layers with meaningful similarities in community structure. In this paper, we describe the "strata multilayer stochastic block model" (sMLSBM), a probabilistic model for multilayer community structure. The central extension of the model is that there exist groups of layers, called "strata", which are defined such that all layers in a given stratum have community structure described by a common stochastic block model (SBM). That is, layers in a stratum exhibit similar node-to-community assignments and SBM probability parameters. Fitting the sMLSBM to a multilayer network provides a joint clustering that yields node-to-community and layer-to-stratum assignments, which cooperatively aid one another during inference. We describe an algorithm for separating layers into their appropriate strata and an inference technique for estimating the SBM parameters for each stratum. We demonstrate our method using synthetic networks and a multilayer network inferred from data collected in the Human Microbiome Project.

  4. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  5. The effect of sedimentation background of depression target stratum containing mineral in Erlian basin, Ulanqab to uranium mineralization type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shihu; Jiao Yangquan; Men Hong; Kuang Wenzhan

    2012-01-01

    The ore bearing stratum in depression of Ulanqab contains target stratum of lower cretaceous Saihan formation, upper cretaceous Erlian formation, paleogene system etc. The uranium mineralization type which have found by now contains sandstone type, mudstone type and coal petrography. The genetic type of mineral deposit contains paleovalley-type, reformed type after superposition with sedimentation and diagenesis by sedimentation. Uranium mineralization of both the natural type and genetic type have close relationship with its ore bearing stratum. Different geological background forms different sedimentary system combination, and different sedimentary system combination forms different uranium mineralization type. (authors)

  6. Sensitive skin at menopause; dew point and electrometric properties of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Fumal, I; Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-12

    A number of menopausal women experience skin sensitive to various environmental threats. Two panels of 15 menopausal women on or without HRT were compared. We studied the response of their stratum corneum to variations in environmental humidity, either in air or in response to an emollient. Environment dew point and electrometric measurements on the skin were recorded to search for correlations. Data show that the baseline stratum corneum hydration is influenced by the dew point. HRT improves the barrier function of the skin. The use of emollient further extends the improvement in the functional properties of skin in menopausal women. Both HRT and an emollient can counteract in part some of the deleterious effects of cold and dry weather.

  7. Aspects relating to stability of modified passive stratum on TiO2 nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Daniela; Mazare, Anca; Portan, Diana; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2011-04-01

    Two kinds of nanotube structures differing from the point of view of their dimensions were obtained using anodizing in two different fluoride electrolytes and these structures were investigated regarding stability. The nanotubes have diameters of around 100 and 65 nm, respectively, and the testing solutions were simulated body fluids (SBF) and NaCl 0.9%. As stability experiments, cyclic voltammetry was performed and ions release was measured. The quantity of released cations in time as a kinetic aspect of passive stratum behavior was followed with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and apatite forming in SBF was found with infrared spectra. This study led to a comparison between the modification and the behavior of passive stratum on nanotubes as a function of their diameters.

  8. Evaluating Molecular Properties Involved in Transport of Small Molecules in Stratum Corneum: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship for Skin Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Peng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin permeability (Kp defines the rate of a chemical penetrating across the stratum corneum. This value is widely used to quantitatively describe the transport of molecules in the outermost layer of epidermal skin and indicate the significance of skin absorption. This study defined a Kp quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR based on 106 chemical substances of Kp measured using human skin and interpreted the molecular interactions underlying transport behavior of small molecules in the stratum corneum. The Kp QSAR developed in this study identified four molecular descriptors that described the molecular cyclicity in the molecule reflecting local geometrical environments, topological distances between pairs of oxygen and chlorine atoms, lipophilicity, and similarity to antineoplastics in molecular properties. This Kp QSAR considered the octanol-water partition coefficient to be a direct influence on transdermal movement of molecules. Moreover, the Kp QSAR identified a sub-domain of molecular properties initially defined to describe the antineoplastic resemblance of a compound as a significant factor in affecting transdermal permeation of solutes. This finding suggests that the influence of molecular size on the chemical’s skin-permeating capability should be interpreted with other relevant physicochemical properties rather than being represented by molecular weight alone.

  9. Sunscreens with broad-spectrum absorption decrease the trans TO cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in the human stratum corneum after multiple UV light exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krien, P.M.; Moyal, D.

    1994-01-01

    The trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid (UCA) in skin is considered to play an important role in the mechanism of immunosuppression. We have investigated the effects of skin type and various sunscreens with low sun protection factor (SPF) on the UV-induced cis-UCA formation in human skin after exposure to artificial UV light. The rate of cis-UCA formation depends little on the skin type and is reduced by topical application of sunscreens. The rate of cis-UCA formation decreases with increasing SPF and only broad-spectrum, highly protective sunscreens offer protection against the UV-induced formation of cis-UCA, which accumulates in the stratum corneum after multiple UV exposures. A theoretical approach to estimate the distribution of cis-UCA after irradiation indicates that this compound may diffuse into the deeper layers of the epidermis with D ∼ 10 -17 m 2 /s, and that its elimination from the stratum corneum is mainly due to desquamation. (author)

  10. Evaluating Molecular Properties Involved in Transport of Small Molecules in Stratum Corneum: A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship for Skin Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Chen, Chan-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yen-Ching

    2018-04-15

    The skin permeability ( Kp ) defines the rate of a chemical penetrating across the stratum corneum. This value is widely used to quantitatively describe the transport of molecules in the outermost layer of epidermal skin and indicate the significance of skin absorption. This study defined a Kp quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based on 106 chemical substances of Kp measured using human skin and interpreted the molecular interactions underlying transport behavior of small molecules in the stratum corneum. The Kp QSAR developed in this study identified four molecular descriptors that described the molecular cyclicity in the molecule reflecting local geometrical environments, topological distances between pairs of oxygen and chlorine atoms, lipophilicity, and similarity to antineoplastics in molecular properties. This Kp QSAR considered the octanol-water partition coefficient to be a direct influence on transdermal movement of molecules. Moreover, the Kp QSAR identified a sub-domain of molecular properties initially defined to describe the antineoplastic resemblance of a compound as a significant factor in affecting transdermal permeation of solutes. This finding suggests that the influence of molecular size on the chemical's skin-permeating capability should be interpreted with other relevant physicochemical properties rather than being represented by molecular weight alone.

  11. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  12. Investigation of cis-trans isomer dependent dermatotoxicokinetics of UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate through stratum corneum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anežka; Bányiová, Katarína; Vrana, Branislav; Justan, Ivan; Čupr, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    2-Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most used ultraviolet filters in personal care products. It undergoes cis/trans isomerization in sunlight, and there is limited toxicological understanding of the effects of the cis-isomer. It is known that two geometric isomers of one compound can have different physico-chemical properties and effects. However, there are no studies focusing on toxicokinetics of EHMC isomerization products to compare their potential difference in dermal exposure to cis-EHMC and trans-EHMC due to the difference in their dermatotoxicokinetics. In this study, dermal absorption of the parental trans-EHMC and its cis isomer was studied. A commercially available sunscreen lotion containing trans-EHMC and spiked with laboratory-prepared cis-EHMC was locally applied on the forearm skin of two volunteers. After 8 h of skin exposure, the stratum corneum (SC) layer was removed by tape stripping. The removed thickness of the SC was determined spectrophotometrically using a total protein assay. The concentration of both isomers in the removed SC was measured by HPLC-DAD. A new diffusion and permeability coefficient of both EHMC isomers in SC were determined by Fick's second law of diffusion in vivo. The difference in dermatotoxicokinetic parameters between the two isomers was not statistically significant. However, separate toxicological studies of isomeric forms and the determination of their dermatotoxicokinetic parameters are crucial for refinement of human risk assessment.

  13. Structural layers of ex vivo rat hippocampus at 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Manuella Kamsu

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI applied to the hippocampus is challenging in studies of the neurophysiology of memory and the physiopathology of numerous diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, and depression. The hippocampus is a well-delineated cerebral structure with a multi-layered organization. Imaging of hippocampus layers is limited to a few studies and requires high magnetic field and gradient strength. We performed one conventional MRI sequence on a 7T MRI in order to visualize and to delineate the multi-layered hippocampal structure ex vivo in rat brains. We optimized a volumic three-dimensional T2 Rapid Acquisition Relaxation Enhancement (RARE sequence and quantified the volume of the hippocampus and one of its thinnest layers, the stratum granulare of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we tested passive staining by gadolinium with the aim of decreasing the acquisition time and increasing image contrast. Using appropriated settings, six discrete layers were differentiated within the hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus proper or Ammon's Horn (AH: the stratum oriens, the stratum pyramidale of, the stratum radiatum, and the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 were differentiated. In the dentate gyrus: the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulare layer were seen distinctly. Passive staining of one brain with gadolinium decreased the acquisition time by four and improved the differentiation between the layers. A conventional sequence optimized on a 7T MRI with a standard receiver surface coil will allow us to study structural layers (signal and volume of hippocampus in various rat models of neuropathology (anxiety, epilepsia, neurodegeneration.

  14. Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of intelligence: evidence from hierarchical and bifactor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Joseph, Dana L; Newman, Daniel A; Roberts, Richard D

    2014-04-01

    This article examines the status of emotional intelligence (EI) within the structure of human cognitive abilities. To evaluate whether EI is a 2nd-stratum factor of intelligence, data were fit to a series of structural models involving 3 indicators each for fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, quantitative reasoning, visual processing, and broad retrieval ability, as well as 2 indicators each for emotion perception, emotion understanding, and emotion management. Unidimensional, multidimensional, hierarchical, and bifactor solutions were estimated in a sample of 688 college and community college students. Results suggest adequate fit for 2 models: (a) an oblique 8-factor model (with 5 traditional cognitive ability factors and 3 EI factors) and (b) a hierarchical solution (with cognitive g at the highest level and EI representing a 2nd-stratum factor that loads onto g at λ = .80). The acceptable relative fit of the hierarchical model confirms the notion that EI is a group factor of cognitive ability, marking the expression of intelligence in the emotion domain. The discussion proposes a possible expansion of Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory to include EI as a 2nd-stratum factor of similar standing to factors such as fluid intelligence and visual processing.

  15. Movement of the water-oil contact during operation of a single well in an inclined stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazymov, A Sh

    1965-01-01

    In this theoretical study the author develops equations which describe the movement of an oil-water interface toward a single well in an inclined stratum. The equations apply even if viscosities, densities, and permeabilities vary from place to place.

  16. The impact of ultraviolet therapy on stratum corneum ceramides and barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    therapy in dermatological patients on ceramides and skin barrier function.We found that UV light treatment does not change the ratio of important stratum corneum lipids, but we confirm earlier findings of decreased susceptibility to irritants after UV- therapy.......The ceramide profile as well as the barrier function is known to be deteriorated in atopic eczema and psoriasis, and ultraviolet (UV) light is known to improve the barrier function. The impact of UV light on ceramides, however, is not clarified.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of UV...

  17. The impact of ultraviolet therapy on stratum corneum ceramides and barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    therapy in dermatological patients on ceramides and skin barrier function. We found that UV light treatment does not change the ratio of important stratum corneum lipids, but we confirm earlier findings of decreased susceptibility to irritants after UV- therapy.......The ceramide profile as well as the barrier function is known to be deteriorated in atopic eczema and psoriasis, and ultraviolet (UV) light is known to improve the barrier function. The impact of UV light on ceramides, however, is not clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of UV...

  18. Effect of vehicles and sodium lauryl sulphate on xenobiotic permeability and stratum corneum partitioning in porcine skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, Deon van der; Riviere, Jim E.

    2005-01-01

    Dermal contact with potentially toxic agricultural and industrial chemicals is a common hazard encountered in occupational, accidental spill and environmental contamination scenarios. Different solvents and chemical mixtures may influence dermal absorption. The effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on the stratum corneum partitioning and permeability in porcine skin of 10 agricultural and industrial chemicals in water, ethanol and propylene glycol were investigated. The chemicals were phenol, p-nitrophenol, pentachlorophenol, methyl parathion, ethyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, fenthion, simazine, atrazine and propazine. SLS decreased partitioning into stratum corneum from water for lipophilic compounds, decreased partitioning from propylene glycol and did not alter partitioning from ethanol. SLS effects on permeability were less consistent, but generally decreased permeability from water, increased permeability from ethanol and had an inconsistent effect on permeability from propylene glycol. It was concluded that, for the compounds tested, partitioning into the stratum corneum was determined by the relative solubility of the solute in the donor solvent and the stratum corneum lipids. Permeability, however, reflected the result of successive, complex processes and was not predictable from stratum corneum partitioning alone. Addition of SLS to solvents altered partitioning and absorption characteristics across a range of compounds, which indicates that partition coefficients or skin permeability from neat chemical exposure should be used with caution in risk assessment procedures for chemical mixtures

  19. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Wu, Jialin; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-05-18

    Inter-data center interconnect with IP over elastic optical network (EON) is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented multi-stratum resources integration among IP networks, optical networks and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends to consider the service resilience in case of edge optical node failure. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources integrated resilience (MSRIR) architecture for the services in software defined inter-data center interconnect based on IP over EON. A global resources integrated resilience (GRIR) algorithm is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRIR can enable cross stratum optimization and provide resilience using the multiple stratums resources, and enhance the data center service resilience responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end service demands. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on the control plane of our OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN (eSDN) testbed. The performance of GRIR algorithm under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRIR architecture in terms of path blocking probability, resilience latency and resource utilization, compared with other resilience algorithms.

  20. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). I. Effects of lipid extraction and soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marisa; Visscher, Marty; Laruffa, Angela; Wickett, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is essential for appropriate stratum corneum hydration, barrier homeostasis, desquamation, and plasticity. It is formed from filaggrin proteolysis to small, hygroscopic molecules including amino acids. We hypothesized that common lipid extraction and soaking in water would alter the level of NMF in the upper SC and its biophysical properties. A novel method of measuring and quantifying the amino acid components of NMF is presented. Adhesive tapes were used to collect samples of the stratum corneum (SC) and were extracted with 6mM perchloric acid for analysis by reverse-phase HPLC. HPLC results were standardized to the amount of protein removed by the tapes. An increase in NMF was found with increased SC depth. Also, the combination of extraction and soaking was found to increase NMF loss relative to control or to extraction or soaking alone. Our results indicate that common skin care practices significantly influence the water binding materials in the upper SC. The findings have implications for the evaluation and formulation of skin care products.

  1. Role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models exposed to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Roif; Pöppl, Andreas; Hoentsch, Joachim; Wartewig, Siegfried; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2002-07-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid on Stratum corneum lipid models following ultraviolet irradiation were studied adding iron ions as transition metal catalysts. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. The qualitative changes were studied on a molecular level by mass spectrometry. To elucidate the nature of free radical involvement we carried out electron paramagnetic resonance studies. The influence of ascorbic acid on the concentration of hydroxyl radicals was examined using the spin trapping technique. Moreover, we checked the vitamin's ability to react with stable radicals. Ascorbic acid was found to have prooxidative effects in all lipid systems in a concentration dependent manner. The degradation products of ascorbic acid after its prooxidative action were detected. The concentration of the hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton assay was decreased by ascorbic acid. The quantification assay of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate showed reduced concentration levels of the stable radical caused by ascorbic acid. Considering human skin and its constant exposure to UV light and oxygen, an increased pool of iron ions in irradiated skin and the depletion of co-antioxidants, the administration of ascorbic acid in cosmetic formulations or in sunscreens could unfold adverse effects among the Stratum corneum lipids.

  2. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. WOOD FOR THREE STRATUM PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beltrame

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of physical and mechanical properties of wood is essential for industrial use both in construction and the manufacture of furniture. Thus, the study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Araucaria angustifolia wood in terms of three strata phytosociological. For this, 15 trees were felled, five belonging to the upper stratum, the middle stratum five and five for the lower strata. The trees were deployed for the preparation of specimens used for mechanical testing. In the mechanical characterization of the species assays were performed for impact resistance, static bending, compression axial and perpendicular to the fibers. As for the characterization of physical properties, determined the apparent specific gravity at 12% relative humidity for each extract. The results did not show significant differences in the tests of impact resistance and static bending to the strata phytosociological. As for the apparent specific gravity, compression axial and perpendicular there was a change in the values of propertiesbetween the strata phytosociological, is generally butter in the middle and upper strata. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties tend to present higher values these two strata. The data analysis allowed of Araucaria angustifolia wood has moderate mechanical strength when compared with other species studies.

  3. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence......Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... and SC lipid organization. Cultivation for 21days resulted in further minor changes in the structural organization of ROC SC. The SAXS patterns of ROC SC had overall large similarities with that of human SC and point to the presence of a long periodicity phase with a repeat distance of about 122Å, e...

  4. Stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja; Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajša; Mehmedagić, Aida

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing skin disease with genetic predisposition, which occurs most frequently in preschool children. It is considered that dryness and pruritus, which are always present in AD, are in correlation with degradation of the skin barrier function. Measurement of hydration and pH value of the stratum corneum is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of skin barrier function. The aim of the study was to assess skin barrier function by measuring stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH of the skin with lesions, perilesional skin and uninvolved skin in AD patients, and skin in a healthy control group. Forty-two patients were included in the study: 21 young and adult AD patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Capacitance, which is correlated with hydration of stratum corneum and skin surface pH were measured on the forearm in the above areas by SM810/CM820/pH900 combined units (Courage AND Khazaka, Germany). The mean value of water capacitance measured in AD patients was 44.1 ± 11.6 AU (arbitrary units) on the lesions, 60.2 ± 12.4 AU on perilesional skin and 67.2 ± 8.8 AU on uninvolved skin. In healthy controls, the mean value was 74.1 ± 9.2 AU. The mean pH value measured in AD patients was 6.13 ± 0.52 on the lesions, 5.80 ± 0.41 on perilesional skin, and 5.54 ± 0.49 on uninvolved skin. In control group, the mean pH of the skin surface was 5.24 ± 0.40. The values of both parameters measured on lesional skin were significantly different (capacitance decreased and pH increased) from the values recorded on perilesional skin and uninvolved skin. The same held for the relation between perilesional and uninvolved skin. According to study results, the uninvolved skin of AD patients had significantly worse values of the measured parameters as compared with control group. The results of this study suggested the skin barrier function to be degraded in AD patients, which is specifically expressed in lesional skin.

  5. Directions of flow of the water-bearing stratum in Friuli (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, F.; Affatato, A.; Andrian, L.; Devoto, S.; Mereu, A.; Oberti, S.; Piano, C.; Rondi, V.; Zini, L.

    2003-04-01

    Flow directions of the water -- bearing stratum were executed with a Thermal Flowmeter in the Northern Friuli Plain. This type of instrument used is made up by a heater, a compass and various sensors of temperature. It is connected to an outside computer. It measures the induced thermal currents and identifies the direction and the intensity of the flow. The Thermal Flowmeter can be used in wells of little diameter and for big depths. The campaign of measures, about a hundred, confirms the general correspondence between the directions of the flows obtained from the water table and those measured through the Flowmeter in the permeable bodies with primary permeability. Different flow directions compared to the general picture were noticed in the conglomerate bodies, because of a secondary permeability. Direction changes are also noticed for the heterogeneity of the sediments which constitute the aquifer to big and to little scale.

  6. Measurement of Rn-222 concentration in underground water in Osaka stratum group in Sennan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1977-01-01

    The Rn-222 concentration in underground water is reported as follows, which is the result obtained when the ground inspection was carried out in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University located at Kumatori area in Osaka stratum group. Underground water, at different depth, well water and rain water were taken, and the contained Rn-222 was extracted with toluene to measure by liquid scintillation technique. Rn-222 concentration in rain water was 3.5 - 8.0 pCi/l, while the concentration in well water was 130 - 250 pCi/l, and that in underground water was 240 - 313 pCi/l. The seasonal change, geographical difference and variation according to depth of Rn-222 concentration were examined. Rn-222 behavior in soil should be investigated more in detail in reference to Rn-222 dispersion, transport and equilibrium problems in soil-water system in the future. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Evaluation of the interaction of surfactants with stratum corneum model membrane from Bothrops jararaca by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, André Rolim; Lacerda, Aurea Cristina Lemos; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Lopes, Patrícia Santos; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2006-07-06

    The interaction of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) and lauryl alcohol ethoxylated (12 mol ethylene oxide) (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the stratum corneum (SC) of shed snake skins from Bothrops jararaca, used as model membrane, and thermal characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Surfactant solutions were employed above of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) with treatment time of 8h. The SDS interaction with the SC model membrane has increased the characteristic transition temperature of 130 degrees C in approximately 10 degrees C for the water loss and keratin denaturation, indicating an augmentation of the water content. Samples treated with CTAC have a decrease of the water loss temperature, while, for the LAE-12OE treated samples, changes on the transition temperature have not been observed.

  8. Seismic response of bridge pier on rigid caisson foundation in soil stratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigginos, C.; Gerolymos, N.; Assimaki, D.; Gazetas, G.

    2008-03-01

    An analytical method to study the seismic response of a bridge pier supported on a rigid caisson foundation embedded in a deep soil stratum underlain by a homogeneous half space is developed. The method reproduces the kinematic and inertial responses, using translational and rotational distributed Winkler springs and dashpots to simulate the soil-caisson interaction. Closed-form solutions are given in the frequency domain for vertical harmonic S-wave excitation. Comparison with results from finite element (FE) analysis and other available solutions demonstrates the reliability of the model. Results from parametric studies are given for the kinematic and inertial responses. The modification of the fundamental period and damping ratio of the bridge due to soil-structure interaction is graphically illustrated.

  9. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  10. Dew point effect of cooled hydrogel pads on human stratum corneum biosurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Paquet, Philippe; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been thoroughly studied. To describe the changes in transepidermal water loss and electrometric properties of the skin surface following application of cooled hydrogel pads. Measurements were performed on normal forearm skin of 27 healthy volunteers and on freshly excised skin from abdominoplasty. LaserAid hydrogel pads cooled to 4 degrees C were placed for 15 min on the forearm skin. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrometric properties (Corneometer, Nova DPM 900) were performed before application and after removal of the cooled pads. A consistent increase in corneometer units, dermal phase meter (DPM) values and TEWL were recorded at removal of the cooled hydrogel pads. Both the in vivo and in vitro assessments brought similar information. The similar changes disclosed in vitro and in vivo suggest that a common physical process is operating in these conditions. The observed phenomenon is opposite to the predicted events given by the Arrhenius law probably because of the combination of cooling and occlusion by the pads. A dew point effect (air temperature at which relative humidity is maximal) is likely involved in the moisture content of the stratum corneum. Thus, the biological impact of using cooling hydrogel pads during laser therapy is different from the effect of a cryogenic spray cooling procedure. The better preservation of the water balance in the stratum corneum by the cooled hydrogel pads could have a beneficial esthetic effect on laser treated areas. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. From observational to analytical morphology of the stratum corneum: progress avoiding hazardous animal and human testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1,2 Justine Courtois,1 Caroline Ritacco,1 Philippe Humbert,2,3 Ferial Fanian,3 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont1,4,5 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, Liège, Belgium; 2University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Saint-Jacques, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 5Department of Dermatology, Regional Hospital of Huy, Huy, Belgium Background: In cosmetic science, noninvasive sampling of the upper part of the stratum corneum is conveniently performed using strippings with adhesive-coated discs (SACD and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings (CSSSs. Methods: Under controlled conditions, it is possible to scrutinize SACD and CSSS with objectivity using appropriate methods of analytical morphology. These procedures apply to a series of clinical conditions including xerosis grading, comedometry, corneodynamics, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, corneoxenometry, and dandruff assessment. Results: With any of the analytical evaluations, SACD and CSSS provide specific salient information that is useful in the field of cosmetology. In particular, both methods appear valuable and complementary in assessing the human skin compatibility of personal skincare products. Conclusion: A set of quantitative analytical methods applicable to the minimally invasive and low-cost SACD and CSSS procedures allow for a sound assessment of cosmetic effects on the stratum corneum. Under regular conditions, both methods are painless and do not induce adverse events. Globally, CSSS appears more precise and informative than the regular SACD stripping. Keywords: irritation, morphometry, quantitative morphology, stripping

  12. Stratum corneum profiles of inflammatory mediators in patch test reactions to common contact allergens and sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S. A.; Ljubojevic Hadzavdic, S.; Jakasa, I.; Franceschi, N.; Jurakić Tončić, R.; Marinović, B.; Brans, R.; Gibbs, S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Rustemeyer, T.; Kezic, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated allergen-specific differences in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in patch tested skin. Objectives To determine levels of various inflammatory mediators in the stratum corneum (SC) after patch testing with common contact allergens and the skin

  13. Stratum corneum lipid organization as observed by atomic force, confocal and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlén, Lars; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Bagatolli, Luis

    2008-01-01

    -related biophysical techniques (e.g. atomic force microscopy and confocal/two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy), it was recently shown that reconstituted membranes composed of extracted decontaminated human stratum corneum lipids do not form a fluid phase, but exclusively a single-gel phase that segregates...

  14. Impact of the gap between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms: unique insights from a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether gaps between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class affect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. We collected data from the Korean Health Panel Survey, years 2009 and 2011, and performed a longitudinal analysis of 12,357 individuals at baseline (2009), estimating the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with disparate socioeconomic stratum (High, Middle, or Low household income and education level, respectively) and subjective social class (High, Middle, or Low). The odds ratio for depressive symptoms among individuals with High household income and High social class, or Low household income and Low social class, was 0.537 and 1.877, respectively (psocioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms deteriorated, as a whole, across the socioeconomic spectrum. The gap between socioeconomic stratum and perceived position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. It is important to consider the impact of discrepancies between different measures of socioeconomic well-being on depressive symptoms rather than looking at the subjective social class alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  16. Review of Stratum Corneum Impedance Measurement in Non-Invasive Penetration Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to advances in telemedicine, mobile medical care, wearable health monitoring, and electronic skin, great efforts have been directed to non-invasive monitoring and treatment of disease. These processes generally involve disease detection from interstitial fluid (ISF instead of blood, and transdermal drug delivery. However, the quantitative extraction of ISF and the level of drug absorption are greatly affected by the individual’s skin permeability, which is closely related to the properties of the stratum corneum (SC. Therefore, measurement of SC impedance has been proposed as an appropriate way for assessing individual skin differences. In order to figure out the current status and research direction of human SC impedance detection, investigations regarding skin impedance measurement have been reviewed in this paper. Future directions are concluded after a review of impedance models, electrodes, measurement methods and systems, and their applications in treatment. It is believed that a well-matched skin impedance model and measurement method will be established for clinical and point-of care applications in the near future.

  17. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  18. The Human Stratum Corneum Prevents Small Gold Nanoparticle Penetration and Their Potential Toxic Metabolic Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are being used in multiple applications, ranging from biomedical and skin care products (e.g., sunscreen through to industrial manufacturing processes (e.g., water purification. The increase in exposure has led to multiple reports on nanoparticle penetration and toxicity. However, the correlation between nanoparticle size and its penetration without physical/chemical enhancers through the skin is poorly understood—with studies instead focusing primarily on skin penetration under disrupted conditions. In this paper, we investigate the penetration and metabolic effects of 10 nm, 30 nm, and 60 nm gold nanoparticles within viable excised human skin after 24-hour exposure using multiphoton tomograph-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. After 24 hour treatment with the 10, 30, and 60 nm gold nanoparticles, there was no significant penetration detected below the stratum corneum. Furthermore, there were no changes in metabolic output (total NAD(PH in the viable epidermis posttreatment correlating with lack of penetration of nanoparticles. These results are significant for estimating topical nanoparticle exposure in humans where other model systems may overestimate the exposure of nanoparticles to the viable epidermis. Our data shows that viable human skin resists permeation of small nanoparticles in a size range that has been reported to penetrate deeply in other skin models.

  19. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two dimensional finite element modelling for dynamic water diffusion through stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Perry; Imhof, Robert E

    2012-10-01

    Solvents penetration through in vivo human stratum corneum (SC) has always been an interesting research area for trans-dermal drug delivery studies, and the importance of intercellular routes (diffuse in between corneocytes) and transcellular routes (diffuse through corneocytes) during diffusion is often debatable. In this paper, we have developed a two dimensional finite element model to simulate the dynamic water diffusion through the SC. It is based on the brick-and-mortar model, with brick represents corneocytes and mortar represents lipids, respectively. It simulates the dynamic water diffusion process through the SC from pre-defined initial conditions and boundary conditions. Although the simulation is based on water diffusions, the principles can also be applied to the diffusions of other topical applied substances. The simulation results show that both intercellular routes and transcellular routes are important for water diffusion. Although intercellular routes have higher flux rates, most of the water still diffuse through transcellular routes because of the high cross area ratio of corneocytes and lipids. The diffusion water flux, or trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), is reversely proportional to corneocyte size, i.e. the larger the corneocyte size, the lower the TEWL, and vice versa. There is also an effect of the SC thickness, external air conditions and diffusion coefficients on the water diffusion through SC on the resulting TEWL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative uptake of minoxidil into appendages and stratum corneum and permeation through human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Jeffrey E; Ciotti, Susan; Weiner, Norman; Lockwood, Peter; Cross, Sheree E; Roberts, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    We examined uptake of the model therapeutic agent, minoxidil, into appendages, stratum corneum (SC), and through human skin, under the influence of different vehicles. Quantitative estimation of therapeutic drug deposition into all three areas has not previously been reported. Finite doses of minoxidil (2%, w/v) in formulations containing varying amounts of ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), and water (60:20:20, 80:20:0, and 0:80:20 by volume, respectively) were used. Minoxidil in SC (by tape stripping), appendages (by cyanoacrylate casting), and receptor fluid was determined by liquid scintillation counting. At early times (30 min, 2 h), ethanol-containing formulations (60:20:20 and 80:20:0) caused significantly greater minoxidil retention in SC and appendages, compared to the formulation lacking ethanol (0:80:20). A significant increase in minoxidil receptor penetration occurred with the PG-rich 0:80:20 formulation after 12 h. We showed that deposition of minoxidil into appendages, SC, and skin penetration into receptor fluid were similar in magnitude. Transport by the appendageal route is likely to be a key determinant of hair growth promotion by minoxidil. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Ethnic differences in stratum corneum functions between Chinese and Thai infants residing in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yuki; Shima, Kyoko; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Palungwachira, Pakhawadee; Laohathai, Diane; Chanthothai, Jetchawa; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic and racial differences in infant skin have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are ethnic differences and similarities in the stratum corneum (SC) functions of Thai and Chinese infants. Healthy infants 6 to 24 months of age (N = 60; 30 Thai, 30 Chinese) who resided in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC hydration (capacitance) on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured. Ceramide content was determined in the SC on the upper arm. SC hydration was not remarkably different between the two ethnicities at any site measured, but TEWL was significantly higher in Chinese infants than in Thai infants at all sites. Hydration of the SC was not significantly correlated with age in either ethnicity. TEWL had significant but weak correlations with age on the thigh and upper arm in Thai infants. Ceramide content was significantly higher in Chinese SC than in Thai SC. No relationship between ceramide content and TEWL or hydration was observed in either ethnicity. The significant differences in TEWL and ceramide contents between Chinese and Thai infant skin could prove useful in designing skin care and diapering products that are best suited for each ethnicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on the biomass structure of the arboreal stratum in a northern forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    In 1972 an area within the Enterprise Radiation Forest was subjected to a growing-season exposure of gamma radiation from a 10,000-Ci 137 Cs source. Structural changes in woody vegetation caused by ionizing radiation were quantified by measuring changes in the amounts and distribution of biomass. Measurable effects immediately after irradiation were confined to an area within 10 to 15 m from the source; this represented an exposure rate greater than 200 r/day and cumulative exposure in excess of 20 kr. These effects included total shrub mortality at 5 m, 70 to 90 percent reductions in shrub biomass at 10 m, very slight reductions in shrub biomass at 15 m, and an early release of tree and shrub leaf litter within 15 m of the source. Responses to the treatment were more definitive in 1973 and 1974. Ionizing radiation reduced the biomass of low shrubs within 15 m from the source (greater than 135 r/day), but this reduction did not continue beyond 1973 because of ingrowth. Declines in biomass of high shrubs continued into 1974 out to a distance of 30 m (greater than 40 r/day). The result was the spatial and temporal development of a shrub community with a lower profile in response to radiation. Although gross changes in the biomass structure of the tree stratum did not occur until 1973 and 1974, radiation-induced changes in productivity were immediate

  4. Further investigations on the role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models after UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Hagen; Böttcher, Rolf; Huschka, Christoph; Wohlrab, Wolfgang; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2005-08-01

    This study is the continuation of our research into vitamin C and its possible effects on human skin after topical administration. The effects of ascorbic acid, iron ions and UV irradiation on stratum corneum lipid models were investigated. The lipid models used were: a simple system (linolenic acid dispersion), a complex system (liposomes consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and linolenic acid) and complex systems with additionally incorporated ceramides (types III and IV). The lipid peroxidation was quantified by the thiobarbituric acid assay. A human adult low-calcium high-temperature (HaCaT) keratinocytes cell culture was used as a second in-vitro model. The amount of intracellular peroxides was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity using the dihydrorhodamine 123 assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the influence of ascorbic acid and iron ions on the signal intensity of 5-doxylstearic acid during UV exposure. Ascorbic acid showed prooxidative properties in the thiobarbituric acid assay whereas cell protection was measured in the HaCaT keratinocytes experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations revealed different extents of free radical production generated by iron ions, ascorbic acid and UV irradiation. In evaluating the results from this study new aspects of the mechanism of lipid damage caused by these three factors were suggested, transcending the simple redox behaviour of ascorbic acid.

  5. The impact of temperature on mean local air age and thermal comfort in a stratum ventilated office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lin; Lin, Zhang; Yao, Ting [Building Energy and Environmental Technology Research Unit, School of Energy and Environment and Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Jing; Wang, Qiuwang [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the supply air temperature on the mean local air age and thermal comfort of a typical individual office under stratum ventilation is investigated by a numerical method, which is validated by an experiment carried out by the authors. The results show that for an office, when the supply air temperature is increased from 19 C to 21 C, the corresponding mean occupied zone temperature rises from 24.5 C to 26.5 C. The inhaled air quality for the occupant is improved when supply air temperature rises from 19 C to 21 C. Also, the thermal comfort indices (predicted mean vote or PMV, predicted percentage of dissatisfied or PPD and predicted dissatisfied or PD) fulfill the requirements of ISO 7730 and CR 175 1998. For summer cooling operation, stratum ventilation may offer a feasible solution to elevated indoor temperatures, which are recommended by several governments in East Asia. (author)

  6. Determination of Abutment Pressure in Coal Mines with Extremely Thick Alluvium Stratum: A Typical Kind of Rockburst Mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sitao; Feng, Yu; Jiang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the abutment pressure distribution in coal mines with extremely thick alluvium stratum (ETAS), which is a typical kind of mines encountering frequent intense rockbursts in China. This occurs due to poor understanding to abutment pressure distribution pattern and the consequent inappropriate mine design. In this study, a theoretical computational model of abutment pressure for ETAS longwall panels is proposed based on the analysis of load transfer mechanisms of key stratum (KS) and ETAS. The model was applied to determine the abutment pressure distribution of LW2302S in Xinjulong Coal Mine; the results of stress and microseismic monitoring verified the rationality of this model. The calculated abutment pressure of LW2302S was also used in the terminal mining line design of LW2301N for rockburst prevention, successfully protecting the main roadway from the adverse influence of the abutment pressure.

  7. Cutaneous water loss and the development of the stratum corneum of nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from desert and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation through the skin contributes to more than half of the total water loss in birds. Therefore, we expect the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL) to be crucial for birds, especially those that live in deserts, to maintain a normal state of hydration. Previous studies in adult birds showed that modifications of the lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, were associated with changes in rates of CWL. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of CWL and the lipids of the SC in nestling birds. In this study, we measured CWL and the lipid composition of the SC during development of nestlings from two populations of house sparrows, one from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other from mesic Ohio. We found that desert and mesic nestlings followed different developmental trajectories for CWL. Desert nestlings seemed to make a more frugal use of water than did mesic nestlings. To regulate CWL, nestlings appeared to modify the lipid composition of the SC during ontogeny. Our results also suggest a tighter regulation of CWL in desert nestlings, presumably as a result of the stronger selection pressures to which nestlings are exposed in deserts.

  8. Bayes allocation of the sample for estimation of the mean when each stratum has a Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.

    1983-01-01

    Consider a stratified population with L strata, so that a Poisson random variable is associated with each stratum. The parameter associated with the hth stratum is theta/sub h/, h = 1, 2, ..., L. Let ω/sub h/ be the known proportion of the population in the hth stratum, h = 1, 2, ..., L. The authors want to estimate the parameter theta = summation from h = 1 to L ω/sub h/theta/sub h/. We assume that prior information is available on theta/sub h/ and that it can be expressed in terms of a gamma distribution with parameters α/sub h/ and β/sub h/, h = 1, 2, ..., L. We also assume that the prior distributions are independent. Using squared error loss function, a Bayes allocation of total sample size with a cost constraint is given. The Bayes estimate using the Bayes allocation is shown to have an adjusted mean square error which is strictly less than the adjusted mean square error of the classical estimate using the classical allocation

  9. Penetration route of functional molecules in stratum corneum studied by time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiromitsu; Obata, Yasuko; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of functional molecules on corneocytes in stratum corneum using time-resolved small- and wide-angle x-ray diffraction after applying a functional molecule. From these results it was revealed that in the stratum corneum a typical hydrophilic molecule, ethanol, penetrates via the transcellular route and on the other hand a typical hydrophobic molecule, d-limonene, penetrates via the intercellular route.

  10. In vivo confocal Raman microscopic determination of depth profiles of the stratum corneum lipid organization influenced by application of various oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, ChunSik; Schleusener, Johannes; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2017-08-01

    The intercellular lipids (ICL) of stratum corneum (SC) play an important role in maintaining the skin barrier function. The lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in SC is not homogenous, but rather depth-dependent. This study aimed to analyze the influence of the topically applied mineral-derived (paraffin and petrolatum) and plant-derived (almond oil and jojoba oil) oils on the depth-dependent ICL profile ordering of the SC in vivo. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), a unique tool to analyze the depth profile of the ICL structure non-invasively, is employed to investigate the interaction between oils and human SC in vivo. The results show that the response of SC to oils' permeation varies in the depths. All oils remain in the upper layers of the SC (0-20% of SC thickness) and show predominated differences of ICL ordering from intact skin. In these depths, skin treated with plant-derived oils shows more disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL than intact skin (p0.1), except plant-derived oils at the depth 30% of SC thickness. In the deeper layers of the SC (60-100% of SC thickness), no difference between ICL lateral packing order of the oil-treated and intact skin can be observed, except that at the depths of 70-90% of the SC thickness, where slight changes with more disorder states are measured for plant-derived oil treated skin (p<0.1), which could be explained by the penetration of free fatty acid fractions in the deep-located SC areas. Both oil types remain in the superficial layers of the SC (0-20% of the SC thickness). Skin treated with mineral- and plant-derived oils shows significantly higher disordered lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in these layers of the SC compared to intact skin. Plant-derived oils significantly changed the ICL ordering in the depths of 30% and 70-90% of the SC thickness, which is likely due to the penetration of free fatty acids in the deeper layers of the SC. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for

  11. Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

    Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the

  12. Modelling Formation of a Drug Reservoir in the Stratum Corneum and Its Impact on Drug Monitoring Using Reverse Iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Paulley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse iontophoresis is a relatively new technique for non-invasive drug monitoring in the body. It involves a small electrical current being passed through the skin to facilitate the movement of small charged ions and polar molecules on the skin's surface where the amount of drug can then be measured and hence an accurate estimate of the blood concentration can be made. In vivo studies for several molecules show that initially large amounts of drug are extracted from the body, which are unrelated to the magnitude of the blood concentration; over time the fluxes of extraction decrease to a level proportional to the steady state blood concentration. This suggests that, at first, the drug is being extracted from some source other than the blood; one such candidate for this source is the dead cells which form the stratum corneum. In this paper, we construct two related mathematical models; the first describes the formation of the drug reservoir in the stratum corneum as a consequence of repeated drug intake and natural death of skin cells in the body. The output from this model provides initial conditions for the model of reverse iontophoresis in which charged ions from both the blood and the stratum corneum reservoir compete for the electric current. Model parameters are estimated from data collected for lithium monitoring. Our models will improve interpretation of reverse iontophoretic data by discriminating the subdermal from the skin contribution to the fluxes of extraction. They also suggest that analysis of the skin reservoir might be a valuable tool to investigate patients' exposure to chemicals including therapeutic drugs.

  13. From contact angle titration to chemical force microscopy: a new route to assess the pH-dependent character of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthieu; Mavon, Alain; Haidara, Hamidou; Vallat, Marie-France; Duplan, Hélène; Roucoules, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Despite of its complex multicomponent organization and its compact architecture, the Stratum corneum (SC) is not completely impermeable to substances directly applied on the skin surface. A huge number of works have been dedicated to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in substance permeation by exploring deeper layers than the SC itself. Surprisingly, there is a poor interest in studies relating to interactions which may occur in the near-surface region (i.e. approximately 1 nm depth) of the SC. In this work, equilibrium proton-transfer reactions have been used as probes to define in a fundamental point of view the nature of the SC interactions with its environment. Such titration curves are investigated on 'in vitro' SC (isolated SC from abdominal skin tissue) and on 'in vivo' volar forearm (a sebum poor area). The results are discussed in term of work of adhesion and surface pKa values. Because SC can 'reconstruct' under heating, influence of the temperature on titration curves is investigated and the role of the different components is discussed. Different sigmoidal transitions were observed. Two common pKa values (pKa(1) = 4 and pKa(2) = 11.5) were clearly identified in both cases and associated to an acid-base character. By playing with the temperature of 'in vitro' SC, the 'accessibility' of polar functions was increased, thus refining the results by revealing an amphoteric character with an acid-to-base transition at pH 3.5 and two acid transitions at pH = 6.5 and pH = 11.5. Adhesion forces between an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip and a single isolated corneocyte through buffered liquid media were also investigated to better understand the role of the individual corneocytes. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Plasma hormonal profiles and dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum, evidenced by light microscopy, of virgin and postpartum female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Janaína; Wittmann, Raul; de Azevedo, Márcia S; Lucion, Aldo B; Franci, Celso R; Giovenardi, Márcia; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2008-06-27

    Successful reproduction requires that changes in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), oxytocin (OT), estrogen (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) occur together with the display of maternal behaviors. Ovarian steroids and environmental stimuli can affect the dendritic spines in the rat hippocampus. Here, studying Wistar rats, it is described: (a) the sequential and concomitant changes in the hormonal profile of females at postpartum days (PP) 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24, comparing to estrous cycle referential values; (b) the dendritic spine density in the stratum radiatum of CA1 (CA1-SR) Golgi-impregnated neurons in virgin females across the estrous cycle and in multiparous age-matched ones; and (c) the proportion of different types of spines in the CA1-SR of virgin and postpartum females, both in diestrus. Plasma levels of gonadotrophins and ovarian hormones remained low along PP while LH increased and PRL decreased near the end of the lactating period. The lowest dendritic spine density was found in virgin females in estrus when compared to diestrus and proestrus phases or to postpartum females in diestrus (p0.4). There were no differences in the proportions of the different spine types in nulliparous and postpartum females (p>0.2). Results suggest that medium layer CA1-SR spines undergo rapid modifications in Wistar females across the estrous cycle (not quite comparable to Sprague-Dawley data or to hormonal substitutive therapy following ovariectomy), but persistent effects of motherhood on dendritic spine density and morphology were not found in this area.

  15. Cross stratum resources protection in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks for 5G services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoyong; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Yao; Yang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    In order to meet the requirement of internet of things (IoT) and 5G, the cloud radio access network is a paradigm which converges all base stations computational resources into a cloud baseband unit (BBU) pool, while the distributed radio frequency signals are collected by remote radio head (RRH). A precondition for centralized processing in the BBU pool is an interconnection fronthaul network with high capacity and low delay. However, it has become more complex and frequent in the interaction between RRH and BBU and resource scheduling among BBUs in cloud. Cloud radio over fiber network has been proposed in our previous work already. In order to overcome the complexity and latency, in this paper, we first present a novel cross stratum resources protection (CSRP) architecture in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks (F-RoFN) for 5G services. Additionally, a cross stratum protection (CSP) scheme considering the network survivability is introduced in the proposed architecture. The CSRP with CSP scheme can effectively pull the remote processing resource locally to implement the cooperative radio resource management, enhance the responsiveness and resilience to the dynamic end-to-end 5G service demands, and globally optimize optical network, wireless and fog resources. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture with CSP scheme are verified on our software defined networking testbed in terms of service latency, transmission success rate, resource occupation rate and blocking probability.

  16. Permeabilization and recovery of the stratum corneum in vivo: the synergy of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; McAuliffe, D J; Kollias, N; Flotte, T J; Doukas, A G

    2001-01-01

    Photomechanical waves render the stratum corneum permeable and allow macromolecules to diffuse into the epidermis and dermis. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined action of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, for transdermal delivery. A single photomechanical wave was applied to the skin of rats in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The sodium lauryl sulfate solution was removed and aqueous solutions of rhodamine-B dextran (40 kDa molecular weight) were applied to the skin at time points 2, 30, and 60 minutes post-exposure. The presence of rhodamine-B dextran in the skin was measured by fluorescence emission spectroscopy in vivo and fluorescence microscopy of frozen biopsies. The use of sodium lauryl sulfate delayed the recovery of the stratum corneum barrier and extended the time available for the diffusion of dextran through it. The combination of photomechanical waves and surfactants can enhance transdermal drug delivery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Impact of wet work on epidermal barrier (tewl and stratum corneum hydration) and skin viscoelasticity in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Świcrczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Świerczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Kręcisz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are prone to develop hand eczema due to occupational exposure to irritants, including wet work. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of wet work on selected skin properties, reflecting epidermal barrier function--transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration--and additionally skin viscoelasticity, in nurses. Study subjects included 90 nurses employed in hospital wards. Measurements were carried out within the dorsal aspect of the dominant hand, using a Cutometer MPA 580 equipped with Tewameter TM 300 and Corneometer CM 825 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany) probes. Examina- tions took place on hospital premises. Similar measurements were performed in the control group of females non-exposed to irritants. In the examined group of nurses, mean TEWL was 15.5 g/h/m2 and was higher than in the control group (12.99 g/h/m2). After rejecting the extreme results, the difference between the groups proved to be statistically significant (p hydration was lower in the examined group (37.915) compared with the control group (40.05), but the difference was not sta tistically significant. Also results of viscoelasticity assessment showed no significant differences between studied groups. The results of the assessment of skin biophysical properties show that wet work exerts a moderately adverse impact on skin condition. A higher TEWL value and a lower stratum corneum hydration in workers exposed to irritants reflect an adverse impact of these factors on the epidermal barrier function.

  18. Assessing the relationship between vitamin D3 and stratum corneum hydration for the treatment of xerotic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Meghan

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D(3) has been called the "sunshine" vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D(3) is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D(3) have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D(3) may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D(3) (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D(3).

  19. The long periodicity phase (LPP) controversy part I: The influence of a natural-like ratio of the CER[EOS] analogue [EOS]-br in a CER[NP]/[AP] based stratum corneum modelling system: A neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Langner, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-06-18

    This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D 3 , [AP]-D 3 , and [EOS]-br-D 3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br. Unlike in this system the ceramides here were slightly tilted, hinting towards a slightly less natural arrangement. Due to the deuteration it was possible to observe that the long ceramide chains were overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This is considered to be an important feature for the natural stratum corneum. Despite the presence of a ceramide [EOS] analogue - able to form a long phase arrangement - no distinct long periodicity phase was formed, despite a slightly higher than natural ω-acyl ceramide ratio of 10 mol%. The deuterated variant of this ceramide determined that the very long ceramide was integrated into the short periodicity phase, spanning multiple layers instead. The - compared to the base system - unchanged repeat distance highlights the stability of this structure. Furthermore, the localisation of the very long ceramide in the short periodicity phase indicates the possibility of a crosslinking effect and thus a multilayer stabilizing role for the ceramide [EOS]. It can be concluded, that additionally to the mere presence of ceramide-[EOS] more complex conditions have to be met in order to form this long phase. This has to be further investigated in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  1. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  2. Classification of archaeological pieces into their respective stratum by a chemometric model based on the soil concentration of 25 selected elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrero, J.A.; Goienaga, N.; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S.; Arana, G.; Madariaga, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that an archaeological ceramic piece has remained buried underground in the same stratum for centuries without being removed. For this purpose, a chemometric model based on Principal Component Analysis, Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy and Linear Discriminant Analysis classification techniques was created with the concentration of some selected elements of both soil of the stratum and soil adhered to the ceramic piece. Some ceramic pieces from four different stratigraphic units, coming from a roman archaeological site in Alava (North of Spain), and its respective stratum soils were collected. The soil adhered to the ceramic pieces was removed and treated in the same way as the soil from its respective stratum. The digestion was carried out following the US Environmental Pollution Agency EPA 3051A method. A total of 54 elements were determined in the extracts by a rapid screening inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. After rejecting the major elements and those which could have changed from the original composition of the soils (migration or retention from/to the buried objects), the following elements (25) were finally taken into account to construct the model: Li, V, Co, As, Y, Nb, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Au, Th and U. A total of 33 subsamples were treated from 10 soils belonging to 4 different stratigraphic units. The final model groups and discriminate them in four groups, according to the stratigraphic unit, having both the stratum and soils adhered to the pieces falling down in the same group.

  3. Impact of the ceramide subspecies on the nanostructure of stratum corneum lipids using neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. Part I: impact of CER[NS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Gupta, Rakesh; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Hauß, Thomas; Rai, Beena; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-05-30

    For this study mixtures based on the ceramides [NS] (NS = non-hydroxy-sphingosine) and [AP] (AP = α-hydroxy-phytosphingosine) in a 2:1 and 1:2 ratio, together with cholesterol and lignoceric acid, were investigated. These mixtures are modelling the uppermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. Neutron diffraction, utilizing specifically deuterated ceramide molecules, was used to obtain a maximum amount of experimental detail. Highly detailed molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate even more information from the experimental data. It was possible to observe a single lamellar phase for both systems. They had a lamellar repeat distance of 5.43 ± 0.05 nm for the [NS]/[AP] 2:1 and a slightly shorter one of 5.34 ± 0.05 nm for the 1:2 system. The structure and water content was uninfluenced by excess humidity. Both the experimental and simulation data indicated slightly tilted ceramides, with their C24 chains overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This arrangement is well comparable to systems investigated before. The structure of both systems, except for the differing repeat distance, looks similar at first. However, on a smaller scale there were various distinct differences, demonstrating only low redundancy between the different ceramide species, despite only minor chemical differences. The mainly ceramide [AP] determined 1:2 system has a slightly smaller repeat distance. This is a result of a tighter arrangement of the lipids chain along the bilayer normal and increased overlapping of the long chains in the lamellar middle. For the CER[NS] some novel features could be shown, despite it being the overall most investigated ceramide. These include the low adaptability to changed lateral interactions, leading to an increased chain opening. This effect could explain its low miscibility with other lipids. The investigated model systems allows it to directly compare results from the literature which have used ceramide [NS] to the most recent

  4. HiCRep: assessing the reproducibility of Hi-C data using a stratum-adjusted correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Feipeng; Yardımcı, Galip Gürkan; Song, Fan; Hardison, Ross C; Noble, William Stafford; Yue, Feng; Li, Qunhua

    2017-11-01

    Hi-C is a powerful technology for studying genome-wide chromatin interactions. However, current methods for assessing Hi-C data reproducibility can produce misleading results because they ignore spatial features in Hi-C data, such as domain structure and distance dependence. We present HiCRep, a framework for assessing the reproducibility of Hi-C data that systematically accounts for these features. In particular, we introduce a novel similarity measure, the stratum adjusted correlation coefficient (SCC), for quantifying the similarity between Hi-C interaction matrices. Not only does it provide a statistically sound and reliable evaluation of reproducibility, SCC can also be used to quantify differences between Hi-C contact matrices and to determine the optimal sequencing depth for a desired resolution. The measure consistently shows higher accuracy than existing approaches in distinguishing subtle differences in reproducibility and depicting interrelationships of cell lineages. The proposed measure is straightforward to interpret and easy to compute, making it well-suited for providing standardized, interpretable, automatable, and scalable quality control. The freely available R package HiCRep implements our approach. © 2017 Yang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  6. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Payyadhah Borhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w, olive oil B (15–20% w/w, palm oil C (6–10% w/w, castor oil D (15–20% w/w, cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w, and okara F (2–7% w/w by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  7. Floristic diversity of the shrub-arboreal stratum of homegardens in the Mariana re-settlement, Tocantins State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ícaro Gonçalves Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the floristic, diversity and equability of the tree shrub stratum of home gardens (QA in Mariana re-settlement located between Palmas and Porto Nacional municipalities in Tocantins State, Brazil. Three 20 x 30 m plots were installed in each home garden, totalizing 0.72 ha of sampled area. All shrub-tree individuals had its circumference at 1.3 m above ground level (CBH measured when CBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 477 individuals, 81 species, 34 families and 73 genera were verified in all QA. Shannon diversity index (H’ was 3.68 and Pielou equability indice (J’ was 0.83, for all sampled area. Individually, QA1, QA2, QA3 and QA4 presented H’ = 2.52; 3.27; 2.66 and 2.94, and J’ = 0.78; 0.90; 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. It was possible to infer that the studied QA showed high richness and diversity, evidencing great environmental heterogeneity and low ecological dominance.

  8. Convergent mechanism of roadway driven along with strong roof of special thick stratum and its controlled measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.; Qian, M.; Jing, G.; Li, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). College of Resource and Safety Engineering

    2004-06-01

    The trapezoidal cross-section roadway, driven along with its medium and fine grain sandstone roof in special thick stratum, was situated in shale strata of the Wu{sub 2} coal seam of the Shihhotze Perno-carboniferous group. Rock-lining wall was employed in roadway, which its roof is in the free situation. Under the action of virgin stress, the surrounding rock of roadway was stable. While under the action of fixed abutment pressure arisen from protection pillar of roadway, which if two sides seams were extracted the free strong roof of roadway was stable. But its two sides rock-lining walls was fractured, partially broken into pieces, and its floor heave was obvious. The velocity of floor heave is 0.4 - 0.8 mm/d. The size of the broken zone of surrounding rock of roadway doubled. An effective load coefficient of surrounding rock was quoted to illustrate these phenomena. The main reasons of roadway convergence are that rock property of surrounding rock is inferior, protection pillars affects its stability, and the supporting pattern employed is improper. Effective measures to control roadway convergence should be bolting and grouting lining, which mainly consolidate surrounding rock of roadway. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Non steady-state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, M; Lieckfeldt, R; Wittum, G; Mazurkevich, G; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    The diffusion equation should be solved for the non-steady-state problem of drug diffusion within a two-dimensional, biphasic stratum corneum membrane having homogeneous lipid and corneocyte phases. A numerical method was developed for a brick-and-mortar SC-geometry, enabling an explicit solution for time-dependent drug concentration within both phases. The lag time and permeability were calculated. It is shown how the barrier property of this model membrane depends on relative phase permeability, corneocyte alignment, and corneocyte-lipid partition coefficient. Additionally, the time-dependent drug concentration profiles within the membrane can be observed during the lag and steady-state phases. The model SC-membrane predicts, from purely morphological principles, lag times and permeabilities that are in good agreement with experimental values. The long lag times and very small permeabilities reported for human SC can only be predicted for a highly-staggered corneocyte geometry and corneocytes that are 1000 times less permeable than the lipid phase. Although the former conclusion is reasonable, the latter is questionable. The elongated, flattened corneocyte shape renders lag time and permeability insensitive to large changes in their alignment within the SC. Corneocyte/lipid partitioning is found to be fundamentally different to SC/donor partitioning, since increasing drug lipophilicity always reduces both lag time and permeability.

  10. How Sensitive Are Transdermal Transport Predictions by Microscopic Stratum Corneum Models to Geometric and Transport Parameter Input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jessica; Koo, Soh Myoung; Lape, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    While predictive models of transdermal transport have the potential to reduce human and animal testing, microscopic stratum corneum (SC) model output is highly dependent on idealized SC geometry, transport pathway (transcellular vs. intercellular), and penetrant transport parameters (e.g., compound diffusivity in lipids). Most microscopic models are limited to a simple rectangular brick-and-mortar SC geometry and do not account for variability across delivery sites, hydration levels, and populations. In addition, these models rely on transport parameters obtained from pure theory, parameter fitting to match in vivo experiments, and time-intensive diffusion experiments for each compound. In this work, we develop a microscopic finite element model that allows us to probe model sensitivity to variations in geometry, transport pathway, and hydration level. Given the dearth of experimentally-validated transport data and the wide range in theoretically-predicted transport parameters, we examine the model's response to a variety of transport parameters reported in the literature. Results show that model predictions are strongly dependent on all aforementioned variations, resulting in order-of-magnitude differences in lag times and permeabilities for distinct structure, hydration, and parameter combinations. This work demonstrates that universally predictive models cannot fully succeed without employing experimentally verified transport parameters and individualized SC structures. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolated human/animal stratum corneum as a partial model for 15 steps in percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of World War II, governments and laboratories have made a concerted effort to improve prophylactic and therapeutic interventions counteracting cutaneously directed chemical warfare agents (CWA), and by inference, common industrial and consumer dermatotoxicants. In vitro percutaneous penetration assays, first utilized by Tregear in the 1940s and presently in various modifications, have been fundamental to this effort. Percutaneous penetration, often considered a simple one-step diffusion process, consists of at least 15 steps. The first part of this review covers the initial steps related to absorption and excretion kinetics, vehicle characteristics, and tissue disposition. Importantly, the partitioning behavior and stratum corneum (SC) diffusion by a wide physicochemical array of compounds shows that many compounds have similar diffusion coefficients determining their percutaneous absorption in vivo. After accounting for anatomical SC variation, the penetration flux value of a substance depends mainly on its SC/vehicle partition coefficient. Additionally, the SC acts as a 'reservoir' for topically applied molecules and application of tape stripping has been found to quantify the chemical remaining in the SC which can predict total molecular penetration in vivo. Decontamination is of particular concern and even expediting standard washing procedures after dermal chemical exposure often fails to remove chemicals. This overview summarizes knowledge of percutaneous penetration extending insights into the complexities of penetration, decontamination and potential newer assays that may be of practical importance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sun-induced changes of stratum corneum hydration vary with age and gender in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhili; Song, Shunpeng; Luo, Wenhai; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sun-induced alteration of epidermal permeability barrier function varies with gender and age. In the present study, we assess the stratum corneum (SC) hydration in sun-exposed males and females. A total of 168 subjects (84 males and 84 females) aged 19-75 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration. In comparison with non-sun exposure, sun exposure does not cause a significant change in SC hydration in either young males or young females, whereas in aged females, a significant reduction of SC hydration is seen on the forehead and the dorsal hand of sun-exposed subjects. SC hydration on the canthus of both aged males and aged females is significantly lower than that of young subjects. Additionally, SC hydration on the dorsal hand of aged females is also significantly lower as compared with young females. Sun-induced reduction of SC hydration is more evident on the dorsal hand of aged females than that of males (Phydration property vary with age and gender. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  14. Experimental study of airflow characteristics of stratum ventilation in a multi-occupant room with comparison to mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2015-12-01

    The motivation of this study is stimulated by a lack of knowledge about the difference of airflow characteristics between a novel air distribution method [i.e., stratum ventilation (SV)] and conventional air distribution methods [i.e., mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV)]. Detailed air velocity and temperature measurements were conducted in the occupied zone of a classroom with dimensions of 8.8 m (L) × 6.1 m (W) × 2.4 m (H). Turbulence intensity and power spectrum of velocity fluctuation were calculated using the measured data. Thermal comfort and cooling efficiency were also compared. The results show that in the occupied zone, the airflow characteristics among MV, DV, and SV are different. The turbulent airflow fluctuation is enhanced in this classroom with multiple thermal manikins due to thermal buoyancy and airflow mixing effect. Thermal comfort evaluations indicate that in comparison with MV and DV, a higher supply air temperature should be adopted for SV to achieve general thermal comfort with low draft risk. Comparison of the mean air temperatures in the occupied zone reveals that SV is of highest cooling efficiency, followed by DV and then MV. This study reports the unique profiles of flow, temperature, turbulence intensity, and power spectrum of stratum ventilation, which can have a number of implications for both knowledge and understanding of the flow characteristics in a stratum-ventilated room. With respect to the former, it expounds the fundamental characteristics of this air distribution method; and with respect to the latter, it reveals the mechanism of thermal comfort and energy saving under stratum ventilation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  17. Effects of atmospheric relative humidity on Stratum Corneum structure at the molecular level: ex vivo Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Duplan, Hélène; Delalleau, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-07-21

    Skin hydration plays an important role in the optimal physical properties and physiological functions of the skin. Despite the advancements in the last decade, dry skin remains the most common characteristic of human skin disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of hydration on Stratum Corneum (SC) components. In this respect, our interest consists in correlating the variations of unbound and bound water content in the SC with structural and organizational changes in lipids and proteins using a non-invasive technique: Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired on human SC at different relative humidity (RH) levels (4-75%). The content of different types of water, bound and free, was measured using the second derivative and curve fitting of the Raman bands in the range of 3100-3700 cm(-1). Changes in lipidic order were evaluated using νC-C and νC-H. To analyze the effect of RH on the protein structure, we examined in the Amide I region, the Fermi doublet of tyrosine, and the νasymCH3 vibration. The contributions of totally bound water were found not to vary with humidity, while partially bound water varied with three different rates. Unbound water increased greatly when all sites for bound water were saturated. Lipid organization as well as protein deployment was found to be optimal at intermediate RH values (around 60%), which correspond to the maximum of SC water binding capacity. This analysis highlights the relationship between bound water, the SC barrier state and the protein structure and elucidates the optimal conditions. Moreover, our results showed that increased content of unbound water in the SC induces disorder in the structures of lipids and proteins.

  18. Stratum corneum profiles of inflammatory mediators in patch test reactions to common contact allergens and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, S A; Ljubojevic Hadzavdic, S; Jakasa, I; Franceschi, N; Jurakić Tončić, R; Marinović, B; Brans, R; Gibbs, S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Rustemeyer, T; Kezic, S

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated allergen-specific differences in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in patch tested skin. To determine levels of various inflammatory mediators in the stratum corneum (SC) after patch testing with common contact allergens and the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). In total, 27 individuals who had previously patch tested positive to nickel, chromium, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) or para-phenylenediamine were retested and then patch tested with SLS and petrolatum, with petrolatum serving as the patch test control. At 72 h, the test sites were clinically graded and the SC samples collected on adhesive tape. The levels of 18 of the 32 quantified mediators differed significantly from that of the control patches for at least one of the tested substances. SLS and MCI/MI induced the largest number of immunomediators. Interleukin (IL)-16 levels were significantly higher in patch test reactions in all allergens than they were in the controls, while no significant difference was detected for SLS. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between strength of patch test reaction and IL-1α levels. Cytokine profiles in the SC of patch tested skin did not show a distinct allergen-specific pattern. However, MCI/MI induced a larger and wider immune response than the other allergens, perhaps due to its potency as an irritant. The levels of IL-16 were significantly increased in patch test reactions to allergens but not to SLS; thus, they may help clinicians to differentiate between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. The effect of the chain length distribution of free fatty acids on the mixing properties of stratum corneum model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Masashi; Gooris, Gert S; Bito, Kotatsu; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-07-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a fundamental role in the barrier function of the skin. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. The main lipid classes in the lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the chain length of FFAs on the thermotropic phase behavior and mixing properties of SC lipids. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman imaging spectroscopy were used to study the mixing properties using either protonated or deuterated FFAs. We selected SC model lipid mixtures containing only a single CER, CHOL and either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs mimicking the FFA SC composition. The single CER consists of a sphingoid base with 18 carbon atoms and an acyl chain with a chain length of 24 carbon atoms. When using lignoceric acid (24 carbon atoms) or a mixture of FFAs, the CER and FFAs participated in mixed crystals, but hydration of the mixtures induced a slight phase separation between CER and FFA. The mixed crystalline structures did not phase separate during storage even up to a time period of 3months. When using palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms), a slight phase separation was observed between FFA and CER. This phase separation was clearly enhanced during hydration and storage. In conclusion, the thermotropic phase behavior and the mixing properties of the SC lipid mixtures were shown to strongly depend on the chain length and chain length distribution of FFAs, while hydration enhanced the phase separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sun-Induced Changes in Stratum Corneum Function Are Gender and Dose Dependent in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Fluhr, J.W.; Song, S.P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.J.; Elias, P.M.; Man, M.-Q.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that UVB radiation changes the epidermal permeability barrier and stratum corneum (SC) hydration. It is well known that sun exposure causes erythema, sunburn and melanoma. However, whether daily sun exposure alters SC integrity and epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown, especially in Chinese subjects. In the present study, we assess the SC integrity, SC hydration and epidermal permeability barrier function following various doses of sun exposure. A total of 258 subjects (124 males and 134 females) aged 18–50 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka MPA5) was used to measure SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearms. In males, basal TEWL was higher with higher doses of sun exposure than with lower doses and control, whereas in females, basal TEWL was higher with lower doses of sun exposure than with higher doses and control. In the group with higher doses of sun exposure, TEWL in females was significantly lower than that in males. The barrier recovery was faster in females than in males in both control and lower-dose groups. In both males and females, barrier recovery was delayed with higher doses of sun exposure. In males, sun exposure did not alter SC hydration, while in females SC hydration was lower with lower doses of sun exposure as compared with control and higher doses of sun exposure. These results demonstrated that sun-induced changes in SC function and SC hydration vary with gender and the extent of sun exposure. PMID:20571289

  1. Heat and mass transportation as factor of formation abnormally high stratum pressure (on the example of the east part of Dniper-Donets cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Suyarko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the example of the eastern part of the Dnieper-Donets cavity (DDC considered the role of the heat and mass transportation in the Earth's crust as a factor of the formation of abnormally high stratum pressure (AHPS. Investigated the regularity of the spatial distribution geochemical and positive anomalies of thermal field as indicators of AHPS zones.Established restriction sites abnormally-high reservoir pressure to areas of deep faults activated and drawn schematic map of the distribution of abnormally high reservoir-ticks 

  2. Impact of the long chain omega-acylceramides on the stratum corneum lipid nanostructure. Part 1: Thermotropic phase behaviour of CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessner, Doreen; Brezesinski, Gerald; Funari, Sergio S; Dobner, Bodo; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2010-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the mammalian skin, is the main skin barrier. Ceramides (CERs) as the major constituent of the SC lipid matrix are of particular interest. At the moment, 11 classes of CERs are identified, but the effect of each single ceramide species is still not known. Therefore in this article, the thermotropic behaviour of the long chain omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] was studied using X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the omega-acylceramides CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] do not show a pronounced polymorphism which is observed for shorter chain ceramides as a significant feature. The phase behaviour of both ceramides is strongly influenced by the extremely long acyl-chain residue. The latter has a much stronger influence compared with the structure of the polar head group, which is discussed as extremely important for the appearance of a rich polymorphism. Despite the strong influence of the long chain, the additional OH-group of the phyto-sphingosine type CER[EOP] influences the lamellar repeat distance and the chain packing. The less polar sphingosine type CER[EOS] is stronger influenced by the long acyl-chain residue. Hydration is necessary for the formation of an extended hydrogen-bonding network between the polar head groups leading to the appearance of a long-periodicity phase (LPP). In contrast, the more polar CER[EOP] forms the LPP with densely packed alkyl chains already in the dry state.

  3. Electroperturbation of human stratum corneum fine structure by high voltage pulses: a freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoul, A; Tanojo, H; Préat, V; Bouwstra, J A; Spies, F; Boddé, H E

    1998-08-01

    Application of high voltage pulses (HVP) to the skin has been shown to promote the transdermal drug delivery by a mechanism involving skin electroporation. The aim of this study was to detect potential changes in lipid phase and ultrastructure induced in human stratum corneum by various HVP protocols, using differential thermal analysis and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Due to the time involved between the moment the electric field is switched off and the analysis, only "secondary" phenomena rather than primary events could be observed. A decrease in enthalpies for the phase transitions observed at 70 degrees C and 85 degrees C was detected by differential thermal analysis after HVP treatment. No changes in transition temperature could be seen. The freeze-fracture electron microscopy study revealed a dramatic perturbation of the lamellar ordering of the intercellular lipid after application of HVP. Most of the planes displayed rough surfaces. The lipid lamellae exhibited rounded off steps or a vanished stepwise order. There was no evidence for perturbation of the corneocytes content. In conclusion, the freeze-fracture electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis studies suggest that HVP application induces a general perturbation of the stratum corneum lipid ultrastructure.

  4. Defects in Stratum Corneum Desquamation Are the Predominant Effect of Impaired ABCA12 Function in a Novel Mouse Model of Harlequin Ichthyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis is a severe skin disease caused by mutations in the human gene encoding ABCA12. Here, we characterize a novel mutation in intron 29 of the mouse Abca12 gene that leads to the loss of a 5' splice donor site and truncation of the Abca12 RNA transcript. Homozygous mutants of this smooth skin or smsk allele die perinatally with shiny translucent skin, typical of animal models of Harlequin Ichthyosis. Characterization of smsk mutant skin showed that the delivery of glucosylceramides and CORNEODESMOSIN was defective, while ultrastructural analysis revealed abnormal lamellar bodies and the absence of lipid lamellae in smsk epidermis. Unexpectedly, mutant stratum corneum remained intact when subjected to harsh chemical dissociation procedures. Moreover, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 were drastically decreased, with retention of desmoplakin in mutant SC. In cultured wild type keratinocytes, both KALLIKREIN 5 and -7 colocalized with ceramide metabolites following calcium-induced differentiation. Reducing the intracellular levels of glucosylceramide with a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor resulted in decreased secretion of KALLIKREIN proteases by wild type keratinocytes, but not by smsk mutant keratinocytes. Together, these findings suggest an essential role for ABCA12 in transferring not only lipids, which are required for the formation of multilamellar structures in the stratum corneum, but also proteolytic enzymes that are required for normal desquamation. Smsk mutant mice recapitulate many of the pathological features of HI and can be used to explore novel topical therapies against a potentially lethal and debilitating neonatal disease.

  5. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integration based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tian, Rui; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-11-30

    Data center interconnect with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented multi-stratum resilience between IP and elastic optical networks that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends to consider the resource integration by breaking the limit of network device, which can enhance the resource utilization. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources integration (MSRI) architecture based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect. A resource integrated mapping (RIM) scheme for MSRI is introduced in the proposed architecture. The MSRI can accommodate the data center services with resources integration when the single function or resource is relatively scarce to provision the services, and enhance globally integrated optimization of optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of OpenFlow-based enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) testbed. The performance of RIM scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRI architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  6. Immunohistochemical demonstration of keratins in the epidermal layers of the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica, with remarks on the evolution of the integumental scale armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meyer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using immunohistochemistry, the study demonstrates the distribution of keratins (pan-keratin with CK1-8, 10, 14-16, 19; keratins CK1, 5, 6, 9, 10; hair keratins AE13, AE14 in the epidermis of the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica. A varying reaction spectrum was observed for pan-keratin, with body region-dependent negative to very strong reaction intensities. The dorsolateral epidermis exhibited positive reactions only in its vital layers, whereas the abdominal epidermis showed strong positive reactions in the soft two outer strata. The single acidic and basic-to-neutral (cytokeratins produced clear variations compared to the pan-keratin tinging. E.g., CK1 appeared in all epidermal layers of both body regions, except for the ventral stratum corneum, whereas CK5, 6, 9, 10 were restricted to the soft ventral epidermis. Here, distinctly positive reactions were confined to the stratum granulosum, except for CK6 that appeared in the soft stratum corneum. A different staining pattern was obvious for the hair keratins, i.e., positive reactions of AE13 concentrated only in the granular layer of the dorsal epidermis. In the abdominal epidermis, remarkable tinging for AE14 was visible in the stratum basale, decreasing toward the corneal layer, but was also found in the outer root sheath cells of the hair follicles in the ventral body part. Our findings are discussed related to the evolution of the horny dorsal scales of the pangolin, which may have started from the tail root, projecting forward to the head

  7. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  8. Effect of detergents on the physico-chemical properties of skin stratum corneum: A two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Pashkovski, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Understanding the structural and dynamical features of skin is critical for advancing innovation in personal care and drug discovery. Synthetic detergent mixtures used in commercially available body wash products are thought to be less aggressive towards the skin barrier when compared...... to conventional detergents. The aim of this work is to comparatively characterize the effect of a mild synthetic cleanser mixture (SCM) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the hydration state of the intercellular lipid matrix and on proton activity of excised skin stratum corneum (SC). METHOD: Experiments were...... performed using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent images of fluorescence reporters sensitive to proton activity and hydration of SC were obtained in excised skin and examined in presence and absence of SCM and SDS detergents. RESULTS: Hydration of the intercellular lipid matrix...

  9. Application of a stratum-specific likelihood ratio analysis in a screen for depression among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1,2 Ayako Kaneda,2 Ippei Takahashi,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,3 Norio Yasui-Furukori2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan Background: Efficient screening for depression is important in community mental health. In this study, we applied a stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR analysis, which is independent of the prevalence of the target disease, to screen for depression among community-dwelling individuals.Method: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI were administered to 789 individuals (19–87 years of age who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2011. Major depressive disorder (MDD was assessed using the MINI.Results: For MDD, the SSLRs were 0.13 (95% CI 0.04–0.40, 3.68 (95% CI 1.37–9.89, and 24.77 (95% CI 14.97–40.98 for CES–D scores of 0–16, 17–20, and above 21, respectively.Conclusion: The validity of the CES-D is confirmed, and SSLR analysis is recommended for its practical value for the detection of individuals with the risk of MDD in the Japanese community. Keywords: screening, depression, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, stratum-specific likelihood ratio

  10. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  11. Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester and 5-aminolevulinic acid to normal nude mouse skin: Differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and the role of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; Iani, V.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Moan, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important limitation of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodetection and photodynamic therapy is that the amount of the fluorescing and photosensitizing product protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formed is limited. The reason for this Is probably the limited diffusion of ALA through the stratum

  12. Deposits from Creams Containing 20% (w/w) Urea and Suppression of Crystallization (Part 2): Novel Analytical Methods of Urea Accumulated in the Stratum Corneum by Tape stripping and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Norio; Morita, Yutaka; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of urea from a urea formulation to the stratum corneum varies with the formulation base and form, and impacts the formulation's therapeutic effect. Consequently, determining the amount of urea transferred is essential for developing efficient formulations. This study assessed a simple method for measuring the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum. Conventional methods rely on labeling urea used in the formulation with radiocarbon ((14)C) or other radioactive isotopes (RIs), retrieving the transferred urea from the stratum corneum by tape stripping, then quantitating the urea. The handling and use of RIs, however, is subject to legal regulation and can only be performed in sanctioned facilities, so methods employing RIs are neither simple nor convenient. We therefore developed a non-radiolabel method "tape stripping-colorimetry (T-C)" that combines tape stripping with colorimetry (urease-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)) for the quantitative measurement of urea. Urea in the stratum corneum is collected by tape stripping and measured using urease-GLDH, which is commonly used to measure urea nitrogen in blood tests. The results indicate that accurate urea measurement by the T-C method requires the application of 1400 mg (on hairless rats) of a 20% urea solution on a 50 cm(2) (5×10 cm) area. Further, we determined the amount of urea accumulated in the stratum corneum using formulations with different urea concentrations, and the time course of urea accumulation from formulations differing in the rate of urea crystallization. We demonstrate that the T-C method is simple and convenient, with no need for (14)C or other RIs.

  13. STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE REGENERATION STRATUM AND ASSOCIATED VEGETATION OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSION STAGES IN EAST OF PARANÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gomes Souto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the human activities caused the overall decline in biodiversity and, to understand the impacts on plant communities, it is necessary to analyze the regenerative potential of the forest. Studies on the floristic composition and the structure of the guild of seedlings in different succession stages and historical conditions can describe the patterns of species replacement and help understand the forest dynamics. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare floristic and structural layer of the regeneration and associated vegetation in two succession stages of two areas with different historical uses located in the city of Campina Grande do Sul, in Paraná state. Seedlings were collected in two fragments of the secondary forest at the initial and at the intermediate stages, with historical use of clear and selective cuts, respectively. One-hundred and six plots of 0,16 m² were delimited and all individual plants with up to 10 - 50 cm high were collected, identified, quantified and divided into two groups: seedlings of tree species and species associated for the phytosociological analysis. The species were also classified according to their habits, dispersion mode and succession stages and the floristic similarity between areas was established by Sorensen’s, Bray & Curtis’ and Morisita-Horn’s indices. The analysis suggests a possible influence of historical use and the successional stages of regeneration and the associated vegetation. The analysis of similarity indicates a gradient of regeneration, in which the intermediate stage of the clear cut area is similar to the early stage of the selective cutting area.

  14. The application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Craig, Duncan Q M; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2017-02-01

    Drug permeation through the intercellular lipids, which pack around and between corneocytes, may be enhanced by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the active in a formulation. However, this may also result in unwanted drug crystallisation on and in the skin. In this work, we explore the combination of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to study drug crystallisation in the skin. Ex vivo permeation studies of saturated solutions of diclofenac sodium (DF Na) in two vehicles, propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), were carried out in porcine ear skin. Tape stripping and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were conducted simultaneously to collect spectral data as a function of skin depth. Multivariate data analysis was applied to visualise and categorise the spectral data in the region of interest (1700-1500cm -1 ) containing the carboxylate (COO - ) asymmetric stretching vibrations of DF Na. Spectral data showed the redshifts of the COO - asymmetric stretching vibrations for DF Na in the solution compared with solid drug. Similar shifts were evident following application of saturated solutions of DF Na to porcine skin samples. Multivariate data analysis categorised the spectral data based on the spectral differences and drug crystallisation was found to be confined to the upper layers of the skin. This proof-of-concept study highlights the utility of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis as a simple and rapid approach in the investigation of drug deposition in the skin. The approach described here will be extended to the study of other actives for topical application to the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of skin surface hydration state and barrier function of stratum corneum of dorsa of hands and heels treated with PROTECT X2 skin protective cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents

  16. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  17. NATURAL REGENERATION STRATUM AS AN INDICATOR OF RESTORATION IN AREA OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPENSATION FOR MINING LIMESTONE, MUNICIPALITY OF BARROSO, MG, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in a forest under restoration process, which belongs to the company Holcim Brasil S/A, in the municipality of Barroso, state of Minas Gerais (21º00'to 22º00'S and 43º00' to 44º00'W, where 40 plots (2 x 2 m were set, spaced at 10 m, forming eight strata parallel to the watercourse present in the area. Floristic composition and natural regeneration stratum were characterized, and the formed strata allowed evaluating whether the riparian vegetation and watercourse influence on the local regeneration. It was found 162 individuals of 13 families, 18 genera and 22 species, and 10,125 individuals/ha were estimated. Successional classes from pioneer and early secondary and zoochory dispersion syndrome prevailed among species and individuals. The watercourse and riparian vegetation did not exercise significant influence (p> 0.05 on the number of species and regenerating individuals among the different strata of the forest. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener (H' and equability of Pielou (J' were 2.691 and 0.870, respectively. The species Psidium guajava and Myrtaceae families presented the highest VI (value of importance. Natural regeneration analysis showed the low floristic diversity in the area, suggesting that corrective management actions should be adopted.

  18. Changes in hydration of the stratum corneum are the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Shimotoyodome, Y; Nishijima, T; Sugata, K; Taguchi, H; Moriwaki, S

    2017-02-01

    Irritancy levels of surfactants on human skin have not been clarified completely. The relationships between skin damage and changes of skin properties caused by various surfactants were investigated using non-invasive measurements. Aqueous solutions of seven kinds of anionic, non-ionic, and amphoteric surfactants were exposed to the inside of forearm skin of 20 human subjects in two separate studies using the cup method. Hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin surface roughness, and contents of the SC were measured before and after one exposure and after five and nine consecutive exposures to various surfactants. The discontinuation ratio of subjects for testing in each surfactant was determined by skin irritation symptoms and was defined as the degree of skin damage. Significant changes were observed only in hydration, TEWL, and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) content in the SC following surfactant exposure. A significant correlation was observed between the discontinuation ratio of each surfactant and the changes of hydration, TEWL, and NMF. Especially, the change of SC hydration showed an excellent correlation with the discontinuation ratio both for single (r = 0.942, P hydration of the SC is equivalent to the skin damage caused by surfactants, and therefore is the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Infrared reflectometry of skin: Analysis of backscattered light from different skin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitez, Miguel A.; Hertzberg, Otto; Bauer, Alexander; Lieblein, Tobias; Glasmacher, Mathias; Tholl, Hans; Mäntele, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported infrared spectroscopy of human skin in vivo using quantum cascade laser excitation and photoacoustic or photothermal detection for non-invasive glucose measurement . Here, we analyze the IR light diffusely reflected from skin layers for spectral contributions of glucose. Excitation of human skin by an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser in the spectral region from 1000 to 1245 cm- 1, where glucose exhibits a fingerprint absorption, yields reflectance spectra with some contributions from glucose molecules. A simple three-layer model of skin was used to calculate the scattering intensities from the surface and from shallow and deeper layers using the Boltzmann radiation transfer equation. Backscattering of light at wavelengths around 10 μm from the living skin occurs mostly from the Stratum corneum top layers and the shallow layers of the living epidermis. The analysis of the polarization of the backscattered light confirms this calculation. Polarization is essentially unchanged; only a very small fraction (light is due to specular reflectance and to scattering from layers close to the surface. Diffusely reflected light from deeper layers undergoing one or more scattering processes would appear with significantly altered polarization. We thus conclude that a non-invasive glucose measurement based on backscattering of IR light from skin would have the drawback that only shallow layers containing some glucose at concentrations only weakly related to blood glucose are monitored.

  20. 水下挖孔灌注桩施工技术在复合地层中的应用%Application of Construction Techniques of Underwater Dug Piles to Construction of Underwater Dug Piles in Compound Stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王南海; 王吉兵

    2012-01-01

    为确保复合地层条件下水下挖孔灌注桩施工顺利,以猫铺2号大桥为背景,采取集水坑截水、无渗透排水等措施进行桩基施工.在河道上、下游远离桩基15 m处分别开挖1个上口半径8 m的集水坑,自然放坡,深度开挖至砂卵石层底;在河道上、下游远离施工区域挖掘1条宽2m、深1.5m的倒梯形水渠并铺设塑料薄膜,进、出水口设置在集水坑影响范围外;在集水坑位置搭设支架,安装倒链拴大流量潜水泵,将集水坑内的水泵至水渠内;采用间隔交错跳挖施工顺序施工水下挖孔灌注桩.在河滩砂卵石地层相同施工条件下,挖孔桩成孔和冲击成孔的工期、造价与环保效益的对比结果表明:对于单排4根桩,挖孔灌注桩的工期、造价分别为52 d、103 832元,均小于冲击成孔的工期和造价且较为环保.%To ensure the smooth construction of the underwater dug piles under the conditions of compound stratum, the Maopu Bridge No. 2 was cited as an example, the piles of the bridge were constructed by the measures of collecting water by the catch pits and dewatering with no seeping. At the places of 15 m far from the piles upstream and downstream in the river channel, a catch pit with its upper radius being 8 m and with natural slope was respectively excavated to the sand and pebble layer and at the place far from the construction area, an inverted trapezoidal water channel, 2 m wide and 1. 5 m deep, was also excavated and was laid with the plastic sheets. The water inlet and outlet were set beyond the influential range of the catch pit and at the catch pit, the scaffolding was set up and the high flow chain submersible pumps were installed. The water in the catch pits was pumped out to the water channel and the underwater dug piles were constructed by the construction sequences of alternative andinterval excavation. The comparison of the construction time schedules, cost, and environment benefits of the

  1. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  2. On the mechanism of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulanov, Yu.V.; Mukhin, L.M.; Nenarokov, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigations into the aerosol component of Venusian atmosphere using a photoelectric counter in the 63-47 km range of heights at the Vega-1 and Vega-2 interplanetary stations are presented. The experiment was carried out in June, 11, 15, 1985 on the night-time side of the planet. Both devices were switched in at the height of 63 km, and data on the quantity of detected particles >=0.5 μm in diameter were transmitted every 0.43 s (that corresponds to 8-20 m spatial resolution). Study of particle concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days (one period of rotation of Venusian atmosphere) permits to make the following conclusions on the structure of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer on the night side: 1) the cloud layer includes two distinct cloud strata: the upper- 56-60 km height range and the lower- 49.5-46.5 km height range separated by the zone of low particle concentrations ( -3 ); 2) the mentioned structure of the cloud layer is rather stable; concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days well agree with each other; 3) concentration profiles, particularly, in the lower cloud-stratum are subjected to heavy fluctuations, that indicates essential spatial field heterogeneity of particle concentrations

  3. Investigation of a CER[NP]- and [AP]-Based Stratum Corneum Modeling Membrane System: Using Specifically Deuterated CER Together with a Neutron Diffraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Hauß, Thomas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-01-30

    Neutron diffraction was used as a tool to investigate the lamellar as well as molecular nanostructure of ceramide-[NP]/ceramide-[AP]/cholesterol/lignoceric acid model systems with a nativelike 2:1 ratio and a 1:2 ratio to study the influence of the ceramide-[AP]. By using mixtures together with cholesterol and free fatty acids as well as a humidity and temperature chamber while measuring, natural conditions were simulated as closely as possible. Despite its simplicity, the system simulated the native stratum corneum lipid matrix fairly closely, showing a similar lamellar thickness with a repeat distance of 5.45 ± 0.1 nm and a similar arrangement with overlapping long C24 chains. Furthermore, despite the very minor chemical difference between ceramide-[NP] and ceramide-[AP], which is only a single OH group, it was possible to demonstrate substantial differences between the structural influence of the two ceramides. Ceramide-[AP] could be concluded to be arranged in such a way that its C24 chain in both ratios is somehow shorter than that of ceramide-[NP], not overlapping as much with the opposite lamellar leaflet. Furthermore, in the unnatural 1:2 ratio, the higher ceramide-[AP] content causes an increased tilt of the ceramide acyl chains. This leads to even less overlapping within the lamellar midplane, whereas the repeat distance stays the same as for the ceramide-[NP]-rich system. In this nativelike 2:1 ratio, the chains are arranged mostly straight, and the long C24 chains show a broad overlapping region in the lamellar midplane.

  4. Isolated human and animal stratum corneum as a partial model for the 15 steps of percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lamel, Sonia; Qiao, Peter; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-03-01

    Cutaneously directed chemical warfare agents can elicit significant morbidity and mortality. The optimization of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions counteracting these agents is crucial, and the development of decontamination protocols and methodology of post dermal exposure risk assessments would be additionally applicable to common industrial and consumer dermatotoxicants. Percutaneous (PC) penetration is often considered a simple one-step diffusion process but presently consists of at least 15 steps. The systemic exposure to an agent depends on multiple factors and the second part of this review covers absorption and excretion kinetics, wash and rub effects, skin substantivity and transfer, among others. Importantly, the partitioning behavior and diffusion through the stratum corneum (SC) of a wide physicochemical array of compounds shows that many compounds have approximately the same diffusion coefficient which determines their percutaneous absorption in vivo. After accounting for anatomical variation of the SC, the penetration flux value of a substance depends mainly on its SC/vehicle partition coefficient. Additionally, the SC acts as a 'reservoir' for topically applied molecules, and tape stripping methodology can quantify the remaining chemical in the SC which can predict the total molecular penetration in vivo. The determination of ideal decontamination protocols is of utmost importance to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, even expeditious standard washing procedures post dermal chemical exposure often fails to remove chemicals. The second part of this overview continues to review percutaneous penetration extending insights into the complexities of penetration, decontamination and potential newer assays that may be of practical importance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, M Q; Xin, S J; Song, S P; Cho, S Y; Zhang, X J; Tu, C X; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size. Additionally, little is known about the skin physical properties of Asian, especially Chinese, subjects. In the present study, we assess the difference in skin surface pH, sebum content and SC hydration at various ages and in both genders in a large Chinese population without skin diseases. 713 subjects (328 males and 385 females) aged 0.5-94 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided by age into 5 groups, i.e., 0-12, 13-35, 36-50, 51-70 and over 70 years old. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration, skin surface pH and sebum content on both the forehead and the forearms. In males, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 36-50 (93.47 +/- 10.01 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (9.16 +/- 1.95 microg/cm(2)), while in females, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 13-35 (61.91 +/- 6.12 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (7.54 +/- 2.55 microg/cm(2)). The forehead sebum content was higher in males aged 13-70 years than in age-matched females; the sebum content on the forehead in both males and females was higher than that on the forearm. Skin surface pH on the forehead of both males and females over the age of 70 years was higher than that in younger groups. SC hydration on the forehead in both males and females was lower above the age of 70, and the one in males aged 13-35 was higher than that in females (43.99 +/- 1.88 vs. 36.38 +/- 1.67 AU, p pH, sebum content and SC hydration vary with age, gender and body site. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Ordovician in the lower reach of the Kotuy River: the age of the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum and the rate of geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the superchron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Bigun, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, the existing data prevented the geophysicists from accurately dating the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, which outcrops in the middle reach of the Kotuy River, constraining the time of its formation to a wide interval from the end of the Late Cambrian to the beginning of the Silurian. The obtained paleomagnetic data unambiguously correlate the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum to the Nyaian regional stage and constrain its formation, at least a considerable part of it, by the Tremadocian. This result perfectly agrees with the data on the Bysy-Yuryakh conodonts studied in this work and yields a spectacular example of the successful application of paleomagnetic studies in solving important tasks of stratigraphy and, correspondingly, petroleum geology. Within the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, we revealed a large normal-polarity interval corresponding to the long (>1 Ma) period when the geomagnetic reversals were absent. This result, in combination with the data for the Tremadocian and Middle-Upper Cambrian sequences of the other regions, indicates that (1) the rate of occurrence of the geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the Ordovician Moyero superchron of reversed polarity was at most one reversal per Ma; (2) the superchron does not switch on instantaneously but is preceded by a certain gradual change in the operation conditions of the dynamo mechanism which, inter alia, manifests itself by the reduction of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals with the approach of the superchron. This finding supports the views according to which a process preparing the establishment of the superchrons takes place at the core-mantle boundary.

  8. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  9. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  10. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  11. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  12. 深厚砂砾石地层固结灌浆在实际工程中的应用%Consolidation Grouting of Deep Sand-gravel Stratum in Practical Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健飞

    2014-01-01

    水利工程施工过程中,经常会遇到水工建筑物直接修建在砂砾石地层上,为了提高砂砾石地层的整体性、密实性并降低其透水率,一般需要对坝基采取全面的固结灌浆,必要时也在坝基上、下游一定范围内进行固结灌浆。结合水利枢纽的工程实践,对泄洪冲沙闸底板进行全面的固结灌浆处理,施工过程中采用自上而下分段灌浆方法,对现有的钻探与灌浆工艺技术进行优化组合,最终经灌后质量检查,结果满足深厚砂砾石覆盖层固结灌浆的设计要求,取得了良好的效果。%In the construction of hydraulic engineering projects ,the hydraulic structures are often directly built on the sand gravel stratum .In order to improve the integrity of sandy gravel stratum and reduce its permeability ,it is common to apply comprehensive consolidation grouting on the dam foundation ,sometimes consolidation grouting is also carried out in a certain range of the upstream and downstream of the dam foundation when necessary .In the construction of an engineer-ing project ,the comprehensive consolidation grouting was applied on the floor of the outlet sluice with descending stage grouting method during the construction process .This method combined the advantages of the existing drilling and grout-ing techniques and reached a optimum combination .The result of the quality inspection indicates that the outcome not on-ly meets the specifications of consolidation grouting of deep sand gravel stratum ,but also has excellent performance .

  13. Soil Plasticity Model for Analysis of Collapse Load on Layers Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nujid Masyitah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural soil consist of soil deposits which is a soil layer overlying a thick stratum of another soil. The bearing capacity of layered soil studies have been conducted using different approach whether theoretical, experimental and combination of both. Numerical method in computer programme has become a powerful tool in solving complex geotechnical problems. Thus in numerical modelling, stress-strain soil behaviour is well predicted, design and interpreted using appropriate soil model. It is also important to identify parameters and soil model involve in prediction real soil problem. The sand layer overlaid clay layer soil is modelled with Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager criterion. The bearing capacity in loaddisplacement analysis from COMSOL Multiphysics is obtained and presented. In addition the stress distribution and evolution of plastic strain for each thickness ratio below centre of footing are investigated. The results indicate the linear relation on load-displacement which have similar trend for both soil models while stress and plastic strain increase as thickness ratio increase.

  14. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  15. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  16. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  17. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  18. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  19. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  20. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  1. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  2. Determination of the influence of C24 D/(2R)- and L/(2S)-isomers of the CER[AP] on the lamellar structure of stratum corneum model systems using neutron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Gooris, Gert; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2017-12-01

    This study was able to investigate the different influence of the d- and l-ceramide [AP] on the lamellar as well as molecular nanostructure of stratum corneum simulating lipid model mixtures. In this case, neutron diffraction together with specifically deuterated ceramide was used as an effective tool to investigate the lamellar and the molecular nanostructure of the mixtures. It could clearly be demonstrated, that both isomers show distinctly different characteristics, even though the variation between both is only a single differently arranged OH-group. The l-ceramide [AP] promotes a crystalline like phase behaviour even if mixed with ceramide [NP], cholesterol and free fatty acids. The d-ceramide [AP] only shows crystalline-like features if mixed only with cholesterol and free fatty acids but adopts a native-like behaviour if additionally mixed with ceramide [NP]. It furthermore demonstrates that the l-ceramide [AP] should not be used for any applications concerning ceramide substitution. It could however possibly serve its own purpose, if this crystalline like behaviour has some kind of positive influence on the SC or can be utilized for any practical applications. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the diastereomers of ceramide [AP] are an attractive target for further research because their influence on the lamellar as well as the nanostructure is exceptionally strong. Additionally, the results furthermore show a very strong influence on hydration of the model membrane. With these properties, the d-ceramide [AP] could be effectively used to simulate native like behaviour even in very simple mixtures and could also have a strong impact on the native stratum corneum as well as high relevance for dermal ceramide substitution. The unnatural l-ceramide [AP] on the other hand should be investigated further, to assess its applicability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-layer monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Caspar, D.L.D.

    1975-01-01

    This invention provides an artificial monochromator crystal for efficiently selecting a narrow band of neutron wavelengths from a neutron beam having a Maxwellian wavelength distribution, by providing on a substrate a plurality of germanium layers, and alternate periodic layers of a different metal having tailored thicknesses, shapes, and volumetric and neutron scattering densities. (U.S.)

  4. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  5. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  8. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  9. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  10. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  11. Light source distribution and scattering phase function influence light transport in diffuse multi-layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine

    2017-06-01

    Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.

  12. Topologically nontrivial quantum layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, G.; Exner, P.; Krejcirik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Given a complete noncompact surface Σ embedded in R 3 , we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in the layer Ω that is defined as a tubular neighborhood of constant width about Σ. Using an intrinsic approach to the geometry of Ω, we generalize the spectral results of the original paper by Duclos et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 223, 13 (2001)] to the situation when Σ does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain Ω

  13. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  14. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  15. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  16. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  17. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  18. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  19. 应用荧光图像对丹磺酰氯染色后角质层转化时间的评价%The Evaluation of Stratum Corneum Turnover Time After Dansyl Chloride Staining by Fluorescence Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 王学民; 程英; 武苏捷; 史红玉; 朱翔

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate stratum eorneum turnover time after the dansyl chloride staining by fluorescence images and its grey values. Methods Thirty subjects were stained by dansyl chloride at inner forearm. The dyeing was evaluated by visual scoring under Wood's lamp once a day in consistant 28 days. At the same time ultraviolet fluorescence images were taken by a fluorescence camera twice a week. Then we got the visual score of images base on the staining intensity of these pictures. The grey value of the fluorescence images were analyzed by Photoshop software. Results During 28 days, the dyeing at the study site disappeared gradually. And the grey value of fluorescence images decreased gradually as well. There were good correlation among the grey value of fluorescence image and the score of visual assessment under Wood's lamp and the scores of image assessment. Conclusion The fluorescence images and its grey value could be the objective evaluation method for the stratum eorneum turnover time by dansyl chloride staining. The sensitivity of evaluation could be improved and the fluorescence result could be got.%目的 丹磺酰氯皮肤染色后,应用荧光图像及其灰度值对角质层的转化时间进行评价.方法 30名受试者的前臂内侧应用丹磺酰氯染色,染色后每天在伍德氏灯下肉眼评价染色强度,连续28d.同时每周应用相机摄取荧光图像2次,根据这些图像的染色强度得到荧光图像的肉眼评分.应用Photoshop软件分析摄取图像得到荧光图像的灰度值.结果 经过28d的试验,皮肤染色逐渐脱落,而荧光图像的灰度值也随时间逐渐减小.荧光图像灰度值与伍德氏灯下肉眼评分、图像的肉眼评分具有较好的一致性.结论 应用荧光图像评分及其灰度值可以客观地评价丹磺酰氯皮肤染色的脱落情况,提高试验评分的敏感性,并可获取数字化的结果.

  20. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  1. Three-layer magnetoconvection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.-K.; Silvers, L.J.; Proctor, M.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that some stars have two or more convection zones in close proximity near to the stellar photosphere. These zones are separated by convectively stable regions that are relatively narrow. Due to the close proximity of these regions it is important to construct mathematical models to understand the transport and mixing of passive and dynamic quantities. One key quantity of interest is a magnetic field, a dynamic vector quantity, that can drastically alter the convectively driven flows, and have an important role in coupling the different layers. In this Letter we present the first investigation into the effect of an imposed magnetic field in such a geometry. We focus our attention on the effect of field strength and show that, while there are some similarities with results for magnetic field evolution in a single layer, new and interesting phenomena are also present in a three layer system

  2. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  3. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F

    2017-03-31

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  4. Correlation of the penetration enhancement with the influence of an alcohol/tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) cosolvent system on the molecular structure of the stratum corneum of nude mouse skin as examined by microscopic FTIR/DSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Bo; Ho, Hsiu-O.; Chen, Shin-Yi; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2009-10-01

    Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) is a water-soluble derivative of natural source of vitamin E, which possesses a dual nature of lipophilicity and hydrophilicity, similar to a surface-active agent. The penetration enhancement of estradiol by an ethanol and TPGS cosolvent system (EtOH/TPGS) has been confirmed. In this study, the correlation of the penetration enhancement with the influence of the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent system on biophysical changes of the stratum corneum (SC) as examined by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry differential scanning calorimetry (FTIR/DSC) was investigated. Thermotropic changes in the asymmetrical and symmetrical C-H stretching of hydrocarbon chains of lipids, and amide I and II bands that characterize the protein structure of the SC treated with different concentrations of the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent were examined in this investigation. Results demonstrated that a strong correlation of the influence on biophysical changes of the SC treated with the EtOH/TPGS cosolvent system with the penetration enhancement of estradiol by the corresponding cosolvent system was not evident. It was concluded that the incorporation of TPGS in the cosolvent system seemed only to have insignificantly modified the structural features of the SC. It was not obvious that the penetrant had encountered these modifications resulting in an improvement in the penetration of estradiol by TPGS.

  5. Stratum corneum lipid liposome-encapsulated panomycocin: preparation, characterization, and the determination of antimycotic efficacy against Candida spp. isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in an in vitro human vaginal epithelium tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgü, Fatih; Bayram, Günce; Tosun, Kübra; İzgü, Demet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a liposomal lyophilized powder formulation of panomycocin was developed for therapeutic purposes against vulvovaginal candidiasis which affects 80% of women worldwide. Panomycocin is a potent antimycotic protein secreted by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus NCYC 434. This study involved the preparation of panomycocin-loaded stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs), characterization of the SCLLs, and determination of antimycotic efficacy of the formulation against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical vaginal isolates in a human vaginal epithelium tissue model. The encapsulation and loading efficiencies of SCLLs were 73% and 76.8%, respectively. In transmission electron microscopy images, the SCLLs appeared in the submicron size range. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed that the SCLLs had uniform size distribution. Zeta potential measurements revealed stable and positively charged SCLLs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, no irreversible interactions between the encapsulated panomycocin and the SCLLs were detected. The SCLLs retained >98% of encapsulated panomycocin in aqueous solution up to 12 hours. The formulation was fungicidal at the same minimum fungicidal concentration values for non-formulated pure panomycocin when tested on an in vitro model of vaginal candidiasis. This is the first study in which SCLLs and a protein as an active ingredient have been utilized together in a formulation. The results obtained in this study led us to conduct further preclinical trials of this formulation for the development of an effective topical anti-candidal drug with improved safety.

  6. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  7. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  8. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible

  9. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  10. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  11. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  12. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  13. Neutron activation analysis of Permian-Triassic boundary layer samples at the Selong Site in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Mingqing, W.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty samples from a limestone stratum across the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary layer in China were analyzed for 30 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS, and also for mineral compositions with a powder X-ray diffractometer. The depth profile was found to indicate a sudden change of elemental and mineral compositions across the P-Tr boundary. Also the profile showed several peaks in elemental concentrations in the lower Permian layered samples as well as in the overlying Triassic strata, which are associated with the change of mineral compositions. Elemental profiles were found to be classified into 4 groups and to give some insights in the geochemical records. Ir is far less abundant (0.1 ppt) compared with that of the K-T boundaries (10 ppb), and the Ir/Co ratio is outside the K-T and Cl chondrite trends. This change of elementary profile is suggestive of the internal causes rather than the external ones such as an asteroid impact for the mass extinction at the P-Tr boundary. (author)

  14. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  15. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  16. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  17. Gravitational double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, José M M

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the properties of thin shells through which the scalar curvature R is discontinuous in gravity theories with Lagrangian F(R) = R − 2Λ + αR 2 on the bulk. These shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy–momentum tensor, an external energy flux vector, an external scalar pressure/tension and, most exotic of all, another energy–momentum contribution resembling classical dipole distributions on a shell: a double layer. I prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy–momentum tensor divergence-free. This is the first known occurrence of such a type of double layer in a gravity theory. I present explicit examples in constant-curvature five-dimensional bulks, with a brief study of their properties: new physical behaviors arise. (fast track communications)

  18. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  19. Barrier layer arrangement for conductive layers on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.S.; Agostinelli, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a circuit element comprised of a silicon substrate and a conductive layer located on the substrate. It is characterized in that the conductive layer consists essentially of a rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide and a barrier layer triad is interposed between the silicon substrate and the conductive layer comprised of a first triad layer located adjacent the silicon substrate consisting essentially of silica, a third triad layer remote from the silicon substrate consisting essentially of a least one Group 4 heavy metal oxide, and a second triad layer interposed between the first and third triad layers consisting essentially of a mixture of silica and at lease one Group 4 heavy metal oxide

  20. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  1. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  2. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  3. Friedel Transition in Layered Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierzawa, M.; Zamora, M.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bagnoud, X.

    1996-01-01

    Weakly coupled superconducting layers are described by the anisotropic 3D XY model. A low-temperature layer decoupling due to a proliferation of fluxons between planes, as proposed by Friedel, does not occur. The same is true for a periodic superlattice of high and low T c layers, although the interplane coherence can become extremely weak. On the other hand a true layer decoupling is found for a random stack. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  5. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  6. The Keck keyword layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  7. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Stratum corneum biomarkers for inflammatory skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on development of biomarkers, obtained by a non-invasive sampling method, for skin inflammatory diseases relevant for occupational settings; irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In various studies, in which different

  9. Hand eczema and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J. M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Index (HECSI), and skin barrier susceptibility was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after a 24-hour patch test with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results: No statistically significant difference was found between groups for the lipid analysis or for skin susceptibility to SLS. We...

  10. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torreão Dassen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be

  11. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  12. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  13. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  14. The Adobe Photoshop layers book

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Layers are the building blocks for working in Photoshop. With the correct use of the Layers Tool, you can edit individual components of your images nondestructively to ensure that your end result is a combination of the best parts of your work. Despite how important it is for successful Photoshop work, the Layers Tool is one of the most often misused and misunderstood features within this powerful software program. This book will show you absolutely everything you need to know to work with layers, including how to use masks, blending, modes and layer management. You'll learn professional tech

  15. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  16. Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new class of superconducting materials, Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS) are described. These materials are produced by sequentially depositing ultrathin layers of materials using high rate magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. Strong evidence is presented that layers as thin as 10 A can be prepared in this fashion. Resistivity data indicates that the mean free path is layer thickness limited. A strong disagreement is found between the experimentally measured transition temperatures T/sub c/ and the T/sub c/'s calculated using the Cooper limit approximation. This is interpreted as a change in the band structure or the phonon structure of the material due to layering or to surfaces

  17. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  18. Curvilinear crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexander; Chaoui, Kamel; Moet, Abdelsamie

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of an experiment designed to allow observation of the effect of damage orientation on the direction of crack growth in the case of crack layer propagation, using polystyrene as the model material. The direction of crack advance under a given loading condition is noted to be determined by a competition between the tendency of the crack to maintain its current direction and the tendency to follow the orientation of the crazes at its tip. The orientation of the crazes is, on the other hand, determined by the stress field due to the interaction of the crack, the crazes, and the hole. The changes in craze rotation relative to the crack define the active zone rotation.

  19. The layers of subtitling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of subtitling, although widely practiced over the past 20 years, has generally been confined to comparative studies focusing on the product of subtitle translation, with little or no consideration of the conditions of creation and reception. Focusing on the process of subtitle production, occasional studies have touched upon the cognitive processes accompanying it, but no study so far has related these processes, and the resulting products, to various degrees of translators’ competence. This is precisely what this essay does, focusing on the different layers of subtitle translation provided for two different films and in two different contexts. By analysing the first and second versions of subtitle translations, we shall reflect on the acquisition, and application, of different subtitling competences.

  20. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  1. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  2. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  3. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  4. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  5. Excited waves in shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  6. Neocortical layer 6, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Thomson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to summarise some of the major areas of neocortical research as it pertains to layer 6. After a brief summary of the development of this intriguing layer, the major pyramidal cell classes to be found in layer 6 are described and compared. The connections made and received by these different classes of neurones are then discussed and the possible functions of these connections, with particular reference to the shaping of responses in visual cortex and thalamus. Inhibition in layer 6 is discussed where appropriate, but not in great detail. Many types of interneurones are to be found in each cortical layer and layer 6 is no exception, but the functions of each type remain to be elucidated.

  7. Magnetism in layered Ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, Paul C.

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, the magnetism of the layered Ruthenates has been studied by means of different neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in the single-layer Ruthenates of the series Ca{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}RuO{sub 4} have been investigated as function of Sr-concentration (x=0.2 and 0.62), temperature and magnetic field. These inelastic neutron scattering studies demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetic paramagnon scattering with antiferromagnetic fluctuations at incommensurate wave vectors. The temperature dependence of the amplitudes and energies of both types of excitations indicate the proximity to magnetic instabilities; their competition seems to determine the complex behavior of these materials. In Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4}, which shows a metamagnetic transition, the ferromagnetic fluctuations are strongly suppressed at low temperature, but appear at higher temperature or application of a magnetic field. In the high-field phase of Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4} above the metamagnetic transition, a ferromagnetic magnon dominates the excitation spectrum. Polarized neutron scattering revealed the existence of a very broad signal around the zone centre, in addition to the well-known incommensurate excitations at Q=(0.3,0.3,0) in the unconventional superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. With this additional contribution, it is possible to set up a general model for the Q-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is well consistent with the results of other measurement methods that do not resolve the Q-dependence. Upon doping with Ti, the incommensurate fluctuations are enhanced, in particular near the critical concentration for the onset of magnetic order, but no divergence down to very low temperature is observed. In the bilayer Ti-doped Ca{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, the existence of magnetic order with a propagation vector of about ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),0) has been discovered and characterized in detail. Above and below T{sub N}, excitations at this

  8. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  9. Magnetism in layered Ruthenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the magnetism of the layered Ruthenates has been studied by means of different neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in the single-layer Ruthenates of the series Ca 2-x Sr x RuO 4 have been investigated as function of Sr-concentration (x=0.2 and 0.62), temperature and magnetic field. These inelastic neutron scattering studies demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetic paramagnon scattering with antiferromagnetic fluctuations at incommensurate wave vectors. The temperature dependence of the amplitudes and energies of both types of excitations indicate the proximity to magnetic instabilities; their competition seems to determine the complex behavior of these materials. In Ca 1.8 Sr 0.2 RuO 4 , which shows a metamagnetic transition, the ferromagnetic fluctuations are strongly suppressed at low temperature, but appear at higher temperature or application of a magnetic field. In the high-field phase of Ca 1.8 Sr 0.2 RuO 4 above the metamagnetic transition, a ferromagnetic magnon dominates the excitation spectrum. Polarized neutron scattering revealed the existence of a very broad signal around the zone centre, in addition to the well-known incommensurate excitations at Q=(0.3,0.3,0) in the unconventional superconductor Sr 2 RuO 4 . With this additional contribution, it is possible to set up a general model for the Q-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is well consistent with the results of other measurement methods that do not resolve the Q-dependence. Upon doping with Ti, the incommensurate fluctuations are enhanced, in particular near the critical concentration for the onset of magnetic order, but no divergence down to very low temperature is observed. In the bilayer Ti-doped Ca 3 Ru 2 O 7 , the existence of magnetic order with a propagation vector of about ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),0) has been discovered and characterized in detail. Above and below T N , excitations at this wave vector and another one, related to Sr 3 Ru 2 O 7 , have been

  10. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  11. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  12. A POROUS, LAYERED HELIOPAUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Opher, M., E-mail: swisdak@umd.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a porous, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.

  13. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  14. CHARGE-TRANSFER BETWEEN LAYERS IN MISFIT LAYER COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEGERS, GA

    1995-01-01

    Electron donation from MX double layers to TX(2) sandwiches, the interlayer bonding and the localization of conduction electrons in misfit layer compounds (MX)(p)(TX(2))(n) (M=Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, rare earth metals; T=Ti, V, Cr, Nb, Ta; X=S, Se; 1.08

  15. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  16. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of the paper, equations and methodology are discussed and in the second, we discuss results. 2. Methodology. In the atmospheric electricity, the earth's surface is one electrode and electrode layer or electrical boundary layer is a region near the surface of the earth in which profiles of atmospheric electrical.

  17. Gastroesophageal anastomosis: single-layer versus double-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, V.A.; Bilal, A.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimum technique for gastroesophageal anastomosis. Double layer technique has long been considered important for safe healing but there is evidence that single layer technique is also safe and can be performed in much shorter time. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of single layer and double layer techniques for gastroesophageal anastomosis. A prospective randomized study was conducted in cardiothoracic unit, Lady Reading Hospital from Jan 2006 to Jan 2008. Fifty patients with oesophageal carcinoma undergoing subtotal oesophagectomy were randomized to have the anastomosis by single layer continuous or double layer continuous technique (group A (n=24) and B (n=26) respectively). The demographic data, operative and anastomosis time, postoperative complications and hospital mortality were recorded on a proforma and analyzed on SPSS 10. There was no significant difference between group A and B in terms of age, gender, postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay. Anastomotic leak occurred in 4.2% patients in group A and 7.7% in group B (p=NS). Mean anastomosis time was 10.04 minutes in group A and 19.2 minutes in group B (p=0.0001). Mean operative time was 163.83 minutes and 170.96 minutes in group A and B respectively. Overall hospital mortality was 2%; no deaths occurred due to anastomotic leak. Single layer continuous technique is equally safe and can be performed in shorter time and at a lower cost than the double layer technique. (author)

  18. Natural melanin composites by layer-by-layer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Taesik; Shim, Bong Sub

    2015-04-01

    Melanin is an electrically conductive and biocompatible material, because their conjugated backbone structures provide conducting pathways from human skin, eyes, brain, and beyond. So there is a potential of using as materials for the neural interfaces and the implantable devices. Extracted from Sepia officinalis ink, our natural melanin was uniformly dispersed in mostly polar solvents such as water and alcohols. Then, the dispersed melanin was further fabricated to nano-thin layered composites by the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. Combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), the melanin nanoparticles behave as an LBL counterpart to from finely tuned nanostructured films. The LBL process can adjust the smart performances of the composites by varying the layering conditions and sandwich thickness. We further demonstrated the melanin loading degree of stacked layers, combination nanostructures, electrical properties, and biocompatibility of the resulting composites by UV-vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), multimeter, and in-vitro cell test of PC12, respectively.

  19. Magnetic properties of layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansky, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The organic superconductors (BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SNC) 2 and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , with T c = 10K and 1.2K, have layered and highly anisotropic crystal structures. This thesis describes AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on these materials which illustrate the consequences of the discrete layered structure for the magnetic properties of the superconducting state. A DC magnetic field applied parallel to the layers of either material causes the rapid suppression of the AC screening response, and this indicates that the pinning restoring force for vortex motion parallel to the layers is anomalously weak in this orientation. This is believed to be due to the small size of the interlayer coherence length relative to the layer spacing. A simple estimate based on the energy and length scales relevant to Josephson coupled layers gives the correct order of magnitude for the pinning force. Pinning for vortices oriented perpendicular to the layers is larger by a factor of 500 for BEDT and 25 for TMTSF. When the DC field is applied at an angle to the layers, the initial suppression of the susceptibility is identical to that for a field parallel to the layers; when the field component normal to the layers exceeds a threshold, a sharp recovery of screening occurs. These observations indicate that the field initially enters the sample only in the direction parallel to the layers. The recovery of screening signals field penetration in the perpendicular direction at higher field strength, and is due to the onset of pinning by in-plane vortex cores. This magnetic open-quotes lock-inclose quotes effect is a qualitatively new behavior and is a direct consequence of weak interlayer coupling. The London penetration depth associated with interlayer currents is found to be on the order of hundreds of microns, comparable to that of a Josephson junction, and two to three orders of magnitude larger than for conventional superconductors

  20. Fast biosensor with reagent layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A detection system and a sensor chip for detecting target mols., and thus corresponding analytes in a sample is described. Typically the detection system includes a sensor chip. The sensor chip (1) comprises on its detection surface a dissolvable reagent layer. When the dissolvable reagent layer is

  1. Sublayer of Prandtl Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Prandtl boundary layers in the vanishing viscosity limit {ν \\to 0} . In Grenier (Commun Pure Appl Math 53(9):1067-1091, 2000), one of the authors proved that there exists no asymptotic expansion involving one of Prandtl's boundary layer, with thickness of order {√{ν}} , which describes the inviscid limit of Navier-Stokes equations. The instability gives rise to a viscous boundary sublayer whose thickness is of order {ν^{3/4}} . In this paper, we point out how the stability of the classical Prandtl's layer is linked to the stability of this sublayer. In particular, we prove that the two layers cannot both be nonlinearly stable in L^∞. That is, either the Prandtl's layer or the boundary sublayer is nonlinearly unstable in the sup norm.

  2. Strength of the Three Layer Beam with Two Binding Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyński M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the strength analysis of a simply supported three layer beam. The sandwich beam consists of: two metal facings, the metal foam core and two binding layers between the faces and the core. In consequence, the beam is a five layer beam. The main goal of the study is to elaborate a mathematical model of this beam, analytical description and a solution of the three-point bending problem. The beam is subjected to a transverse load. The nonlinear hypothesis of the deformation of the cross section of the beam is formulated. Based on the principle of the stationary potential energy the system of four equations of equilibrium is derived. Then deflections and stresses are determined. The influence of the binding layers is considered. The results of the solutions of the bending problem analysis are shown in the tables and figures. The analytical model is verified numerically using the finite element analysis, as well as experimentally.

  3. Layer-by-layer-assembled healable antifouling films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Li, Bochao; Ren, Kefeng; Cheng, Zhongkai; Ji, Jian; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-10-21

    Healable antifouling films are fabricated by the exponential layer-by-layer assembly of PEGylated branched poly(ethylenimine) and hyaluronic acid followed by post-crosslinking. The antifouling function originates from the grafted PEG and the extremely soft nature of the films. The rapid and multiple healing of damaged antifouling functions caused by cuts and scratches can be readily achieved by immersing the films in normal saline solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The S-layer Associated Serine Protease Homolog PrtX Impacts Cell Surface-Mediated Microbe-Host Interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brant R. Johnson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S- layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs. Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs. In Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, SLP and SLAPs have been implicated in both mucosal immunomodulation and adhesion to the host intestinal epithelium. In this study, a S-layer associated serine protease homolog, PrtX (prtX, lba1578, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus NCFM. Compared to the parent strain, the PrtX-deficient strain (ΔprtX demonstrated increased autoaggregation, an altered cellular morphology, and pleiotropic increases in adhesion to mucin and fibronectin, in vitro. Furthermore, ΔprtX demonstrated increased in vitro immune stimulation of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 compared to wild-type, when exposed to mouse dendritic cells. Finally, in vivo colonization of germ-free mice with ΔprtX led to an increase in epithelial barrier integrity. The absence of PrtX within the exoproteome of a ΔprtX strain caused morphological changes, resulting in a pleiotropic increase of the organisms’ immunomodulatory properties and interactions with some intestinal epithelial cell components.

  5. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  6. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  7. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  8. Exploring the magnetospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapgood, M.A.; Bryant, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    We show how, for most crossings of the boundary layer, one can construct a 'transition parameter', based on electron density and temperature, which orders independent plasma measurements into well-defined patterns which are consistent from case to case. We conclude that there is a gradual change in the balance of processes which determine the structure of the layer and suggest that there is no advantage in dividing the layer into different regions. We further conclude that the mixing processes in layer act in an organised way to give the consistent patterns revealed by the transition parameter. More active processes must sometimes take to give the extreme values (e.g. in velocity) which are seen in some crossings

  9. The laminar boundary layer equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curle, N

    2017-01-01

    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  10. Thin pentacene layer under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srnanek, R.; Jakabovic, J.; Kovac, J.; Donoval, D.; Dobrocka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have got a lot of interest during the last years, due to their usability for organic thin film transistor. Pentacene, C 22 H 14 , is one of leading candidates for this purpose. While we obtain the published data about pressure-induced phase transition only on single crystal of pentacene we present pressure-induced phase transition in pentacene thin layers for the first time. Changes in the pentacene structure, caused by the pressure, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Applying the defined pressure to the pentacene layer it can be transformed from thin phase to bulk phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was found as useful method for detection of changes and phases identification in the pentacene layer induced by mechanical pressure. Such a pressure-induced transformation of pentacene thin layers was observed and identified for the first time. (authors)

  11. TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Hassan

    2002-01-01

    Shared opinions drive society: what we read, how we vote, and where we shop are all heavily influenced by the choices of others. However, the cost in time and money to systematically share opinions remains high, while the actual performance history of opinion generators is often not tracked. This article explores the development of a distributed open opinion layer, which is given the generic name of TOOL. Similar to the evolution of network protocols as an underlying layer for many comput...

  12. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  13. Tokamak plasma boundary layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, T.F.; Kirillov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    A model has been developed for the limiter layer and for the boundary region of the plasma column in a tokamak to facilitate analytic calculations of the thickness of the limiter layers, the profiles and boundary values of the temperature and the density under various conditions, and the difference between the electron and ion temperatures. This model can also be used to analyze the recycling of neutrals, the energy and particle losses to the wall and the limiter, and other characteristics

  14. Mixing in straight shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasso, P. S.; Mungal, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed in a liquid plane mixing layer to extract the probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction of a passive scalar across the layer. Three Reynolds number (Re) cases were studied, 10,000, 33,000 and 90,000, with Re based on velocity difference and visual thickness. The results show that a non-marching pdf (central hump invariant from edge to edge of the layer) exists for Re = 10,000 but that a marching type pdf characterizes the Re = 33,000 and Re = 90,000 cases. For all cases, a broad range of mixture fraction values is found at each location across the layer. Streamwise and spanwise ramps across the layer, and structure-to-structure variation were observed and are believed to be responsible for the above behavior of the composition field. Tripping the boundary layer on the high-speed side of the splitter plate for each of the above three cases resulted in increased three-dimensionality and a change in the composition field. Average and average mixed fluid compositions are reported for all cases.

  15. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  16. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  17. Transition from single to multiple double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that laboratory double layers become multiple double layers when the ratio of Debye length to system length is decreased. This result exhibits characteristics described by boundary layer theory

  18. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  20. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  1. Benthic boundary layer modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to study the factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the dispersion of a tracer within and directly above the layer. This report covers tracer clouds of horizontal scales of 10 to 100 km. The dispersion of a tracer has been studied in two ways. Firstly, a number of particles have been introduced into the flow. The trajectories of these particles provide information on dispersion rates. For flow conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal N.E. Atlantic the diffusivity of a tracer was found to be 5 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer within the boundary layer and 8 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer above the boundary layer. The results are in accord with estimates made from current meter measurements. The second method of studying dispersion was to calculate the evolution of individual tracer clouds. Clouds within and above the benthic boundary layer often show quite different behaviour from each other although the general structure of the clouds in the two regions were found to have no significant differences. (author)

  2. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  3. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... with a spectacular improvement up to 300 % in impact strength were obtained. In the second part of this study, layered silicate bio-nanomaterials were obtained starting from natural compounds and taking into consideration their biocompatibility properties. These new materials may be used for drug delivery systems...... and as biomaterials due to their high biocompatible properties, and because they have the advantage of being biodegradable. The intercalation process of natural compounds within silicate platelets was investigated. By uniform dispersing of binary nanohybrids in a collagen matrix, nanocomposites with intercalated...

  4. Ballistic studies on layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, P.K.; Ramanjeneyulu, K.; Siva Kumar, K.; Balakrishna Bhat, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the ballistic behavior and penetration mechanism of metal-metal and metal-fabric layered structures against 7.62 armour piercing projectiles at a velocity of 840 ± 15 m/s at 30 o angle of impact and compares the ballistic results with that of homogeneous metallic steel armour. This study also describes the effect of keeping a gap between the target layers. Experimental results showed that among the investigated materials, the best ballistic performance was attained with metal-fabric layered structures. The improvements in ballistic performance were analyzed in terms of mode of failure and fracture mechanisms of the samples by using optical and electron microscope, X-ray radiography and hardness measurement equipments.

  5. Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cody Jones

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The time scales of physical-hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum-dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the time scale of days.

  6. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  7. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cousteix, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  8. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  9. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  10. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  11. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  12. Prediction of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines are compared with the turbulent boundary layers on airfoils. Seven different aspects are examined. The limits of boundary layer theory are investigated. Boundary layer prediction methods are applied to analysis of the flow in turbomachines.

  13. Layering Literacies and Contemporary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Russo, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how adolescents layer literacies in and outside school. Findings from a longitudinal study of gaming in a public library, as well as data related to the use of Portal 2 in a New York City middle school classroom, reveal how the students created, showcased, analyzed, and experimented with online and offline artifacts and…

  14. A new layered iron fluorophosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PO4]·2H2O, I has been prepared by the hydrothermal route. This compound contains iron fluorophosphate layers and the H2PO 4 − anions are present in the interlayer space along with the protonated amine and water molecules.

  15. Vortex lattices in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear

  16. Tunneling current between graphene layers

    OpenAIRE

    Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Siahlo, Andrei I.; Vyrko, Sergey A.; Popov, Andrey M.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2013-01-01

    The physical model that allows to calculate the values of the tunneling current be-tween graphene layers is proposed. The tunneling current according to the pro-posed model is proportional to the area of tunneling transition. The calculated value of tunneling conductivity is in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  17. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  18. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  19. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P [Princeton, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Princeton, NJ

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  20. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  1. Tetradymite layer assisted heteroepitaxial growth and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Vladimir A.; Endicott, Lynn; Clarke, Roy; Uher, Ctirad

    2017-08-01

    A multilayer stack including a substrate, an active layer, and a tetradymite buffer layer positioned between the substrate and the active layer is disclosed. A method for fabricating a multilayer stack including a substrate, a tetradymite buffer layer and an active layer is also disclosed. Use of such stacks may be in photovoltaics, solar cells, light emitting diodes, and night vision arrays, among other applications.

  2. Automated setup for spray assisted layer-by-layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Paul; Otto, Tobias; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The design for a setup allowing the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thin films consisting of various colloidal materials is presented. The proposed system utilizes the spray-assisted LbL approach and is capable of autonomously producing films. It provides advantages to existing LbL procedures in terms of process speed and applicability. The setup offers several features that are advantageous for routine operation like an actuated sample holder, stainless steel spraying nozzles, or an optical liquid detection system. The applicability is demonstrated by the preparation of films containing semiconductor nanoparticles, namely, CdSe∕CdS quantum dots and a polyelectolyte. The films of this type are of potential interest for applications in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or solar cells.

  3. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria

    2017-03-06

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  4. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria; Inal, Sahika; Roy, Kirsty; Zhang, Yi; Pitsalidis, Charalampos; Hama, Adel; Pas, Jolien; Malliaras, George G.; Owens, Roisin M.

    2017-01-01

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  5. Local electromagnetic waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikov, V.M.; Vega-Monroy, R.

    1999-01-01

    A dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves localized on a defect layer of a layered superconductor is obtained in the frame of a model which neglects electron hopping between layers but assumes an arbitrary current-current response function within the layers. The defect layer differs from the rest of the layers by density and mass of charge carriers. It is shown that near the critical temperature in the London limit the local mode lies within the superconducting gap and has a wave vector threshold depending on the layered crystal and defect layer parameters. In the case of highly anisotropic layered superconductors, like Bi- or Tl-based high-T c cuprates, the local mode exists within a narrow range of positive variations of the mass and charge carriers. (author)

  6. Layered architecture for quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, N. Cody; Van Meter, Rodney; Fowler, Austin G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dot...

  7. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  8. Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel, Georg...oeaw.ac.at Nikolaus Kerö Oregano Systems, Mohsgasse 1, 1030 Wien, Austria E-mail: nikolaus.keroe@oregano.at Abstract Clock synchronization ...is a service widely used in distributed networks to coordinate data acquisition and actions. As the requirement to achieve tighter synchronization

  9. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D C; Bell, J M [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M J; Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1994-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Layer transfer by controlled spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, Stephen W; Fogel, Keith; Lauro, Paul; Shahrjerdi, Davood; Ott, John A; Sadana, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, we present what may be the simplest method yet devised for removing surface layers from brittle substrates. The process is called controlled spalling technology (CST) and works by depositing a tensile stressor layer on the surface of a substrate, introducing a crack near the edge of the substrate, and mechanically guiding the crack as a single fracture front across the surface. The entire process is performed at room-temperature using only common laboratory equipment. We present here, for the first time, the specific process conditions required for controlled spalling of Ge 〈0 0 1〉 substrates using Ni as the stressor layer. We also illustrate the versatility of CST by removing completed CMOS circuits from a Si wafer and demonstrate functionality of the flexible circuits. Raman spectroscopy of spalled circuits with the Ni stressor intact indicates a residual compressive Si strain of 0.0029, in good agreement with the calculated value of 0.0022. Therefore, CST also permits new opportunities for strain engineering of nanoscale devices. (fast track communication)

  11. Hall magnetohydrodynamics of neutral layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huba, J.D.; Rudakov, L.I.

    2003-01-01

    New analytical and numerical results of the dynamics of inhomogeneous, reversed field current layers in the Hall limit (i.e., characteristic length scales < or approx. the ion inertial length) are presented. Specifically, the two- and three-dimensional evolution of a current layer that supports a reversed field plasma configuration and has a density gradient along the current direction is studied. The two-dimensional study demonstrates that a density inhomogeneity along the current direction can dramatically redistribute the magnetic field and plasma via magnetic shock-like or rarefaction waves. The relative direction between the density gradient and current flow plays a critical role in the evolution of the current sheet. One important result is that the current sheet can become very thin rapidly when the density gradient is directed opposite to the current. The three-dimensional study uses the same plasma and field configuration as the two-dimensional study but is also initialized with a magnetic field perturbation localized along the current channel upstream of the plasma inhomogeneity. The perturbation induces a magnetic wave structure that propagates in the direction of the electron drift (i.e., opposite to the current). The propagating wave structure is a Hall phenomenon associated with magnetic field curvature. The interaction between the propagating wave structure and the evolving current layer can lead to rapid magnetic field line reconnection. The results are applied to laboratory and space plasma processes

  12. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.C.; Bell, J.M. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Cross-layer design in optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Demeester, Piet; Saradhi, Chava

    2013-01-01

    Optical networks have become an integral part of the communications infrastructure needed to support society’s demand for high-speed connectivity.  Cross-Layer Design in Optical Networks addresses topics in optical network design and analysis with a focus on physical-layer impairment awareness and network layer service requirements, essential for the implementation and management of robust scalable networks.  The cross-layer treatment includes bottom-up impacts of the physical and lambda layers, such as dispersion, noise, nonlinearity, crosstalk, dense wavelength packing, and wavelength line rates, as well as top-down approaches to handle physical-layer impairments and service requirements.

  14. Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer deposition in cylindrical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Thomas D; Lau, K H Aaron; Abou-Kandil, Ahmed I; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2010-07-27

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolytes within nanopores in terms of the pore size and the ionic strength was experimentally studied. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, which have aligned, cylindrical, nonintersecting pores, were used as a model nanoporous system. Furthermore, the AAO membranes were also employed as planar optical waveguides to enable in situ monitoring of the LbL process within the nanopores by optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS). Structurally well-defined N,N-disubstituted hydrazine phosphorus-containing dendrimers of the fourth generation, with peripherally charged groups and diameters of approximately 7 nm, were used as the model polyelectrolytes. The pore diameter of the AAO was varied between 30-116 nm and the ionic strength was varied over 3 orders of magnitude. The dependence of the deposited layer thickness on ionic strength within the nanopores is found to be significantly stronger than LbL deposition on a planar surface. Furthermore, deposition within the nanopores can become inhibited even if the pore diameter is much larger than the diameter of the G4-polyelectrolyte, or if the screening length is insignificant relative to the dendrimer diameter at high ionic strengths. Our results will aid in the template preparation of polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes, and our experimental approach may be useful for investigating theories regarding the partitioning of nano-objects within nanopores where electrostatic interactions are dominant. Furthermore, we show that the enhanced ionic strength dependence of polyelectrolyte transport within the nanopores can be used to selectively deposit a LbL multilayer atop a nanoporous substrate.

  15. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dan; Huang Shu; Zhang Chao; Wang Weizhi; Liu Tianxi

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly has been extensively used as a simple and effective method for the preparation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. In this work, we utilized this unique method to prepare polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide (LDH) ultrathin films. Well-crystallized Co-Al-CO 3 LDH and subsequent anion exchanged Co-Al-NO 3 LDH were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By vigorous shaking of the as-prepared Co-Al-NO 3 LDH, positively charged and exfoliated LDH nanosheets were obtained. Atomic force microscopy and XRD investigations indicated the delamination of LDH nanosheets. The precursor of polyimide, poly(amic acid) tertiary amine salt (PAS) was prepared by the polycondensation of dianhydride and diamine, and subsequent amine salt formation. By using the LBL method, heterogeneous ultrathin films of PAS and LDH were prepared. The formation of the ordered nanostructured assemblies was confirmed by the progressive enhancement of UV absorbance and the XRD results.

  16. Textured strontium titanate layers on platinum by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, T.; Anttila, J.; Haukka, S.; Tuominen, M.; Lukosius, M.; Wenger, Ch.; Saukkonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Formation of textured strontium titanate (STO) layers with large lateral grain size (0.2–1 μm) and low X-ray reflectivity roughness (∼ 1.36 nm) on Pt electrodes by industry proven atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is demonstrated. Sr(t-Bu 3 Cp) 2 , Ti(OMe) 4 and O 3 precursors at 250 °C were used to deposit Sr rich STO on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si ∅200 mm substrates. After crystallization post deposition annealing at 600 °C in air, most of the STO grains showed a preferential orientation of the {001} plane parallel to the substrate surface, although other orientations were also present. Cross sectional and plan view transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis revealed more than an order of magnitude larger lateral grain sizes for the STO compared to the underlying multicrystalline {111} oriented platinum electrode. The combination of platinum bottom electrodes with ALD STO(O 3 ) shows a promising path towards the formation of single oriented STO film. - Highlights: ► Amorphous strontium titanate (STO) on platinum formed a textured film after annealing. ► Single crystal domains in 60 nm STO film were 0.2–1 μm wide. ► Most STO grains were {001} oriented.

  17. Methane layering in bord and pillar workings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Creedy, DP

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews the state of knowledge on the occurrence, investigation, detection, monitoring, prevention and dispensation of methane layers in coal mines. Mining practice throughout the world in respect of methane layering is generally reliant...

  18. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  19. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  20. Black layers on historical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Zerbi, Carlotta M; Bugini, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The external surface of any building in urban polluted environment is unavoidably destined to be covered with layers that assume a grey to black colour and are generally called 'black crusts'. These, according to standard protocols and glossary, are deteriorated surface layers of stone material; they can have variable thickness, are hard and fragile and can detach spontaneously from the substrate, which, in general, is quite decayed. Plain visual examination may lead to consider 'black crusts' all similar, whilst only a careful diagnostic investigation can distinguish 'black crusts' and the consequences of their formation on stone substrates. In this paper, various black layers on marble are studied and compared and the morphological and compositional characteristics discussed according to the related mechanisms of formation. Differences between old (hundred years) and recent crusts (30 years) are investigated and pointed out. Samples of black crusts collected from the Milan Cathedral façade (Candoglia Marble) have been studied and compared with the careful and synergic employ of traditional techniques: optical (transmission and reflected VIS light) and electron microscopy, X-ray spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Visual examination of loose fragments does not allow to point out outstanding differences amongst the various samples; black layers have similar main mineral components, gypsum and airborne particles, with different spatial distribution. The microscopic studies allowed to point out the porosity differences, the gypsum crystallisation habit, different amount of embedded particles, level and progress of marble decay. The observations lead to define three main types of black crusts: black crust deriving from marble sulphation, compact deposit and encrustation due to exogenic materials deposition. Black crusts show evidence of sulphation in progress, without a clear continuity solution between crust and marble; the lack of

  1. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA) 3 (TPPO) 2 /polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10 -2 S cm -1 , and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  2. Review: the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-10-01

    An overview is given of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over both continental and ocean surfaces, mainly from observational and modelling perspectives. Much is known about ABL structure over homogeneous land surfaces, but relatively little so far as the following are concerned, (i) the cloud-topped ABL (over the sea predominantly); (ii) the strongly nonhomogeneous and nonstationary ABL; (iii) the ABL over complex terrain. These three categories present exciting challenges so far as improved understanding of ABL behaviour and improved representation of the ABL in numerical models of the atmosphere are concerned.

  3. Computer Program Re-layers Engineering Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dewey C., III

    1990-01-01

    RULCHK computer program aids in structuring layers of information pertaining to part or assembly designed with software described in article "Software for Drawing Design Details Concurrently" (MFS-28444). Checks and optionally updates structure of layers for part. Enables designer to construct model and annotate its documentation without burden of manually layering part to conform to standards at design time.

  4. Experience with single-layer rectal anastomosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khubchandani, M; Upson, J

    1981-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence following resection of the large intestine is a serious complication. Satisfactory results of single-layer anastomosis depend upon meticulous technique and a scrupulously clean colon. Out of 65 single-layer anastomoses involving the rectum, significant leakage occurred in 4 patients. The results are reported in order to draw attention to the safety and efficacy of one-layer anastomosis.

  5. Directed paths in a layered environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J; Janse van Rensburg, E J

    2008-01-01

    A polymer in a layered environment is modeled as a directed path in a layered square lattice composed of alternating A-layers of width w a and B-layers of width w b . In this paper we consider general cases of this model, where edges in the path interact with the layers, and vertices in the path interact with interfaces between adjacent layers. The phase diagram exhibits different regimes. In particular, we found that the path may be localized to one layer, be adsorbed on an interface between two layers or be delocalized across layers. We examine special aspects of the model in detail: the asymptotic regimes of the models are examined, and entropic forces on the interfaces are determined. We focus on several different cases, including models with layers of equal or similar width. More general models of layers with different but finite widths, or with one layer of infinite width, are also examined in detail. Several of these models exhibit phase behavior which relate to well-studied polymer phase behavior such as adsorption at an impenetrable wall, pinning at an interface between two immiscible solvents, steric stabilization of colloidal particles and sensitized flocculation of colloidal particles by polymers

  6. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Ion backscattering from layered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.; Robinson, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The present work investigated the reflection of hydrogen atoms, whose incident energy ranged from 0.01 to 1 keV, from layered targets. The calculations used the binary collisions computer program MARLOWE modified to treat layered target structures. Briefly, the projectile ion strikes the surface normally and is followed collision-by-collision until it leaves the surface again or until its energy falls below a present value (1 eV). Each collision consists of an elastic and an inelastic part. The elastic part is treated by classical scattering mechanics using the Moliere approximation to the Thomas-Fermi interatomic potential with the screening lengths proposed by Firsov. The inelastic part is described by the (nonlocal) electronic stopping theory of Lindhard et al. The calculations were made using MARLOWE to simulate amorphous solids, and a typical run consisted of following the motions of 1000-2000 incident particles. The targets studied were chosen to have large differences between the atomic numbers of the overlayer and the substrate in order to emphasize possible reflection differences from that of monoatomic targets

  8. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  9. Textured strontium titanate layers on platinum by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, T., E-mail: tom.blomberg@asm.com [ASM Microchemistry Ltd., Vaeinoe Auerin katu 12 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Anttila, J.; Haukka, S.; Tuominen, M. [ASM Microchemistry Ltd., Vaeinoe Auerin katu 12 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Lukosius, M.; Wenger, Ch. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Saukkonen, T. [Aalto University, Puumiehenkuja 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-31

    Formation of textured strontium titanate (STO) layers with large lateral grain size (0.2-1 {mu}m) and low X-ray reflectivity roughness ({approx} 1.36 nm) on Pt electrodes by industry proven atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is demonstrated. Sr(t-Bu{sub 3}Cp){sub 2}, Ti(OMe){sub 4} and O{sub 3} precursors at 250 Degree-Sign C were used to deposit Sr rich STO on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si Empty-Set 200 mm substrates. After crystallization post deposition annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C in air, most of the STO grains showed a preferential orientation of the {l_brace}001{r_brace} plane parallel to the substrate surface, although other orientations were also present. Cross sectional and plan view transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis revealed more than an order of magnitude larger lateral grain sizes for the STO compared to the underlying multicrystalline {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented platinum electrode. The combination of platinum bottom electrodes with ALD STO(O{sub 3}) shows a promising path towards the formation of single oriented STO film. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous strontium titanate (STO) on platinum formed a textured film after annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal domains in 60 nm STO film were 0.2-1 {mu}m wide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most STO grains were {l_brace}001{r_brace} oriented.

  10. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  11. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  12. Adhesion Between Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Different adhesion methods of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layers were studied with respect to adhesional force and the resulting rheology of the two-layered PDMS films were investigated. The role of adhesion between PDMS layers on the performances of two-layer structures was studied with peel...... strength test and by SEM pictures. The rheology of the double-layered compared to the monolayer films changed in some cases which indicates that the adhesion process needs to be carefully introduced in order not to alter the final properties....

  13. Experimental research on the stability of armour and secondary layer in a single layered Tetrapod breakwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical model tests were done on an armour of Tetrapods, placed in a single layer. The objective of the investigations was to study the stability of the secondary layer, and to see if the material of this secondary layer could be washed out through the single layer of Tetrapods. It was concluded

  14. Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blay, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Faloona, I.; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O.K.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed.

  15. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  16. Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    A new design for Dolos breakwater armour layers is presented: Dolos armour units are placed in a selected geometric pattern in a single layer. A series of model tests have been performed in order to determine the stability of such single-layer Dolos armour layers. The test results are presented...... and compared to the stability formula for the traditional double-layer, randomly placed Dolos armour layer design presented by Burcharth (1992). The results of a series of stability tests performed with Accropode® armour layers is presented and compared to the test results obtained with single-layer Dolos...... armour layers. Run-up and reflection are presented for both single-layer Dolos armour and Accropode armour....

  17. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  18. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  19. Asymmetric Temporal Integration of Layer 4 and Layer 2/3 Inputs in Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Giao B.; Dan, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Neocortical neurons in vivo receive concurrent synaptic inputs from multiple sources, including feedforward, horizontal, and feedback pathways. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex receives feedforward input from layer 4 and horizontal input from layer 2/3. Firing of the pyramidal neurons, which carries the output to higher cortical areas, depends critically on the interaction of these pathways. Here we examined synaptic integration of inputs from layer 4 and layer 2/3 in rat visual cortical slices...

  20. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  1. In vitro skin penetration of clobetasol from lipid nanoparticles: drug extraction and quantitation in different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Dantas Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clobetasol propionate (CP is a potent topical corticosteroid that causes several cutaneous and systemic side effects. In the present work, CP was encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs to increase drug retention in the outer skin layers and improve the safety of topical therapy. NLCs were prepared using a microemulsion technique with a mixture of lecithin, taurodeoxycholate, stearic acid, and oleic acid. In vitro penetration studies were performed in a modified Franz-type diffusion cell, and porcine ears were used as a model of human skin. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for clobetasol determination in different skin layers. NLCs presented uniform size distribution, high zeta potentialand entrapment efficiency values (> 98%. The analytical procedure was validated according to FDA guidelines. Clobetasol recoveries from skin samples were higher than 85%, with no interference of skin components and NLC ingredients. In experiments, after 6 h, a higher drug accumulation in the stratum corneum arising from NLCs compared to aqueous CP solution was observed. Thus, the NLCs demonstrated high potential for targeting CP to the skin and ensuring drug accumulation in the stratum corneum.Proprionato de clobetasol (CP é um potente corticóide tópico, que apresenta vários efeitos adversos cutâneos e sistêmicos. No presente trabalho, CP foi encapsulado em carreadores lipídicos nanoestruturados (NLCs visando aumentar a retenção do fármaco nas camadas superficiais da pele e a segurança da terapia tópica. NLCs foram preparados usando a técnica de diluição de microemulsão com mistura de lecitina, taurodesoxicolato, ácido esteárico e ácido oléico. Estudos de penetração in vitro foram realizados em células de difusão de Franz modificadas usando pele de orelha de porco como modelo de pele humana. Um método simples e sensível de cromatografia líquida foi desenvolvido e validado para

  2. Deposition of silver layer on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Kiełbasiński, K.; Szałapak, J.; Jakubowska, M.; MłoŻniak, A.; Zwierkowska, E.

    2015-09-01

    The hole process of producing continuous layer with silver nanoparticles is presented in this paper. First the ink preparation and then the spray process is shown and discussed. The silver layers were obtained on sodium glass substrate. Three different ink carriers were considered and the best one has been chosen. Spray coating process was carried out using special spray can. After obtaining sprayed layers the samples were sintered in several temperatures to investigate the lowest suitable sintering temperature. After that layers resistivity were measured. Then the silver layers were cracked to produce breakthrough fracture that was investigated by a scanning electron microscope. In this paper, the authors investigated the spray coating technique as an alternative to electroplating and other techniques, considering layer resistivity, thickness and production process.

  3. Nonlinear optical properties of ultrathin metal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The opt......This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the plasmonic mode in the gold strip waveguides significantly depends on the metal layer thickness and laser pulse duration. This dependence is explained in detail in terms of the free-electron temporal dynamics in gold. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold layer...

  4. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential......An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...

  5. Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindi, R.; Robert, A.

    1984-01-01

    Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers, application to the production of devices provided with said layers and to the construction of photoscintillators. The process comprises projecting onto a support, by cathodic sputtering, the material of at least one target, each target including silica and at least one chemical compound able to give luminescent centers, such as a cerium oxide, so as to form at least one luminescent glass layer of the said support. The layer or layers formed preferably undergo a heat treatment such as annealing in order to increase the luminous efficiency thereof. It is in this way possible to form a scintillating glass layer on the previously frosted entrance window of a photomultiplier in order to obtain an integrated photoscintillator

  6. Characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layer and magnetopause layer as observed by Imp 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Imp 6 observations of the low-latitude magnetospheric boundary layer indicate that the plasma within it is supplied primarily by direct entry of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause layer. We define the magnetopause layer as the current layer (separating the magnetosheath from the boundary layer) through which the magnetic field shifts in direction. High temporal resolution (3-s average) data reveal that in a majority of Imp 6 magnetopause crossing, no distinct changes in electron density or energry spectra are observed at the magne opause layer. In all Imp 6 crossings, some magnetosheathlike plasma is observed earthward of the magnetopause layer, implying the existence of a boundary layer. Boundary layer electron energy spectra are often virtually indistinguishable from the adjacent magnetosheath spectra. Low-latitude boundary layer bulk plasma flow as observed by Imp 6 almost always has an antisunward component and often has a significant cross-field component. The boundary layer thickness is highly variable and is generally much larger than the magnetopause layer thickness. Energetic electron pitch angle distributions indicate that the low-latitude boundary layers is normally on closed field lines. We conclude that diffusive as well as nondiffusive processes probably contribute to the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the boundary layer

  7. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  8. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  9. The national tree-list layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy A. Drury; Jason M. Herynk

    2011-01-01

    The National Tree-List Layer (NTLL) project used LANDFIRE map products to produce the first national tree-list map layer that represents tree populations at stand and regional levels. The NTLL was produced in a short time frame to address the needs of Fire and Aviation Management for a map layer that could be used as input for simulating fire-caused tree mortality...

  10. Radioluminescent nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liang; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and test the electrical properties of the nuclear battery. • The best thickness range for ZnS:Cu phosphor layer is 12–14 mg cm −2 for 147 Pm radioisotope. • The best thickness range for Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer is 17–21 mg cm −2147 Pm radioisotope. • The battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer can provide higher energy conversion efficiency. • The mechanism affecting the nuclear battery output performance is revealed. - Abstract: A radioluminescent nuclear battery based on the beta radioluminescence of phosphors is presented, and which consists of 147 Pm radioisotope, phosphor layers, and GaAs photovoltaic cell. ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers for various thickness were fabricated. To investigate the effect of phosphor layer parameters on the battery, the electrical properties were measured. Results indicate that the optimal thickness ranges for the ZnS:Cu and Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layers are 12 mg cm −2 to 14 mg cm −2 and 17 mg cm −2 to 21 mg cm −2 , respectively. ZnS:Cu phosphor layer exhibits higher fluorescence efficiency compared with the Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Its spectrum properly matches the spectral response of GaAs photovoltaic cell. As a result, the battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer indicates higher energy conversion efficiency than that with Y 2 O 2 S:Eu phosphor layer. Additionally, the mechanism of the phosphor layer parameters that influence the output performance of the battery is discussed through the Monte Carlo method and transmissivity test

  11. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ; Rand, Barry P [Somers, NY

    2011-09-06

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  12. On governing equations for crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Botsis, J.

    1988-01-01

    Results of analysis on damage distribution of a crack layer, in a model material, supported the self-similarity hypothesis of damage evolution which has been adopted by the crack layer theory. On the basis of measurements of discontinuity density and the double layer potential technique, a solution to the crack damage interaction problem has been developed. Evaluation of the stress intensity factor illustrated the methodology. Analysis of experimental results showed that Arrhenius type constitutive relationship described very well the expansion of the active zone of a crack layer.

  13. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  14. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  15. Multi-layer universal correction magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for constructing a universal correction magnet in which the return currents play an active role in determining the field. The return currents are not hidden by the iron shield. The coil is wound in many layers, instead of just one layer. Each layer has a particular symmetry, and generates a particular class of field multipoles such that the location of the return current for each independently excited current block is clear. Three layers may be sufficient in many cases. This approach is applied to the ISABELLE storage accelerator correction system

  16. Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...

  17. Cavity nonlinear optics with layered materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryett Taylor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented material compatibility and ease of integration, in addition to the unique and diverse optoelectronic properties of layered materials, have generated significant interest in their utilization in nanophotonic devices. While initial nanophotonic experiments with layered materials primarily focused on light sources, modulators, and detectors, recent efforts have included nonlinear optical devices. In this paper, we review the current state of cavity-enhanced nonlinear optics with layered materials. Along with conventional nonlinear optics related to harmonic generation, we report on emerging directions of nonlinear optics, where layered materials can potentially play a significant role.

  18. Impermeable layers in landfill design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanac Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are complex systems which could potentially contaminate the environment. It should be prevented by providing impermeability during the landfill design. In that aim related regulations should be followed and adequate materials that provide impermeability should be used. The first part of the paper presents review of the current regulations, interpretations, and recommendations from U.S., EU and Republic of Serbia. Knowing that the Serbian regulation should fully follow related European Directive, in analyses some inadequate formulations and terms were observed related to the Directive Annex I, 3.2. Request of the Regulation that deals with the bottom of the landfill leakage is formulated differently than in Directive as well. Mentioned problems enable some design solutions which are not among the best available techniques. In the second part the paper presents comparative analysis of possible alternatives in impermeable layer design, both for the bottom and landfill cover. Some materials like clay, CCL, GCL might not be able to satisfy prescribed requirements. The longest lifetime and the lowest coefficient of permeability, as well as excellent mechanical, chemical and thermal stability, show the mixture of sand, bentonite and polymers (PEBSM. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  19. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  20. Layer by layer: complex analysis with OCT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Christian

    2017-03-01

    three-dimensional tomographic image. For 3D measuring technique specially designed ASP- arrays with a very high image rate are available. If ASP- Arrays are coupled with the OCT method, layer thicknesses can be determined without contact, sealing seams can be inspected or geometrical shapes can be measured. From a stack of hundreds of single OCT images, interesting images can be selected and fed to the computer to analyse them.

  1. The double layers in the plasma sheet boundary layer during magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Yu, B.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the evolutions of double layers which appear after the magnetic reconnection through two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results show that the double layers are formed in the plasma sheet boundary layer after magnetic reconnection. At first, the double layers which have unipolar structures are formed. And then the double layers turn into bipolar structures, which will couple with another new weak bipolar structure. Thus a new double layer or tripolar structure comes into being. The double layers found in our work are about several ten Debye lengths, which accords with the observation results. It is suggested that the electron beam formed during the magnetic reconnection is responsible for the production of the double layers.

  2. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi; Gemici, Zekeriyya; Cohen, Robert E.; Rubner, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique

  3. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  4. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan

    2016-01-01

    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  5. Deposition and Characterization of TRISO Coating Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Min Woo; Lee, Hyeon Keun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Jin; Kim, Jun Kyu; Cho, Sung Hyuk [Younsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Both ZrC and SiC layers are crucial layers in TRISO coated fuel particles since they prevent diffusion of fission products and provide mechanical strength for the fuel particle. However, each layer has its own defects, so the purpose of this study is to complement such defects of these layers. In this study, we carried out thermodynamic simulations before actual experiments. With these simulation results, we deposited the ZrC layers on SiC/graphite substrates through CVD process. SiC films on graphite have different microstructures which are a hemispherical angular, domed top and faceted structure at different deposition temperature, respectively. According to the microstructures of SiC, preferred orientation, hardness and elastic modules of deposited ZrC layer were changed. TRISO particles. The fracture the SiC coating layer occurred by the tensile stress due to the traditional pressure vessel failure criteria. It is important to find fracture stress of SiC coating layer by the internal pressurization test method. The finite-element analysis was carried out to obtain the empirical equation of strength evaluation. By using this empirical equation, the mechanical properties of several types of SiC coating film with different microstructure and thicknesses will discussed.

  6. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  7. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  8. Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Klimov, Andrei B.

    2016-01-01

    photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincare space......, providing a full account of the measured squeezing....

  9. Dynamical Aspects of Electrostatic Double Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadu, M.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic double layers have been proposed as an acceleration mechanism in solar flares and other astrophysical objects. They have been extensively studied in the laboratory and by means of computer simulations. The theory of steady-state double layers implies several existence criteria...

  10. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Xuan

    Full Text Available Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers. Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  11. A parcel formulation for Hamiltonian layer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Oliver, M.

    Starting from the three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations, we derive Hamiltonian N-layer models with isentropic tropospheric and isentropic or isothermal stratospheric layers. Our construction employs a new parcel Hamiltonian formulation which describes the fluid as a continuum of

  12. Attenuation in Melting Layer of Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the melting layer is employed on radar measurements to simulate the attenuation of radio waves at 12, 20 and 30GHz. The attenuation in the melting layer is simulated to be slightly larger than that of rain with the same path length and precipitation intensity. The result appears to depend

  13. Atomic layer deposition for graphene device integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene is a two dimensional material with extraordinary properties, which make it an interesting material for many optical and electronic devices. The integration of graphene in these devices often requires the deposition of thin dielectric layers on top of graphene. Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  14. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  15. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  16. Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Ball, Elizabeth Carter

    2009-01-01

    The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, division, and budding/grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed piece of the parent plant; layering involves rooting a part of the parent and then severing it; and budding and grafting are joining two plant parts from different varieties.

  17. Deposition and Characterization of TRISO Coating Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Min Woo; Lee, Hyeon Keun; Choi, Doo Jin; Kim, Jun Kyu; Cho, Sung Hyuk

    2008-03-01

    Both ZrC and SiC layers are crucial layers in TRISO coated fuel particles since they prevent diffusion of fission products and provide mechanical strength for the fuel particle. However, each layer has its own defects, so the purpose of this study is to complement such defects of these layers. In this study, we carried out thermodynamic simulations before actual experiments. With these simulation results, we deposited the ZrC layers on SiC/graphite substrates through CVD process. SiC films on graphite have different microstructures which are a hemispherical angular, domed top and faceted structure at different deposition temperature, respectively. According to the microstructures of SiC, preferred orientation, hardness and elastic modules of deposited ZrC layer were changed. TRISO particles. The fracture the SiC coating layer occurred by the tensile stress due to the traditional pressure vessel failure criteria. It is important to find fracture stress of SiC coating layer by the internal pressurization test method. The finite-element analysis was carried out to obtain the empirical equation of strength evaluation. By using this empirical equation, the mechanical properties of several types of SiC coating film with different microstructure and thicknesses will discussed

  18. Reassembly of S-layer proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in a broad range of bacteria and archaea. They are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. They are highly porous protein mesh works with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. S-layers are usually 5 to 20 nm thick (in archaea, up to 70 nm). S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. One of their key features, and the focus of this review, is the intrinsic capability of isolated native and recombinant S-layer proteins to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in suspension, at solid supports, the air-water interface, planar lipid films, liposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles. The reassembly is entropy-driven and a fascinating example of matrix assembly following a multistage, non-classical pathway in which the process of S-layer protein folding is directly linked with assembly into extended clusters. Moreover, basic research on the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly, and function of S-layer proteins laid the foundation for their application in novel approaches in biotechnology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology. (topical review)

  19. Suction of MHD boundary layer flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    The boundary layer growth with tensor electrical conductivity and the transpiration number has been examined using local nonsimilarity solutions method. It is found that suction will cause the increase in wall shearing stress and decrease in thicknesses of the boundary layer. (Auth.)

  20. Evaluation of white matter hyperintensities and retinal fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner-plexiform layer, and choroidal layer in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Ali Zeynel Abidin; Sengul, Yıldızhan; Bilak, Şemsettin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our study is to assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner-plexiform layer (IPL), and choroidal layer in migraine patients with white matter lesion (WML) or without WML, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). To our study, 77 migraine patients who are diagnosed with migraine in accordance to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-3 beta and 43 healthy control are included. In accordance to cranial MRI, migraine patients are divided into two groups as those who have white matter lesions (39 patients), and those who do not have a lesion (38 patients). OCT was performed for participants. The average age of participants was comparable. The RNFL average thickness parameter in the migraine group was significantly lower than in the control group (p layer measuring scales. The proofs showing that affected retinal nerve fiber layer are increased in migraine patients. However, it is not known whether this may affect other layers of retina, or whether there is a correlation between affected retinal structures and white matter lesions. In our study, we found thinner RNFL in migraine patients when we compared with controls but IPL, GCL, and choroid layer values were similar between each patient groups and controls. Also, all parameters were similar between patients with WML and without WML. Studies in this regard are required.

  1. Foundamental characteristics of layered pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Yoshikazu; Fugino, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    Pressure vessels become larger and the working pressure become higher with the remarkable development of petroleum, chemical, thermal power generation and atomic energy industries. Multi-layered pressure vessels can be manufactured cheaply without large installations, and large wall thickness can be made, therefore they are suitable for large pressure vessels. The stress and deformation behaviors of such vessels are very complex because of the effect of frictional force working between layers. In this study, the phenomena arising in multiple layers and the difference as compared with single wall were studied fundamentally as one step for analyzing multi-layered pressure vessels as a whole. Finite element technique was employed as the analyzing method, and the behavior of multiple layers was analyzed, regarding it as multiple contact problem. The behavior of multiple layers seems to appear conspicuously in case of bending load, therefore the basic characteristics regarding bending were examined. The evaluation of interfacial stiffness was carried out by experiment. The computer program for analyzing multiple contact problem was developed. In order to examine the validity of the program, comparison with the analytical solution heretofore and the result of calculation by finite element technique was carried out. Moreover, the experimental proof with multi-layered models was made. The frictional force between layers hardly contributes to the stiffness. (Kako, I.)

  2. Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Niraj N; Proudlock, Frank A; Siram, Vasantha; Suraweera, Chathurie; Hutchinson, Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2018-06-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with several brain deficits, as well as visual processing deficits, but clinically useful biomarkers are elusive. We hypothesized that retinal layer changes, noninvasively visualized using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), may represent a possible "window" to these abnormalities. A Leica EnvisuTM SD-OCT device was used to obtain high-resolution central foveal B-scans in both eyes of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched controls. Manual retinal layer segmentation was performed to acquire individual and combined layer thickness measurements in 3 macular regions. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 3 spatial frequencies in a subgroup of each cohort. Differences were compared using adjusted linear models and significantly different layer measures in patients underwent Spearman Rank correlations with contrast sensitivity, quantified symptoms severity, disease duration, and antipsychotic medication dose. Total retinal and photoreceptor complex thickness was reduced in all regions in patients (P layer (P layer (P layer thickness (R = -.47, P = .005). Our novel findings demonstrate considerable retinal layer abnormalities in schizophrenia that are related to clinical features and visual function. With time, SD-OCT could provide easily-measurable biomarkers to facilitate clinical assessment and further our understanding of the disease.

  3. Turbulent current layer equilibrium and current layer of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, E.E.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of distribution of plasma and magnetic field concentration in the unidimensional current layer under the condition of equality of the current inflowing into the layer and the counter diffusion current by various dependences of the regular velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the magnetic field. Corresponding two-dimensional solutions are obtained in the tail approximation. Comparison of the model turbulent current layer with characteristics of the plasma layer of the Earth magnetosphere tail is carried out. 16 refs., 3 figs

  4. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance , horizontal wind speed variance , vertical wind speed variance , viscous dissipation rate , and turbu- lent kinetic energy have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances and . On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity of the convective mixed layer similarity. This theory

  5. Thermally-insulating layer for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The thermally-insulating layer has been designed both for insulating surfaces within the core of a nuclear reactor and transmitting loads such as the core-weight. Said layer comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles with smaller clearance between the tiles than between the bricks, the latter having a reduced cross-section against the tiles so as to be surrounded by relatively large interconnected ducts forming a continuous chamber behind the tile-layer in order to induce a substantial decreases in the transverse flow of the reactor-core coolant. The core preferably comprises hexagonal columns supported by rhomb-shaped plates, with channels distributed so as to mix the coolant of twelve columns. The plates are separated from support-tiles by means of pillars [fr

  6. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  7. Some properties of the layer phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1984-07-01

    There exists a layer phase at least in the non-isotropic U(1) lattice gauge field model for lattice dimension D >= 5 and layer dimension d = D - 1. The authors analyze some of the main properties of the layer phase. These are as follows: the behaviour of massless gauge particles (photons); the behaviour of doubly-sign charged particles and the behaviour of Wilson loops. A non-isotropic O(N) model is suggested and analyzed too. It is proved that in this case there exists no layer phase. Finally a model involving a non-isotropic antisymmetric tensor gauge field of arbitrary order is studied and a criterion for the dimensionality of the layer phase is given. (Auth.)

  8. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  9. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  10. Selenium implantation in epitaxial gallium arsenide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.; Yuge, Y.; Kohzu, H.

    1981-01-01

    Selenium implantation at room temperature in S-doped epitaxial GaAs layers as a means of the formation of n + layers has been investigated. Doping profiles for Se-implanted layers have been examined by a C-V technique and/or a differential Hall effect method. It has been shown that n + layers with a maximum carrier concentration of approx. equal to1.5 x 10 18 cm -3 can be formed by implantation followed by a 15 min annealing at 950 0 C. Contact resistance of ohmic electrodes is reduced by use of the Se-implanted n + layers, resulting in the improvement on GaAs FET performance. Measured minimum noise figure of the Se-implanted GaAs FETs is 0.74 dB at 4 GHz. (orig.)

  11. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  12. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  13. Method of forming a nanocluster comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer (330) on a further layer (114, 320) of a semiconductor device (300) is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer (114, 320), the dielectric precursor compound comprising a

  14. RMN du deutérium sur des suspensions. Application à une boue de forage. Etude en température et en fréquence d'une argile à grands feuillets Deuterium Nmr on Suspensions Applied to Drilling Mud. a Temperature and Frequency Study of Large Stratum Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letellier M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La mesure du temps de relaxation transversal T1 en fonction de la concentration permet de déterminer la surface hydrophile mouillée d'une suspension, à condition de connaître le T1 de surface. De même, la mesure de T1 en fonction du temps permet de déterminer les variations de surface lors d'une réaction lente telle que la prise d'une boue de forage, simulée par un mélange bentonite/ciment/eau lourde. L'avantage d'utiliser la résonance du deutérium est que sa relaxation dépend peu de la présence d'impuretés paramagnétiques ou de l'existence de mouvements moléculaires dans des espaces confinés, comme il est montré sur une argile à grands feuillets, la montmorillonite. Celle-ci est étudiée en fonction de la température, ce qui permet de mesurer, sans modifier la suspension, le T1 de surface. Measuring transverse T1 relaxation times as a function of concentration provides a determination of the hydrophilic surface, wetted with a suspension, as long as the surface relaxation T1 is known. Likewise, measuring T1 over time provides a determination of the surface variations during a slow reaction such as when drilling mud sets, which is simulated by a mixture of bentonite, cement and heavy water. Deuterium resonance measurements have the advantage that the relaxation depends little on the presence of paramagnetic impurities or molecular motion in a confined space, which has been demonstrated using a large stratum shale, montmorillonite. This shale has been studied as a function of temperature, which makes it possible to measure the surface relaxation T1 without modifying the suspension.

  15. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of

  17. Intermetallics Synthesis in the Fe–Al System via Layer by Layer 3D Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floran Missemer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallide phase formation was studied in a powdered Fe–Al system under layer by layer laser cladding with the aim of fabricating the gradient of properties by means of changing the Fe–Al concentration ratio in the powder mixture from layer to layer. The relationships between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in the consecutively cladded layers were determined. In order to study the structure formation an optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, measurement of microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy analysis were used after the laser synthesis of intermetallic compounds.

  18. Electronic energy loss spectra from mono-layer to few layers of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Brij; Thakur, Rajesh; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of few-layers phosphorene has been investigated. Electronic band structure show a moderate band gap of 0.9 eV in monolayer phosphorene which decreases with increasing number of layers. Optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene in infrared and visible region shows tunability with number of layers. Electron energy loss function has been plotted and huge red shift in plasmonic behaviours is found. These tunable electronic and optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene can be useful for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  19. Electronic energy loss spectra from mono-layer to few layers of phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Brij, E-mail: brijmohanhpu@yahoo.com; Thakur, Rajesh; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla (HP) India 171005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of few-layers phosphorene has been investigated. Electronic band structure show a moderate band gap of 0.9 eV in monolayer phosphorene which decreases with increasing number of layers. Optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene in infrared and visible region shows tunability with number of layers. Electron energy loss function has been plotted and huge red shift in plasmonic behaviours is found. These tunable electronic and optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene can be useful for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  20. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers

  1. Microscopic thermal characterization of HTR particle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochais, D.; Le Meur, G.; Basini, V.; Domingues, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents thermal diffusivity measurements of HTR fuel particle pyrolytic carbon layers at room temperature. The photoreflectance microscopy (PM) technique is used to characterize particle layers at a microscopic scale. Nevertheless, buffer layer needs a particular analysis due to its porous structure. Indeed, measurements by PM on this material only permit to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the solid skeleton, whose homogeneous zones surface does not exceed 100 μm 2 . These characteristics make, on the one hand, delicate the use of PM, and on the other hand, require the use of a numerical homogenization technique. This model takes into account the properties of gas confined in the pores, to simulate the conduction heat flux traveling through the layer in relation with its microstructure and to estimate an effective thermal conductivity of the entire layer. This approach is validated by infrared microscopy measurement of the effective thermal diffusivity of the especially elaborated thicker buffer layer. Last, the first tests to characterize the silicon carbide layer are presented

  2. Optimization of multi-layered metallic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Dubinsky, A.; Elperin, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated the problem of optimization of a multi-layered metallic shield. → The maximum ballistic limit velocity is a criterion of optimization. → The sequence of materials and the thicknesses of layers in the shield are varied. → The general problem is reduced to the problem of Geometric Programming. → Analytical solutions are obtained for two- and three-layered shields. - Abstract: We investigate the problem of optimization of multi-layered metallic shield whereby the goal is to determine the sequence of materials and the thicknesses of the layers that provide the maximum ballistic limit velocity of the shield. Optimization is performed under the following constraints: fixed areal density of the shield, the upper bound on the total thickness of the shield and the bounds on the thicknesses of the plates manufactured from every material. The problem is reduced to the problem of Geometric Programming which can be solved numerically using known methods. For the most interesting in practice cases of two-layered and three-layered shields the solution is obtained in the explicit analytical form.

  3. Diamagnetic boundary layers: a kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic theory for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma such as those observed in the solar wind is presented. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary, one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers, in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases in which the magnetic field intensity and/or direction changed across the layer were considered. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii and the field changed smoothly , although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. The results are consistent with the observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU. (Auth.)

  4. Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2014-10-20

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the electronic properties of few-layer phosphorene focusing on layer-dependent behavior of band gap, work function band alignment and carrier effective mass. It is found that few-layer phosphorene shows a robust direct band gap character, and its band gap decreases with the number of layers following a power law. The work function decreases rapidly from monolayer (5.16 eV) to trilayer (4.56 eV), and then slowly upon further increasing the layer number. Compared to monolayer phosphorene, there is a drastic decrease of hole effective mass along the ridge (zigzag) direction for bilayer phosphorene, indicating a strong interlayer coupling and screening effect. Our study suggests that 1). Few-layer phosphorene with a layer-dependent band gap and a robust direct band gap character is promising for efficient solar energy harvest. 2). Few-layer phosphorene outperforms monolayer counterpart in terms of a lighter carrier effective mass, a higher carrier density and a weaker scattering due to enhanced screening. 3). The layer-dependent band edges and work functions of few-layer phosphorene allow for modification of Schottky barrier with enhanced carrier injection efficiency. It is expected that few-layer phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for a plethora of new electronic applications.

  5. Layer-specific morphological and molecular differences in neocortical astrocytes and their dependence on neuronal layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Pior, Baek-Jun; Kawaguchi, Daichi; Furutachi, Shohei; Tahara, Tomoaki; Katsuyama, Yu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukazawa, Yugo; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2018-04-24

    Non-pial neocortical astrocytes have historically been thought to comprise largely a nondiverse population of protoplasmic astrocytes. Here we show that astrocytes of the mouse somatosensory cortex manifest layer-specific morphological and molecular differences. Two- and three-dimensional observations revealed that astrocytes in the different layers possess distinct morphologies as reflected by differences in cell orientation, territorial volume, and arborization. The extent of ensheathment of synaptic clefts by astrocytes in layer II/III was greater than that by those in layer VI. Moreover, differences in gene expression were observed between upper-layer and deep-layer astrocytes. Importantly, layer-specific differences in astrocyte properties were abrogated in reeler and Dab1 conditional knockout mice, in which neuronal layers are disturbed, suggesting that neuronal layers are a prerequisite for the observed morphological and molecular differences of neocortical astrocytes. This study thus demonstrates the existence of layer-specific interactions between neurons and astrocytes, which may underlie their layer-specific functions.

  6. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-05-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation

  7. Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weijia; He Wen; Wang Meiting; Zhang Xudong; Yan Shunpu; Tian Xiuying; Sun Xianan; Han Xiuxiu; Li Peng

    2008-01-01

    Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic–inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented

  8. Layered Graph Drawing for Visualizing Evaluation Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Yosuke; Kukimoto, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Misue, Kazuo; Koyamada, Koji

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation structure is a hierarchical structure of human cognition extracted from interviews based on the evaluation grid method. An evaluation structure can be defined as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The authors propose a layer-assignment method that is part of the Sugiyama framework, a popular method for drawing DAGs, to satisfy the requirements for drawing evaluation structures. Their evaluations demonstrate that the layered graph drawing produced by the proposed layer-assignment method is preferred by users and aids in the understanding of evaluation structures.

  9. The Functioning of a Cortex without Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown. Here we present our insights from the reeler mutant mouse, a model for a developmental, “molecular lesion”-induced loss of cortical layering that could serve as ground truth of what an intact layering adds to the cortex in terms of functionality. We could demonstrate that the reeler neocortex shows no inversion of cortical layers but rather a severe disorganization that in the primary somatosensory cortex leads to the complete loss of layers. Nevertheless, the somatosensory system is well organized. When exploring an enriched environment with specific sets of whiskers, activity-dependent gene expression takes place in the corresponding modules. Precise whisker stimuli lead to the functional activation of somatotopically organized barrel columns as visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Similar results were obtained in the reeler visual system. When analyzing pathways that could be responsible for preservation of tactile perception, lemniscal thalamic projections were found to be largely intact, despite the smearing of target neurons across the cortical mantle. However, with optogenetic experiments we found evidence for a mild dispersion of thalamic synapse targeting on layer IV-spiny stellate cells, together with a general weakening in thalamocortical input strength. This weakening of thalamic inputs was compensated by intracortical mechanisms involving increased recurrent excitation and/or reduced feedforward

  10. Measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, J. H.; Coles, D. E.

    Some measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer (SBL) are reported. The main diagnostic tool is an X-wire probe. The velocity of the large eddies is determined to be 0.842 times the freestream velocity. The mean properties of the SBL are reasonably close to those of a natural turbulent boundary layer. The large eddy in the SBL appears to be a pair of counterrotating eddies in the stream direction, inclined at a shallow angle and occupying much of the boundary-layer thickness.

  11. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  12. Cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takeshi.

    1976-01-01

    For a cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers whose jacket has at least one circumferential weld joining the individual layers, it is proposed to provide this at least at the first bending line turning point (counting from the weld between the jacket and vessel floor), which the sinusoidally shaped jacket has. The section of the jacket extending in between should be made as a full wall section. The proposal is based on calculations of the bending stiffness of cylindrical jackets, which could not yet be confirmed for jackets having several layers. (UWI) [de

  13. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  14. Longitudinal vortices in a transitioning boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, J.B.; Backwelder, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Naturally occurring spanwise variations of the streamwise velocity component, characteristic of longitudinal vortices embedded in a transitioning boundary layer were explored using hot-wire anemometers. A vibrating ribbon introduced stable or unstable Tollmien-Schlichting waves into the laminar boundary layer. These damped or growing disturbances always developed a strong three-dimensional pattern even though no spanwise perturbations were artificially induced. Changing the radius of the leading edge and other modifications to the flat plate, wind tunnel and boundary layer did not alter the spanwise wavelength of the vortices. (orig.)

  15. Radiative edge layers in limiter tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the highly radiative edge layers produced in the limiter configuration and with an open ergodic divertor are reviewed, with emphasis on the results obtained in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. In these two experiments an impurity injection technique is used to obtain highly radiating homogeneous peripheral layers. This requires that the peripheral radiation capability be maximized, while at the same time avoiding plasma core contamination; it is also necessary to insure the stability of the radiating layer. These physics issues, governing the success of the highly radiative edge scenario, are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  17. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  18. HMAC layer adhesion through tack coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Tack coats are the asphaltic emulsions applied between pavement lifts to provide adequate bond between the two surfaces. The adhesive bond between the two layers helps the pavement system to behave as a monolithic structure and improves the structura...

  19. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  20. Cross-Layer Wireless Resource Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Randall A; Yeh, Edmund M

    2005-01-01

    .... This bit pipe is a simple abstraction of the underlying physical and data link layers. There is growing awareness that this simple bit-pipe view is inadequate, particularly in the context of modern wireless data networks...

  1. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  2. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  3. Development of Robust Boundary Layer Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speyer, Jason

    2002-01-01

    .... The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of channel flow, linearized about a Poisueille profile, and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations of a layer of fluid, linearized about the no motion state...

  4. Structure of gels layers with cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaev, B. G.; Karlov, S. P.; Vyazmin, A. V.; Nekrasov, D. A.; Zakharov, N. S.; Khramtsov, D. P.; Skladnev, D. A.; Tyupa, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of two-layer agarose gels containing yeast cells is investigated experimentally by spectrometry, to shed a light on the theoretical foundations for the development of bioreactors by the method of 3D bioprinting. Due to division, cells overcome the layer of the dispersion phase separating successively applied layers of the agarose gel. However a gel layer of 100 μm thick with a high concentration of silver nanoparticles completely excludes the infiltration of yeast cells through it. A special sort of agarose is suggested where the concentration of silver nanoparticles formed by cells from salt of silver can serve as an indicator of the state of the yeast cells in the volume of the gel.

  5. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  6. Dynamics of the Marine Cloud Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chi, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Goals of this research have been to identify physical processes that determine the dynamics of marine cloud layers and to quantify roles of turbulence, convection and thermal radiation that play in formation...

  7. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  8. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Michelsen, P.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Schrittwieser, R.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources. (author)

  9. Experiments on ion acoustic typed double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Cho, M.H.; Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of small amplitude double layers with potential drops the order of the electron temperature, was examined experimentally by pulsing a grid and thereby changing the electron drift across the target chamber of a triple plasma device. The rarefactive part of a long wavelength, low frequency ion wave grew in amplitude due to the presence of slowly drifting electrons. The corresponding current limitation led to the formation of the double layers. Depending on the plasma conditions, the asymmetric double layers either transform into a weak monotonic layer, a propagating shock, or a series of rarefactive solitary pulses. The rarefactive pulses propagate with Mach number less than one and resemble solitary plasma holes with density cavities in both the electron and the ion density profiles

  10. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  11. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  12. Graded Recombination Layers for Multijunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Koleilat, Ghada I.; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron

  13. Content layer progressive coding of digital maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2000-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the WWW. Progressive encoding is achieved by separating the image into content layers based on other predefined information. Information from...... already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bi-level coding, context collapsing methods for multi-level images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. The number of contexts are analyzed....... The new methods outperform existing coding schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 60-70% on our layered test images....

  14. Content Layer progressive Coding of Digital Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2002-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the World Wide Web. Progressive encoding is achieved by encoding the image in content layers based on color level or other predefined...... information. Information from already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bilevel coding, context collapsing methods for multilevel images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. Expressions...... for calculating the resulting number of contexts are given. The new methods outperform existing schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 50-70% on our layered map test images....

  15. Variations in the magnetopause current layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, H. E.; Middleton, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    We use multi-point observations from the Cluster spacecraft to investigate the variations in the magnetopause current layer. With help of the curlometer technique one can determine the magnetopause current and its variability. Most of the time the magnetopause location is moving back and forth, so during any given pass the current layer is crossed several times. We use such crossings to investigate the characteristics of the current layer as the solar wind pressure varies (and the magnetopause moves accordingly). In addition we take an advantage of the ambient electron measurements from the EDI experiment which have been calibrated against the PEACE electron spectrometer data. These data can be used to detect fast variations of 1 keV electrons at resolution of 1-100 ms. Overall, Cluster observations are highly complimentary to the MMS observations due to the polar orbit of the Cluster spacecraft which provide fast vertical profiles of the magnetopause current layer.

  16. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  17. Design and evaluation criteria for layered architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The terms architecture, layered architecture and system architecture are often used by researchers, as well as system architects and business process analysts inconsistently. Furthermore, the concept architecture is commonplace in discussions...

  18. Single-crystal micromachining using multiple fusion-bonded layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan; O'Neill, Garry; Blackstone, Scott C.

    2000-08-01

    Multi-layer structures have been fabricated using Fusion bonding. The paper shows void free layers of between 2 and 100 microns that have been bonded to form multi-layer structures. Silicon layers have been bonded both with and without interfacial oxide layers.

  19. Magnetic tunnel junction device having an intermediate layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic tunnel junction device has a multi-layer structure including a pair of electrode layers of a ferromagnetic material and a tunnel barrier layer of an insulating material between the electrode layers. In order to realize a low resistance, the multi-layer structure also includes an

  20. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  1. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  2. Mapping the layer count of few-layer hexagonal boron nitride at high lateral spatial resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Ali; Cross, Nicholas G.; Liu, Lei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Duscher, Gerd; Gu, Gong

    2018-01-01

    Layer count control and uniformity of two dimensional (2D) layered materials are critical to the investigation of their properties and to their electronic device applications, but methods to map 2D material layer count at nanometer-level lateral spatial resolutions have been lacking. Here, we demonstrate a method based on two complementary techniques widely available in transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) to map the layer count of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films. The mass-thickness contrast in high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) mode allows for thickness determination in atomically clean regions with high spatial resolution (sub-nanometer), but is limited by surface contamination. To complement, another technique based on the boron K ionization edge in the electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum (EELS) of h-BN is developed to quantify the layer count so that surface contamination does not cause an overestimate, albeit at a lower spatial resolution (nanometers). The two techniques agree remarkably well in atomically clean regions with discrepancies within  ±1 layer. For the first time, the layer count uniformity on the scale of nanometers is quantified for a 2D material. The methodology is applicable to layer count mapping of other 2D layered materials, paving the way toward the synthesis of multilayer 2D materials with homogeneous layer count.

  3. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  4. Diffractive Hyperbola of a Skin Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, V. P.; Vaiman, E. V.; Shipilov, S. È.; Prasath, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Based on an analysis of physics of the phase transition from the quasistatic state field to the running wave field of elementary electric and magnetic dipoles located in absorbing media, it is concluded that the skin layer is formed at the boundary of this phase transition. The possibility is considered of obtaining the diffractive hyperbola of the skin layer and its subsequent application for sensing of objects in strongly absorbing media.

  5. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  6. Towards a semantic web layered architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available as an architectural pattern or architectural style [6, 43]. In this section we give a brief description of the con- cepts software architecture and layered architecture. In ad- dition we provide a summary of a list of criteria for layered architectures identified...- els caused some architectural recurrences to evolve. These are described as architectural patterns [6] or architectural styles [43]. Examples of the best known architectural patterns include, but are not limited to, the client/server architectural...

  7. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  8. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  9. Numerical simulations on ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of ion acoustic double layers has been performed for both periodic as well as for nonperiodic systems by means of one-dimensional particle simulations. For a nonperiodic system, an external battery and a resistance are used to model the magnetospheric convection potential and the ionospheric Pedersen resistance. It is found that the number of double layers and the associated potential buildup across the system increases with the system length

  10. A variable K - planetary boundary layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, P.K.

    1976-07-01

    The steady-state, homogeneous and barotropic equations of motion within the planetary boundary layer are solved with the assumption that the coefficient of eddy viscosity varies as K(Z) = K 0 (1-Z/h)sup(p), where h is the height of the boundary layer and p a parameter which depends on the atmospheric stability. The solutions are compared with the observed velocity profiles based on the Wangara data. They compare favourably. (author)

  11. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  12. Multiple Layers of Credit and Mortgage Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2011-01-01

    I examine a production economy with a financial sector that contains multiple layers of credit. Such layers are designed to constitute credit chains which are inclusive of a simple mortgage market. The focus is on the nature and contagion properties of credit chains in an economy where the financial sector plays a real allocative role and agents have a nontrivial choice of whether to default on mortgages or not. Multiple equilibria with different rates of default are observed, due to the pres...

  13. Synchronization of coupled metronomes on two layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. By varying the initial conditions of the metronomes and adjusting the friction between the two layers, a variety of synchronous patterns are observed in experiment, including the splay synchronization (SS) state, the generalized splay synchronization (GSS) state, the anti-phase synchronization (APS) state, the in-phase delay synchronization (IPDS) state, and the in-phase synchronization (IPS) state. In particular, the IPDS state, in which the metronomes on each layer are synchronized in phase but are of a constant phase delay to metronomes on the other layer, is observed for the first time. In addition, a new technique based on audio signals is proposed for pattern detection, which is more convenient and easier to apply than the existing acquisition techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model is developed to explain the experimental observations, and is employed to explore the dynamical properties of the patterns, including the basin distributions and the pattern transitions. Our study sheds new lights on the collective behaviors of coupled metronomes, and the developed setup can be used in the classroom for demonstration purposes.

  14. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  15. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  16. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schuster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S- layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  17. Modular representation of layered neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Kaoru; Kashino, Kunio

    2018-01-01

    Layered neural networks have greatly improved the performance of various applications including image processing, speech recognition, natural language processing, and bioinformatics. However, it is still difficult to discover or interpret knowledge from the inference provided by a layered neural network, since its internal representation has many nonlinear and complex parameters embedded in hierarchical layers. Therefore, it becomes important to establish a new methodology by which layered neural networks can be understood. In this paper, we propose a new method for extracting a global and simplified structure from a layered neural network. Based on network analysis, the proposed method detects communities or clusters of units with similar connection patterns. We show its effectiveness by applying it to three use cases. (1) Network decomposition: it can decompose a trained neural network into multiple small independent networks thus dividing the problem and reducing the computation time. (2) Training assessment: the appropriateness of a trained result with a given hyperparameter or randomly chosen initial parameters can be evaluated by using a modularity index. And (3) data analysis: in practical data it reveals the community structure in the input, hidden, and output layers, which serves as a clue for discovering knowledge from a trained neural network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  19. Problems of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of the quasi-steady matter-antimatter boundary layers discussed in Klein-Alfven's cosmological theory, and a crude model of the corresponding ambiplasma balance is presented: (i) at interstellar particle densities, no well-defined boundary layer can exist in presence of neutral gas, nor can such a layer be sustained in an unmagnetized fully ionized ambiplasma. (ii) Within the limits of applicability of the present model, sharply defined boundary layers are under certain conditions found to exist in a magnetized ambiplasma. Thus, at beta values less than unity, a steep pressure drop of the low-energy components of matter and antimatter can be balanced by a magnetic field and the electric currents in the ambiplasma. (iii) The boundary layer thickness is of the order of 2x 0 approximately 10/BT 0 sup(1/4) meters, where B is the magnetic field strength in MKS units and T 0 the characteristic temperature of the low-energy components in the layer. (Auth.)

  20. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  1. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-11

    The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  2. On the porosity of barrier layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mignot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Barrier layers are defined as the layer between the pycnocline and the thermocline when the latter are different as a result of salinity stratification. We present a revisited 2-degree resolution global climatology of monthly mean oceanic Barrier Layer (BL thickness first proposed by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2007. In addition to using an extended data set, we present a modified computation method that addresses the observed porosity of BLs. We name porosity the fact that barrier layers distribution can, in some areas, be very uneven regarding the space and time scales that are considered. This implies an intermittent alteration of air-sea exchanges by the BL. Therefore, it may have important consequences for the climatic impact of BLs. Differences between the two computation methods are small for robust BLs that are formed by large-scale processes. However, the former approach can significantly underestimate the thickness of short and/or localized barrier layers. This is especially the case for barrier layers formed by mesoscale mechanisms (under the intertropical convergence zone for example and along western boundary currents and equatorward of the sea surface salinity subtropical maxima. Complete characterisation of regional BL dynamics therefore requires a description of the robustness of BL distribution to assess the overall impact of BLs on the process of heat exchange between the ocean interior and the atmosphere.

  3. The Layer 1 / Layer 2 readout upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of instantaneous luminosity foreseen during the LHC Run 2, will lead to an increased detector occupancy that is expected to saturate the readout links of the outermost layers of the pixel detector: Layers 1 and 2. To ensure a smooth data taking under such conditions, the read out system of the recently installed fourth innermost pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer, was modified to accomodate the needs of the older detector. The Layer 2 upgrade installation took place during the 2015 winter shutdown, with the Layer 1 installation scheduled for 2016. A report of the successful installation, together with the design of novel dedicated optical to electrical converters and the software and firmware updates will be presented.

  4. Effect of layer thickness on the thermal release from Be-D co-deposited layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    The results of previous work (Baldwin et al 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S967-70 and Baldwin et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 073005) are extended to explore the influence of layer thickness on the thermal D2 release from co-deposited Be-(0.05)D layers produced at ˜323 K. Bake desorption of layers of thickness 0.2-0.7 µm are explored with a view to examine the influence of layer thickness on the efficacy of the proposed ITER bake procedure, to be carried out at the fixed temperatures of 513 K on the first wall and 623 K in the divertor. The results of experiment and modelling with the TMAP-7 hydrogen transport code, show that thicker Be-D co-deposited layers are relatively more difficult to desorb (time-wise) than thinner layers with the same concentrations of intrinsic traps and retained hydrogen isotope fraction.

  5. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer over wind farms using a prescribed boundary layer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...

  6. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  7. Layer-by-layer assembled biopolymer microcapsule with separate layer cavities generated by gas-liquid microfluidic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Zhou, Jing; Guo, Xuecheng; Hu, Qian; Qin, Chaoran; Liu, Hui; Dong, Meng; Chen, Yanjun

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled biopolymer microcapsule with separate layer cavities is generated by a novel and convenient gas-liquid microfluidic approach. This approach exhibits combined advantages of microfluidic approach and LbL assembly method, and it can straightforwardly build LbL-assembled capsules in mild aqueous environments at room temperature. In particular, using this approach we can build the polyelectrolyte multilayer capsule with favorable cavities in each layer, and without the need for organic solvent, emulsifying agent, or sacrificial template. Various components (e.g., drugs, proteins, fluorescent dyes, and nanoparticles) can be respectively encapsulated in the separate layer cavities of the LbL-assembled capsules. Moreover, the encapsulated capsules present the ability as colorimetric sensors, and they also exhibit the interesting release behavior. Therefore, the LbL-assembled biopolymer capsule is a promising candidate for biomedical applications in targeted delivery, controlled release, and bio-detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe_2 by soft and reactive plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Xiao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xiumei; Qin, Fang; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soft plasma etching technique using SF_6 + N_2 as precursors for layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe_2 was adopted in this work. • Optical microscopy, Raman, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy measurements were used to confirm the thickness change. • Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoSe_2 were also demonstrated. • Equal numbers of MoSe_2 layers can be removed uniformly without affecting the underlying SiO_2 substrate and the remaining MoSe_2 layers. - Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) like molybdenum diselenide (MoSe_2) have recently gained considerable interest since their properties are complementary to those of graphene. Unlike gapless graphene, the band structure of MoSe_2 can be changed from the indirect band gap to the direct band gap when MoSe_2 changed from bulk material to monolayer. This transition from multilayer to monolayer requires atomic-layer-precision thining of thick MoSe_2 layers without damaging the remaining layers. Here, we present atomic-layer-precision thinning of MoSe_2 nanaosheets down to monolayer by using SF_6 + N_2 plasmas, which has been demonstrated to be soft, selective and high-throughput. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectra suggest that equal numbers of MoSe_2 layers can be removed uniformly regardless of their initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO_2 substrate and the remaining MoSe_2 layers. By adjusting the etching rates we can achieve complete MoSe_2 removal and any disired number of MoSe_2 layers including monolayer. This soft plasma etching method is highly reliable and compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, thereby holding great promise for various 2D materials and TMD-based devices.

  9. Kapitza Resistance between Few-Layer Graphene and Water: Liquid Layering Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Dmitry; Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens Honore

    2015-01-01

    difference in the phonon mean free path between the FLG and water. Remarkably, RK is strongly dependent on the layering of water adjacent to the FLG, exhibiting an inverse proportionality relationship to the peak density of the first water layer, which is consistent with better acoustic phonon matching...... between FLG and water. These findings suggest novel ways to engineer the thermal transport properties of solid−liquidinterfaces by controlling and regulating the liquid layering at the interface....

  10. Selective layer disordering in III-nitrides with a capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-06-14

    Selective layer disordering in a doped III-nitride superlattice can be achieved by depositing a dielectric capping layer on a portion of the surface of the superlattice and annealing the superlattice to induce disorder of the layer interfaces under the uncapped portion and suppress disorder of the interfaces under the capped portion. The method can be used to create devices, such as optical waveguides, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, solar cells, modulators, laser, and amplifiers.

  11. Two-layer anti-reflection strategies for implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Smith, Tamara; Kato, Masakazu; Kimura, Shigeo; Enomoto, Tomoyuki

    2006-03-01

    A two-layer bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) concept in which a layer that develops slowly is coated on top of a bottom layer that develops more rapidly was demonstrated. Development rate control was achieved by selection of crosslinker amount and BARC curing conditions. A single-layer BARC was compared with the two-layer BARC concept. The single-layer BARC does not clear out of 200-nm deep vias. When the slower developing single-layer BARC was coated on top of the faster developing layer, the vias were cleared. Lithographic evaluation of the two-layer BARC concept shows the same resolution advantages as the single-layer system. Planarization properties of a two-layer BARC system are better than for a single-layer system, when comparing the same total nominal thicknesses.

  12. Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a comparison of two methods for the calculation of the height of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) ... Boundary layer; GPS sonde; mixed layer height; turbulent flow depth. J. Earth Syst. ..... for her PhD research work. References.

  13. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene

  14. Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, N; Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Summers, B; Munday, M R; Lane, M E

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the ethnic differences and effects of photodamage on the relative amounts of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) together with filaggrin processing enzymes in facial stratum corneum is limited. Our aim was to characterize the activities of calpain-1 (C-1), bleomycin hydrolase (BH) and the levels of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) as a marker for total NMF levels and to relate them to plasmin activities and corneocyte maturation. Enzyme activities, PCA levels and corneocyte maturation were determined from facial tape strippings of photoexposed cheek and photoprotected post-auricular areas (PA) of healthy Caucasian (C), Black African (BA) and albino African (AA) female subjects living in South Africa. PCA concentration levels were of the order AA > BA > C subjects, and the highest activities of BH were present in the AA subjects. BH activities were greater on the photoexposed sites for the BA and C subjects, but they were only numerically elevated in the AA subjects. Photoprotected sites had an increase in C-1 activity in pigmented groups (C and BA), whereas in the AA subjects, the opposite was measured. Plasmin activities were greater on the cheek compared with the PA site for the AA and C subjects, but the activity was low in the BA subjects. In both test sites, the AA, but not the BA and C subjects, had smaller, parakeratotic and less mature corneocytes. Variation in PCA levels has been found for different ethnic groups in this study (AA > BA > C subjects). The values in the AA subjects are surprising as one might expect that the lack of pigmentation, and thereby increased photodamage, might lead to lower levels. Increased BH, but not C-1 activity, was observed in the AA subjects indicating that BH is associated with PCA production to a greater extent. Surprisingly, corneocyte maturation is still impaired with elevated PCA levels in AA subjects. The higher levels of plasmin and BH activities on the cheeks, especially for AA and C subjects, suggest

  15. Asymmetric temporal integration of layer 4 and layer 2/3 inputs in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Giao B; Dan, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Neocortical neurons in vivo receive concurrent synaptic inputs from multiple sources, including feedforward, horizontal, and feedback pathways. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex receives feedforward input from layer 4 and horizontal input from layer 2/3. Firing of the pyramidal neurons, which carries the output to higher cortical areas, depends critically on the interaction of these pathways. Here we examined synaptic integration of inputs from layer 4 and layer 2/3 in rat visual cortical slices. We found that the integration is sublinear and temporally asymmetric, with larger responses if layer 2/3 input preceded layer 4 input. The sublinearity depended on inhibition, and the asymmetry was largely attributable to the difference between the two inhibitory inputs. Interestingly, the asymmetric integration was specific to pyramidal neurons, and it strongly affected their spiking output. Thus via cortical inhibition, the temporal order of activation of layer 2/3 and layer 4 pathways can exert powerful control of cortical output during visual processing.

  16. Conserved S-Layer-Associated Proteins Revealed by Exoproteomic Survey of S-Layer-Forming Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brant R.; Hymes, Jeffrey; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Lactobacillus acidophilus homology group comprises Gram-positive species that include L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii. While these bacteria are closely related, they have varied ecological lifestyles as dairy and food fermenters, allochthonous probiotics, or autochthonous commensals of the host gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cell surface components play a critical role in the molecular dialogue between bacteria and interaction signaling with the intestinal mucosa. Notably, the L. acidophilus complex is distinguished in two clades by the presence or absence of S-layers, which are semiporous crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits found as the outermost layer of the bacterial cell wall. In this study, S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) in the exoproteomes of various S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species were proteomically identified, genomically compared, and transcriptionally analyzed. Four gene regions encoding six putative SLAPs were conserved in the S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species but not identified in the extracts of the closely related progenitor, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which does not produce an S-layer. Therefore, the presence or absence of an S-layer has a clear impact on the exoproteomic composition of Lactobacillus species. This proteomic complexity and differences in the cell surface properties between S-layer- and non-S-layer-forming lactobacilli reveal the potential for SLAPs to mediate intimate probiotic interactions and signaling with the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:26475115

  17. Properties of Love waves in a piezoelectric layered structure with a viscoelastic guiding layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Lijun; Lu, Yanyan; He, Shitang

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical method is developed for analyzing Love waves in a structure with a viscoelastic guiding layer bounded on a piezoelectric substrate. The dispersion equation previously derived for piezoelectric Love waves propagating in the layered structure with an elastic layer is adopted for analyzing a structure with a viscoelastic layer. A Maxwell–Weichert model is introduced to describe the shear stiffness of a polymeric material. Newton’s method is employed for the numerical calculation. The dispersion equation for piezoelectric–elastic Love waves is proved suitable for solving a structure with a viscoelastic layer on a piezoelectric substrate. The theoretical results indicate that the propagation velocity of the Love wave is mainly decided by the shear stiffness of the guiding layer, whereas the propagation loss is approximately proportional to its viscosity. A detailed experimental study was conducted on a Love wave delay line fabricated on an ST-90° X quartz substrate and overlaid with various thicknesses of SU-8 guiding layers. A tail-raising caused by the viscosity of the guiding layer existed in both the calculated and the measured propagation velocities. The calculated insertion loss of the Love wave delay lines was in good agreement with the measured results. The method and the results presented in this paper are beneficial to the design of Love wave sensors with a viscoelastic guiding layer. (paper)

  18. Industrial-scale spray layer-by-layer assembly for production of biomimetic photonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, K C; Cohen, R E; Hammond, P T; Rubner, M F; Wang, B N

    2013-12-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly is a powerful and flexible thin film process that has successfully reproduced biomimetic photonic systems such as structural colour. While most of the seminal work has been carried out using slow and ultimately unscalable immersion assembly, recent developments using spray layer-by-layer assembly provide a platform for addressing challenges to scale-up and manufacturability. A series of manufacturing systems has been developed to increase production throughput by orders of magnitude, making commercialized structural colour possible. Inspired by biomimetic photonic structures we developed and demonstrated a heat management system that relies on constructive reflection of near infrared radiation to bring about dramatic reductions in heat content.

  19. Optical properties of single-layer, double-layer, and bulk MoS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger [University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Hummer, Kerstin [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The rise of graphene has brought attention also to other layered materials that can complement graphene or that can be an alternative in applications as transistors. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} has shown interesting electronic and optical properties such as as high electron mobility at room temperature and an optical bandgap of 1.8 eV. This makes the material suitable for transistors or optoelectronic devices. We present a theoretical study of the optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of single-layer, double-layer and bulk MoS{sub 2}. The excitonic states have been calculated in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, taking into account the electron-hole interaction via the screened Coulomb potential. In addition to the step-function like behaviour that is typical for the joint-density of states of 2D materials with parabolic band dispersion, we find a bound excitonic peak that is dominating the luminescence spectra. The peak is split due to spin-orbit coupling for the single-layer and split due to layer-layer interaction for few-layer and bulk MoS{sub 2}. We discuss the changes of the optical bandgap and of the exciton binding energy with the number of layers, comparing our results with the reported experimental data.

  20. Cortical layers, rhythms and BOLD signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, René; Fries, Pascal

    2017-11-03

    This review investigates how laminar fMRI can complement insights into brain function derived from the study of rhythmic neuronal synchronization. Neuronal synchronization in various frequency bands plays an important role in neuronal communication between brain areas, and it does so on the backbone of layer-specific interareal anatomical projections. Feedforward projections originate predominantly in supragranular cortical layers and terminate in layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed gamma-band influences. Thus, gamma-band synchronization likely subserves feedforward signaling. By contrast, anatomical feedback projections originate predominantly in infragranular layers and terminate outside layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed alpha- and/or beta-band influences. Thus, alpha-beta band synchronization likely subserves feedback signaling. Furthermore, these rhythms explain part of the BOLD signal, with independent contributions of alpha-beta and gamma. These findings suggest that laminar fMRI can provide us with a potentially useful method to test some of the predictions derived from the study of neuronal synchronization. We review central findings regarding the role of layer-specific neuronal synchronization for brain function, and regarding the link between neuronal synchronization and the BOLD signal. We discuss the role that laminar fMRI could play by comparing it to invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. Compared to direct electrophysiological recordings, this method provides a metric of neuronal activity that is slow and indirect, but that is uniquely non-invasive and layer-specific with potentially whole brain coverage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  2. Atomic scale characterization of mismatched graphene layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luican-Mayer, Adina; Li, Guohong; Andrei, Eva Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of STM/STS of graphene with various degree of coupling. • Review of vertically twisted graphene with respect with each other. • Review of Landau levels in graphene layers weakly decoupled electronically. • Review of laterally twisted graphene forming grain boundaries. - Abstract: In the bourgeoning field of two dimensional layered materials and their atomically thin counterparts, it has been established that the electronic coupling between the layers of the material plays a key role in determining its properties [1,2]. We are just beginning to understand how each material is unique in that respect while working our way up to building new materials with functionalities enabled by interlayer interactions. In this review, we will focus on a system that despite its apparent simplicity possesses a wealth of intriguing physics: layers of graphene with various degree of coupling. The situations discussed here are graphene layers vertically twisted with respect with each other, weakly decoupled electronically and laterally twisted forming grain boundaries. We emphasize experiments that atomically resolve the electronic properties.

  3. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  4. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-09-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hückel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r--> infinity limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation.

  5. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-01-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation

  6. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2017-11-01

    A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.

  7. Thermionic detector with multiple layered ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for analyzing specific chemical substances in a gaseous environment comprises a thermionic source formed of multiple layers of ceramic material composition, an electrical current instrumentality for heating the thermionic source to operating temperatures in the range of 100 0 C. to 1000 0 C., an instrumentality for exposing the surface of the thermionic source to contact with the specific chemical substances for the purpose of forming gas phase ionization of the substances by a process of electrical charge emission from the surface, a collector electrode disposed adjacent to the thermiomic source, an instrumentality for biasing the thermionic source at an electrical potential which causes the gas phase ions to move toward the collector, and an instrumentality for measuring the ion current arriving at the collector. The thermionic source is constructed of a metallic heater element molded inside a sub-layer of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with a metallic compound additive which is non-corrosive to the heater element during operation. The sub-layer is further covered by a surface-layer formed of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with an alkali metal compound in a manner that eliminates corrosive contact of the alkali compounds with the heater element. The sub-layer further protects the heater element from contact with gas environments which may be corrosive. The specific ionization of different chemical substances is varied over a wide range by changing the composition and temperature of the thermionic source, and by changing the composition of the gas environment

  8. Energy efficient three-layer panels and elastic compliance of their middle layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-layer panels are referred to light weight energy efficient building envelopes. According to current trends, mineral wool from basalt fiber is preferable to be used as panels middle layer. All three-layers of the construction together account for mechanical properties, though these layers taken separately have very different mechanical properties. The work of such a composite design has a number of features that require careful consideration when calculating the panels for strength. Thus, it has not yet been described how squeeze reduction of a relatively soft middle layer affects the load bearing capacity of a panel. When panels are exposed to external loads, their middle layer is squeezed thus changing the characteristics of the panel. This effect is particularly evident in supporting structures. Besides, squeeze reduction of the middle layer changes its elastic-plastic propeties. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of the middle layer of an energy efficient panel squeeze reduction on its load bearing capacity. When solving this task, the authors worked out a methodology which takes into account squeeze reduction of a middle layer and its effect on load bearing capacity of the panel. The researches introduced an algorithm for solving this task and created a tool that allows to easily receive the exact solution. The paper presents this methodology and describes a computer program for calculating three-layer panels with account of changing elastic compliance of a middle layer. The main result of the work is an extended methodology of calculation of the panels and an obtained engineering tool that allows to quickly obtain an extended solution.

  9. Layered distributed architecture for plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravamuthan, G.; Verma, Yachika; Ranjan, Jyoti; Chachondia, Alka S.; Ganesh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plant automation system and associated software remains one of the greatest challenges to the widespread implementation of highly adaptive re-configurable automation technology. This paper presents a layered distributed architecture for a plant automation system designed to support rapid reconfiguration and redeployment of automation components. The paper first presents evolution of automation architecture and their associated environment in the past few decades and then presents the concept of layered system architecture and the use of automation components to support the construction of a wide variety of automation system. It also highlights the role of standards and technology, which can be used in the development of automation components. We have attempted to adhere to open standards and technology for the development of automation component at a various layers. It also highlights the application of this concept in the development of an Operator Information System (OIS) for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). (author)

  10. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  11. Development of smart active layer sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Lee, Sang Il; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Jae Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a new technology that will be increasingly applied at the industrial field as a potential approach to improve cost and convenience of structural inspection. Recently, the development of smart sensor is very active for real application. This study has focused on preparation and application study of SAL sensor. In order to detect elastic wave, smart piezoelectric sensor, SAL, is fabricated by using a piezoelectric element, shielding layer and protection layer. This protection layer plays an important role in a patched network of distributed piezoelectric sensor and shielding treatment. Four types of SAL sensor are designed/prepared/tested, and these details will be discussed in the paper. In this study, SAL sensor can be feasibly applied to perform structural health monitoring and to detect damage sources which result in elastic waves.

  12. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering 129 I. Sorption coefficients (K d ) for I - and IO 3 - onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering 129 I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients ( 1.7 mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K d 's greater than 10 3 mL/g for both I - and IO 3 -

  13. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  14. An Accelerator control middle layer using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Portmann, G J; Terebilo, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab – the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the MiddleLayer software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS and Spear but was written to easily port. Five accelerators presently use this software – Spear, ALS, CLS, and the X-ray and VUV rings at Brookhaven. The Middle Layer fu...

  15. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knox, Hunter Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); James, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Rebekah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  16. Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Newell, P.T.; Kelly, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally anti-sunward for several hours at a time. The vortices strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, the authors argue that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer

  17. Excess Oxygen Defects in Layered Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, P.; Pei, S. Y.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Manthiram, A.; Tang, X. X.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1990-09-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the oxygen defect chemistry of two non-superconducting layered cuprates, La{sub 1. 25}Dy{sub 0.75}Cu{sub 3.75}F{sub 0.5}, having a T{sup {asterisk}}- related structure, and La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 1.15}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6.25}, having a structure related to that of the newly discovered double-layer superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The role played by oxygen defects in determining the superconducting properties of layered cuprates is discussed.

  18. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat s...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation.......An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...

  19. Superconductivity in few-layer stanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Menghan; Zang, Yunyi; Guan, Zhaoyong; Li, Haiwei; Gong, Yan; Zhu, Kejing; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ding; Xu, Yong; Wang, Ya-Yu; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2018-04-01

    A single atomic slice of α-tin—stanene—has been predicted to host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature, offering an ideal platform to study low-dimensional and topological physics. Although recent research has focused on monolayer stanene, the quantum size effect in few-layer stanene could profoundly change material properties, but remains unexplored. By exploring the layer degree of freedom, we discover superconductivity in few-layer stanene down to a bilayer grown on PbTe, while bulk α-tin is not superconductive. Through substrate engineering, we further realize a transition from a single-band to a two-band superconductor with a doubling of the transition temperature. In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) together with first-principles calculations elucidate the corresponding band structure. The theory also indicates the existence of a topologically non-trivial band. Our experimental findings open up novel strategies for constructing two-dimensional topological superconductors.

  20. Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John M

    2017-01-01

    This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.