Sample records for stratigraphic aspects drape

  1. Objective Evaluation of Fabric Drape

    XU Jun; YAO Mu


    On the basis of our previous research work, an expressing index was proposed for the lively degree of dynamic fabric drape. Meanwhile, the main factoranalysis for parameters of fabric drape was applied and the 5 main factors, comprehensive indexes of expressing aesthetics of fabric drape, were obtained. Through the scored diagrams of main factors of fabric drape aesthetics, 100 kinds of fabric samples could be identified and catalogued. A new method was found out for the objective evaluation of aesthetics of fabric drape.

  2. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  3. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape... site of surgical incision from microbial and other contamination. The device includes a plastic wound... insertion of the surgeon's finger into the rectum during performance of a transurethral prostatectomy....

  4. A survey of surgical draping practices in small-animal practice in the UK.

    Delisser, P J; Sinnett, D E; Parsons, K J; Friend, E J


    Veterinary practices in the United Kingdom were surveyed to compare their surgical draping practices with Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors. Using descriptive statistics and logistic or ordinal regression analysis (where appropriate), the relationships between draping material and accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors were assessed. Procedures were categorised as short or long. Two hundred and sixty-nine surveys were completed. Reusable drapes were used in 66 per cent of practices. Antibiotics were administered routinely in 38 per cent of short and 93 per cent of long procedures. Practices accredited as a Veterinary Hospital (VH) were 6.3-7.2 (short and long surgeries, respectively) times more likely to use disposable drapes, when compared with non-accredited practices. Use of dedicated surgical attire, draping the whole animal/table, and routine antibiotic usage were also positively correlated with disposable drape usage. Fifty-one per cent of practices rated infection rate as most important when choosing drape material. 'Best practice' techniques are associated with lower importance given to infection rate, and higher importance given to financial cost, when choosing drape material. Disposable drape use correlates with RCVS accreditation and with other aspects of surgical technique. Importance ratings awarded correlate with best practice procedures. Clinical relevance 'Best practice' draping procedures, that are not governed by RCVS accreditation scheme, are also more frequently performed in accredited VHs.

  5. Modeling of Prepregs during Automated Draping Sequences

    Krogh, Christian; Glud, Jens Ammitzbøll; Jakobsen, Johnny

    of the prepreg material which is the scope of the PhD project. The models will aid in generating feasible robot trajectories, i.e. draping sequences. Here feasible entails that the fiber plies do not deform undesirably while being manipulated by the robot as well as drapes onto the mold without wrinkles, air...

  6. Iowa Stratigraphic Data Points

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Iowa stratigraphic column consists of rock materials of varying geologic age that have been categorized into a shapefile for summarizing the 3 dimensional aspect...

  7. A multi-spacecraft survey of magnetic field line draping in the dayside magnetosheath

    I. J. Coleman


    Full Text Available When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF encounters the Earth's magnetosphere, it is compressed and distorted. This distortion is known as draping, and plays an important role in the interaction between the IMF and the geomagnetic field. This paper considers a particular aspect of draping, namely how the orientation of the IMF in a plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line (the clock angle is altered by draping in the magnetosheath close to the dayside magnetopause. The clock angle of the magnetosheath field is commonly estimated from the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured by upstream monitoring spacecraft either by assuming that the draping process does not significantly alter the clock angle ("perfect draping" or that the change in clock angle is reasonably approximated by a gas dynamic model. In this paper, the magnetosheath clock angles measured during 36 crossings of the magnetopause by the Geotail and Interball-Tail spacecraft are compared to the upstream IMF clock angles measured by the Wind spacecraft. Overall, about 30% of data points exhibit perfect draping within ±10°, and 70% are within 30°. The differences between the IMF and magnetosheath clock angles are not, in general, well-ordered in any systematic fashion which could be accounted for by hydrodynamic draping. The draping behaviour is asymmetric with respect to the y-component of the IMF, and the form of the draping distribution function is dependent on solar wind pressure. While the average clock angle observed in the magnetosheath does reflect the orientation of the IMF to within ~30° or less, the assumption that the magnetosheath field direction at any particular region of the magnetopause at any instant is approximately similar to the IMF direction is not justified. This study shows that reconnection models which assume laminar draping are unlikely to accurately reflect the distribution of reconnection sites across the dayside magnetopause.

  8. Fashion CAD Based on Draping Knowledge

    唐明浩; 方小卫


    A computer-aided design system, which is base on the knowledge of draping and frame-producer methods, is put forward. All kinds of knowledge applied here are abstracted from fashion design, where a complicate object is divided into several simple parts according to the body parts. And then a mathematical model of the display for real fashion illustration is elucidated.

  9. Characterisation of Fabric Drape Using Spectral Functions

    Lívia Kokas-Palicska


    Full Text Available The article compares the measurement and calculation methods of the fabricdrape coefficient used for computer modeling and describes a new parameter. This is thespectral function that is based on fabric drape and it describes the cloth’s 3D plasticity,and ability to be fitted against forms. The new parameter can be used during design as wellas during pre-production to for predicting tailorability in the garment industry.

  10. Biodegraded and Polyurethane Drape-formed Urea Fertilizer

    WANG Yong; LI Jian; CHEN Xiaoyao


    Natural water absorbent konjac flour participates in synthesizing biodegraded and polyurethane foamed drape, which is used to release urea slowly.The experimental results indicate that the slowly-releasing velocity of urea nitrogen and the degrading velocity of the drape can be controlled by regulating the thicknesses of drapes, the amount of konjac flour and the water content. In addition, the biodegradability of the drape was investigated by burying the specimens in earth afterwards,and results show this drape can be degraded naturally.

  11. Virtual Sewing Based on Draping Knowledge

    TANG Ming-hao; MA Jiang-li; ZHANG Chi; ZHANG Zu-fang; FANG Xiao-wei


    Virtual sewing is one of the key techniques in the realization of 3D computer aided garment design. After aualysis and comparison, this article brings forward a method of virtual sewing based on draping knowledge. Two new concepts are introduced. One is the conversion of garment pattern pieces' attributes and the other is the "clothes shell"--a middleware to simplify the mapping process. Meanwhile, the method implements the mapping process and completes virtual sewing by setting anchor points and lines on the virtual model. The method has been applied to a simulation system and proved to be successful.

  12. Draping for neck surgery requiring endotracheal tube manipulation.

    Dalton, C L; Clamp, P J; Porter, G C


    During airway surgery, the anaesthetist may be required to manipulate or withdraw the endotracheal tube. Traditional surgical head drapes often make access to the tube difficult, therefore limiting control of the airway and risking de-sterilisation of the surgical field. We report a new method of draping for major neck operations that permits easy access to the endotracheal tube while maintaining sterility of the operative field.

  13. Discovery of laterally extensive drape of siliciclastic silt in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria: Late-glacial to ?early Holocene aeolian deposition.

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Sanders, Diethard


    Field surveys in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA, a nappe stack of Triassic carbonate rocks) revealed a drape, or drapes, typically 20-40 cm in thickness of siliciclastic silt over extensive landscape areas, from valley floors to LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) nunataks. The drape veneers substrates ranging from country rocks to diverse post-LGM deposits - the latter with depositional and/or erosional topographies. The drape mostly is overlain by vegetated organic material and, in turn, tops inactive/abandoned post-LGM successions of fluvial (including kame terrace), alluvial fan, scree slope, LGM basal till, and rock-avalanche origin. The drape extends over kilometers at least (limit of field investigation in specific areas), up to LGM nunatak plateaus. Deposystems (e.g., scree slopes, alluvial fans) on carbonate-rocky terrain that remained active until the Holocene are not topped by the drape; a level of siliciclastic silt, however, was spotted within a few of these successions. The possibility that several levels of silt are intercalated within or top post-glacial deposits cannot be excluded at present; the large lateral extent and the stratigraphic position, however, suggest that at least most locations pertain to a single widespread level (with that reservation, we prefer to speak in singular of the drape). Over the inspected area (~ 90 x 20 km), the drape consists mainly of silt-sized grains of quartz, feldspars, micas, and amphiboles; at a few sites, calci- or dolosilt are admixed. Most of the grains are angular to subrounded, some grains show features of corrosion. Preliminary palynological analyses of this silt - seven locations from LGM nunataks to kame terrace and alluvial fans - suggest vegetation types that, together, may be assigned to palaeoclimates ranging from the late-glacial (Younger Dryas?) to the middle Holocene. A few of the pollen spectra appear to record sparse vegetation cover allowing for enhanced aeolian deposition, but other spectra (e

  14. Three-Dimensional Measurement and Reconstruction of Fabric Drape Shape

    SHEN Yi; YIN Hong-yuan; LIU Xuan-mu


    This paper introduces a new method of measuring the three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics with structural light. First, we apply parallel annular structural light to form light and shade alternating contour stripes on the surface of fabrics. We then collect the images of contour stripes using Charge Coupled Device (CCD). Subsequently, we process the images to identify the contour stripes and edges of fabrics, and obtain the fabric contour lines of curved surfaces. Finally, we apply three-dimensional curved surface modeling method based on a network of polar coordinates, and reconstruct the three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics. Experiments show that our method is effective in testing and reconstructing three-dimensional drape shape of fabrics.

  15. Magnetic field draping at the low-latitude magnetopause

    Richard, R. L.; Lotko, W.


    Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the structure of the low-latitude magnetopause for interplanetary magnetic field conditions with a dominant southward component. The structure is self-consistently calculated as an initial-value problem in which the system is allowed to evolve into a quasi-steady state. All components of the 3D velocity and magnetic field as well as compressibility, resistivity, and viscosity are included in the 2D calculation. The simulation model shows that magnetic field draping can occur at the magnetopause boundary when magnetic merging takes place in the presence of a tangential shear flow. For 'normal' (positive Bx) draping, the higher-latitude portion of the field lines are curved toward the sun on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause and away from the sun on the magnetosheath side. The thickness of the normal draping structure scales with the viscosity. The field-aligned current system that accompanies normal magnetic draping is consistent with the sense of the region 1 currents that flow into the dayside ionosphere.

  16. Effect of Seams on Drape of Fabrics (Pp. 62-72)

    Nekky Umera

    This paper presents a fundamental drape analysis of seamed ... The effect of seams on the drape coefficient and Drape profile has ... piece of ring paper at present numerous instruments, ranging from a simple ... African Research Review Vol. 3 (3) .... The table 6 is showing multiple correlation coefficients regression co-.

  17. The construction of drape surfaces with constrained first derivatives

    R.J. Fossati


    Full Text Available The need to construct optimal drape surfaces arises in airborne geophysical surveys where it is necessary to fly a safe distance above the ground and within the performance of the aircraft used, but as close as possible to the surface. The problem is formulated as an LP with constraints at every point of a grid covering the area concerned, yielding a huge problem. The lifting algorithm is suggested. This is a surprisingly simple algorithm which starts with the drape surface at ground level and lifts it one point at a time. Only points which are too low relative to one or more of their neighbours are considered and they are lifted just enough to bring them into kilter with their neighbours. It is shown that the lifting algorithm is both exact and has great speed advantages. Some numerical results confirming exactness and speed are presented. An enhanced method with better complexity is proposed and tested numerically.

  18. Draping and associated equipment for indwelling catheter manipulation by hospital staff: an assessment of attitudes and adequacy.

    Weerakoon, Mahesha; Lawrentschuk, Nathan


    To address the usability and safety aspects of current equipment for indwelling urinary catheter (IDC) manipulation, by assessing the attitudes of doctors and nurses to infection control, occupational health and environmental waste, and the perceived adequacy of available catheter packs, particularly drapes, when performing such manipulations. A self-administered survey instrument was created using an online database and completed by doctors and nurses. The survey covered basic demographics and experience with IDC, attitudes to infection control, occupational health and safety, and the environment, as well as adequacy of current equipment in containing spillage of urine and/or blood. In all, 87 doctors and 228 nurses completed 315 of 350 (90%) surveys. Doctors and nurses were concerned about infection control, occupational health and safety issues, and environmental waste. Incidents involving spillage of urine and/or blood often go unreported. There were no differences between nurses and doctors having specialist training in urology or experience (P > 0.05). The second major finding is that available catheter packs, particularly drapes, when manipulating IDCs, are inadequate and spillage is likely. These findings were more pronounced in doctors and those with urology training (P equipment, particularly drapes, are inadequate for containing urine and blood, leading to infection control, occupational health, environmental and cost implications.

  19. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno


    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  20. Radiation Dose Reduction during Radial Cardiac Catheterization: Evaluation of a Dedicated Radial Angiography Absorption Shielding Drape

    Andrew Ertel; Jeffrey Nadelson; Adhir R. Shroff; Ranya Sweis; Dean Ferrera; Vidovich, Mladen I.


    Objectives. Radiation scatter protection shield drapes have been designed with the goal of decreasing radiation dose to the operators during transfemoral catheterization. We sought to investigate the impact on operator radiation exposure of various shielding drapes specifically designed for the radial approach. Background. Radial access for cardiac catheterization has increased due to improved patient comfort and decreased bleeding complications. There are concerns for increased radiation exp...

  1. Radiation Dose Reduction during Radial Cardiac Catheterization: Evaluation of a Dedicated Radial Angiography Absorption Shielding Drape.

    Ertel, Andrew; Nadelson, Jeffrey; Shroff, Adhir R; Sweis, Ranya; Ferrera, Dean; Vidovich, Mladen I


    Objectives. Radiation scatter protection shield drapes have been designed with the goal of decreasing radiation dose to the operators during transfemoral catheterization. We sought to investigate the impact on operator radiation exposure of various shielding drapes specifically designed for the radial approach. Background. Radial access for cardiac catheterization has increased due to improved patient comfort and decreased bleeding complications. There are concerns for increased radiation exposure to patients and operators. Methods. Radiation doses to a simulated operator were measured with a RadCal Dosimeter in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The mock patient was a 97.5 kg fission product phantom. Three lead-free drape designs were studied. The drapes were placed just proximal to the right wrist and extended medially to phantom's trunk. Simulated diagnostic coronary angiography included 6 minutes of fluoroscopy time and 32 seconds of cineangiography time at 4 standard angulated views (8 s each), both 15 frames/s. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. Results. All drape designs led to substantial reductions in operator radiation exposure compared to control (P radiation exposure (72%) was with the L-shaped design. Conclusions. Dedicated radial shielding drapes decrease radiation exposure to the operator by up to 72% during simulated cardiac catheterization.

  2. A Geometry Information Based Fishnet Algorithm for Woven Fabric Draping in Liquid Composite Molding

    Bo YANG


    Full Text Available The draping of 2D textile fabrics is an important concern in the 3D composite parts manufacturing. The existing fitting algorithms for draping simulation are difficult to make a trade-off between flexibility, speed and accuracy. In the present work, a novel fishnet algorithm based on geometry information (GIB-fishnet algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the fabric deformation modes during the draping process are analyzed, then several fundamental assumptions for draping simulation are proposed. Based on these assumptions and the theory of kinematic draping simulation, the GIB-fishnet algorithm is introduced, in this algorithm, geometry information of the surface such as tangent vector and normal curvature are used to determine the position of the current node. The use of the geometry information simplifies the mapping calculation and improves the computational accuracy. Two geometric algorithms for computing surface/surface intersection and seeking the shortest path on the surface, which are needed in the GIB-fishnet algorithm, are also studied in this paper. Finally, the simulation results of draping on three types of surfaces generated by different algorithms are compared, and the accuracy, speed and stability of the GIB-fishnet algorithm are verified. DOI:

  3. Evaluation of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes following use of the Bair Hugger(®) forced air warming system.

    Occhipinti, Lindsay L; Hauptman, Joe G; Greco, Justin J; Mehler, Stephen J


    This pilot study determined the rate of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes of small animal patients warmed intra-operatively with the Bair Hugger(®) forced air warming system compared to a control method. Surgical drapes of 100 patients undergoing clean surgical procedures were swabbed with aerobic culturettes at the beginning and end of surgery. Samples were cultured on Trypticase soy agar. Contamination of the surgical drapes was identified in 6/98 cases (6.1%). There was no significant difference in the number of contaminated surgical drapes between the Bair Hugger(®) and control groups (P = 0.47).

  4. A test of magnetic field draping induced Bz perturbations ahead of fast coronal mass ejecta

    Mccomas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Smith, E. J.; Cane, H. V.


    ICE plasma and magnetic field data are examined to look for observational evidence of IMF draping ahead of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The utility of the draping model for predicting the Bz perturbations and hence geomagnetic activity associated with the sheath regions ahead of such CMEs is also examined. A simple prediction scheme based on the upstream radial field component is developed and a set of interplanetary shock events previously associated with interplanetary type II bursts, and hence solar source locations, is used. Of 17 events the radial component predictor developed here correctly predicts the direction considered of the Bz perturbations for 13 events (76 percent). While this result is certainly not conclusive, it is considered to be supportive of the draping scenario.

  5. Analysis of the System of Wavy and Ring Deformation in Draping

    李兴刚; 朱耀庭


    The paper analyzes the principle of positioning of waves by notching at the bottom of the waves in garment draping from the dynamic perspective, and search for the best molding effect under 45° to fabric grain as the model baseline. Wavy and ring deformation laws are proved by the sample photographs.

  6. Iodine-impregnated incision drape and bacterial recolonization in simulated total knee arthroplasty

    Milandt, Nikolaj; Nymark, Tine; Jørn Kolmos, Hans;


    Background and purpose - Iodine-impregnated incision drapes (IIIDs) are used to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, there is some evidence to suggest a potential increase in SSI risk as a result of IIID use, possibly from promotion of skin recolonization. A greater number of viable...

  7. Direct Cost of Reprocessing Cotton-woven Surgical Drapes: a Case Study

    Mariana Fexina Tomé


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify the direct cost of reprocessing double and single cotton-woven drapes of the surgical LAP package. METHOD A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive case study, performed at a teaching hospital. The direct cost of reprocessing cotton-woven surgical drapes was calculated by multiplying the time spent by professionals involved in reprocessing the unit with the direct cost of labor, adding to the cost of materials. The Brazilian currency (R$ originally used for the calculations was converted to US currency at the rate of US$0.42/R$. RESULTS The average total cost for surgical LAP package was US$9.72, with the predominance being in the cost of materials (US$8.70 or 89.65%. It is noteworthy that the average total cost of materials was mostly impacted by the cost of the cotton-woven drapes (US$7.99 or 91.90%. CONCLUSION The knowledge gained will subsidize discussions about replacing reusable cotton-woven surgical drapes for disposable ones, favoring arguments regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this possibility considering human resources, materials, as well as structural, environmental and financial resources.

  8. Stratigraphic Modelling of Continental Rifting

    Mondy, Luke; Duclaux, Guillaume; Salles, Tristan; Thomas, Charmaine; Rey, Patrice


    Interlinks between deformation and sedimentation have long been recognised as an important factor in the evolution of continental rifts and basins development. However, determining the relative impact of tectonic and climatic forcing on the dynamics of these systems remains a major challenge. This problem in part derives from a lack of modelling tools capable of simulated high detailed surface processes within a large scale (spatially and temporally) tectonic setting. To overcome this issue an innovative framework has been designed using two existing numerical forward modelling codes: Underworld, capable of simulating 3D self-consistent tectonic and thermal lithospheric processes, and Tellus, a forward stratigraphic and geomorphic modelling framework dedicated to simulating highly detailed surface dynamics. The coupling framework enables Tellus to use Underworld outputs as internal and boundary conditions, thereby simulating the stratigraphic and geomorphic evolution of a realistic, active tectonic setting. The resulting models can provide high-resolution data on the stratigraphic record, grain-size variations, sediment provenance, fluvial hydrometric, and landscape evolution. Here we illustrate a one-way coupling method between active tectonics and surface processes in an example of 3D oblique rifting. Our coupled model enables us to visualise the distribution of sediment sources and sinks, and their evolution through time. From this we can extract and analyse at each simulation timestep the stratigraphic record anywhere within the model domain. We find that even from a generic oblique rift model, complex fluvial-deltaic and basin filling dynamics emerge. By isolating the tectonic activity from landscape dynamics with this one-way coupling, we are able to investigate the influence of changes in climate or geomorphic parameters on the sedimentary and landscape record. These impacts can be quantified in part via model post-processing to derive both instantaneous and

  9. Iodine-impregnated incision drape and bacterial recolonization in simulated total knee arthroplasty

    Milandt, Nikolaj; Nymark, Tine; Jørn Kolmos, Hans;


    bacteria in the surgical field of an arthroplasty, and surgery in general, may increase the infection risk. We investigated whether IIID use increases bacterial recolonization compared to no drape use under conditions of simulated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods - 20 patients scheduled for TKA were...... recruited. Each patient had 1 knee randomized for draping with IIID, while the contralateral knee was left bare. The patients thus served as their own control. The operating room conditions and perioperative procedures of a TKA were simulated. Cylinder samples were collected from the skin of each knee prior...... to disinfection, and again on 2 occasions after skin preparation-75 min apart. Quantities of bacteria were estimated using a spread plate technique under aerobic conditions. Results - We found similar quantities of bacteria on the intervention and control knees immediately after skin disinfection and after 75 min...

  10. Bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets viscoelasticity and temperature dependency in the draping process

    Ropers, Steffen


    Within the scope of this work, Steffen Ropers evaluates the viscoelastic and temperature-dependent nature of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets in order to further enhance the predictability of the draping simulation. This simulation is a useful tool for the development of robust large scale processes for continuously fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). The bending behavior thereby largely influences the size and position of wrinkles, which are one of the most common processing defects for continuously fiber-reinforced parts. Thus, a better understanding of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets as well as an appropriate testing method along with corresponding material models contribute to a wide-spread application of CFRPs in large scale production. Contents Thermoplastic Prepregs Draping Simulation of Thermoplastic Prepregs Bending Characterization of Textile Composites Modeling of Bending Behavior Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of polymer, lightweight,...

  11. Draping of strongly flow-aligned interplanetary magnetic field about the magnetopause

    Petrinec, S. M.


    Many dynamic processes of the magnetosphere are directly driven by the solar wind and the occurrence of magnetic merging at the magnetopause. The location of magnetopause magnetic merging, or reconnection, is now fairly well understood when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) contains large By and Bz components in relation to the Bx component (in Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) coordinates). However, when the IMF contains a large X-component (i.e., is closely flow-aligned), it is not yet well understood how the shocked IMF drapes about the magnetopause, and how this affects the occurrence and location of magnetic merging. In this initial study, we examine from observations how a nearly flow-aligned IMF drapes about the magnetopause. The results of this study are expected to be useful for comparisons with both analytic and global numerical models of the magnetosheath magnetic field.

  12. Draping of the Interstellar Magnetic Field over the Heliopause - A Passive Field Model

    Isenberg, Philip A; Mobius, Eberhard


    As the local interstellar plasma flows past our heliosphere, it is slowed and deflected around the magnetic obstacle of the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field, frozen into this plasma, then becomes draped around the heliopause in a characteristic manner. We derive the analytical solution for this draped magnetic field in the limit of weak field intensity, assuming an ideal potential flow around the heliopause, which we model as a Rankine half-body. We compare the structure of the model magnetic field with observed properties of the IBEX ribbon and with in situ observations at the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We find reasonable qualitative agreement, given the idealizations of the model. This agreement lends support to the secondary ENA model of the IBEX ribbon and to the interpretation that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause. We also predict that the magnetic field measured by Voyager 2 after it crosses the heliopause will not be significantly rotated away from the direction of the undisturbed interstella...

  13. Study of Un-added Allowance of Draping-Planar Designing Garment Prototype for Young Ladies

    李兴刚; 李元虹; 苏同岳


    As for the theory and method in garment structural design according to human figures,a principle for garment design,i.e.body-fitting without added allowance,and a combination of draping and planar design (DPD hereunder) for young ladies has been put forward,and,also,a DPD garment prototype for them has been established.And the applied formulae for extensively-practicing operation have been set up,which proves to be,with actual samples,a systematic and practical garment structural designing theory and approach.


    Isenberg, Philip A.; Forbes, Terry G.; Möbius, Eberhard [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)


    As the local interstellar plasma flows past our heliosphere, it is slowed and deflected around the magnetic obstacle of the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field, frozen into this plasma, then becomes draped around the heliopause in a characteristic manner. We derive the analytical solution for this draped magnetic field in the limit of weak field intensity, assuming an ideal potential flow around the heliopause, which we model as a Rankine half-body. We compare the structure of the model magnetic field with observed properties of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon and with in situ observations at the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We find reasonable qualitative agreement, given the idealizations of the model. This agreement lends support to the secondary ENA model of the IBEX ribbon and to the interpretation that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause. We also predict that the magnetic field measured by Voyager 2 after it crosses the heliopause will not be significantly rotated away from the direction of the undisturbed interstellar field.

  15. Stratigraphic scale the Lower Precambrian of Russia

    Anisimova, Svetlana; Bogdanov, Yuri


    The quality of state geological maps depends on the quality of the combined serial legends, which are based on the adopted stratigraphic scheme of the General stratigraphic scale, regional and local stratigraphic schemes. The main task of the General stratigraphic scale is the temporal correlation of stratigraphic units of regional schemes and the age of their boundaries. For the Precambrian age determination is based on paleontological and geochronological methods. Currently, work is being carried out to update the stratigraphic framework of the formations of the upper Proterozoic (Riphean and Vendian). Relatively less studied is the stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian. To the bottom are Precambrian structurally-material complexes of Archean and lower Proterozoic rocks, crystalline basement of ancient platforms and also included in the fold belts. The solution to the problems of stratigraphy of the lower Precambrian is possible only by creating and improving regional stratigraphic schemes. Such work should be based on the study of stratotype sections and references of boundaries in the model regions of the lower Precambrian. The current General stratigraphic scale of the lower Precambrian of Russia (RGSS) consists of the Lower Archean (Sami) and the Upper Archean (Lopi) and lower Proterozoic (Karelian) Eonotam. Archaea is divided into two Eonotam in Russian General stratigraphic scale, in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC) - three units, designated as Eon. The age of the boundary between Eonotam and Eon the same (3200 million years). The same and the age of the boundary between the Archean and the Proterozoic. The RGSS of the Precambrian, based on the comprehensive study of typical sections and analysis of isotopic Dating of different methods. Stratotype reference sections of the districts of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula represent different types of sections, the time (geochronological) correlation which was the basis for the regional scheme

  16. Some debatable problems of stratigraphic classification

    Gladenkov, Yury


    Russian geologists perform large-scale geological mapping in Russia and abroad. Therefore we urge unification of legends of geological maps compiled in different countries. It seems important to continuously organize discussions on problems of stratigraphic classification. 1. The stratigraphic schools (conventionally called "European" and "American") define "stratigraphy" in different ways. The former prefers "single" stratigraphy that uses data proved by many methods. The latter divides stratigraphy into several independent stratigraphers (litho-, bio-, magneto- and others). Russian geologists classify stratigraphic units into general (chronostratigraphic) and special (in accordance with a method applied). 2. There exist different interpretations of chronostratigraphy. Some stratigraphers suppose that a chronostratigraphic unit corresponds to rock strata formed during a certain time interval (it is somewhat formalistic because a length of interval is frequently unspecified). Russian specialists emphasize the historical-geological background of chronostratigraphic units. Every stratigraphic unit (global and regional) reflects a stage of geological evolution of biosphere and stratisphere. 3. In the view of Russian stratigraphers, the main stratigraphic units may have different extent: a) global (stage), b) regional (regional stage,local zone), and c) local (suite). There is no such hierarchy in the ISG. 4. Russian specialists think that local "lithostratigraphic" units (formations) which may have diachronous boundaries are not chronostratigraphic ones in strict sense (actually they are lithological bodies). In this case "lithostratigraphy" can be considered as "prostratigraphy" and employed in initial studies of sequences. Therefore, a suite is a main local unit of the Russian Code and differs from a formation, although it is somewhat similar. It does not mean that lithostratigraphy is unnecessary. Usage of marker horizons, members and other bodies is of great help

  17. Probable recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    Thomas, R.


    The Cerberus Plains have received increasing attention in recent years due to evidence from highresolution imagery that they are some of the youngest surfaces on Mars. The plains are incised by large outflow channels, possibly as recently as 20Ma in the case of Athabasca Valles [2]. These channels are generally thought to be water-carved [1,3], though it is possible they were incised by turbulent lava [8]. As recently as 10Ma or less [5] both the channels and the plains around them are proposed to have been draped with lava [7]. Thus the recent activity forming the Cerberus Plains probably required large volumes of both water and lava. The problem which arises is a source. Cerberus Fossae have been suggested as the source of the Athabasca Valles outflows [3,6], but topographic and stratigraphic issues have arisen which make this unlikely: for example, a streamlined island spans the fossa where water and/or lava is said to have originated [4]. No other specific sources have been identified. As plains volcanism often obscures its fissures, sources should be searched for in features elevated above the plain. New HiRISE images have shown just such a feature: a wrinkle ridge south of Cerberus Fossae incised by a series of fissures. Every fissure has associated channels and deposits indicating outflow onto the plains surrounding the ridge. Until now, the stratigraphic history of these features was poorly known, with Tanaka et al.'s [9] geological map considering the area only on the broadest scale. This study produces small-scale geomorphological maps to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the fissure-sourced outflows and the plains surrounding the ridge to test the hypothesis that they were the source of the plains material. Crater counting is also conducted to supplement stratigraphic observations and give tentative ages.

  18. Design and realization of the drawing software for snow/ice stratigraphic profile

    温家洪; 杨文璐


    Snow/ice stratigraphic profile is one of the traditional and important research fields in glaciology.The profile drawn by hand, however, is a tough job.Using the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) Visual Basic (VB), we developed a Drawing Software for Snow/Ice Stratigraphic Profile (DSSISP).This paper introduces the functions, designing process and realizing methods of the drawing software.It presents the key techniques and aspects that should be payed attention to during the software development.Moreover, it also proposes the ideas for complete development of this drawing system.Legend database is a key aspect in the software designing.The major functions of the software include the stratigraphic profile drawing, edition and data management, which can help researchers draw the stratigraphic profile (including the scale, stratigraphic figure, text note and legend) quickly in a computer.In addition, the database technique is used to manage drawing data, which makes the figure drawing convenient and efficient.The drawing data is also convenient to be preserved, exchanged, processed and used.

  19. Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF

    Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.


    We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

  20. Spectral Modulation of the IBEX Ribbon Flux by the Dynamic Draping of the Interstellar Medium over the Heliosphere

    Funsten, H. O.; Pittman, K. T.; Frisch, P. C.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Janzen, P. H.; McComas, D. J.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Schwadron, N.; Zirnstein, E.


    The bright energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission in the circular ribbon observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon is a key ordering parameter of the interaction region between the heliosphere and the insterstellar medium. The ribbon is hypothesized to result from the condition in which the interstellar magnetic field, which is draped over the heliosphere and is the emission location in the "secondary" reibbon hypothesis, is oriented perpendicular to the line-of-sight view from IBEX. Here, we consider the relative motion of the draped magnetic field line for modulating ribbon intensity. Using the 0.7 keV and 1.1 keV ENA maps from the IBEX-Hi instrument, we find that this relative motion may significantly contribute to the variation of ribbon flux around the ribbon. We discuss the implications of this relative motion on our understanding the global structure and dynamics of the heliosphere-insterstellar medium interaction.

  1. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan


    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  2. [Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery may increase the risk of surgical site infections. A survey of a Cochrane review].

    Qvist, Niels; Kolmos, Hans Jørn J


    In theory, the products act as a barrier, which hinders the spreading of bacteria from the deeper skin layers and hair follicles to the incision. On the other hand, the use of plastic adhesive drapes may promote bacterial overgrowth due to a >greenhouse effectplastic adhesive drapes reduces the surgical site infection rate and some evidence that they increase infection rates in clean operations. Consequently, their use should be abandoned. Further studies are warranted to determine the effect of other adhesive products currently used.

  3. Assessment of clinical occupational dose reduction effect of a new interventional cardiology shield for radial access combined with a scatter reducing drape.

    Gilligan, Paddy; Lynch, J; Eder, H; Maguire, S; Fox, E; Doyle, B; Casserly, I; McCann, H; Foley, D


    To assess the occupational dose reduction effect of a new interventional cardiology shield for radial access combined with a scatter reducing drape. Transradial access for catheterization has been shown to increase occupational radiation dose. Current shielding techniques are primarily based on the femoral access. This article looks at the clinical occupational combined dose reduction effect of a commercially available shield and drape which is specific to access type. The evaluation took place in a busy interventional cardiology laboratory, with a single plane 30×40 cm flat panel detector (Siemens Artis Zee, Germany). Radiation exposure to staff was measured using electronic personal dosimeters (Unfors RaysafeAB, Sweden) placed at the collar. Patient radiation exposure was assessed using screening time and dose area product per case. Both staff and patient radiation exposure were monitored for a number of case types and operators before, during, and after deployment of the new shield and drapes. The cardiologists' overall median collar badge reading per case reduced from 15.4 μSv per case without the shield/drape combination to 7.3 μSv per case with the shield drape combination in situ (P<0.001). The radiographers badge reading was reduced from 4.2 μSv per case without to 2.5 μSv per case with the shield drape combination in situ (P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the cardiac technician's badge reading. Patient's dose area product was not significantly affected by the placement of the shield and drape combination. The shield/drape combination can significantly reduce operator exposure in a cardiac catheterization laboratory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysing the archaeological context: Reconstructing stratigraphic layers

    Schubert, Lutz; Predoi, Ana; Jeffery, Keith


    The stratigraphic layout of an excavation determines how finds can be interpreted regarding their timeline and relationships with each other. Older excavation reports do not fully record this layout however and reconstructing the relationships is often subject to conjecture. In this paper we present a first approach for reasoning over and visualizing the stratigraphy given only profile information. We will demonstrate how this can be used for spatial analysis, but also for reasoning over different processes contributing to the found layout, including potential influences that left no visible traces.

  5. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.


    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  6. Magnetic Draping as a Possible Solution to Turbulent Heating of the ICM in Kinetic Mode AGN Feedback

    Bambic, Christopher John; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Morsony, Brian


    Recent x-ray measurements of the Perseus Cluster intracluster medium (ICM) by the Hitomi Mission found a velocity dispersion measure of σ ˜ 150 km/s, indicating a large-scale turbulent energy of approximately 4% of the thermal energy. If this energy is transferred to small scales via a turbulent cascade and dissipated as heat, radiative cooling can be offset and the cluster can remain in its observed thermal equilibrium. We investigate the role of AGN feedback in turbulent heating of galaxy clusters. Specifically, we analyze the production of turbulence by g-modes generated by the supersonic expansion and buoyant rise of AGN-driven bubbles. Previous work has shown that this process is inefficient, with less that 1% of the injected energy ending up in turbulence. This inefficiency is primarily due to the fact that the bubbles are shredded apart by hydrodynamic instabilies before they can excite sufficiently strong g-modes. Using a plane-parallel model of the ICM and 3D ideal MHD simulations, we examine the role of a large-scale magnetic field which is able to drape around these rising bubbles, preserving them from hydrodynamic instabilities. We present results for a magnetic field perpendicular to our gravitational field as well as for a helical field geometry. We find that, while magnetic draping is able to better preserve AGN-driven bubbles and excite stronger g-modes, the production of turbulence is still inefficient. This fact is likely due to the magnetic tension force preventing the production of vortices in the ICM plasma. Our work shows that ideal MHD is an insufficient description for the cluster feedback process, and we discuss future work such as the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity as a means of simulating high β plasma kinetic effects.

  7. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.


    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  8. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore


    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  9. Stratigraphic test well, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts

    Folger, David W.; Hathaway, J.C.; Christopher, R.A.; Valentine, P.C.; Poag, C.W.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission and the Nantucket Conservation Foundation, continuously cored 514 m of sediment and volcanic rock in a stratigraphic and water-quality test near the geographic center of Nantucket Island. Stratified sediments were divided texturally into three zones: the upper zone (0-128 m) contains mostly coarse sand and gravel; the middle zone (128-349 m) contains mostly silty clay and a few beds of sand and silt; and the lower zone (349-457 m) contains soft, unconsolidated, clayey sand. Below the lower zone, a saprolite, composed mostly of clay, grades abruptly downward at 470 m into partially altered basalt that extends to the bottom of the hole at 514 m. Calculations based on the Ghyben-Herzberg principle predicted a zone of freshwater 120-150 m thick. This principle is the theory of hydrostatic equilibrium between freshwater and more dense seawater in a coastal aquifer; it states that for each meter of ground-water elevation above sea level, the freshwater lens will depress the saltwater interface about 40 m below sea level. Freshwater or low-salinity brackish water was found in sediments far below the depth predicted by the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. These interstitial waters are probably relict ground water emplaced during times of low sea level during the Pleistocene. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Magnetic Draping as a Possible Solution to Turbulent Heating of the ICM in Kinetic Mode AGN Feedback

    Bambic, Christopher; Reynolds, Christopher; Morsony, Brian


    Recent x-ray measurements of the Perseus Cluster intracluster medium (ICM) by the Hitomi Mission found a velocity dispersion measure of σ 150 km/s, indicating a large-scale turbulent energy of approximately 4 % of the thermal energy. If this energy is transferred to small scales via a turbulent cascade and dissipated as heat, radiative cooling can be offset and the cluster can remain in its observed thermal equilibrium. We investigate the role of AGN feedback, specifically the production of turbulence by g-modes generated by the supersonic expansion and buoyant rise of AGN-driven bubbles, in a plane-parallel model of the ICM using 3D ideal MHD simulations. We present results for a magnetic field perpendicular to the gravitational field as well as a helical field. We find that, while magnetic draping is able to better preserve AGN-driven bubbles and excite stronger g-modes, the production of turbulence is still inefficient. This fact is likely due to the magnetic tension force preventing the production of vortices in the ICM plasma. Our work shows that ideal MHD is an insufficient description for the cluster feedback process and we discuss future work such as the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity as a means of simulating high β plasma kinetic effects. NSF grant AST1333514

  11. Magnetic Field Pile-Up and Draping at Intermediately Active Comets: Results from Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 2.0 AU

    Koenders, C.; Goetz, C.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.


    The interaction between a comet and the impinging solar wind leads to modifications of the magnetic field in the environment of a comet. Among those one finds magnetic field pile-up and draping, which reveal properties of the interaction and are known from previous cometary spacecraft missions. This work studies the magnetic field configuration at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 2.0 AU. The data reveal a pile-up of the magnetic field and a draping signature nearly perpendicular to the original solar wind flow and the plane containing the solar wind flow and the interplanetary magnetic field. A comparison of the magnetic field data with a hybrid plasma simulation supports this idea of a plasma flow which is strongly deflected from the Sun-comet direction and which is in line with other plasma observations by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium.

  12. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor


    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  13. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Eocene Rock Strata, Offshore Indus, southwest Pakistan

    Khan, Natasha; Rehman, Khaista; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khokher, Jamil; Hajana, M. Iqbal; Hanif, M.


    In this study, seismic data from two wells (Pak G2-1 and Indus Marine-1C) and age diagnostic larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) within drill cuttings has been used for the first time to identify depositional sequences within the carbonates in the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. The Offshore Indus is tectonically categorized as a passive continental margin where carbonates occur as shelf carbonates in the near offshore and on volcanic seamounts in deeper waters. Seismic data analysis has indicated the presence of minor faults and carbonate buildups above the igneous basement in the south. Patterns of the seismic reflections enabled definition of three seismic facies units identified as: Unit 1 basement, represented by chaotic, moderate amplitude reflection configuration; while parallel bedding and the drape of overlying strata is typical character of Unit 2, carbonate mound facies. The younger Miocene channels represent Unit 3. The diagnosis of Alveolina vredenburgi/cucumiformis biozone confirmed the Ilerdian (55-52 Ma) stage constituting a second order cycle of deposition for the Eocene carbonates (identified as Unit 2). The carbonate succession has been mainly attributed to an early highstand system tract (HST). The environmental conditions remained favorable leading to the development of keep-up carbonates similar to pinnacle buildups as a result of aggradation during late transgressive system tract and an early HST. The carbonate sequence in the south (Pak G2-1) is thicker and fossiliferous representing inner to middle shelf depths based on fauna compared to the Indus Marine-1C in the north, which is devoid of fossils. Three biozones (SBZ 5, SBZ 6 and SBZ 8) were identified based on the occurrence of LBF. The base of the SBZ 5 zone marks the larger foraminifera turnover and the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary. The LBF encountered in this study coincides with earlier findings for the P-E boundary. Our findings indicate that the entire Ilerdian stage ranges from 55

  14. Stratigraphic and tectosedimentary characterization of the Meirama lignite deposit (Corunna)

    Garcia Aguilar, J.M.


    The litho stratigraphic unit succession in Meirama's Neogene basin suggests a complex tectosedimentary evolution. Diverse lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary environments, also great period of woodland development are indicated. The tectonic influence in the basin appears in diverse stages: pre-, syn- and post-sedimentary ones.

  15. Neoproterozoic–Cambrian stratigraphic framework of the Anti-Atlas and Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas), Morocco

    Alvaro, Jose Javier; Benziane, Fouad; Thomas, Robert; Walsh, Gregory J.; Yazidi, Abdelaziz


    In the last two decades, great progress has been made in the geochronological, chrono- and chemostratigraphic control of the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian from the Anti-Atlas Ranges and the Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas). As a result, the Neoproterozoic is lithostratigraphically subdivided into: (i) the Lkest-Taghdout Group (broadly interpreted at c. 800–690 Ma) representative of rift-to-passive margin conditions on the northern West African craton; (ii) the Iriri (c. 760–740 Ma), Bou Azzer (c. 762–697 Ma) and Saghro (c. 760?–610 Ma) groups, the overlying Anezi, Bou Salda, Dadès and Tiddiline formations localized in fault-grabens, and the Ouarzazate Supergroup (c. 615–548 Ma), which form a succession of volcanosedimentary complexes recording the onset of the Pan-African orogeny and its aftermath; and (iii) the Taroudant (the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary lying in the Tifnout Member of the Adoudou Formation), Tata, Feijas Internes and Tabanite groups that have recorded development of the late Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift. Recent discussions of Moroccan strata to select new global GSSPs by the International Subcommissions on Ediacaran and Cambrian Stratigraphy have raised the stratigraphic interest in this region. A revised and updated stratigraphic framework is proposed here to assist the tasks of both subcommissions and to fuel future discussions focused on different geological aspects of the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian time span.

  16. A New Numerical Solution of Fluid Flow in Stratigraphic Porous Media

    XU You-Sheng; LI Hua-Mei; GUO Shang-Ping; HUANG Guo-Xiang


    A new numerical technique based on a lattice-Boltzmann method is presented for analyzing the fluid flow in stratigraphic porous media near the earth's surface. The results obtained for the relations between porosity, pressure,and velocity satisfy well the requirements of stratigraphic statistics and hence are helpful for a further study of the evolution of fluid flow in stratigraphic media.

  17. Stratigraphic record of Holocene coseismic subsidence, Padang, West Sumatra

    Dura, Tina; Rubin, Charles M.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hawkes, Andrea; Vane, Christopher H.; Daryono, Mudrik; Pre, Candace Grand; Ladinsky, Tyler; Bradley, Sarah


    Stratigraphic evidence is found for two coseismic subsidence events that underlie a floodplain 20 km south of Padang, West Sumatra along the Mentawai segment (0.5°S-0.3°S) of the Sunda subduction zone. Each earthquake is marked by a sharp soil-mud contact that represents a sudden change from mangrove to tidal flat. The earthquakes occurred about 4000 and 3000 cal years B.P. based on radiocarbon ages of detrital plant fragments and seeds. The absence of younger paleoseismic evidence suggests that late Holocene relative sea level fall left the floodplain too high for an earthquake to lower it into the intertidal zone. Our results point to a brief, few thousand year window of preservation of subsidence events in tidal-wetland stratigraphic sequences, a result that is generally applicable to other emergent coastlines of West Sumatra.

  18. SAS program for quantitative stratigraphic correlation by principal components

    Hohn, M.E.


    A SAS program is presented which constructs a composite section of stratigraphic events through principal components analysis. The variables in the analysis are stratigraphic sections and the observational units are range limits of taxa. The program standardizes data in each section, extracts eigenvectors, estimates missing range limits, and computes the composite section from scores of events on the first principal component. Provided is an option of several types of diagnostic plots; these help one to determine conservative range limits or unrealistic estimates of missing values. Inspection of the graphs and eigenvalues allow one to evaluate goodness of fit between the composite and measured data. The program is extended easily to the creation of a rank-order composite. ?? 1985.

  19. Depositional, diagenetic and stratigraphic aspects of microfacies from Riachuelo Formation, Albian, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    Caio Vinícius Gabrig Turbay


    Full Text Available The rocks of the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, represent an example of carbonate sedimentation related to the drift phase during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The Carapeba and Brejo quarries exhibit the best onshore outcrops of the drift carbonate section along the Brazilian continental edge. Field studies and microfacies analysis of the outcropped sedimentary section showed six sedimentary deposits related to the physiography of a carbonate shelf. Proximal mixed deposits are represented by the rich-terrigenous dolostone. Levels with alternate layers of fine grained sandstones and siltstones are here related to distal facies of submarine fans deposits. Mudstones with miliolids and textularids represent a lagoonal environment in a semi-restricted middle shelf. Packstones, grainstones and occasionally wackestones with oncoids, intraclasts and peloids represent sedimentary deposits related to the back of shallow sandy bars and environments at the interface with the lagoon. Grainstones whit ooliths, oncoids, intraclasts and bioclasts, with trough cross-bedding, represent a shallower shoreface environment over the shallow carbonate back on outer shelf. Cements and other post- depositional features suggest four different diagenetic environments: a marine phreatic diagenetic environment with active water circulation; b marine phreatic diagenetic environment with stagnant water; c freshwater phreatic diagenetic environment; d burial diagenetic environment. The sedimentary succession is formed by shallowing upward cycles overlain by a possible transgressive surface, which may indicate the passage of a lowstand to a transgressive system tract.

  20. Lanthanides Revealing Anthropogenic Impact within a Stratigraphic Sequence

    Gianni Gallello


    Full Text Available Difficulties to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural processes in the formation of archaeological deposits are crucial for a correct interpretation not only of the actions involved in the development of archaeological sites, but also of their occupation-abandonment dynamics and the understanding of their spatial behaviors and relationship with the environment. We have carried out lanthanides (rare earth elements “REE” analysis to distinguish anthropogenic from natural stratigraphic units in sediments using the advantage of the high sensibility, precision, and accuracy of ICP-MS measurements. In the Neolithic site of Mas d’Is (Alacant, Spain, we have applied REE analysis in a huge stratigraphic sequence called Pit 6, which was known to contain a large anthropogenic component. Randomly collected soil samples were sequentially taken in order to identify anthropogenic soil formations and to prove the proposed method blind testing has been used. In the specific case of Mas d’Is excavation a recurring question is whether paleosols are at the origin of the human occupation of the sites or it was the occupation of this areas which triggered the paleosols development. Our purpose was to distinguish the degree of human contribution to paleosols formation between samples sequentially taken at few centimeters of distances in a giant stratigraphic sequence (Pit 6 employing REE analysis.

  1. Impact of surface disinfection and sterile draping of furniture on room air quality in a cardiac procedure room with a ventilation and air-conditioning system (extrusion airflow, cleanroom class 1b (DIN 1946-4)).

    Below, Harald; Ryll, Sylvia; Empen, Klaus; Dornquast, Tina; Felix, Stefan; Rosenau, Heike; Kramer, Sebastian; Kramer, Axel


    In a cardiac procedure room, ventilated by a ventilation and air-conditioning system with turbulent mixed airflow, a protection zone in the operating area could be defined through visualization of airflows. Within this protection zone, no turbulence was detectable in the room air.Under the given conditions, disinfection of all surfaces including all furniture and equipment after the last operation and subsequent draping of furniture and all equipment that could not be removed from the room with sterile surgical drapes improved the indoor room air quality from cleanroom class C to cleanroom class B. This also allows procedures with elevated requirements to be performed in room class 1b.

  2. Nominal aspect

    Rijkhoff, Jan


    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  3. Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa.

    Foote, M; Raup, D M


    The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of

  4. Stratigraphic-structural characteristics of Mačva basin

    Carević Ivana


    Full Text Available The analysis of stratigraphic-structural features of Mačva basin had been conducted in this paper on the basis of data obtained with deep exploratory boring performed for the needs of hydrogeothermal research project for the purpose of identifying the reserves of geothermal energy of Mačva. The research has been carried out with the aim of finding out the relation between the Tertiary and its Triassic bedrock (Ladinian and Carnian stages in which process the considerable realistic image of paleorelief (the bedrock of Tertiary deposits was obtained.

  5. Alaskan Peninsula Cenozoic stratigraphy: stratigraphic sequences and current research

    Allison, R.C.; Armentrout, J.M.


    Geology of the Alaska Peninsula-Island Arc and Continental Margin, by C.A. Burk, is the principal reference for stratigraphic studies on the Alaska Peninsula. Burk mapped the Phanerozoic stratigraphy and provided a geologic history and structural interpretation of the area between Wide Bay and Unimak Island. Cenozoic rocks were mapped as three unconformity-bounded sequences. Recognition of specific formations was difficult due to similarity of lithofacies, isolated outcrops, rapid facies changes, and alteration and burial by young volcanics. Consequently, megafossil assemblages were relied upon to facilitate correlations between study areas. The three unconformity-bounded Cenozoic sequences are: (1) the Paleogene Beaver Bay Group consisting of three formations: the dominantly nonmarine Tolstoi Formation, the dominantly marine Stepovak Formation, and the volcanic Meshik Formation. Current work suggests these units are at least in part coeval facies of late Paleocene through Oligocene age. (2) The Neogene Bear Lake Formation consisting of the lower Unga Conglomerate Member and an unnamed upper member. Rapid facies changes and incorrect reports of fossil occurrence have resulted in confusion of stratigraphic relationships within this sequence of middle to late Miocene age. (3) A late Neogene informally defined upper sequence consisting of interbedded marginal marine, coastal-plain, and volcanic facies. Current work suggests this sequence is Pliocene through Pleistocene in age.

  6. Venusian extended ejecta deposits as time-stratigraphic markers

    Izenberg, Noam R.


    Use of impact crater ejects at time-stratigraphic markers was established during lunar geologic mapping efforts. The basic premise is that the deposition of impact ejecta, either by itself or mixed with impact-excavated material, is superimposed on a surface. The deposit becomes an observable, mappable unit produced in a single instant in geologic time. Up to two-thirds of Venus craters exhibit extended ejecta deposits. A reconnaissance survey of 336 craters (about 40 percent of the total population) was conducted. About half the craters examined were located in and around the Beta-Atla-Themis region, and half were spread over the western hemisphere of the planet. The survey was conducted using primarily C1-MIDR images. The preliminary survey shows: (1) of the 336 craters, 223 were found to have extended ejecta deposits. This proportion is higher than that found in other Venus crater databases by up to a factor of 2. (2) 53 percent of all extended ejecta craters were unambiguously superimposed on all volcanic and tectonic units. Crater Annia Faustina's associated parabolic ejecta deposit is clearly superimposed on volcanic flows coming from Gula Mons to the west. Parabola material from Faustina has covered the lava flows, smoothing the surface and reducing its specific backscatter cross section. The stratigraphy implies that the parabola material is the youngest observable unit in the region. (3) 12 percent of extended ejecta deposits are superimposed by volcanic materials. Crater Hwangcini has extended ejecta that has been covered by volcanic flows from a dome field to the northwest, implying that the volcanic units were emplaced subsequent to the ejecta deposit and are the youngest units in the locality. (4) It is difficult to determine the stratigraphic relationships of the remaining extended ejecta deposits in SAR at C1-MIDR resolution. Examination of higher resolution images and application of the other Magellan datasets in systematic manner should resolve

  7. Drilling rate for the Cerro Prieto stratigraphic sequence

    Prian C, R.


    Drilling practice at the field has been modified in several ways as better information is being obtained. The stratigraphic sequence of the area is made up of three sedimentary rock units of deltaic origin having different densities. These units have been named non-consolidated, semi-consolidated, and consolidated rocks; the thermal reservoirs are located in the latter. To investigate how the drilling rates are affected by the three rock units, plots of drilling advance versus time were made for a large number of wells. A typical plot is shown and drilling rates are practically constant in three different zones; that is, the drilling rate has only two breaks or changes in slope.

  8. Seismic attenuation of the inner core: Viscoelastic or stratigraphic?

    Cormier, V.F.; Xu, L.; Choy, G.L.


    Broadband velocity waveforms of PKIKP in the distance range 150??to 180??are inverted for inner core attenuation. A mean Q?? of 244 is determined at 1 Hz from 8 polar and 9 equatorial paths. The scatter in measured Q-1 exceeds individual error estimates, suggesting significant variation in attenuation with path. These results are interpreted by (1) viscoelasticity, in which the relaxation spectrum has a low-frequency corner near or slightly above the frequency band of short-period body waves, and by (2) stratigraphic (scattering) attenuation, in which attenuation and pulse broadening are caused by the interference of scattered multiples in a velocity structure having rapid fluctuations along a PKIKP path. In the scattering interpretation, PKIKP attenuation is only weakly affected by the intrinsic shear attenuation measured in the free-oscillation band. Instead, its frequency dependence, path variations, and fluctuations are all explained by scattering attenuation in a heterogeneous fabric resulting from solidification texturing of intrinsically anisotropic iron. The requisite fabric may consist of either single or ordered groups of crystals with P velocity differences of at least 5% and as much as 12% between two crystallographic axes at scale lengths of 0.5 to 2 km in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation and longer in the cylindrically radial direction, perpendicular to the axis of rotation.Broadband velocity waveforms of PKIKP in the distance range 150?? to 180?? are inverted for inner core attenuation. A mean Q?? of 244 is determined at 1 Hz from 8 polar and 9 equatorial paths. The scatter in the measured Q-1 exceeds individual error estimates, indicating significant variation in attenuation with path. The results are interpreted by viscoelasticity and stratigraphic (scattering) attenuation.

  9. Observations on the stratigraphic chart and the tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the Sergipe and Alagoas basins, Brazil; Observacoes sobre a carta estratigrafica e a evolucao tectono-sedimentar das bacias de Sergipe e Alagoas

    Mohriak, Webster U.; Bassetto, Marcelo; Vieira, Ines S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Interpretacao de Novas Fronteiras


    The objective of this paper is to discuss the stratigraphic chart of the Sergipe and Alagoas basins, considering tectonic aspects. For this purpose, a mega-regional analysis of quite a wide seismic network, integrated with gravitational and magnetic data, as well as analogies with other sedimentary basins, is used. In the first part, the tectonic-sedimentary evolution and the principal un conformities shown on the stratigraphic chart are discussed; in the second part, the possible occurrence of halokinesis in deep waters in the Sergipe and Alagoas basins is discussed, analyzing conceptual models and analogies with other sedimentary basins. Finally, a proposed tectonostratigraphic chart is shown, which includes the modifications discussed. (author)

  10. Influence of water and sediment supply on the stratigraphic record of alluvial fans and deltas: Process controls on stratigraphic completeness

    Straub, Kyle M.; Esposito, Christopher R.


    contains the most complete record of information necessary to quantitatively reconstruct paleolandscape dynamics, but this record contains significant gaps over a range of time and space scales. These gaps result from stasis on geomorphic surfaces and erosional events that remove previously deposited sediment. Building on earlier statistical studies, we examine stratigraphic completeness in three laboratory experiments where the topography of aggrading deltas was monitored at high temporal and spatial scales. The three experiments cover unique combinations in the absolute magnitudes of sediment and water discharge in addition to generation of accommodation space through base-level rise. This analysis centers on three time scales: (1) the time at which a record is discretized (t), (2) the time necessary to build a deposit with mean thickness equivalent to the maximum roughness on a surface (Tc), and (3) the time necessary for channelized flow to migrate over all locations in a basin (Tch). These time scales incorporate information pertaining to the time-variant topography of actively changing surfaces, kinematics by which the surfaces are changing, and net deposition rate. We find that stratigraphic completeness increases as a function of t/Tc but decreases as a function of Tc/Tch over the parameter space covered in the experiments. Our results suggest that environmental signals disconnected from a sediment routing system are best preserved in systems with low Tc values. Nondimensionalizing t by Tc, however, shows that preservation of information characterizing system morphodynamics is best preserved in stratigraphy constructed by systems with low water to sediment flux ratios.

  11. Quaternary glacial records in mountain regions:A formal stratigraphical approach

    P.D.Hughes; P.L.Gibbard; J.C.Woodward


    Glacial deposits in locally-glaciated mountain regions are often expressed through their surface form and the study of these deposits constitutes a major branch of geomorphology. Studies of glacial depositional records in mountain areas have often neglected formal stratigraphical procedure resulting in an ad hoc development of quasi-stratigraphical nomenclature. Here, a formal stratigraphical procedure is recommended, since this enables a systematic approach to the subdivision of glacial deposits in mountain regions. Moreover, such an approach facilitates, in some instances, the development of a formal chronostratigraphy that can be compared to regional and global geological time scales. This is important in locally-glaciated mountain regions where glacial deposits represent one of the most important records of cold stage environments. Given that glacial landforms represent a key component of the Quaternary record, maintaining a formal link between geomorphological and geological stratigraphical procedure is a fundamental requirement of a consistent and comparable stratigraphical framework.

  12. Assessing Biological and Stratigraphic Determinants of Fossil Abundance: A Case Example from the Late Quaternary of Po Plain, Italy

    Kowalewski, Michal; Azzarone, Michele; Kusnerik, Kristopher; Dexter, Troy; Wittmer, Jacalyn; Scarponi, Daniele


    sequence stratigraphy, facies architecture, and paleontological data, can provide insights regarding both stratigraphic (the origin of sedimentary biofabrics) and biological (the drivers of bio-productivity and observed biodiversity) aspects of the fossil record.

  13. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    Ewing, T.E. [Frontera Exploration Consultants, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[Venus Oil Co., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  14. Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.


    Effective natural hazard mitigation requires that the science surrounding geophysical events be thoroughly explored. With millions of people living on the flanks of volcanoes, understanding the parameters that effect volcanic behavior is critically important. In particular, basements can influence the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and landslides. This control by the substrate on volcano behavior usually has been considered questionable or less important than the conditions of the deep magma source. However, due to recent findings, this view is changing, specifically with regard to approaches in assessing volcanic hazards. The November 2005 AGU Chapman Conference ``Effects of Basement, Structure, and Stratigraphic Heritages on Volcano Behavior'' brought together geologists and geophysicists from North and South America, Europe, and Asia to discuss the results of their research on the reciprocal effects of the interaction between volcanos and their basements. The conference also highlighted the importance of holding Chapman conferences in developing countries such as the Philippines because many hazardous volcanos are situated in these countries. Apart from having natural field laboratories, these are the very same places that need to promote scientific discourse on volcano research, which can lead to more effective hazard mitigation programs.

  15. Aeolian Sediment Transport Integration in General Stratigraphic Forward Modeling

    T. Salles


    Full Text Available A large number of numerical models have been developed to simulate the physical processes involved in saltation, and, recently to investigate the interaction between soil vegetation cover and aeolian transport. These models are generally constrained to saltation of monodisperse particles while natural saltation occurs over mixed soils. We present a three-dimensional numerical model of steady-state saltation that can simulate aeolian erosion, transport and deposition for unvegetated mixed soils. Our model simulates the motion of saltating particles using a cellular automata algorithm. A simple set of rules is used and takes into account an erosion formula, a transport model, a wind exposition function, and an avalanching process. The model is coupled to the stratigraphic forward model Sedsim that accounts for a larger number of geological processes. The numerical model predicts a wide range of typical dune shapes, which have qualitative correspondence to real systems. The model reproduces the internal structure and composition of the resulting aeolian deposits. It shows the complex formation of dune systems with cross-bedding strata development, bounding surfaces overlaid by fine sediment and inverse grading deposits. We aim to use it to simulate the complex interactions between different sediment transport processes and their resulting geological morphologies.

  16. Numerical modelling of riverbed grain size stratigraphic evolution

    Peng HU; Zhi-xian CAO; Gareth PENDER; Huai-han LIU


    For several decades, quantification of riverbed grain size stratigraphic evolution has been based upon the active layer formulation (ALF), which unfortunately involves considerable uncertainty. While it is the sediment exchange across the bed surface that directly affects the riverbed stratigraphy, it has been assumed in the ALF that the sediment fraction at the lower interface of the active layer is a linear function of the sediment fraction in the flow. Here it is proposed that the sediment fraction of the sediment exchange flux is used directly in estimating the sediment fraction at the lower surface of the active layer. Together with the size-specific mass conservation for riverbed sediment, the modified approach is referred to as the surface-based formulation (SBF). When incorporated into a coupled non-capacity modelling framework for fluvial processes, the SBF leads to results that agree as well or better than those using ALF with laboratory and field observations. This is illustrated for typical cases featuring bed aggradation and degradation due to graded bed-load sediment transport. Systematic experiments on graded sediment transport by unsteady flows are warranted for further testing the modified formulation.

  17. Application of soil-stratigraphic techniques to engineering geology

    Shlemon, R.J.


    Soil-stratigraphic techniques are being increasingly applied to engineeringgeological investigations for siting liquified natural gas (LNG) facilities, nuclear reactors, dams, and other critical structures. Soil (pedological) profiles in Quaternary sections are useful to ascertain the approximate age of sitearea sediments, to reconstruct local geomorphic history, to date the last movement of faults, and in some cases to determine recurrence intervals of displacements associated with faults or large mass-movements. Exemplified in geotechnical investigations for a proposed LNG terminal near Point Conception (Little Cojo Bay), California, soil stratigraphy was employed to date last displacement of site-area faults, to estimate age of marine platforms, and to help reconstruct regional geomorphic history. Similarly, at the General Electric Test Reactor (GETR) site near Livermore (Vallecitos), California, soil stratigraphy was instrumental to date last displacement and recurrence of site-area slip surfaces engendered either by tectonic or by mass-wasting processes. Datable markers included four, strongly-developed buried paleosols, each of which marked epochs of regional landscape stability during the Quaternary.

  18. A Proposed Time-Stratigraphic System for Protoplanet Vesta

    Williams, David; Jaumann, Ralf; McSween, Harry; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Chris


    The Dawn Science Team completed a geologic mapping campaign during its nominal mission at Vesta, including production of a 1:500,000 global geologic map derived from High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) images (70 m/pixel) [1] and 15 1:250,000 quadrangle maps derived from Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) images (20-25 m/pixel) [2]. In this abstract we propose a time-stratigraphic system and geologic time scale for the protoplanet Vesta, based on global geologic mapping and other analyses of NASA Dawn spacecraft data, supplemented with insights gained from laboratory studies of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites and geophysical modeling. Our time-stratigraphic system for Vesta relates the geologic map (rock) units identified from geologic mapping to a series of time-rock units and corresponding time units that define a geologic time scale for Vesta. During the Dawn nominal mission it became clear that the south pole of Vesta hosts two large impact basins, the older Veneneia superposed by the younger Rheasilvia [3,4]. Two separate sets of large ridges and troughs were identified, one set encircling much of Vesta equatorial region (Divalia Fossae), and the other preserved in the heavily cratered northern terrain (Saturnalia Fossae). Structural analysis of these ridge-and-trough systems demonstrated that they are likely a tectonic response to the formation of the south polar basins: the Rheasilvia impact led to the formation of the Divalia Fossae, the Veneneia impact led to the Saturnalia Fossae [3,5]. Crater counts provide cratering model ages for the Rheasilvia impact of ~3.6 Ga and ~1 Ga, and ages for the Veneneia impact of ~3.8 Ga and >2.1 Ga using the lunar-derived and asteroid flux-derived chronologies, respectively. Despite the differences in absolute ages, it is clear that these two large impact events had global effects, and thus delineate the major periods of Vesta's geologic history. Zones of heavily cratered terrain (HCT: [6,7]) in the northern

  19. Investigation of a Major Stratigraphic Unconformity with the Curiosity Rover

    Lewis, K. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Rubin, D. M.


    Since its departure from the plains of Aeolis Palus, the Curiosity rover has traversed through a number of new geologic units at the base of Mount Sharp in Gale crater. These have included both units inferred to comprise the lower strata of Mount Sharp itself, along with units that appear to superpose Mount Sharp. Over the last 100 sols, Curiosity has documented several occurrences of a stratigraphic contact between fine-grained mudstones of the Murray Formation, and coarser sandstones of the overlying Stimson Unit. Detailed mapping from both orbital and rover image and topographic data suggests an unconformable relationship between the two units. From orbit, inferred exposures of the unconformity span at least several tens of meters, climbing up the lowermost slopes of Mount Sharp. Although the absolute timing of the two units is poorly constrained, this unconformity between likely represents a geologically significant gap in time. Deposition of the overlying Stimson Unit is inferred to post-date the large-scale erosion of Mount Sharp, likely requiring late stage aqueous interaction in the lithification of the Stimson Unit. From the rover, stereo imaging reveals the small-scale topography preserved at the Murray-Stimson contact, and allows the determination of bedding geometries within the units. Where laminations are expressed, the basal Mount Sharp rocks exhibit planar stratification at low angles to horizontal. In contrast, the coarser-grained Stimson Unit exhibits large-scale cross stratification. Three dimensional bedding geometry within this unit indicates a predominant southward transport direction uphill towards Mount Sharp. The observation of rounded calcium sulfate clasts in the lowermost Stimson Unit, interpreted to be reworked veins from the underlying Murray formation, supports the interpretation of an erosional unconformity. Investigations at the boundary between these two distinct units present a unique opportunity to probe the long

  20. Simulation modeling of stratigraphic sequences along the Louisiana offshore

    Kendall, C.G.S.C. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA)); Lowrie, A.


    Sequence stratigraphic analysis of a representative (schematic) dip seismic section along the Louisiana offshore reveals 4th order (Milankovitch) sea-level cycles within 3rd order sequences. This representative line is characteristic of a dip section along the western area where progradation has exceeded subsidence by multifold since the upper Miocene, the last 6.7 m.y., and by twofold through the rest of the Miocene, back to at least 22 m.y. ago. Lowstands cause the outer shelf to act as a sediment bypass zone with shelf deposition during highstands. Salt-sediment interaction is isostatic, the adjustments occurring principally during lowstands. This interpreted stratigraphy has been simulated on an interactive computer program (SEDPAK) developed at the University of South Carolina. SEDPAK erects models of sedimentary geometries by filling in a two-dimensional basin from both sides with a combination of clastic sediment and/or in situ and transported carbonate sediments. Data inputs include the initial basin configuration, local tectonic behavior, sea-level curves, and the amount and source direction of clastic sediment as a function of water depth. The modeled geometries of clastic sediments evolve through time and respond to depositional processes that include tectonic movement, eustasy, sedimentation, sediment compaction, and isostatic response, sedimentary bypass, erosion, and deposition in various physiographic settings such as coastal plains, continental shelf, basin slope, and basin floor. The computer simulation allows for a quantification of the various processes noted and described in the interpretation. Sedimentation rates, isostatic adjustment, and tectonic movement are given in cm/year. Simulation modeling of sequence stratigraphy is seen as a next logical step in the quest for detailed and quantified interpretations.

  1. Geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical factors which influence repository design in the bedded salt environment

    Ashby, J.P.; Nair, O.; Ortman, D.; Rowe, J.


    This report describes the geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical considerations applicable to repository design. The topics discussed in the report include: tectonic activity; geologic structure; stratigraphy; rock mechanical properties; and hydrologic properties.

  2. Current status of chrono stratigraphic units named from Belgium and adjacent areas

    Léon Dejonghe


    @@ The recommendations of the InternationalCommission on Stratigraphy edited in 1976by Hedberg and in 1994 by Salvador havegenerally been well accepted by the Belgiancommunity of geologists as represented bynational stratigraphic subcommissions set upunder the Belgian National Committee ofGeological Sciences. However, the applica-tion of these recommendations has takensome time and the need has been felt for doc-uments to synthesise the current situationregarding stratigraphic units named fromBelgium and adjacent areas.

  3. Resource Potential and Exploration Techniques of Stratigraphic and subtle Reservoirs in China

    JiaChengzao; ChiYingliu


    The onshore oil and gas exploration has stepped into a new stage in China, with equal attention paid to both stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs and structural reservoirs. In the past few years, the increases in oil reserves in most basins were found mainly in the stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs. Latest resource evaluation shows that the onshore stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs in China account for 42% of the total remaining resource, the highest in the four major exploration regions. Therefore, these reservoirs will be the most practical, potential and prevalent fields for long-lasting oil and gas exploration in onshore China. Among PetroChina's annual oil geologic reserves of 4.3 X 10sty4.6 X 10st, the stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs account for more than 50%. In such basins as Songliao, Ordos, Bohai Bay, Junggar, Tarim, Sichuan and Erlian basins, stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs with geologic reserves ranging from 5 X 107t to 3 X 10st were discovered, including Ansai, Jing'an, Daqingzijing, Liuxi, well-21 area in Shinan, and Hadexun. Stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs in the four types of inland basins differ from each other in the formation conditions and the distribution patterns. While continental basins are controlled by unconformity surface, maximum flooding surface and fracture surface, the Paleozoic marine basins are influenced by paleouplift, unconformity surface, and fluctuation of the sea level. Through exploration practices and research, PetroChina has formed its own technique series focused on 3-D seismics and sequence stratigraphy.

  4. Stratigraphic Correlation of Middle Triassic Sequences among Different Paleogeographic Sedimentary Facies in South China


    Affected by the Indosinian movement, the sediments in the main part of South China, Yangtzeplatform, started to transform from marine to continental during the Middle Triassic. In the meantime, a noticeable paleogeographic and sedimentary facies differentiation occurred in the marginal regions of the platforms and produced completely different lithologic and paleontologicsequences in various paleogeographic gradients and sedimentary facies areas, which brought about the difficulties for the stratigraphic correlation based on the traditional stratigraphies. This paper proposes to use some characteristic environmental events as the markers of the stratigraphic corre lation across various paleogeographic sedimentary facies, considering that some distinctive regionalenvironmental events should have affected at the same time on the entire basin or the connectedsedimentary regions and produced some closely related sedimentary records in the stratigraphic sequences though the affected intensity and recorded pattern might be different among the regions.The change of violent relative sea level (generally water depth) and the alteration of tectonic activity summarized from the dynamic mechanism of sedimentation are the best markers of environmental events for stratigraphic correlation. Based on the analysis and recognition of some significantenvironmental events at the typical stratigraphic sequences from various paleogeographic sedimentary facies and combined with the consideration of the variations in expressed form and strength fthe events among different paleogeographic gradients and sedimentary facies, the stratigraphic sequences from different sedimentary facies can be easily correlated directly. Furthermore, the evolutionary history of the whole sedimentary basin can be clearly established.

  5. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution in South Alboran Sea (Morocco)

    D'Acremont, E.; Gorini, C.; El Abbassi, M.; Farran, M.; Leroy, S.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Migeon, S.; Poort, J.; Ammar, A.; Smit, J.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.; Scientific Team of the Marlboro project


    The Alboran Basin, in western Mediterranean, concentrates on a relatively small surface and densely-populated, a large structural complexity linked to seismic activity with recurrent mass-transport deposits that may trigger tsunamis. It was formed by Oligo-Miocene extension while tectonic inversion occurred since the Late Miocene (Tortonian) due to the African-European collision. This North-South compression produces a conjugated fault system located in the central area from Al Hoceima to Andalusia. Numerous instabilities are linked to the recent and present-day seismic activity and show the link between seismicity and erosion-sedimentation processes. On the Andalusia margin the active structures have been identified and recently mapped in detail by using MBES data (including backscatter), and high-resolution seismic data. Such detailed studies have not yet been carried out on the Moroccan margin. The Marlboro-1 oceanographic cruise (R/V Côtes de la Manche, July 2011) has imaged and constrained active structures and associated sedimentary systems through seismic reflection data (MCS). The Xauen/Tofino banks (growth folds), the Alboran Ridge, and the Al Hoceima basin offshore Morocco have been selected because they constitute key-study areas that record a complete deformation history since the Tortonian. Active features including faults, growth folds, channels, mass transport deposits, contourites and volcanoes has provided first order tectonic and sedimentary markers of the basin's evolution. A high chrono-stratigraphical resolution will constitute the basis for reconstructing the evolution of this tectonically active area marked by strong seismic activity. The Marlboro-1 cruise will allow determining key-study area of the Marlboro-2 cruise scheduled for 2012 (R/V Téthys-II, CNFC Call). These cruises should allow for the acquisition of data necessary to characterize basin morphology, active tectonic and sedimentary structures and also make the link with existing

  6. Magnetized Jets Driven by the Sun, the Structure of the Heliosphere Revisited: Consequences for Draping of BISM ahead of the HP and Time Variability of ENAs

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Zieger, B.; Michael, A.; Toth, G.; Swisdak, M.; Gombosi, T. I.


    Recently we proposed (Opher et al. 2015) that the structure of the heliosphere might be very different than we previously thought. The classic accepted view of the heliosphere is a quiescent, comet-like shape aligned in the direction of the Sun's travel through the interstellar medium (ISM) extending for thousands of astronomical units. We have shown, based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, that the tension force of the twisted magnetic field of the Sun confines the solar wind plasma beyond the termination shock and drives jets to the north and south very much like astrophysical jets. These heliospheric jets are deflected into the tail region by the motion of the Sun through the ISM. As in some astrophysical jets the interstellar wind blows the two jets into the tail but is not strong enough to force the lobes into a single comet-like tail. Instead, the interstellar wind flows around the heliosphere and into the equatorial region between the two jets. We show that the heliospheric jets are turbulent (due to large-scale MHD instabilities and reconnection) and strongly mix the solar wind with the ISM. The resulting turbulence has important implications for particle acceleration in the heliosphere. The two-lobe structure is consistent with the energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the heliotail from IBEX where two lobes are visible in the north and south and the suggestion from the Cassini ENAs that the heliosphere is "tailless." The new structure of the heliosphere is supported by recent analytic work (Drake et al. 2015) that shows that even in high β heliosheath the magnetic field plays a crucial role in funneling the solar wind in two jets. Here we present these recent results and show that the heliospheric jets mediate the draping of the magnetic field and the conditions ahead of the heliopause. We show that reconnection between the interstellar and solar magnetic field both at the flanks of the jets and in between them twist the interstellar magnetic

  7. Draped aeromagnetic survey in Transantarctic Mountains over the area of the Butcher Ridge igneous complex showing extent of underlying mafic intrusion

    Behrendt, John C.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.A.; Kyle, P.; Wilson, T.J.


    A draped aeromagnetic survey over the area surrounding the Butcher Ridge igneous complex (BRIC), Transantarctic Mountains, was acquired in 1997-1998 as part of a larger Transantarctic Mountains Aerogeophysical Research Activity survey. The BRIC is a sill-like hypoabyssal intrusion ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite. An 40Ar/39 Ar age of 174 Ma and the chemical character of the basaltic rocks show the BRIC to be part of the widespread Jurassic Ferrar suite of continental tholeiitic rocks, that extends for 3500 km across Antarctica. The aeromagnetic survey shows a horseshoe-shaped pattern of anomalies reaching amplitudes as great as 1900 nT generally associated with the bedrock topography where it is exposed. It is apparent that the high-amplitude anomaly pattern is more extensive than the 10-km-long exposed outcrop, first crossed by a single 1990 aeromagnetic profile. The highest-amplitude anomalies appear south of the profile acquired in 1990 and extend out of the survey area. The new aeromagnetic data allow determination of the extent of the interpreted Butcher mafic(?) intrusion beneath exposures of Beacon sedimentary rock and ice in the area covered, as well as beneath the small BRIC exposure. The magnetic anomalies show a minimum area of 3000 km2, a much greater extent than previously inferred. Magnetic models indicate a minimum thickness of ???1-2 km for a horizontal intrusion. However, nonunique models with magnetic layers decreasing in apparent susceptibility with depth are consistent with of a 4- to 8-km-thick layered intrusion. These magnetic models indicate progressively deeper erosion of the interpreted mafic-layered body from the south to north. The erosion has removed more magnetic upper layers that mask the magnetic effects of the lower less magnetic layers. The probable minimum volume of the intrusion in the area of the survey is ???6000 km3. An alternate, but less likely, interpretation of a series of dikes can also fit the

  8. Regulatory aspects

    Stern, Arthur M.


    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  9. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)


    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  10. The Serra da Cangalha impact structure, Brazil: Geological, stratigraphic and petrographic aspects of a recently confirmed impact structure

    Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.


    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with an apparent diameter of 13.7 km located in essentially undisturbed sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin in northeastern Brazil. The stratigraphy of the crater region includes, from bottom to top, the Longá, Poti, Piauí and Pedra de Fogo formations of Devonian to Late Permian age. The age of the impact event is constrained to shatter cones from the central depression. Furthermore, significant cementation with iron oxide is observed in the rocks of Serra da Cangalha, especially in the Poti Formation and in the polymict breccias, conferring to them a peculiar red color. Macroscopic deformation involves faulted, folded and subvertical strata within a ˜2.9 km radius from the center. (ii) The annular basin domain has limited outcrops; its most prominent features are two concentric annular ridges formed by chert breccias and fossilized wood-bearing folded strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation. (iii) The crater rim and (iv) external domains comprise undisturbed strata of the Pedra de Fogo and Piauí formations with well-preserved sedimentary structures. Whilst the existing literature on Serra da Cangalha has focused on the structure morphology, general geology and some shock features, we present here a detailed description of the stratigraphy and the geology of each formation in the interior and around Serra da Cangalha, as well as further detailed microscopic shock feature analysis. This provides significant evidence that the rocks of the central uplift have undergone shock pressures of, at maximum, 10 GPa.

  11. A preliminary guidebook for identifying stratigraphic contacts at the Nevada Test Site

    Pawloski, G.A.; McKague, H.L.; Wagoner, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States)


    Lithologic variation, regional depositional trends, and the lack of written guidelines have resulted in inconsistencies in the recognition of stratigraphic contacts in drill holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Stratigraphic identification, based on mineralogy of discrete samples, can be augmented by geophysical logs and downhole movies to more accurately and consistently locate contacts between units. Criteria are established for locating the base of the Pahute Mesa ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks bedded tuff, and the top and the base of the Rainier Mesa Tuff.

  12. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Last, George V.


    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  13. Comparative studies in method for stratigraphical structure measurement of ice cores: Identification of cloudy bands

    Morimasa Takata; Hitoshi Shoji; Atsushi Miyamoto; Kimiko Shimohara


    Cloudy bands are typical stratigraphic structure in deep ice core.Detailed recording of cloudy bands is important for dating of ice core since pair of series cloudy band and clear layer is corresponds to annual layer and it sometimes corresponds to volcanic ash layer.We developed two type scanners, transmitted light method and laser tomograph method for the stratigraphic study.Measurements were carried out for NGRIP deep ice core, which containing many cloudy bands, using the two type scanners and digital camera.We discussed about the possibility of identification of cloudy bands by each method and about advantage and disadvantage of measurements and their results.

  14. Stratigraphical and micropaleontological data on the tertiary of Southern Piemont (Northern Italy)

    Vervloet, C.C.


    During the years 1959-1963 stratigraphical investigations were carried out in Southern Piemont (Northern Italy) along five traverses, taken at right angles to the strike of the strata, which range in age from Eocene to Pliocene. These sections are important in that they include the rype sections of

  15. The stratigraphic positions of the Wadi Dukhan and Al Uwayliah formations, northeast Libya – a review

    Tmalla, A.F.A.


    The stratigraphic positions of the Wadi Dukhan and Al Uwayliah formations are reviewed. Diagnostic Maastrichtian larger foraminiferal species from the Wadi Dukhan Formation in well B7 – 41 (Cyrenaica) and in well U2 – 6 (northeastern Sirt Basin) are illustrated for the first time. These species are

  16. A stratigraphical framework for Miocene (MN4-MN13) continental sediments of Central Spain

    Daams, Remmert; Alcalá, Luis; de los Angeles Alvarez Sierra, María; Azanza, Beatriz; Arie van Dam, Jan; van der Meulen, Albert-Jan; Morales, Jorge; Nieto, Manuel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Soria, Dolores


    New bio- and magnetostratigraphic data from the Miocene continental sediments of Central Spain are used to update the existing stratigraphical framework. Our revised record is based on the study of more than two hundred mammal faunas, ranging from the Late Ramblian (ca 18 Ma) to the Late Turolian (ca 6 Ma).

  17. Shearing along faults and stratigraphic joints controlled by land subsidence in the Valley of Queretaro, Mexico

    Carreón-Freyre, D.; Cerca, M.; Ochoa-González, G.; Teatini, P.; Zuñiga, F. R.


    Slip of nearly vertical faults or horizontal stratigraphic joints has provoked the shearing of at least 16 well casings in a period of over 10 years in the Valley of Queretaro aquifer, Mexico. Evidence integrated from field observations, remote surface-deformation monitoring, in-situ monitoring, stratigraphic correlation, and numerical modeling indicate that groundwater depletion and land subsidence induce shearing. Two main factors conditioning the stress distribution and the location of sheared well casings have been identified: (1) slip on fault planes, and (2) slip on stratigraphic joints. Additionally, the distribution of piezometric gradients may be a factor that enhances shearing. Slip on faults can be generated either by the compaction of sedimentary units (passive faulting) or by slip of blocks delimited by pre-existing faults (reactivation). Major piezometric-level declines and the distribution of hydraulic gradients can also be associated with slip at stratigraphic joints. Faults and hydraulic contrasts in the heterogeneous rock sequence, along with groundwater extraction, influence the distribution of the gradients and delimit the compartments of groundwater in the aquifer. Analogue modeling allowed assessment of the distribution of stress-strain and displacements associated with the increase of the vertical stress. Fault-bounded aquifers in grabens are common in the central part of Mexico and the results obtained can be applied to other subsiding, structurally controlled aquifer systems elsewhere.

  18. Neoproterozoic variations in the C-isotopic composition of seawater: stratigraphic and biogeochemical implications.

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H


    The recent proliferation of stratigraphic studies of delta 13C variation in carbonates and organic C in later Neoproterozoic and basal Cambrian successions (approximately 850-530 Ma) indicates a strong oscillating trend in the C-isotopic composition of surface seawater. Alone, this trend does not adequately characterize discrete intervals in Neoproterozoic time. However, integrated with the vectorial signals provided by fossils and Sr-isotopic variations, C isotope chemostratigraphy facilitates the interbasinal correlation of later Neoproterozoic successions. Results of these studies are evaluated in terms of four stratigraphic intervals: (1) the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary, (2) the post-Varanger terminal Proterozoic, (3) the late Cryogenian, and (4) the early Cryogenian. Where biostratigraphic or radiometric data constrain the age of Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences, secular variations in C and Sr isotopes can provide a level of stratigraphic resolution exceeding that provided by fossils alone. Isotopic data place strong constraints on the chemical evolution of seawater, linking it to major tectonic and paleoclimatic events. They also provide a biogeochemical framework for the understanding of the initial radiation of macroscopic metazoans, which is associated stratigraphically, and perhaps causally, with a global increase in the burial of organic C and a concomitant rise of atmospheric O2.

  19. The stratigraphic positions of the Wadi Dukhan and Al Uwayliah formations, northeast Libya – a review

    Tmalla, A.F.A.


    The stratigraphic positions of the Wadi Dukhan and Al Uwayliah formations are reviewed. Diagnostic Maastrichtian larger foraminiferal species from the Wadi Dukhan Formation in well B7 – 41 (Cyrenaica) and in well U2 – 6 (northeastern Sirt Basin) are illustrated for the first time. These species are

  20. The rationale for an integrated stratigraphic framework of the upper rotliegend II depositional system in The Netherlands

    Ojik, K. van; Böhm, A.R.; Cremer, H.; Geluk, M.C.; Jong, M.G.G. de; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Djin Nio, S.


    Due to the nature of the depositional environment and most importantly the lack of (bio) stratigraphic control, it remains difficult to establish a robust and reliable stratigraphic framework for the Upper Rotliegend which can be used as a guideline to better understand the internal architecture. Th

  1. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano


    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  2. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Agullo, Y.


    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  3. Paleogene Tectonic Evolution Controls on Sequence Stratigraphic Patterns in the Fushan Sag, Northern South China Sea

    Guanhong Wang; Hua Wang; Huajun Gan; Entao Liu; Cunyin Xia; Yingdong Zhao; Shanbin Chen; Chengcheng Zhang


    Tectonism is of extreme importance to sequence stratigraphic patterns in continental sedimentary basins, affecting both the architectures and internal makeup of sequences. Sequence stratigraphic framework of the Paleogene system in the Fushan sag, northern South China Sea, was built using 3D and 2D seismic data, complemented by drilling cores and well logs data. One first-order, three second-order and seven third-order sequences were identified. Analysis of paleotectonic stress field, unconformities and subsidence history showed that the Paleogene tectonic evolution presented significant characteristics of multistage and episode, and can be divided into three stages: rifting stage I (initial rifting period), rifting stage II (rapid subsidence period), rifting stage III (fault-depressed diver-sionary period). Partition of the west and east in tectonic activity was obvious. The west area showed relatively stronger tectonic activity than the east area, especially during the rifting stage II. Episodic rifting and lateral variations in tectonic activity resulted in a wide variety of structural slope break belts, which controlled both the sequence architectures and interval makeup, and strongly constrained the development of special facies zones or sand bodies that tended to form hydrocarbon accumulation. This paper classifies the genetic types of slope break belts and their relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns within the Fushan sag, and further discusses the tectonic evolution controls on sequence stratigraphic patterns, which suggests that vertical evolution paths of structural slope break belts and relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns as a response to the Paleogene tectonic evolution were strongly controlled by sag margin types and lateral variations of tectonic activity.

  4. Stratigraphic Division and Correlation of the Nihewan Beds by Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    岳军; 蒋明媚


    Described in paper is the principle of optimal partitioning method for stratigraphic division and correlation.The Nihewan Beds are taken for example to show how to apply this approach in stratigraphic division and correlation.The semiquantitative spectral analysis data on aggregate trace elements in 324 samples taken from the nine sections in the Nihewan Basin are treated with multivariate statistical method for stratigraphic division and correlation.First ,the data from all the sections are respectively calculated by the optimal partitioning method to establish the stratigraphic boundaries.The optimal partitioning method has proved itself to be applicable to stratigraphic division and correlation. In our practice the Nihewan Beds are divided into five zones (I-V).Zone I includes subzones Ia and Ib,Zones Ia,Ib,II and III are considered to be corresponding to the Pliocene(N2),the early Early Pleistocene,the late Early Pleistocene,and the Middle Pleistocene,respectively .Zones IV and V are probably Late Pleistocene in age.This indicated that sediments deposited con-temporaneous in the sections of the same basin are similar in geochemical characteristics,although dif-ferent in geographical location.However,the sediments also show some variations ,with a transitional relationship from one section to another .For example ,in Zone II,the sediments of the Xiaodukou section show not only the characteristics of the Nangou-Hongya and Hutouliang sections,but also those of the Xiashagou,Shixiaxi,Shixiadong and Wulitai sections.It can be seen from the above that the zones can be characteristically correlated with one another.In addition the feasibility of the optimal partitioning method is also described in the present paper.

  5. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik


    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  6. Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M.T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.


    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

  7. AspectKE*

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki


    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  8. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.


    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material.

  9. Seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay, South America

    Stoakes, F.A.; Campbell, C.V. (Stoakes Campbell Geoconsulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Cass, R. (Arvec Consulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Ucha, N. (ANCAP, Montivideo (Uruguay))


    The Punta del Este part of the greater Salado basin is relatively unexplored with only two wells having been drilled, both in the updip part of the basin. These two wells have contributed some understanding of the stratigraphic succession but have failed to adequately assess the basin's true hydrocarbon potential. This paper constitutes one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of this basin and is a prerequisite for future exploration in the area. In this paper, the authors give the results and major conclusions of a regional seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay. This paper is one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of this basin. The study area covers approximately 15,000 km{sup 2} (5,790 mi{sup 2}) of the continental shelf, from the shoreline to the 200-m (655-ft) shelf isobath.

  10. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.


    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material.

  11. Modelling biogeochemical-stratigraphic dynamics of clinoform successions over geological timescales

    Legarth, Jens Jakob Fosselius; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    An understanding of the processes-dynamics governing the development of submarine fine grained clinoforms relies often on correlation of proxies (grain-size trends, spectral gamma, microfossils, TOC, d13C etc.) to more proximal settings where relative sea-level changes are more easily detected...... are investigated with our novel dynamic biogeochemical-stratigraphic model which explicitly calculates sediment and biogeochemical tracer erosion and deposition over multi-kilo-years. In the model organic and uranium enrichment in the distal clinoform develops as a transgressive nature. As a result part...... the dynamic biogeochemical-stratigraphic models to our global carbon-nutrient cycle model will permit investigation of how marine productivity indicators and d13C can be use to refine the interpretations of submarine clinoform development and as correlation tools....

  12. Carbon isotopic changes: a stratigraphic tool for the last 350 ka in the East Mediterranean

    Glacon, G.; Vergnaud, C.; Grazzini


    High resolution biostratigraphy of Late Pleistocene Mediterranean cores allows to identify the disturbed sequences of the sedimentary records. For those sequences of the cores which are not disturbed, changes in the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios recorded by planktonic foraminifera are stratigraphically correlatable. Combined to the changes in /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios they allow to date microfaunal events with a precision better than 7,000 years. This precision will be improved in the future.

  13. The role of integrated high resolution stratigraphic and geophysic surveys for groundwater modelling

    Margiotta, S.; Mazzone, F.; S. Negri; Calora, M.


    This work sets out a methodology of integrated geological, hydrogeological and geophysical surveys for the characterization of contaminated sites. The flow model of the shallow aquifer in the Brindisi area (recognized to be at significant environmental risk by the Italian government) and the impact of an antrophic structure on the groundwater flow have been evaluated. The stratigraphic and hydrogeological targets used for the calibration phase of the flow model provide a means of assessing ca...

  14. Biostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic relationships of Upper Carboniferous conodont and foraminifer distribution, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Henderson, Charles M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Pinard, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Beauchamp, B. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology


    The distribution of conodonts (CMH) and small foraminifers (SP) were documented in 2 Upper Carboniferous stratigraphic sections from the Sverdrup Basin. Conodont zonation was correlated with zones from the Russian platform. This finding is supported by ammonoid (Nassichuk and Henderson, 1986) and fusulinacean (Nassichuk and Rui Lin, 1992) data. It was found that facies control of conodonts and small foraminifers must be accounted for when making interregional correlations. The integration of biostratigraphic data with sequence stratigraphic data to reduce correlation pitfalls was demonstrated. Correlations between the Canadian Arctic and the Upper Moscovian to lower Gzhelian succession of the Russian Platform was discussed, with an emphasis on the Kasimovian. The base of the Kasimovian is recognizable by the close correspondence of the base of Streptognathodus gracilis-S. ippletus Zone and the Hemigordius Nodosinelloides-Protonodosaria Zone. Three foraminifer genera appear at this level with the absence of clear ancestors in underlying Moscovian strata. The underlying strata represent a speciation event in the genus Streptognathodus and Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian conodont lineage. Variations in species ranges between Canadian Arctic and Russian Platform may be related to variation of boundary positions within a stratigraphic sequence.

  15. Controls on sequence development and preservation offshore Namibia: Implications for sequence stratigraphic models and hydrocarbon prediction

    Bagguley, J.G. [Oxford Brookes Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom); Prosser, S. [Saga Petroleum, Sandvika (Norway)


    Regional seismic interpretation of the passive margin offshore Namibia has enabled a sequence stratigraphic framework to be established for this previously under-studied region. Within this framework potential hydrocarbon plays, for example the location of source, seal and reservoir rocks can be pinpointed. The history of sequence stratigraphic models suggests that the passive margin offshore Namibia should provide an ideal setting for applying and testing sequence stratigraphic concepts. Results from this study however suggest that alongside the documented controls in sequence stratigraphy (i.e. tectonics, eustacy and sediment flux), additional factors act to influence sequence development and preservation along this margin. Detailed seismic interpretation of the post rift section of the Namibian margin has led to the identification of a member of erosional and depositional events; for example, charmers, canyons and slumps. Seismic facies analysis allows causative mechanisms to be inferred for the different geometries observed. In addition, the recognition of characteristic seismic facies enables reservoir and non-reservoir targets to be identified, thus aiding the prediction of potential hydrocarbon plays. Backstripping studies provide further information as to the evolution of the Namibian margin. For example, estimates can be made regarding changes in the rates of tectonics and sedimentation and the relative importance of these factors on the development of the margin can be assessed.

  16. Controls on sequence development and preservation offshore Namibia: Implications for sequence stratigraphic models and hydrocarbon prediction

    Bagguley, J.G. (Oxford Brookes Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)); Prosser, S. (Saga Petroleum, Sandvika (Norway))


    Regional seismic interpretation of the passive margin offshore Namibia has enabled a sequence stratigraphic framework to be established for this previously under-studied region. Within this framework potential hydrocarbon plays, for example the location of source, seal and reservoir rocks can be pinpointed. The history of sequence stratigraphic models suggests that the passive margin offshore Namibia should provide an ideal setting for applying and testing sequence stratigraphic concepts. Results from this study however suggest that alongside the documented controls in sequence stratigraphy (i.e. tectonics, eustacy and sediment flux), additional factors act to influence sequence development and preservation along this margin. Detailed seismic interpretation of the post rift section of the Namibian margin has led to the identification of a member of erosional and depositional events; for example, charmers, canyons and slumps. Seismic facies analysis allows causative mechanisms to be inferred for the different geometries observed. In addition, the recognition of characteristic seismic facies enables reservoir and non-reservoir targets to be identified, thus aiding the prediction of potential hydrocarbon plays. Backstripping studies provide further information as to the evolution of the Namibian margin. For example, estimates can be made regarding changes in the rates of tectonics and sedimentation and the relative importance of these factors on the development of the margin can be assessed.

  17. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  18. Glaciotectonic deformation and reinterpretation of the Worth Point stratigraphic sequence: Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Vaughan, Jessica M.; England, John H.; Evans, David J. A.


    Hill-hole pairs, comprising an ice-pushed hill and associated source depression, cluster in a belt along the west coast of Banks Island, NT. Ongoing coastal erosion at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, has exposed a section (6 km long and ˜30 m high) through an ice-pushed hill that was transported ˜ 2 km from a corresponding source depression to the southeast. The exposed stratigraphic sequence is polydeformed and comprises folded and faulted rafts of Early Cretaceous and Late Tertiary bedrock, a prominent organic raft, Quaternary glacial sediments, and buried glacial ice. Three distinct structural domains can be identified within the stratigraphic sequence that represent proximal to distal deformation in an ice-marginal setting. Complex thrust sequences, interfering fold-sets, brecciated bedrock and widespread shear structures superimposed on this ice-marginally deformed sequence record subsequent deformation in a subglacial shear zone. Analysis of cross-cutting relationships within the stratigraphic sequence combined with OSL dating indicate that the Worth Point hill-hole pair was deformed during two separate glaciotectonic events. Firstly, ice sheet advance constructed the hill-hole pair and glaciotectonized the strata ice-marginally, producing a proximal to distal deformation sequence. A glacioisostatically forced marine transgression resulted in extensive reworking of the strata and the deposition of a glaciomarine diamict. A readvance during this initial stage redeformed the strata in a subglacial shear zone, overprinting complex deformation structures and depositing a glaciotectonite ˜20 m thick. Outwash channels that incise the subglacially deformed strata record a deglacial marine regression, whereas aggradation of glaciofluvial sand and gravel infilling the channels record a subsequent marine transgression. Secondly, a later, largely non-erosive ice margin overrode Worth Point, deforming only the most surficial units in the section and depositing a

  19. Revision of the late Carboniferous megaflora from the De Lutte-06 well (Twente, the Netherlands), and its stratigraphical implications

    Waveren, I.M. van; Abbink, O.A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van


    Biostratigrahical re-analysis of palaeobotanical data from the De Lutte-06 well clarifies an earlier controversy regarding the stratigraphical interpretation of this well based on palaeobotanical and palynological analysis. Previous biostratigraphical studies suggested an early Westphalian D age for

  20. Negative carbon isotopic excursion on the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary of Kaili Formation, Taijiang County,Guizhou Province, China: Implications for mass extinction and stratigraphic division and correlation

    YANG; Ruidong(杨瑞东); ZHU; Lijun(朱立军); WANG; Shijie(王世杰)


    The stratigraphic division and correlation of the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary is a global problem that has not yet been perfectly solved up to now. That is because there existed two global biogeographic regions during the period from Early Cambrian to Middle Cambrian. Although much work has been done from the angle of paleontology and great achievements have been acquired in this aspect, no biological assemblage has yet been established for global stratigraphic correlations due to the coexistence of the two global biogeographic regions -- the Atlantic biogeographic region and the Indian-Pacific biogeographic region during the Early-Middle Cambrian. So, to develop and establish other approaches to the stratigraphic division and correlation of the Lower/Middle Cambrian on a global scale is a possible way to solve the puzzling problem. This work systematically studied acritarch fossils from the Early-Middle Cambrian Kaili Formation at Taijiang County, Guizhou Province. The Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary was divided in terms of acritarch fossil assemblage. The divided boundary is generally consistent with what was divided by trilobite and can be correlated with the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundaries divided by acritarch assemblage in Siberia and Europe. On this basis, the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary is divided in terms of an obvious carbon isotopic excursion on a global scale during the transitional period from Early Cambrian to Middle Cambrian boundaries in Siberia and North America. The method for the stratigraphic division and correlation of the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary in terms of carbon isotopic oscillations is helpful to solving the global problem on the division and correlation of the Lower/Middle Cambrian boundary. It is also evidenced that the extinction of a lot of trilobites at the end of Early Cambrian is closely related with this event of carbon isotopic excursion.

  1. Aspect and Reference time

    Borik, O.


    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  2. Testing the impact of stratigraphic uncertainty on spectral analyses of sedimentary time series

    Martinez, Mathieu; Kotov, Sergey; De Vleeschouwer, David; Pas, Damien; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian


    Spectral analysis has become a key tool for identifying the imprint of astronomical forcing on sedimentary records. In a next step, the identified cycles often contribute to the construction of a precise Geological Time Scale and to an in-depth understanding of past climate changes. Most of spectral analyses (Fast Fourier Transforms, the Multi-Taper Method…) require a constant sample step. Unfortunately, an equally spaced geological data series is, in practice, nearly impossible to obtain from field sedimentary series. Usually, there is a 10% uncertainty on the field measurements of the stratigraphic thickness within sedimentary series. Hence, important uncertainties exist in the actual position of each sample. Another source of uncertainty are errors in a time-space model. In this study, we explore the impact that the stratigraphic uncertainty on the sample position has on the result of spectral analyses. To simulate this uncertainty, we developed a model based on Monte Carlo randomisation of the distance between each successive point. In this way, the stratigraphic order of the data points is not affected after implementing this model. The application of this model to a theoretical sinusoid series and to several real sedimentary series shows that uncertainties in the actual position of samples can highly reduce the spectral powers of the frequencies ranging from the Nyquist Frequency up to 1/10 of the Nyquist Frequency. We then demonstrate that the precise reconstruction of the Milankovitch cycles in the sedimentary record requires a higher sampling density than previously suggested with, at least, 10 samples per thinnest cycle to be detected, i.e. 10 samples per precession cycle.

  3. Rare earth elements stratigraphic significance in late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong; BAO Miao


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are good geological indicators. In order to understand REEs stratigraphic significance, REEs m Late Permian coal measure from Bijie City, western Guizhou Province, China were studied. The results showed that the contents of both light rare earth element (LREE) and ∑ REE were sharply increased in the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which resulted from the gyration and discontinuity eruption of Emeishan basalt (REEs source) and frequent transgression-regression during forming coal. The coal measure and strata could be subdivided and correlate, and the sea-level change could be under stood by studying REEs content variation in coal measure.

  4. Lower Cretaceous turbidites of the Moray Firth: sequence stratigraphical framework and reservoir distribution

    Jeremiah, J.M. [Nederlandse Ardolie Maatschappij B.V., Assen (Netherlands)


    Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of the Moray Firth are influenced by eustatic sea-level oscillations which have been dramatically overprinted by two major phases of pulsed tectonism, the Late Cimmerian and Austrian. The biostratigraphical resolution obtained has allowed the timing and differentiation of distinct tectonic/sequence boundaries, some of which are utilized as important seismo-stratigraphic markers. The construction of detailed facies maps for individual sequences has, in parallel, allowed an insight into the tectonic history of the main source areas during the Early Cretaceous. (Author)

  5. Full 3-D stratigraphic inversion with a priori information: a powerful way to optimize data integration

    Grizon, L.; Leger, M.; Dequirez, P.Y.; Dumont, F.; Richard, V.


    Integration between seismic and geological data is crucial to ensure that a reservoir study is accurate and reliable. To reach this goal, there is used a post-stack stratigraphic inversion with a priori information. The global cost-function combines two types of constraints. One is relevant to seismic amplitudes, and the other to an a priori impedance model. This paper presents this flexible and interpretative inversion to determine acoustic impedances constrained by seismic data, log data and geologic information. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The stratigraphic distribution of large marine vertebrates and shell beds in the Pliocene of Tuscany

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Danise, Silvia


    The record of 337 shark fossils, 142 cetaceans and 10 sea cows from the Pliocene of Tuscany, mostly from historical museum collections, is revised. The majority of these fossils are concentrated at a few geographic sites from separated hinterland basins, on the South-Western side of the Northern Apennines. To better understand the meaning of these concentrations, the sequence stratigraphic distribution of more recent findings of large marine vertebrates is reconstructed against a high-resolution framework based on sedimentary facies analysis. These remains are usually covered by, or included in mudstones deposited far from the coast (N=12), skeletons being usually articulated, slightly displaced, and often bioeroded. A minor part of better preserved articulated skeletons is associated with sandstones from deltaic paleonenvironments (N=2). Marine mammal and shark remains may be associated with laterally-continuous shell accumulations, a type of concentration occurring at maximum flooding surfaces, separating relatively coarse-grained facies from open marine mudstones. Shell beds were bulk-sampled at 66 locations from six basins, covering a wide range of sedimentary facies, and spanning a chronologic interval of about 2.5 million years. A dataset of 62,655 mollusc specimens belonging to 496 species formed the basis of a statistical study to reconstruct the structure of the benthic communities, and to estimate paleodepths from intertidal to upper bathyal settings. Mollusc associations closely mirror the distribution of sedimentary facies, allowing for a fine tuning of the sequence stratigraphic architecture. Merging paleogeographic, stratigraphic and paleoecologic data, we conclude that the more abundant and diverse accumulations of large vertebrates took place in settings under the influence of coastal upwelling. A modern analogue occurs today in the Ligurian Sea, on the Tuscan offshore, where abundant nutrients carried by deep-marine currents of Western origin

  7. Stratigraphic Implications of Skeletal Microfossils from the Cambrian of Korea: A Preliminary Report

    Byung-Su LEE


    Diverse small shelly fossils and other associated fossils were recently recovered from the Cambrian Hanaeri section, southwestern Mungyeong, Korea. The fauna includes conoidal problematica, poriferans (sponge spicules), coeloscleritophorans (chancelloriids), brachiopods, monoplacophorans, trilobite (?) fragments, echinoderms, and conodonts. A preliminary assessment of fauna! associations, Stratigraphic implications, and the correlation of these skeletal fossils is given, based on occurrences of Actinotheca cf. mira (He), Microcornus sp., Torellela laevigata (Linnarsson), Torellela sp., Archiasterella quadratina Lee, Chancelloria sp., Lingulella sp., Prototreta sp., Phakelodus tennis (Miiller), Phakelodus elongates (An), Hertzina sp., and Furnishina sp.

  8. Stratigraphic control on earthquake-induced liquefaction: A case study from the Central Po Plain (Italy)

    Amorosi, A.; Bruno, L.; Facciorusso, J.; Piccin, A.; Sammartino, I.


    Studies on earthquake-induced liquefaction tied to high-resolution stratigraphic analysis have been rarely undertaken. We report the results of a multidisciplinary study from the Quistello-Moglia area, in the central Po Plain (northern Italy). In this region, combined stratigraphic, sedimentological, geotechnical, and geochemical data allowed assessment of liquefaction potential and identification of the primary source for liquefaction, following the second main shock (Mw 6) of the 2012 Po Plain earthquake. Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based simplified procedures for liquefaction hazard evaluation, we assessed the highest liquefaction potential of Holocene, fluvial-channel and related (crevasse/levee) fine sand-silt facies encased in thick, mud-prone floodplain and swamp successions. The liquefaction potential, and the intensity of the manifestations induced on the ground surface, decreased for the vertically-amalgamated, sheet-like Pleistocene sandy fluvial units encountered at depths greater than 13 m. Floodplain and swamp deposits were virtually non-liquefiable. In the Quistello area, the compositional characterization of sands that were liquefied and extruded during the 2012 earthquake reveals the diagnostic geochemical fingerprint of sediment carried by the Po River, as opposed to the Apennine composition of surficial sediments. These data rule out proximity of liquefied layers to the surface, and attest the buried, meandering Po River system at depths of 7-10 m most likely representing the source for the liquefied sand that vented to the surface. Similarly, at Moglia, liquefied sands were likely sourced from loose and saturated, ribbon-shaped, fluvial sand bodies encased in mud, though at shallower (4-7 m) depths. Pronounced liquefaction phenomena in alluvial plain systems are commonly believed to be associated primarily with elongate topographic ridges following paleo-river courses. Here, we document that under favorable stratigraphic conditions

  9. Testing the impact of stratigraphic uncertainty on spectral analyses of sedimentary series

    Martinez, Mathieu; Kotov, Sergey; De Vleeschouwer, David; Pas, Damien; Pälike, Heiko


    Spectral analysis is a key tool for identifying periodic patterns in sedimentary sequences, including astronomically related orbital signals. While most spectral analysis methods require equally spaced samples, this condition is rarely achieved either in the field or when sampling sediment core. Here, we propose a method to assess the impact of the uncertainty or error made in the measurement of the sample stratigraphic position on the resulting power spectra. We apply a Monte Carlo procedure to randomise the sample steps of depth series using a gamma distribution. Such a distribution preserves the stratigraphic order of samples and allows controlling the average and the variance of the distribution of sample distances after randomisation. We apply the Monte Carlo procedure on two geological datasets and find that gamma distribution of sample distances completely smooths the spectrum at high frequencies and decreases the power and significance levels of the spectral peaks in an important proportion of the spectrum. At 5 % of stratigraphic uncertainty, a small portion of the spectrum is completely smoothed. Taking at least three samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow this cycle to be still observed in the spectrum, while taking at least four samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow its significance levels to be preserved in the spectrum. At 10 and 15 % uncertainty, these thresholds increase, and taking at least four samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow the targeted cycles to be still observed in the spectrum. In addition, taking at least 10 samples per thinnest cycle of interest should allow their significance levels to be preserved. For robust applications of the power spectrum in further studies, we suggest providing a strong control of the measurement of the sample position. A density of 10 samples per putative precession cycle is a safe sampling density for preserving spectral power and significance level in the

  10. Tectonic implications of Late Paleozoic stratigraphic distribution in Northeast China and adjacent region

    WANG ChengWen; SUN YueWu; LI Ning; ZHAO GuoWei; MA XiaoQin


    An analysis of the distribution of the Late Paleozoic strata on Northeast Chinaand adjacent region re-veals a zonal pattern of the distribution around the core of the Jiamusi-Mongolia Block. The main part of Late Paleozoic marine strata in this area is considered the continental margin deposits of the Jia-musi-Mongolia Block by analyzing the stratigraphic contact relationship, lithofacies, etc. The results are exhibited in a series of tectonic paleogeographic maps. This presents an important proof for the foundation of the Jiamusi-Mongolia Block, and confines the forming time of Jiamusi-Mongolia Block to the Late Silurian.

  11. Optimising AspectJ

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie


    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three...... all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1....

  12. Distinguishing allogenic from autogenic causes of bed elevation change in late Quaternary alluvial stratigraphic records

    Daniels, J. Michael


    Allogenic and autogenic mechanisms both cause changes in the bed elevation of rivers and thereby influence the characteristics of alluvial stratigraphic records (ASRs). Allogenic forcing mechanisms can be grouped into five categories whose relative influence varies with timescale: climate, tectonism, base level, land use/land cover and direct human modification of channels. Late Quaternary ASRs are influenced by the greatest range of allogenic forcing variables with climate among the most important. Autogenic mechanisms of bed elevation change are ubiquitous throughout fluvial systems and are always time-transgressive. Autogenic bed elevation change propagates through drainage networks at predictable rates and results in a time-space envelope within which its effects are capable of operating. ASRs that can be correlated over geographical areas large enough and time intervals small enough to exist outside this envelope most likely result from allogenic forcing. This formulation represents a quantitative and geographic set of threshold criteria for distinguishing between autogenic and allogenic mechanisms. Over late Quaternary timescales (10 2 to 10 5 years) in tectonically stable regions climate change is the dominant allogenic mechanism and, therefore, the first-order control on the morphology, sedimentology, pedologic characteristics and chronology of alluvial stratigraphic records that meet or exceed the threshold criteria for demonstrating allogenic causality.

  13. Stratigraphic Changes in the Pliocene Carnivoran Assemblage from Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument, Idaho

    Dennis R. Ruez


    Full Text Available At least 17 carnivoran taxa occur in the Pliocene Glenns Ferry Formation at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument (HAFO, Idaho. This assemblage was examined for stratigraphic changes in species distribution, specimen abundance, and species diversity. Three relatively common mustelids, Trigonictis cookii, Trigonictis macrodon, and Mustela rexroadensis, occur at most stratigraphic levels, but are absent during an interval coinciding with the coolest time segment at HAFO. It is within this gap that two less-common mustelids, Ferinestrix vorax and Buisnictis breviramus, first appear at HAFO; they persist up-section with the more common mustelids listed above. Specimens of Borophagus hilli are restricted to the warm intervals at HAFO, irrespective of the relative abundance of surface water. The other canid at HAFO, Canis lepophagus, is more abundant during the dry intervals at HAFO, regardless of the estimated paleotemperature. Most remarkable is the recovery of many taxa impacted by abrupt climate change, although a notable change is the much higher relative abundance of carnivoran species following a return to warm temperatures.

  14. More gaps than shale: stratigraphic incompleteness of marine shale successions using a Toarcian example

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J. P.


    Marine shale successions are probably the best archives of earth history. The degree of completeness of a marine shale succession is a critical factor in the interpretation of the geologic record of climatic, oceanic, and biogeochemical processes, in the prediction of timescales of those processes, in the determination of the duration of events, and in the establishment of correlations between successions. The sedimentation rates of marine shale successions are often calculated by dividing the thickness of a succession by the duration of the stratigraphic interval it occupies. Sedimentation rates calculated this way are always much lower than rates measured directly in equivalent modern environments. When we apply modern rates to the deposits left behind by their ancient equivalents, and correct for compaction due to overburden and time, we find that the entire succession can be deposited in a relatively short time. Since we know that the stratigraphic interval occupied by such ancient deposits is much longer, we must conclude that the succession is very incomplete. In this presentation, I will use a few different methods to show that 65 to >80% of the duration of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Yorkshire, U.K., is represented by gaps rather than shale. This means that the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event is not as short as proposed by authors who studied the cyclostratigraphy of the Yorkshire succession, and that it probably represents a much longer-term history of environmental change driven by processes acting on longer time scales.

  15. Global Snow Mass Measurements and the Effect of Stratigraphic Detail on Inversion of Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    Richardson, Mark; Davenport, Ian; Gurney, Robert


    Snow provides large seasonal storage of freshwater, and information about the distribution of snow mass as snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for hydrological planning and detecting climate change impacts. Large regional disagreements remain between estimates from reanalyses, remote sensing and modelling. Assimilating passive microwave information improves SWE estimates in many regions, but the assimilation must account for how microwave scattering depends on snow stratigraphy. Physical snow models can estimate snow stratigraphy, but users must consider the computational expense of model complexity versus acceptable errors. Using data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cold Land Processes Experiment and the Helsinki University of Technology microwave emission model of layered snowpacks, it is shown that simulations of the brightness temperature difference between 19 and 37 GHz vertically polarised microwaves are consistent with advanced microwave scanning radiometer-earth observing system and special sensor microwave imager retrievals once known stratigraphic information is used. Simulated brightness temperature differences for an individual snow profile depend on the provided stratigraphic detail. Relative to a profile defined at the 10-cm resolution of density and temperature measurements, the error introduced by simplification to a single layer of average properties increases approximately linearly with snow mass. If this brightness temperature error is converted into SWE using a traditional retrieval method, then it is equivalent to ±13 mm SWE (7 % of total) at a depth of 100 cm. This error is reduced to ±5.6 mm SWE (3 % of total) for a two-layer model.

  16. The history of Post-Miocene sea level change: Inferences from stratigraphic modeling of Enewetak Atoll

    Quinn, Terrence M.


    The history of post-Miocene sea level change has been investigated using a quantitative, one-dimensional stratigraphic forward model. The stratigraphic model produces synthetic stratigraphies, including mineralogy and sediment age versus depth, in response to changes in sea level, subsidence, sedimentation, and diagenesis. Model outputs, using sea level curves inferred from passive margin sequence stratigraphy and deep-sea foraminiferal oxygen isotope stratigraphy, were compared to the post-Miocene stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll. Modeling results support high-frequency (104 to 105 years) fluctuations of post-Miocene sea level. Post-Miocene sea level elevations significantly greater than modern sea level elevation are not easily reconciled with the stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll. Model/data fit is maximized when a rapid subsidence rate for Enewetak Atoll is used. Alternatively, model/data fit may be maximized using a lower subsidence rate for Enewetak and having post-Miocene sea level elevations significantly lower than modem sea level elevation. Given the present state of knowledge, much work is still needed to accurately decipher the record of post-Miocene sea level change.

  17. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea Basin in the last 25 Myrs

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; d'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Jabour, Haddou; Auxietre, Jean-Luc


    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been the subject of debate and considered either as a back-arc or a forearc basin. Stratigraphic analyses of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, enabled us to clarify the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB. The thick pre-rift sequence located beneath the Miocene basin is interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution from the Serravallian to the late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and in cross section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere hence explaining the considerable thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.




    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  19. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.


    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  20. Palaeobiology, palaeoecology and stratigraphic significance of the Late Miocene cockle Lymnocardium soproniense from Lake Pannon

    Magyar Imre


    Full Text Available Stratigraphic subdivision of the Upper Miocene deposits in the Pannonian Basin has been traditionally based on the endemic mollusc species of Lake Pannon. The cockle species Lymnocardium soproniense Vitális, apparently evolving through a sympatric speciation event in the sublittoral zone of Lake Pannon about 10.2-10.3 Ma, attained wide geographical distribution in the Pannonian basin and thus may serve as a good stratigraphic marker. Lymnocardium soproniense was one of the few large-sized cockles in Lake Pannon, most closely related to its ancestor, L. schedelianum (Fuchs, and to another descendant of the latter, L. variocostatum Vitális. According to the δ18O stable isotope record of its shells, the large size of L. soproniense was coupled with an extended life time of more than 10 years, probably reflecting a stable lake environment with increased resource availability and decreased predation. The species lived in quiet offshore conditions, below the storm wave base, where clay was deposited from suspension and the influence of currents was negligible. The base of the Lymnocardium soproniense Zone in the sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon is defined by the first occurrence of the species, whereas the top of the zone is marked with the base of the overlying Congeria praerhomboidea Zone, defined by the FAD of C. praerhomboidea.

  1. Geological Identification of Seismic Source at Opak Fault Based on Stratigraphic Sections of the Southern Mountains

    Hita Pandita


    Full Text Available Earthquake is one of the unpredicted natural disasters on our earth. Despite of the absence of high-accuracy method to precisely predict the occurrence of earthquake, numerous studies have been carried out by seismologists to find it. One of the efforts to address the vulnerability of a region to earthquakes is by recognizing the type of rock as the source of the earthquake. Opak Fault is an active fault which was thought to be the source of earthquakes in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. This study aimed to determine the seismic source types of rocks in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. The methods were by measuring stratigraphic sections and the layer thickness in the western part of Southern Mountains. Field study was done in 6 (six research sites. Results of stratigraphic measurement indicated the sedimentary rocks in the Southern Mountains was 3.823 km in thick, while the bedrock was more than 1.042 km in thick. Based on the result, the rock types as the seismic source were thought to originate from the continental crust rocks formed of granite and metamorphic complex.

  2. Discovering Early Aspects

    Baniassad, E.; Clements, P.; Araujo, J.; Moreira, A.; Rashid, A.; Tekinerdogan, B.


    Traditionally, aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) has focused on the software life cycle's implementation phase: aspects are identified and captured mainly in code. But aspects are evident earlier in the life cycle, such as during requirements gathering and architecture development. Identif

  3. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.


    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the softw

  4. Impact of internal and surgical therapy in rehabilitation ofhypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in middle-age and elderly population%内、外科治疗对中、老年幕上高血压脑出血患者康复效果的影响

    刘宏利; 佟加恩; 关小宏; 张中东


    Objective To observe the impact of internal and surgical therapy in prognosis of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in the middle-age and elders.Method According to amount of hemorrhage,740 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape were divided into 3 groups .Then,according to age and therapeutic methods,each group was divided into 4 groups. The mortality and clinical neurologic impairment socre after 3-month follow up were compared between groups.Result Mortality of internal middle-age and mild group were lower as compared with that of old-age group .Mortality and neurological impairment score of surgical middle-age group and moderate group were lower than those of internal middle-age and surgical old-age group.There was no significant difference in mortality between internal old-age and surgical groups.Neurological impairment scores of medicine groups were lower than those of surgey groups.Mortality and neurological impairment score of severe group,middle-age medicine and surgery groups were lower than those of old-age groups.Mortality and neurological impairment score of middl and old-age surgery groups were lower than those of internal groups.Conclusion Internal therapy is effective in treating mild to moderate hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in elders.For other patients,surgical treatment is suggested.

  5. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming


    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  6. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Kongyou WU; Douglas PATON; Ming ZHA


    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin.Based on data of outcrop,core,and samples,the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering,leaching,and onlap.At the same time,the structural body may be divided into three layers,including upper layer,mid layer,and lower layer.The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system,and also accumulates the hydrocarbon.The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock,the strength of which increases with depth.The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps.A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors.The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line,the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line,and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock.So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  7. Significance of Quaternary and Experimental Fluvial Systems to Interpretation of the Stratigraphic Record

    Blum, M. D.; Martin, J. M.


    Studies of Quaternary and experimental fluvial systems provide significant insight for interpretation of fluvial deposits in the stratigraphic record, ranging from measurement of processes and relevant scales of key architectural elements, to process-based understanding of fluvial systems in sequence stratigraphic models. One key advantage for Quaternary and experimental systems is they commonly provide the ability to test, in a classical verification or falsification sense, interpretations, models and their alternatives that were developed from the stratigraphic record alone. First, scaling relationships developed from Quaternary fluvial deposits can be utilized to constrain interpretations of ancient strata, as well as predict the scale of channel fills, channel-belt sand bodies, and incised valleys. Scaling relationships are defined by power laws, with absolute dimensions that scale to drainage area, water flux, and sediment flux. Width-to-thickness ratios for channel fills range from 10-20:1, whereas channel-belt sand bodies upstream from backwater effects commonly range from 70-300:1, and 20-40:1within the backwater zone, where channel migration is limited. Quaternary incised valleys range from 25-150 m in thickness, and ~5-100 km in width, with width-to-thickness ratios of ~500-800. Scales of Quaternary channel fills and channel-belt sand bodies overlap are consistent with compilations from the ancient record. However, even the smallest Quaternary incised valleys reside in the uppermost part of the domain of published ancient valleys, with ancient examples overlapping significantly with modern channel fills and channel belts. We suggest that many ancient examples have been overinterpreted because of a lack of objective criteria for differentiating channel fills, channel belts, and incised valleys. Second, incised valleys have long played a key role in sequence-stratigraphic interpretations. For incised valleys in the stratigraphic record, either in outcrop or

  8. Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Selenga Delta Accommodation Zone, Lake Baikal Rift, Siberia

    Scholz, C.A.; Hutchinson, D.R.


    Seismic reflection profiles from the Lake Baikal Rift reveal extensive details about the sediment thickness, structural geometry and history of extensional deformation and syn-rift sedimentation in this classic continental rift. The Selenga River is the largest single source of terrigenous input into Lake Baikal, and its large delta sits astride the major accommodation zone between the Central and South basins of the lake. Incorporating one of the world's largest lacustrine deltas, this depositional system is a classic example of the influence of rift basin structural segmentation on a major continental drainage. More than 3700 km of deep basin-scale multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data were acquired during the 1989 Russian and the 1992 Russian–American field programs. The seismic data image most of the sedimentary section, including pre-rift basement in several localities. The MCS data reveal that the broad bathymetric saddle between these two major half-graben basins is underlain by a complex of severely deformed basement blocks, and is not simply a consequence of long-term deltaic deposition. Maximum sediment thickness is estimated to be more than 9 km in some areas around the Selenga Delta. Detailed stratigraphic analyses of the Selenga area MCS data suggest that modes of deposition have shifted markedly during the history of the delta. The present mode of gravity- and mass-flow sedimentation that dominates the northern and southern parts of the modern delta, as well as the pronounced bathymetric relief in the area, are relatively recent developments in the history of the Lake Baikal Rift. Several episodes of major delta progradation, each extending far across the modern rift, can be documented in the MCS data. The stratigraphic framework defined by these prograding deltaic sequences can be used to constrain the structural as well as depositional evolution of this part of the Baikal Rift. An age model has been established for this stratigraphy, by

  9. A high resolution stratigraphic framework for the remarkable fossil cetacean assemblage of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, Peru

    Brand, Leonard; Urbina, Mario; Chadwick, Arthur; DeVries, Thomas J.; Esperante, Raul


    The Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru contains a rich marine vertebrate fossil record, providing a unique opportunity for the study of paleoecology and evolution, along with the sedimentological context of the fossils. The lack of a high-resolution stratigraphic framework has hampered such study. In this paper we develop the needed stratigraphy for the areas in the Pisco Formation where most of the vertebrate paleontological research is occurring. In the Ica Valley and in the vicinity of Lomas, series of lithologically or paleontologically unique marker beds were identified. These were walked out and documented with GPS technology. Measured sections connecting these marker beds provide a stratigraphic framework for the areas studied. GPS locations, maps of the marker beds on aerial photographs, and outcrop photographs allow field determination of the stratigraphic positions of study areas.

  10. Stratigraphic evolution of a long-lived submarine channel system in the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, British Columbia, Canada

    Bain, Heather A.; Hubbard, Stephen M.


    Submarine canyons and slope channel systems are important conveyers of sediment from uplifted catchments to oceanic sedimentary sinks. Long-lived conduits can be established through deep incision of submarine canyons, with bathymetric relief of hundreds of meters to greater than a kilometer in many instances. Alternatively, a combination of erosion of the continental slope and aggradation of levees can yield a broadly comparable stratigraphic product through evolution of channels with more subdued bathymetric relief. Despite differences in formative geomorphic elements on the paleo-seafloor, differentiating the stratigraphic architecture amongst these systems is challenging, particularly in outcrop datasets. Accurate stratigraphic interpretation has significant implications for understanding the frequency and magnitude of controlling processes such as mountain building and denudation or eustatic sea-level fluctuations. In this study, deep-water channel strata of the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group are examined at Hornby and Denman islands, British Columbia, Canada. Evidence for a long-lived submarine conduit records the history of sediment transfer at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The composite submarine channel system deposit is 19.5 km wide and 1500 m thick, which formed and filled over ~ 15 Ma. Facies scale analyses highlight conglomeratic channel fill juxtaposed against thin-bedded out-of-channel deposits. Erosional surfaces are commonly mantled by mass-transport deposits, which provide evidence for conduit wall reworking and maintenance. At a larger scale, a series of composite, conglomerate-prone channelform bodies are observed to stratigraphically stack in two distinct phases: (1) early persistence of laterally offset (migrated) channels; and (2) later vertically aligned and aggraded channels. This stratigraphic trend is comparable to composite, multi-phase degradational-aggradational submarine channel complexes observed globally. As such, we consider

  11. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.


    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  12. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.


    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  13. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.


    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  14. Paleontologic and stratigraphic relations of phosphate beds in Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

    Maughan, Edwin K.; Zambrano O., Francisco; Mojica G., Pedro; Abozaglo M., Jacob; Pachon P., Fernando; Duran R., Raul


    Phosphorite crops out in the Cordillera Oriental of the Colombian Andes in rocks of Late Cretaceous age as strata composed mostly of pelletal carbonate fluorapatite. One stratum of Santonian age near the base of the Galembo Member of the La Luna Formation crops out at many places in the Departments of Santander and Norte de Santander and may be of commercial grade. This stratum is more than one meter thick at several places near Lebrija and near Sardinata, farther south it is locally one meter thick or more near the base of the Guadalupe Formation in the Department of Boyaca. Other phosphorite beds are found at higher stratigraphic levels in the Galembo Member and the Guadalupe Formation, and at some places these may be commercial also. A stratigraphically lower phosphorite occurs below the Galembo Member in the Capacho Formation (Cenomanian age) in at least one area near the town of San Andres, Santander. A phosphorite or pebbly phosphate conglomerate derived from erosion of the Galembo Member forms the base of the Umir Shale and the equivalent Colon Shale at many places. Deposition of the apatite took place upon the continental shelf in marine water of presumed moderate depth between the Andean geosyncline and near-shore detrital deposits adjacent to the Guayana shield. Preliminary calculations indicate phosphorite reserves of approximately 315 million metric tons in 9 areas, determined from measurements of thickness, length of the outcrop, and by projecting the reserves to a maximum of 1,000 meters down the dip of the strata into the subsurface. Two mines were producing phosphate rock in 1969; one near Turmeque, Boyaca, and the other near Tesalia, Huila.

  15. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.


    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largestloilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  16. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.


    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largest oilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  17. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif


    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  18. Improved Stratigraphic Interpretation of Dense Lacustrine Carbonates from Lake Bonneville, UT

    Steponaitis, E.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.


    Recent work on the past hydroclimate of the Bonneville Basin has utilized dense, laminated carbonate deposits that formed beneath the surface of Lake Bonneville starting around 26 ka (McGee et al. 2012). These calcite and aragonite deposits form in calm, protected spaces that have been submerged by the lake, including hillside caves, cracks in bedrock, and interstitial spaces in tufa and abandoned beach gravel deposits. Dense lacustrine carbonates are very useful for paleoclimate studies because they can be used to develop continuous records of lake chemistry anchored by precise U-Th dates. However, many questions remain about the conditions in which these dense carbonates form: at what depth range do these carbonates form, and can basal and top ages help constrain the lake level curve? Do coeval carbonates formed at different depths in the lake preserve information about vertical gradients in lake water properties like δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr? To address these questions and others, this study examines a sequence of dense lacustrine carbonates deposited within bedrock, tufa, and abandoned shoreline gravels from Stansbury Island, UT. We use U-Th dating, local stratigraphic interpretations, and previously established lake level constraints to draw insights into the formation and context of these deposits. Improved understanding of dense lacustrine carbonates will facilitate more detailed and accurate interpretations of their stratigraphic significance, and ultimately, aid the development of improved paleoclimate records from Lake Bonneville and beyond. McGee, D., et al. 2012. Lacustrine Cave Carbonates : Novel Archives of Paleohydrologic Change in the Bonneville Basin (Utah , USA). Earth and Planetary Science Letters (351-352): 182-194.

  19. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor


    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  20. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin


    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of

  1. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.


    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  2. Investigation of stratigraphic mapping in paintings using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Karagiannis, Georgios Th.; Apostolidis, Georgios K.


    In this work, microRaman spectroscopy is used to investigate the stratigraphic mapping in paintings. The objective of mapping imaging is to segment the dataset, here spectra, into clusters each of which consisting spectra that have similar characteristics; hence, similar chemical composition. The spatial distribution of such clusters can be illustrated in pseudocolor images, in which each pixel of image is colored according to its cluster membership. Such mapping images convey information about the spatial distribution of the chemical substances in an object. Moreover, the laser light source that is used has excitation in 1064 nm, i.e., near infrared (NIR), allowing the penetration of the radiation in deeper layers. Thus, the mapping images that are produced by clustering the acquired spectra (specifying specific bands of Raman shifts) can provide stratigraphic information in the mapping images, i.e., images that convey information of the distribution of substances from deeper, as well. To cluster the spectra, unsupervised machine learning algorithms are applied, e.g., hierarchical clustering. Furthermore, the optical microscopy camera (×50), where the Raman probe (B and WTek iRaman EX) is plugged in, is attached to a computerized numerical control (CNC) system which is driven by a software that is specially developed for Raman mapping. This software except for the conventional CNC operation allows the user to parameterize the spectrometer and check each and every measurement to ensure proper acquisition. This facility is important in painting investigation because some materials are vulnerable to such specific parameterization that other materials demand. The technique is tested on a portable experimental overpainted icon of a known stratigraphy. Specifically, the under icon, i.e., the wavy hair of "Saint James", can be separated from upper icon, i.e., the halo of Mother of God in the "Descent of the Cross".

  3. Lessons that cross the surgical drapes.

    Kong, Ming-Li; Saunders, Peter


    Modern medicine has created a need for innovative methods of training that create safe, proficient specialists with adequate experience, and who are fit for purpose in this new system. Patient safety and patient-focused care are central to current practice and promoted by the use of simulation, human factors, team-based, multidisciplinary and interspecialty training. An acknowledgement that postgraduate training occurs within the work environment underlies the need to create systems that support learning within the workplace. Supervision, protected time for adequate induction and the opportunity to be involved in workplace learning are the key. It is also important that robust mechanisms to assure the quality of postgraduate education are in place. Available reports were researched, and the particularities of anaesthetic training were outlined and summarised. Then, in a translational approach, we examined how to apply the lessons learned from anaesthesiological training to surgical training. The trend towards reducing the working hours of junior doctors, whilst still providing excellent training, creates a need for innovative, efficient, concentrated training programmes, where trainers and trainees are engaged in a seamless, constant educational endeavour. Within this review we offer the system of anaesthetic training in the UK, and some of its recent changes, as a template to highlight themes in postgraduate education that exemplify this innovation and are transferable not only to surgery but across different specialties.

  4. Fracture in sheets draped on curved surfaces

    Mitchell, Noah P.; Koning, Vinzenz; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Irvine, William T. M.


    Conforming materials to rigid substrates with Gaussian curvature--positive for spheres and negative for saddles--has proven a versatile tool to guide the self-assembly of defects such as scars, pleats, folds, blisters, and liquid crystal ripples. Here, we show how curvature can likewise be used to control material failure and guide the paths of cracks. In our experiments, and unlike in previous studies on cracked plates and shells, we constrained flat elastic sheets to adopt fixed curvature profiles. This constraint provides a geometric tool for controlling fracture behaviour: curvature can stimulate or suppress the growth of cracks and steer or arrest their propagation. A simple analytical model captures crack behaviour at the onset of propagation, while a two-dimensional phase-field model with an added curvature term successfully captures the crack’s path. Because the curvature-induced stresses are independent of material parameters for isotropic, brittle media, our results apply across scales.

  5. Lexical and Grammatical Aspect

    van Hout, Angeliek; Lidz, Jeffrey; Snyder, William; Pater, Joe

    The temporality of a given situation ‘out there in the world’ can be described in many ways. Tense and aspect offer the essential parameters. Lexical aspect characterizes event descriptions; a situation with a sleeping child can be referred to as a state of affairs (be asleep) or as a happening

  6. Stratigraphical and structural setting of the Palaeogene siliciclastic sediments in the Dutch part of the North Sea Basin

    Lugt, I.R. de


    In this thesis, a detailed tectonic and stratigraphic reconstruction of the development of the southern part of the Late Palaeocene - Oligocene Dutch North Sea Basin is presented. The research concentrates on fault geometry and sedimentary architecture in response to tectonic activity. The aim of th

  7. Calc-alkaline lavas from the volcanic complex of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece : a petrological, geochemical and stratigraphic study

    Huijsmans, J.P.P.


    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-geochemical- and stratigraphic study of the calc-alkaline lavas from Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The volcanic complex of Santorini consists of seven eruption centres, of which some have been active contemporaneous. The eruption centres in the

  8. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro


    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  9. Petroleum system elements within the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Nigeria's inland basins: An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach

    Dim, Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton; Onuoha, K. Mosto; Okeugo, Chukwudike Gabriel; Ozumba, Bertram Maduka


    Sequence stratigraphic studies have been carried out using subsurface well and 2D seismic data in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Anambra and proximal onshore section of Niger Delta Basin in the Southeastern Nigeria. The aim was to establish the stratigraphic framework for better understanding of the reservoir, source and seal rock presence and distribution in the basin. Thirteen stratigraphic bounding surfaces (consisting of six maximum flooding surfaces - MFSs and seven sequence boundaries - SBs) were recognized and calibrated using a newly modified chronostratigraphic chart. Stratigraphic surfaces were matched with corresponding foraminiferal and palynological biozones, aiding correlation across wells in this study. Well log sequence stratigraphic correlation reveals that stratal packages within the basin are segmented into six depositional sequences occurring from Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age. Generated gross depositional environment maps at various MFSs show that sediment packages deposited within shelfal to deep marine settings, reflect continuous rise and fall of sea levels within a regressive cycle. Each of these sequences consist of three system tracts (lowstand system tract - LST, transgressive system tract - TST and highstand system tract - HST) that are associated with mainly progradational and retrogradational sediment stacking patterns. Well correlation reveals that the sand and shale units of the LSTs, HSTs and TSTs, that constitute the reservoir and source/seal packages respectively are laterally continuous and thicken basinwards, due to structural influences. Result from interpretation of seismic section reveals the presence of hanging wall, footwall, horst block and collapsed crest structures. These structural features generally aid migration and offer entrapment mechanism for hydrocarbon accumulation. The combination of these reservoirs, sources, seals and trap elements form a good petroleum system that is viable

  10. Stratigraphic evidence of past fluvial activity in southern Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars

    Davis, Joel; Grindrod, Peter


    During the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods, listric faulting led to the development of a series of hanging depressions throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system [1]. One such depression, situated on the southern wall of Melas Chasma, forms an enclosed basin which has since undergone modification from the late Hesperian to Amazonian. There is a multitude of evidence suggesting that the basin (hereon in referred to as the Southern Melas Chasma Basin; SMCB) was once host to active fluvial processes, that at minimum lasted for several hundred years [2,3]. Central to this is what appears to be the remains of a palaeolake, which is approximately 80 by 40 kilometres in area. The palaeolake contains a complex sequence of sedimentary stratigraphy, which includes several structures that resemble deltas and/or submarine fans on both the east and west side of the basin [4], and appear to originate from a network of channels and valleys that terminate in the basin. Previous studies have shown that the western valley network has drainage densities similar to terrestrial values and a dendritic nature that is indicative of precipitation and surface runoff [3]. Higher resolution mapping of the SMCB is important to further understand the stratigraphic succession and geomorphology, and to quantify how long liquid water may have been present within the basin. For this study, new digital elevation models (DEMs) have been produced in SOCET SET using stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), both aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The DEMs have been produced at ~6 and ~1 m/pixel vertical resolution for CTX and HiRISE respectively. There is approximately 150-200 m of sediment within the stratigraphic succession; some individual strata are less than 10 m thick. The delta/fan structures appear to occur at different stratigraphic positions low down within the sequence. Clinoform-like and cross-bedded structures

  11. Tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin, offshore the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.


    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin development, located offshore the Argentinean margin, was carried out. This was achieved through the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles, spanning a dense grid on the shelf and the upper-slope of the basin. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement and deepens gradually southwards. U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) fills regional depressions, onlapping the basement, and it thickens and deepens southwards. U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults, which have a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have been developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions. (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic) and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the opening of the South Atlantic during Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Some syn-rift faults continue into the Cretaceous. Sedimentation in this unit is mainly derived from the north and during Mid-Cretaceous also from the northeast, as documented by the presence of a southwestward prograding sedimentary fan located in the northeast of the basin. U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformly U3 and thickens to the south. Sediment input decreases dramatically during that time and only a thin sedimentary succession was deposited over the entire basin. Although a regional compressional regime is established from late Cretaceous to Cenozoic due to the Andean orogenesis, an extensional regime

  12. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.


    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  13. Paleomagnetic constrains in the reconstruction of the recent stratigraphic evolution of the Po delta

    Correggiari, Annamaria; Vigliotti, Luigi; Remia, Alessandro; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Luciani, Paolo


    The delta and prodelta deposits are characterized by a complex stratigraphic architecture that can be approached with several multidisciplinary tools. We present an example from the Po delta system characterized by alternating phases of rapid advance and abandonment of its multiple deltaic lobes that has been investigated through: (1) a review of historical cartography extending back several centuries; (2) integrated surveys of VHR seismic profiles recorded offshore of the modern delta from water depths as shallow as 5 m to the toe of the prodelta in about 30 m; and (3) sedimentological and geochronological data from precisely positioned sediment cores. Within this well known stratigraphic framework we have acquired seismic data and sediment cores in the area of the post roman Po delta system. However a precise dating of the recent evolution of depositional delta lobes is difficult because of the lack of suitable dating methods. To constrain the emplacement timing of the Renaissance lobes a paleomagnetic studies was carried out on a sedimentary sequence representing a seismic facies well correlated in the cores by whole core magnetic susceptibility profile. Forty eight samples were collected from a core section (RER96-1) characterized by a fine grained lithology suitable for paleomagnetic investigations. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) of the sediments has been obtained by applying an AF cleaning between 10 and 30 millitesla. The results have been compared with the directions recorded by the historical lavas of the Etna and Vesuvius. The combination of the trends observed in the declination and inclination suggests that the results can be compatible with the directions of the secular variation of the earth magnetic field occurring during the XVII century. This allow to date the sismic unit as representative of the beginning of the new delta following the Porto Viro avulsion made by the Venice Republic in 1604 AD. This delta history reflects the

  14. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi


    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  15. The Brahmaputra River: a stratigraphic analysis of Holocene avulsion and fluvial valley reoccupation history

    Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.


    The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to

  16. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José


    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  17. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  18. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    Tajfel, Henri


    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  19. Foundational aspects of security

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia


    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  20. Early Cambrian eodiscoid trilobites of the Yangtze Platform and their stratigraphic implications

    YANG Aihua; ZHU Maoyan; ZHANG Junming; LI Guoxiang


    Analysis of the taxonomy and stratigraphic distribution of the Early Cambrian eodiscoid trilobites of the Yangtze Platform indicates that species of Tsunyidiscus and Hupeidiscus can be used for biostratigraphic correlation. T. aclis occurs only in the lower Qiongzhusian, T. armatus occurs in the lower and middle Qiongzhusian, while T. niutitangensis and T. tingi occur mainly in the middle and upper Qiongzhusian, with only T. tingi extending upward into the lower Canglangpuian. H. orientalis first appears in the upper Qiongzhusian, reaching peak abundance in the lower Canglangpuian and becoming extinct above the Drepanuroides Zone. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic correlations indicate that the limestone in the lower part of the Mingxinsi Formation, the Upper Member of Jiumenchong Formation, and the upper part of the Middle Member of the Huangbailing Formation, can be correlated with each other as Hupediscus, an index fossil of the lower Canglangpuian, is abundant in all these units. The lower part of the Niutitang and Jiumenchong formations in eastern Guizhou, which mainly represent Qiongzhusian strata, can be correlated with the Lower Member of the Huangbailing Formation. The basal part of the Niutitang Formation, which may be equivalent to the Upper Meishucunian Shiyantou Formation in eastern Yunnan, is very condensed. Well-preserved sponge faunas and non-mineralized fossils in the lower part of the Niutitang and Hetang formations are not older than Qiongzhusian in age.

  1. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.


    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  2. The stratigraphic record of changing hyperaridity in the Atacama desert over the last 10 Ma

    Sáez, Alberto; Cabrera, Lluís; Garcés, Miguel; Bogaard, Paul van den; Jensen, Arturo; Gimeno, Domingo


    New radiometric and magnetostratigraphic data from Quillagua and Calama basins (Atacama desert) indicate that the stratigraphic record over the last 10 Ma includes two hiatuses, lasting approximately 2 and 4 million years respectively. These sedimentary gaps are thought to represent prolonged periods of hyperaridity in the region, with absence of sediment production and accumulation in the central depressions. Their remarkable synchrony with Antarctic and Patagonian glacial stages, Humboldt cold current enhancement and cold upwelling waters lead us to suggest long-term climate forcing. Higher frequency climate (orbital precession and eccentricity) forcing is thought to control the sequential arrangement of the lacustrine units deposited at times of lower aridity. Hyperaridity trends appear to be modulated by the activity of the South American Summer Monsoon, which drives precipitation along the high altitude areas to the east of Atacama. This precipitation increase combined with the eastward enlargement of the regional drainage during the late Pleistocene enabled water transfer from these high altitude areas to the low lying closed Quillagua basin and resulted in the deposition of the last widespread saline lacustrine deposits in this depression, before its drainage was open to the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Avulsion cycles and their stratigraphic signature on an experimental backwater-controlled delta

    Ganti, Vamsi; Chadwick, Austin J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima J.; Lamb, Michael P.


    River deltas grow in large part through repeated cycles of lobe construction and channel avulsion. Understanding avulsion cycles is important for coastal restoration and ecology, land management, and flood hazard mitigation. Emerging theories suggest that river avulsions on lowland deltas are controlled by backwater hydrodynamics; however, our knowledge of backwater-controlled avulsion cycles is limited. Here we present results from an experimental delta that evolved under persistent backwater hydrodynamics achieved through variable flood discharges, shallow bed slopes, and subcritical flows. The experimental avulsion cycles consisted of an initial phase of avulsion setup, an avulsion trigger, selection of a new flow path, and abandonment of the parent channel. Avulsions were triggered during the largest floods (78% of avulsions) after the channel was filled by a fraction (0.3 ± 0.13) of its characteristic flow depth at the avulsion site, which occurred in the upstream part of the backwater zone. The new flow path following avulsion was consistently one of the shortest paths to the shoreline, and channel abandonment occurred through temporal decline in water flow and sediment delivery to the parent channel. Experimental synthetic stratigraphy indicates that bed thicknesses were maximum at the avulsion sites, consistent with our morphologic measurements of avulsion setup and the idea that there is a record of avulsion locations and thresholds in sedimentary rocks. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings within the context of sustainable management of deltas, their stratigraphic record, and predicting avulsions on deltas.


    Miron Kovačić


    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Edgeworth, Matt; Bennett, Carys; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C.; Ellis, Michael A.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Haff, Peter K.; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB; Steffen, Will; Summerhayes, Colin; Syvitski, James P.; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Zhisheng, An


    Biospheric relationships between production and consumption of biomass have been resilient to changes in the Earth system over billions of years. This relationship has increased in its complexity, from localized ecosystems predicated on anaerobic microbial production and consumption to a global biosphere founded on primary production from oxygenic photoautotrophs, through the evolution of Eukarya, metazoans, and the complexly networked ecosystems of microbes, animals, fungi, and plants that characterize the Phanerozoic Eon (the last ˜541 million years of Earth history). At present, one species, Homo sapiens, is refashioning this relationship between consumption and production in the biosphere with unknown consequences. This has left a distinctive stratigraphy of the production and consumption of biomass, of natural resources, and of produced goods. This can be traced through stone tool technologies and geochemical signals, later unfolding into a diachronous signal of technofossils and human bioturbation across the planet, leading to stratigraphically almost isochronous signals developing by the mid-20th century. These latter signals may provide an invaluable resource for informing and constraining a formal Anthropocene chronostratigraphy, but are perhaps yet more important as tracers of a biosphere state that is characterized by a geologically unprecedented pattern of global energy flow that is now pervasively influenced and mediated by humans, and which is necessary for maintaining the complexity of modern human societies.

  6. Stratigraphic and geophysical integrated methodologies for the interpretation of sulphur water formational environment in Salento (Italy)

    Margiotta, S.; Negri, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali-Osservatorio di Fisica, Chimica, Geologia Ambientali-Universita del Salento (Italy)


    The Salento coal deposits (south-eastern Italy) are unutilized because these deposits are thin and nearly uneconomic but they have a high scientific and economic value due to their high organic sulphur content. The studied area is located in the western Salento peninsula where wells used by a fish-farm (''Ittica Ugento'') have shown high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Data from surface and boreholes stratigraphic surveys integrated with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow us to define the structure, depths and geometry of the aquifer and its relationship with saltwater intrusion. Induced polarization (IP) with pole-dipole array survey has been carried out near the coastline. The value measured was over 50 msec. A direct relationship is shown to exist between IP values and the aquifer containing sulphur water. The high resolution of the data obtained with the applied methods not only shows the validity of the methodology but is the key to evaluating the groundwater resources of the area. The proposed mechanism is that of entrapment of sulphur water in a graben structure: when sulphate-enriched waters of marine origin come into contact with organic substances and lignite deposits (Galatone Formation, Oligocene), they are deprived not only of free oxygen, but also generate hydrogen sulphide as a result of the reduction of sulphates. (author)

  7. Stratigraphic records of paleogeography and global change from two late Proterozoic basins

    Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.

    As sediments and volcanic deposits accumulate on Earth's surface, they record information about Earth's climate, the motion of continents, and the evolution of the biosphere. Through the study of ancient stratigraphic sequences, we can gain a window into our planet's varied, and sometimes tumultuous, past. In this dissertation, I employ a combination of field observations, magnetic data, and chemostratigraphic data in the Keweenawan Mid-continent Rift of North America and the Amadeus Basin of Central Australia to study the paleogeography and paleoclimate during and after the transition between the Mesoproterozoic (1.7 to 1.0 billion-years ago) and Neoproterozoic Eras (1.0 to 0.54 billion-years ago). The supercontinent Rodinia formed at the boundary between the Eras and broke apart throughout the Neoproterozoic. Basins that developed as Rodinia rifted apart record large changes in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulfur, the waxing and waning of low-latitude ice sheets, and the progressive oxygenation of the atmosphere that facilitated the evolution of animals. I report high-resolution paleomagnetic data in stratigraphic context from Mamainse Point, Ontario---the most complete succession in the 1.1 billion-year-old Mid-continent Rift. The results demonstrate that previous suggestions of large non-dipolar geomagnetic field components at the time stemmed from low temporal resolution across geomagnetic reversals during a period of rapid plate motion. This result strengthens the framework for evaluating records of tectonics and climate across the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic boundary. Rock magnetic experiments on Mamainse Point lavas, paired with electron microscopy, demonstrate that a component of the magnetization in oxidized flows that is antiparallel to the characteristic remanence is a result of martite self-reversal. This component is the best resolved natural example of the experimentally observed self-reversal that accompanies the maghemite to hematite

  8. Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia

    Bogomir Jelen


    Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past 150 years. To solve the problem, we tried to rigorously conduct the authentic Galilei’s scientific method. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages (to reduce noise from the source (rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously. This in turn has strongly reduced inconsistency andincoherence (high information entropy = uncertainty. The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e.g.: is the tectonostratigraphic structure of eastern Slovenia a manifestation of plate tectonics processes, and of which ones, are theories of continental escape in the Alps and associated dissection and offset of the formerly uniform Slovenian-Hungarian Paleogene basin tenableor not, are then there in the B1 stratigraphic equivalents of the Hungarian Paleogene basin formations, where are the important Eocene / Oligocene, Paleogene / Neogene, Rupelian / Chattian and Kiscellian / Egerian boundaries in Slovenia, and is there acontinuation of the B1 in Croatia and in the Mid-Hungarian tectonic zone?

  9. Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological, and historical evidence

    Sieh, Kerry; Daly, Patrick; Edwards McKinnon, E.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Horton, Benjamin; Rubin, Charles M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ismail, Nazli; Vane, Christopher H.; Feener, R. Michael


    We present stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. This is the first direct evidence that a tsunami played a role in a fifteenth century cultural hiatus along the northern Sumatran portion of the maritime silk route. One seacliff exposure on the eastern side of the Lambaro headlands reveals two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate emplacement of the coral rubble after 1344 ± 3 C.E. Another seacliff exposure, on the western side of the peninsula, contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from 1240 C.E. to soon after 1366 ± 3 C.E., terminated by tsunami destruction. At both sites, the tsunamis are likely coincident with sudden uplift of coral reefs above the Sunda megathrust 1394 ± 2 C.E., evidence for which has been published previously. The tsunami (or tsunami pair) appears to have destroyed a vibrant port community and led to the temporary recentering of marine trade dominance to more protected locations farther east. The reestablishment of vibrant communities along the devastated coast by about 1500 CE set the stage for the 2004 disaster.

  10. Status of correlation of Quaternary stratigraphic units in the western conterminous United States

    Birkeland, P.W.; Crandell, D.R.; Richmond, G.M.


    Deposits of Quaternary age from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast in the western conterminous United States represent a great variety of environments. The deposits include those of continental and alpine glaciers, glacial meltwater streams, nonglacial streams, pluvial lakes, marine environments, eolian environments, and masswasting environments. On two charts we have attempted to correlate representative sequences of deposits of many of these environments, based on published sources and recent unpublished investigations. Evidence for correlation is based mainly on stratigraphic sequence, soil characteristics, the amount of subsequent erosion and interlayered volcanic ash beds identifiable as to source. Chronologic control is based on numerous radiocarbon dates, U-series dates on marine fossils, and K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks. The Bishop volcanic ash bed and one of the Pearlette-like volcanic ash beds appear to represent significant regional key horizons, respectively about 700,000 and 600,000 years old. Rock magnetism is shown to suggest the paleomagnetic polarity at the time of rock deposition. Assigned land-mammal ages of included fossils help to put limits on the age of some units. ?? 1971.

  11. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  12. Linking recent observations of cyclic steps from fjords to outcropping stratigraphic products, British Columbia, Canada

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Covault, J. A.


    Repeated bathymetric surveys of fjord prodeltas in Western Canada track channel erosion and deposition, which is interpreted to result from upstream migrating cyclic steps. Cyclic steps are long-wave (the ratio of wavelength to height is >>1), upstream-migrating bedforms that develop as a result of repeated internal hydraulic jumps in an overriding turbidity current at lee-to-stoss slope breaks. An internal hydraulic jump is the result of a transition from subaqueous densimetric Froude supercritical to subcritical flow. As the supercritical bedforms migrate greater than 90% of the deposits are reworked, making morphology- and facies- based recognition challenging in the depositional record. The objectives of this work are to use predictions of remnant bedform geometry from repeat bathymetric surveys to recognize cyclic step deposits in the stratigraphic record. We compare fjord deposits to Late Cretaceous submarine channel strata of the Nanaimo Group at Gabriola Island, British Columbia. In the Squamish prodelta, sediment accumulation on the stoss side of cyclic steps and erosion on the lee side promotes their up-slope migration. Deposits are modified by overriding turbidity currents, resulting in sedimentary bodies 5-30 m long, 0.5-2 m thick and migrating cyclic step deposits inform a revised interpretation of a high gradient channel setting dominated by supercritical flow in the Nanaimo Group. The outcrop perspective, tied to data from seafloor surveys, offers insights into the stratigraphy and preservation potential of these bedforms.

  13. Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Based on Sequence Stratigraphic and ³⁹Ar Transport Modeling.

    Sonnenborg, Torben O; Scharling, Peter B; Hinsby, Klaus; Rasmussen, Erik S; Engesgaard, Peter


    A large-scale groundwater flow and transport model is developed for a deep-seated (100 to 300 m below ground surface) sedimentary aquifer system. The model is based on a three-dimensional (3D) hydrostratigraphic model, building on a sequence stratigraphic approach. The flow model is calibrated against observations of hydraulic head and stream discharge while the credibility of the transport model is evaluated against measurements of (39)Ar from deep wells using alternative parameterizations of dispersivity and effective porosity. The directly simulated 3D mean age distributions and vertical fluxes are used to visualize the two-dimensional (2D)/3D age and flux distribution along transects and at the top plane of individual aquifers. The simulation results are used to assess the vulnerability of the aquifer system that generally has been assumed to be protected by thick overlaying clayey units and therefore proposed as future reservoirs for drinking water supply. The results indicate that on a regional scale these deep-seated aquifers are not as protected from modern surface water contamination as expected because significant leakage to the deeper aquifers occurs. The complex distribution of local and intermediate groundwater flow systems controlled by the distribution of the river network as well as the topographical variation (Tóth 1963) provides the possibility for modern water to be found in even the deepest aquifers.

  14. Flow-units verification, using statistical zonation and application of Stratigraphic Modified Lorenz Plot in Tabnak

    Seyed Kourosh Mahjour


    Full Text Available The relationship between two main reservoir parameters being porosity and permeability, in the carbonate rocks is very complex and obscure. To get a better understanding on flow behavior, the relationship of porosity and permeability of reservoir units, reservoir zonation and flow units were defined. The significance of dividing the sedimentary intervals into flow units reflects groups of rocks that have similar geologic, physical properties and depositional environment that affect fluid flow. Variations in rock properties result from depositional, diagenetic and post-depositional changes. A flow unit is a volume of a reservoir rock that is continuous laterally and vertically and has similar averages of those rock properties that affect fluid flow. Different methods exist for the zonation of reservoirs based on petrophysical data and well logs; among them are: Permeability–Porosity cross plot, Pickett and Soder and Gill methods. In this study, the flow units are determined in Tabnak gas field in South of Iran based on Testerman Zonation Technique and Stratigraphic Modified Lorenz Plot (SMLP methods. For determining these units, conflation of petrophysical data and comparing porosity and permeability of cores are done for verification three wells. By comparing flow-units derived from two methods, it was realized that in permeable zones they have a relatively valid correlation.

  15. The role of integrated high resolution stratigraphic and geophysic surveys for groundwater modelling

    S. Margiotta


    Full Text Available This work sets out a methodology of integrated geological, hydrogeological and geophysical surveys for the characterization of contaminated sites. The flow model of the shallow aquifer in the Brindisi area (recognized to be at significant environmental risk by the Italian government and the impact of an antrophic structure on the groundwater flow have been evaluated. The stratigraphic and hydrogeological targets used for the calibration phase of the flow model provide a means of assessing calibration quality. The good calibration of the model point out the key role of a detailed knowledge of the physical-stratigraphycal attributes of the area to be studied and field data collection. Geoelectrical tomography focus the attention on an area resulted of particular interest by the flow model obtained. This method permit to reconstruct in detail the lateral and vertical lithological variations in the geological formations improving the spatial resolution of the data and consequently the scale of observation. Besides, anomaly resistivity values have been correlated with pollution. Chemical analysis have confirmed this correlation.

  16. The role of integrated high resolution stratigraphic and geophysic surveys for groundwater modelling

    Margiotta, S.; Mazzone, F.; Negri, S.; Calora, M.


    This work sets out a methodology of integrated geological, hydrogeological and geophysical surveys for the characterization of contaminated sites. The flow model of the shallow aquifer in the Brindisi area (recognized to be at significant environmental risk by the Italian government) and the impact of an antrophic structure on the groundwater flow have been evaluated. The stratigraphic and hydrogeological targets used for the calibration phase of the flow model provide a means of assessing calibration quality. The good calibration of the model point out the key role of a detailed knowledge of the physical-stratigraphycal attributes of the area to be studied and field data collection. Geoelectrical tomography focus the attention on an area resulted of particular interest by the flow model obtained. This method permit to reconstruct in detail the lateral and vertical lithological variations in the geological formations improving the spatial resolution of the data and consequently the scale of observation. Besides, anomaly resistivity values have been correlated with pollution. Chemical analysis have confirmed this correlation.

  17. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J. I.; Goter, E. R.


    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ± 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ± 100,000 yr B.P. from measured {234U }/{238U } activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13.

  18. Eustatic cycles, shoreline stacking, and stratigraphic traps: Atkinson field, Live Oak and Karnes Counties, Texas

    Bulling, T.P.; Smith, W.M.; Breyer, J.A. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))


    Atkinson field in south Texas produces gas from the updip pinch-out of a shoreline sand body deposited during a stillstand or minor regression within the early middle Eocene transgression of the Texas Gulf Coast. The sand body is elongate parallel to depositional strike and pinches out downdip into marine shales of the Reklaw Formation. The sand has a maximum thickness of 60 ft, extends 9 mi along strike, and reaches a width of 2 mi. Electric log patterns indicate interfingering between sand and shale on the updip edge of the sand body and a coarsening-upward sequence from shale to sand on the downdip edge of the sand body. Most logs from wells in the central part of the sand body have blocky patterns, indicating abrupt transitions with the overlying and underlying shales and no systematic variation in grain size. Many ancient shoreline sandstones have similar characteristics. The producing sand in Atkinson field occurs in the regressive phase of a fourth-order cycle of change in relative sea level, within the transgressive phase of the third-order cycle that comprises the early middle Eocene advance and retreat of the sea in the Gulf Coast region. Other shoreline sand bodies occur at the same stratigraphic zone along depositional strike. Models of shoreline stacking patterns within third-order cycles indicate that similar sand bodies and traps should be present in younger fourth-order cycles higher on paleoslope.

  19. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail:; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail:; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  20. Primary mapping and stratigraphic data and field methods for the Snowmastodon Project

    Lucking, Carol; Johnson, Kirk R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Miller, Ian


    During the Snowmastodon Project, many different people collected data for a wide array of purposes under a variety of conditions. Early in the process and in an attempt to provide project-wide consistency, Kirk Johnson appointed Carol Lucking as the project’s data manager both in the field and the lab. She was responsible for using GIS to create maps on an ongoing basis throughout the project. Jeff Pigati agreed to measure stratigraphic sections and coordinate the collection of various nonvertebrate samples to make sure that all resulting data could be plotted on common diagrams. Kirk Johnson was onsite for the entire project and measured the basin margin stratigraphy on a daily basis as it was destroyed by the digging teams. In the fall of 2010, we treated the upper part of the site (which included discrete excavations for the mammoth, deer, and bison skeletons) as an archaeological excavation and the lower part of the site (which contained isolated mastodon, ground sloth, and bison bones) as a construction salvage site.

  1. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.


    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  2. Using Outcrop Exposures on the Road to Yellowknife Bay to Build a Stratigraphic Column, Gale Crater, Mars

    Stack, K. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Sumner, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Gupta, S.; Williams, R. M. E.; Kah, L. C.; Lewis, K. W.


    Since landing in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover has driven 450 m east, descending approximately 15 m in elevation from the Bradbury landing site to Yellowknife Bay. Outcrop exposure along this drive has been discontinuous, but isolated outcrops may represent windows into underlying inplace stratigraphy. This study presents an inventory of outcrops targeted by Curiosity (Figs. 1-2), grouped by lithological properties observed in Mastcam and Navcam imagery. Outcrop locations are placed in a stratigraphic context using orbital imagery and first principles of stratigraphy. The stratigraphic models presented here represent an essential first step in understanding the relative age relationships of lithological units encountered at the Curiosity landing site. Such observations will provide crucial context for assessing habitability potential of ancient Gale crater environments and organic matter preservation.

  3. Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.


    Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

  4. Calc-alkaline lavas from the volcanic complex of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece : a petrological, geochemical and stratigraphic study

    Huijsmans, J.P.P.


    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-geochemical- and stratigraphic study of the calc-alkaline lavas from Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The volcanic complex of Santorini consists of seven eruption centres, of which some have been active contemporaneous. The eruption centres in the northern part of Santorini mainly produced lava flows in contrast with a long-lived eruption centre in the southern part, that mainly produced pyroclastic deposits. The lavas and pyroclastics of Santo...

  5. Stratigraphic relationships between the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins based on seismic stratigraphy

    Esteban Alfaro

    Full Text Available There are diverse controversial and contradictory models about the geological history of the Caribbean region. Some issues such as the origin of the Caribbean plate, the nature of basement of the Caribbean basins and the regional tectonics, have been in discussion during decades. There are disperse and punctual studies across the Caribbean. Application of seismic stratigraphy in regional seismic lines across the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins suggests a stratigraphic continuity between these regions. A chronostratigraphic chart of the Colombian and Sinú Offshore basins based on stratal terminations and seismic facies was proposed. Seven stratigraphic stages were identified in the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins, which, also, have been recognized across the Caribbean region. First stratigraphic stage was characterized by continental to restricted marine deposition during a Triassic/Jurassic rifting. Second, third and fourth stages correspond with deposition of a wide carbonate platform in the Cretaceous, sandy carbonate platform during the Paleocene and carbonate and coarse-grained fluvial sedimentation during the Eocene, respectively. Another stage was characterized by rising of base level and deep-water deposition (turbidites and pelagic/hemipelagic sediments during the Oligocene. The Early to Middle Miocene was characterized by shallow marine to fluvial sedimentation during falling base level, which was controlled by episodic events of tectonic inversion. During the Late Miocene to recent, the sedimentation consisted of terrigenous coarse-grained deposits. Stratigraphic relationships between these zones, suggest a shared geological history between the Caribbean and northern South America. The geologic continuity founded in this study is easily explained by the model of an in situ origin for the Caribbean plate.

  6. Stratigraphic Architecture and Lithofacies Analysis: Evidence for Development of the Pliocene-Holocene Taichung Foreland Basin, Central Taiwan

    Chung-Yen Kao


    Full Text Available The Taichung foreland basin, sub-basin of the Taiwan foreland basin, has developed since Pliocene. We studied stratigraphic architecture and the lithofacies of the Taichung basin in detail. We recognized eleven lithofacies, which are grouped into ten facies associations. Based on facies association analysis, we suggest that the development of the Taichung basin can be divided into four stages accompanied by syn-depositional deformation characterized by westward propagating thrust faults.

  7. Organisational aspects of care.

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne


    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  8. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  9. Depositional tracts and stratigraphic architecture of the Itajaí Basin sedimentary sucessions (Neoproterozoic, northeastern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Michel Silva Costa


    Full Text Available Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Itajaí Basin show depositional trends and a stratigraphic framework characteristics of foreland basin system. The sedimentary environments have developed in basin conditions ranging from deep marine context, transitional shallow marine, to continental. Stratigraphic architecture comprises three depositional tracts (DT: DTI - submarine fans system that records the initial basin sedimentation and involves frontal and distal turbiditic deposits; DTII - transitional to shallow marine depositional system that represents the efective infill fase of basin, and includes deltaic succession with braided channels dominated plain; and DTIII - fluvial braided and alluvial fan depositional system that comprises the final stage of basin sedimentation. Arkoses and greywacke of the DTI present paleocurrent unimodals patterns and general trend to south-southeast, suggesting source area from Santa Catarina Granulitic Complex. The sandstones and conglomerates of DTII and DTIII have opposite paleocurrent pattern, indicating source area from both Metamorphic Brusque Complex and Florianópolis Batolith. Integration of paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic data, with previous information (U-Pb in detrital zircon, allowed a consistent interpretation on the sedimentary evolution and detrital sources of the basin and represent a progress on the discussions on the knowledge of the Itajaí Basin and its significance in the evolutionary context of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  10. Organic Carbon Isotopic Evolution during the Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition Interval in Eastern Guizhou, South China: Paleoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Implications

    YANG Xinglian; ZHU Maoyan; GUO Qingjun; ZHAO Yuanlong


    Secular variations of carbon isotopic composition of organic carbon can be used in the study of global environmental variation, the carbon cycle, stratigraphic delimitation, and biological evolution, etc. Organic carbon isotopic analysis of the Nangao and Zhalagou sections in eastern Guizhou reveals a negative excursion near the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary that correlates with a distinct carbonate carbon isotopic negative excursion at this boundary globally. Our results also demonstrate that several alternating positive and negative shifts occur in the Meishucunian, and an obvious negative anomaly appears at the boundary between the Meishucunian and Qiongzhusian. The isotope values are stable in the middle and lower parts but became more positive in the upper part of the Qiongzhusian. Evolution of organic carbon isotopes from the two sections in the deepwater facies can be well correlated with that of the carbonate carbon isotopes from the section in the shallow water facies. Integrated with other stratigraphic tools, we can precisely establish a lower Cambrian stratigraphic framework from shallow shelf to deep basin of the Yangtze Platform.

  11. Stratigraphic assessment of the Arcelia Teloloapan area, southern Mexico: implications for southern Mexico's post-Neocomian tectonic evolution

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Lang, H. R.; Harrison, C. G. A.


    Stratigraphic assessment of the "Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex" (TCMC) between Arcelia and Teloloapan in southern Mexico, based on photo interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and field mapping at the 1:100,000 scale, tests different tectonic evolution scenarios that bear directly on the evolution of the southern North American plate margin. The regional geology, emphasizing the stratigraphy of a portion of the TCMC within the area between Arcelia and Teloloapan is presented. Stratigraphic relationships with units in adjacent areas are also described. The base of the stratigraphic section is a chlorite grade metamorphic sequence that includes the Taxco Schist, the Roca Verde Taxco Viejo Formation, and the Almoloya Phyllite Formation. These metamorphic units, as thick as 2.7 km, are covered disconformably by a sedimentary sequence, 2.9 km thick, composed of the Cretaceous marine Pochote, Morelos, and Mexcala Formations, as well as undifferentiated Tertiary continental red beds and volcanic rocks. The geology may be explained as the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary environments developed upon attenuated continental crust. Our results do not support accretion of the Guerrero terrane during Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) time.

  12. Tectono-Stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan

    Alexeiev, D. V.; Biske, Yu. S.; Wang, Bo; Djenchuraeva, A. V.; Getman, O. F.; Aristov, V. A.; Kröner, A.; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhong, Linglin


    A stratigraphic and structural study was carried out in the central part of the Chinese South Tianshan (STS) within a 50-100 km-wide transect centered on the Dushanzi-Kuqa road (83°-85° E). Our data elucidate the tectonic structure and evolution of the Palaeozoic sedimentary basin, document overthrust structures in the late Carboniferous-early Permian orogenic belt and suggest correlations between the western and eastern segments of the STS in Kyrgyzstan and China. We recognise a series of lithotectonic units in the study area that have different stratigraphic characteristics and were formed within (a) continental margin and slope of the Kazakhstan continent, (b) Turkestan (South Tianshan) ocean, (c) intra-oceanic carbonate sea-mounts, which at least partly evolved on top of an extinct island arc, (d) a back-arc oceanic-crust basin, (e) external deeper marine and internal shallow-marine areas of the Tarim shelf and (f) Tarim craton. The overall structure of the basin was similar within Kyrgyzstan and China. The main distinction of the western areas is a lack of ophiolites on the southern flank of the belt, a poorly expressed arc in the axial part, and a more complicated facial setting of the central area, where carbonate banks were separated by deeper marine depressions with cherty deposits. The eastern sector is defined by a continental arc that evolved on the northern margin of the Tarim craton in the Silurian and became separated from the continent in the latest Silurian-early Devonian. There is also a middle Palaeozoic metamorphic belt on the southern flank of the STS. A pre-Carboniferous unconformity, previously assumed throughout the study area, is only confirmed within the continental massifs of Kazakhstan and Tarim. As in the western areas, the unconformity does not exist within the STS. Continuous sedimentation in the STS occurred from the Early Devonian to the early Bashkirian in marginal parts of the belt and up to Gzhelian age in the axial part

  13. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.


    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed

  14. Paleomagnetic Evidence for the Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of the Mt.Galili Area / MER / Ethiopia

    Popp, F.; Scholger, R.


    The Mt.Galili area (N 9,77°, E 040,55°) is the focus of current anthropological studies on early hominid evolution *[4]. The Mount Galili Formation (MGF)*[5] is subdivided into seven Members, each representing a sedimentary cycle, sustaining temporally interruptions by volcanic activity. Our paleomagnetic investigation concentrates on ascertaining primary magnetisation vectors (PMV) of volcanic layers embodied within the MGF, applying alternating field and thermal magnetic cleaning methods. Magnetite and ti-magnetite are the main carriers of the NRM (basalt, ignimbrite). Hematite shares in amounts up to 20%, Goethite occasionally participates up to 30% in magnitude of the NRM components. Two events of magnetic polarity reversals terminate a magnetic inverse period designating the lot of the MGF unit. The amount of the PMV's rotation in respect to an expected paleodirection*[1] of 183°/-13° are in the range of 1°-52° . The resulting mean PMV data provide implications on (A) rift-related block rotation / tilting in relation to the stable African crust since the Pliocene and they also support (B) stratigraphic age determinations of the MGF: A: Rotational movements cluster in 4 sectors: (a) The SE sector demonstrates almost unchanged orientation of the PMVs whereas (b) it's continuation to the NW sector suffered clockwise rotational tilting (up to 12° rot / 19° tilt). (c) The SW sector (Mt.Galili area s.str.) in contrast embrace a unique counterclockwise rotation component of 7°-17°, but the modulus of vector inclination, concerning individual rift blocks, is variable in either direction. (d) The NE sector (Satkawini) sustained the major counterclockwise rotation (41°°-52° rot / 3°- 17° tilt) We consider the Mt.Galili area being the place where trans-tensional tectonics were active during the late Miocene to create the lateral off-set of magmatic segments marking the centre of the MER. This tectonics are considered to belong to a arcuate accommodation

  15. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)


    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  16. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution and crustal architecture of the Orphan Basin during North Atlantic rifting

    Gouiza, Mohamed; Hall, Jeremy; Welford, J. Kim


    The Orphan Basin is located in the deep offshore of the Newfoundland margin, and it is bounded by the continental shelf to the west, the Grand Banks to the south, and the continental blocks of Orphan Knoll and Flemish Cap to the east. The Orphan Basin formed in Mesozoic time during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between eastern Canada and western Iberia-Europe. This work, based on well data and regional seismic reflection profiles across the basin, indicates that the continental crust was affected by several extensional episodes between the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, separated by events of uplift and erosion. The preserved tectono-stratigraphic sequences in the basin reveal that deformation initiated in the eastern part of the Orphan Basin in the Jurassic and spread towards the west in the Early Cretaceous, resulting in numerous rift structures filled with a Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous syn-rift succession and overlain by thick Upper Cretaceous to Cenozoic post-rift sediments. The seismic data show an extremely thinned crust (4-16 km thick) underneath the eastern and western parts of the Orphan Basin, forming two sub-basins separated by a wide structural high with a relatively thick crust (17 km thick). Quantifying the crustal architecture in the basin highlights the large discrepancy between brittle extension localized in the upper crust and the overall crustal thinning. This suggests that continental deformation in the Orphan Basin involved, in addition to the documented Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, an earlier brittle rift phase which is unidentifiable in seismic data and a depth-dependent thinning of the crust driven by localized lower crust ductile flow.


    S. SPÂNU


    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.




    Full Text Available A combined multidisciplinary approach has been applied to calculate minimum values of the stratigraphic completeness and, secondarily, sedimentation rates in 9.2 m thick Rosso Ammonitico facies from central Apennines (Italy and 11 m thick deposits of the same facies in Southern Spain. Middle - Upper Toarcian expanded sedimentation in Valdorbia section (Umbria-Marche Apennines and extremely condensed Oxfordian-Tithonian sedimentation at Puerto Escaño section (External Subbetic have been investigated using combined taphonomic, ichnologic and sedimentologic data and analyses. At Valdorbia, infaunal tiering is largely preserved and 27 horizons of infaunal-tiering truncation and casting reveal strong erosional activity forced by tempestite/turbidite events. Therefore, microstratigraphic gaps could be evaluated without biostratigraphic control. In this expanded section, 13 horizons of firm- and hardgrounds have been recorded showing simple or gradational tiering. Conversely, in the condensed Puerto Escaño section, taphonomic analysis reveals 25 horizons of bioclasts truncation (mainly in ammonites, and 56 horizons of firm-hardgrounds intensively bioturbated. In Valdorbia rather than in Puerto Escaño section, the evaluation of flattening in burrows and spherical bioclasts reveal a measurable mechanical compaction and dissolution. In addition, Rosso Ammonitico at Valdorbia section favoured the calculation of decompaction coefficients (nd for each lithology easier than in Puerto Escaño section. In condensed and essentially hiatal Rosso Ammonitico, mottled deposits due to intense bioturbation dominate and tiering cannot be recognizable. This fact is accentuated by usual overprinting of elementary depositional events, which in turn hampered the accurate calculation of missing deposits. Therefore, in condensed Rosso Ammonitico the latter was only available in terms of minimal missing-record trough the analysis of truncated bioclasts. 

  19. Sequence stratigraphic analysis and the origins of Tertiary brown coal lithotypes, Latrobe Valley, Gippsland Basin, Australia

    Holdgate, G.R.; Kershaw, A.P.; Sluiter, I.R.K. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    Sequence analysis methods have been applied to the onshore Gippsland Basin and to the Latrobe Valley Group coal measures. In the east of the Latrobe Valley evidence for marine transgressions into the coal measures are recorded in most of the interseam sediment splits by the presence of contained foraminifer and dinoflagellates. To the west these splits pinch out into continuous coal. However, they can be followed westwards as enhanced organic sulphur levels along sharply defined boundaries between light coal lithotypes below and dark coal lithotypes above. The dark lithotype immediately overlying each of these boundaries contains the highest sulphur value and warmer climate pollen assemblages. Colorimeter and lithotype logging supports an upwards lightening cyclicity to coal colour at 12-20 m intervals through the approx. 100 m thick seams, with cycle boundaries defined at sharp planar to undulating surfaces. The lightening upward lithotype cycles together with their unique boundary conditions are interpreted as parasequences and parasequence boundaries respectively. Each major coal seam can comprise up to five parasequences and is interpreted to represent deposition during an outbuilding high stand systems tract at one of several maximum periods of Tertiary coastal onlap. Stratigraphic correlation of the sequence boundaries identified in the coal measures to the internationally dated marine Seaspray Group, provides a basis for chronostratigraphic correlation of the coal successions to the coastal onlap charts of Haq et al (1989). It appears that each major seam is confined to high standards of third order eustatic cycles. It follows that the lithotype cycles that comprise each seam are related to fourth order eustatic cycles. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke


    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  1. Stratigraphic distribution of macerals and biomarkers in the Donets Basin: Implications for paleoecology, paleoclimatology and eustacy

    Izart, A.; Elie, M.; Alsaab, D. [UMR 7566G2R, Universite Henri Poincare, BP239, F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Rainer, T.; Sotirov, A.; Zdravkov, A. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A.; Antsiferov, V.A. [Donetsk National Technical University, Artem str. 58, UA-83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine); Zhykalyak, M.V. [Donetsk State Regional Geological Survey, Sybirtseva str. 17, UA-84500 Artemovsk (Ukraine)


    More than one hundred and thirty coal seams and coaly layers occur in the Donets Basin (Donbas). Twenty-eight (52 samples) of them, ranging in age from Serpukhovian (Late Mississipian) to Gzhelian (Late Pennsylvanian), 33 clastics and three limestones were studied in terms of maceral composition, sulphur contents, and biomarker distribution. Diterpanes are used to estimate the contribution of different groups of plants and the height of the water table in the swamp; hopanes are a measure of bacterial activity in the peat; and steranes indicate the relative input of wood and algae. Stratigraphic trends in these parameters are discussed in relation to paleoenvironment, climatic changes, and eustacy. A tropical climate prevailed in the Donbas from Serpukhovian to Kasimovian times. Nevertheless, periods with drier and wetter conditions can be distinguished based on maceral and biomarker data. Relatively dry conditions are observed during Serpukhovian and Vereian times, whereas wetter climates with a maximum of coal deposition occurred during the (late) Bashkirian, most of the Moscovian, and the earliest Kasimovian. No economic coal seams are hosted in upper Kasimovian and Gzhelian deposits, a result of a change to an arid climate. Our data also suggest climatic changes during sequences of different order. For the second-order, third-order, and fourth-order sequences, relatively dry or wet conditions occurred during coal deposition in the lowstand systems tract, an intermediate climate during the transgressive systems tract and the maximum flooding, and a wet climate during the highstand systems tract. The results for high frequency sequences support the Cecil's paleoclimatic model: an intermediate paleoclimate during LST (sandstone and levee siltstone), a wet climate during early TST (coal), and a dry climate during late TST (limestone), MFS (claystone), and HST (deltaic siltstone). Coals deposited during maximum flooding periods are more enriched in C{sub 27

  2. Application of indicator Kriging to stratigraphic and petrographic data from the Gorleben site

    Porter, J.D. [AEA Technology, Windscale (United Kingdom)


    Analysis and understanding of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a site for a radioactive waste repository play important roles in a performance assessment. Generally, numerical models of flow and transport must be employed in order to study the behaviour of the system over very long times. It is therefore very important to ensure that features of the site that could have an important influence on flow and transport are appropriately represented by the numerical model. In some circumstances the uncertainty in the distribution and continuity of the different rock types present at a site may be the most significant source of uncertainty in the results of the numerical models. The work described in this report is concerned with the application of the indicator geostatistical approach for the construction of models of the distribution of rock types. A real dataset, that for the Gorleben site in Germany, was used to test the applicability and usefulness of the method. The study demonstrated that, provided appropriate stratigraphic information is taken into account in the geostatistical analysis, indicator Kriging can give results that are in good agreement with a geological interpretation. The study also demonstrated that uncertainties in the input data (associated with the interpretation of which material is present in some sections of the borehole logs) can imply a large uncertainty in the overall structure of large scale features, such as the continuity of clay layers. Indicator Kriging allows the impact of uncertainties in the input data to be investigated quickly and consistently. Overall, the study has demonstrated that indicator Kriging is a valuable tool that can be used to investigate uncertainties in the interpretation of the geology at a site. However, as illustrated by the importance of stratigraphy in the present study, it is important to ensure that analysis of the system in terms of indicator variables reflects the significant geological

  3. The stratigraphic record of prebreakup geodynamics: Evidence from the Barrow Delta, offshore Northwest Australia

    Reeve, Matthew T.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Magee, Craig; Bastow, Ian D.


    The structural and stratigraphic evolution of rift basins and passive margins has been widely studied, with many analyses demonstrating that delta systems can provide important records of postrift geodynamic processes. However, the apparent lack of ancient synbreakup delta systems and the paucity of seismic imaging across continent-ocean boundaries mean that the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading remains poorly understood. The Early Cretaceous Barrow Group of the North Carnarvon Basin, offshore NW Australia, was a major deltaic system that formed during the latter stages of continental rifting and represents a rich sedimentary archive, documenting uplift, subsidence, and erosion of the margin. We use a regional database of 2-D and 3-D seismic and well data to constrain the internal architecture of the Barrow Group. Our results highlight three major depocenters: the Exmouth and Barrow subbasins and southern Exmouth Plateau. Overcompaction of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the South Carnarvon Basin, and pervasive reworking of Permian and Triassic palynomorphs in the offshore Barrow Group, suggests that the onshore South Carnarvon Basin originally contained a thicker sedimentary succession, which was uplifted and eroded prior to breakup. Backstripping of sedimentary successions encountered in wells in the Exmouth Plateau depocenter indicates that anomalously rapid tectonic subsidence (≤0.24 mm yr-1) accommodated Barrow Group deposition, despite evidence for minimal, contemporaneous upper crustal extension. Our results suggest that classic models of uniform extension cannot account for the observations of uplift and subsidence in the North Carnarvon Basin and may indicate a period of depth-dependent extension or dynamic topography preceding breakup.

  4. The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): drift morphology and Plio-Quaternary stratigraphic evolution

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Cattaneo, Antonio; Jouet, Gwenael; Thereau, Estelle; Thomas, Yannick; Rovere, Marzia; Cauquil, Eric; Trincardi, Fabio


    The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (CDS) is located in the Corsica Trough (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea), a confined basin dominated by mass transport and contour currents in the eastern flank and by turbidity currents in the western flank. The morphologic and stratigraphic characterisation of the Pianosa CDS is based on multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data (multi-channel high resolution mini GI gun, single-channel sparker and CHIRP), sediment cores and ADCP data. The Pianosa CDS is located at shallow to intermediate water depths (170 to 850 m water depth) and is formed under the influence of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). It is 120 km long, has a maximum width of 10 km and is composed of different types of muddy sediment drifts: plastered drift, separated mounded drift, sigmoid drift and multicrested drift. The reduced tectonic activity in the Corsica Trough since the early Pliocene permits to recover a sedimentary record of the contourite depositional system that is only influenced by climate fluctuations. Contourites started to develop in the Middle-Late Pliocene, but their growth was enhanced since the Middle Pleistocene Transition (0.7-0.9 Ma). Although the general circulation of the LIW, flowing northwards in the Corsica Trough, remained active all along the history of the system, contourite drift formation changed, controlled by sediment influx and bottom current velocity. During periods of sea level fall, fast bottom currents often eroded the drift crest in the middle and upper slope. At that time the proximity of the coast to the shelf edge favoured the formation of bioclastic sand deposits winnowed by bottom currents. Higher sediment accumulation of mud in the drifts occurred during periods of fast bottom currents and high sediment availability (i.e. high activity of turbidity currents), coincident with periods of sea level low-stands. Condensed sections were formed during sea level high-stands, when bottom currents were more sluggish

  5. DNA and lipid molecular stratigraphic records of haptophyte succession in the Black Sea during the Holocene

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Saenz, James P.; Giosan, Liviu; Trowbridge, Nan Y.; Dimitrov, Petko; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Eglinton, Timothy I.


    Previous studies suggest that the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi entered the Black Sea ~ 3400 yrs ago and since then a coccolith ooze defined as Unit I has developed. Unit I sediments contain long-chain alkenones derived from E. huxleyi whereas the alkenone distribution of the deeper coccolith-free sapropel (Unit II) is rather unusual. Alkenone-derived past sea surface temperature (SST) estimates suggest a large difference between Unit II and Unit I, which is likely a result of unusual biological precursors of the alkenones in Unit II. Here, we report a high-resolution stratigraphic analysis of ancient haptophyte DNA to establish the Holocene succession of haptophytes as sources of the alkenones in the Black Sea. Haptophytes related to brackish Isochrysis spp. were the initial sources of alkenones, and appeared immediately after the onset of sapropel deposition (~ 7550 yrs before present [a BP]). As salinity increased, Isochrysis-related haptophytes were slowly replaced by a complex suite of E. huxleyi strains as sources of alkenones. Our paleogenetic data showed that E. huxleyi colonized the Black Sea shortly after the onset of sapropel deposition, ~ 4000 yrs earlier than previously recognized based on their preserved coccoliths. E. huxleyi strains were the most likely source of the previously reported abundant and unusual C 36 di-unsaturated "Black Sea alkenone". Strong haptophyte species and strain-specific effects were observed on the level of unsaturation of alkenones which resulted in spurious alkenone-derived SST estimates before 5250 a BP. In contrast, from ~ 5250 a BP onwards a relatively stable haptophyte assemblage dominated by a different suite of E. huxleyi strains yielded robust alkenone-SST values and indicated a gradual cooling from 19 °C to ~ 15 °C at the top of the record (~ 450 a BP).

  6. The first stratigraphic column in South Africa, from Hondius (1652, and its modern correlatives

    Sharad Master


    Full Text Available In 1647 the Dutch ship Haarlem, en route from Batavia to the Netherlands Republic, was wrecked in Table Bay. The survivors were encamped over the next year before they were rescued in a fort they constructed called Sandenburgh. Their successful sojourn in the Cape led directly to the establishment of the Dutch colony there in 1652. They survived by living on hunted cormorants and penguins, bartered cattle and sheep, and by drinking fresh water obtained from a well which they sank to a depth of 20 m. The sequence of sediments encountered in the well was recorded by Jodocus Hondius III, grandson of the famous mapmaker, in a book published in 1652, based on accounts given to him by the sailors from the Haarlem. A comparison of the stratigraphy recorded in the well (five sedimentary units with the Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphy known from modern studies of these coastal sediments, shows a very good correspondence in terms of lithologies and thicknesses, and attests to the veracity of the sources that provided Hondius with his information. This singular case of a detailed stratigraphic column is interesting in the light it throws on the rudimentary understanding of rock types, stratigraphy and hydrology by Dutch sailors in the mid-17th century, at the beginnings of South African colonial history, more than a decade before the study of stratigraphy was initiated by the work of Steno. The measurements recorded in the description of the well are some of the earliest quantitative data recorded in the history of South African science.

  7. Stratigraphical and palynological appraisal of the Late Quaternary mangrove deposits of the west coast of India

    Kumaran, K. P. N.; Nair, K. M.; Shindikar, Mahesh; Limaye, Ruta B.; Padmalal, D.


    The organic deposits derived from the mangrove swamps form reliable stratigraphic markers within the Late Quaternary sequence of Kerala-Konkan Basin. Three generations of such deposits have been identified. The older one is dated to around 43,000-40,000 14C yr B.P., with a few dates beyond the range of radiocarbon. The younger ones date from the Middle Holocene to latest Pleistocene (10,760-4540 14C yr B.P.) and the Late Holocene (mangrove vegetation. Peat accumulation during the period 40,000-28,000 14C yr B.P. can be correlated with the excess rainfall, 40-100% greater than modern values, of the Asian summer monsoon. The low occurrence of mangrove between 22,000 and 18,000 14C yr B.P. can be attributed to the prevailing aridity and/or reduced precipitation associated worldwide with Last Glacial Maximum, because exposure surfaces and ferruginous layers are commonly found in intervals representing this period. The high rainfall of 11,000-4000 14C yr B.P. is found to be the most significant as the mangrove reached an optimum growth around 11,000 14C yr B.P. but with periods of punctuated weaker monsoons. From the present and previous studies, it has been observed that after about 5000 or 4000 14C yr B.P., the monsoons became gradually reduced leading to drying up of many of the marginal marine mangrove ecosystems. A case study of Hadi profile provided an insight to the relevance of magnetic susceptibility (χ) to record the ecological shift in Late Holocene.

  8. Pore fluid geochemistry from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Torres, M.E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.K.; Sample, J.C.; Agena, W.F.; Rosenbaum, E.J.


    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled and cored from 606.5 to 760.1. m on the North Slope of Alaska, to evaluate the occurrence, distribution and formation of gas hydrate in sediments below the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Both the dissolved chloride and the isotopic composition of the water co-vary in the gas hydrate-bearing zones, consistent with gas hydrate dissociation during core recovery, and they provide independent indicators to constrain the zone of gas hydrate occurrence. Analyses of chloride and water isotope data indicate that an observed increase in salinity towards the top of the cored section reflects the presence of residual fluids from ion exclusion during ice formation at the base of the permafrost layer. These salinity changes are the main factor controlling major and minor ion distributions in the Mount Elbert Well. The resulting background chloride can be simulated with a one-dimensional diffusion model, and the results suggest that the ion exclusion at the top of the cored section reflects deepening of the permafrost layer following the last glaciation (???100 kyr), consistent with published thermal models. Gas hydrate saturation values estimated from dissolved chloride agree with estimates based on logging data when the gas hydrate occupies more than 20% of the pore space; the correlation is less robust at lower saturation values. The highest gas hydrate concentrations at the Mount Elbert Well are clearly associated with coarse-grained sedimentary sections, as expected from theoretical calculations and field observations in marine and other arctic sediment cores. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Macroeconomic aspects of dollarization

    Kolář, Ladislav


    The dissertation deals mainly with explanation of the term "de jure dollarization" and confronts the dollarization regime with others. The core of the whole dissertation is to outline the factors which indicate fulfillment of dollarization and the positives or negatives that it brings. It slightly refers to the regional monetary integration in several regions and discovers mutual aspects with the dollarization.

  10. Quantum Chromodynamics: Computational Aspects

    Schaefer, Thomas


    We present a brief introduction to QCD, the QCD phase diagram, and non-equilibrium phenomena in QCD. We emphasize aspects of the theory that can be addressed using computational methods, in particular euclidean path integral Monte Carlo, fluid dynamics, kinetic theory, classical field theory and holographic duality.

  11. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.


    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with ha

  12. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  13. Tense, aspect, and modality

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.


    Cross-linguistically, the grammatical categories tense, aspect, and modality - when they are overtly expressed - are generally realized by free morphemes (such as adverbials and auxiliaries) or by bound inflectional markers. The discussion in this chapter will make clear that this generalization als

  14. Diagnostic aspects of gonorrhoea

    E. Stolz (Ernst)


    textabstractIn 1971 an investigation into the epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic aspects of gonorrhoea was started in collaboration with the Bacteriological Laboratory of the University Hospital/Medical Faculty Rotterdam. Jn the framework of this investigation, the data were

  15. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Leistedt, Samuel J


    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana


    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  17. Aspects of B physics

    Gaillard, M.K.


    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  18. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    Vetter, Klaus J


    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  19. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida


    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  20. Strategic Aspects of Hegemony

    Robert E. Goodin; Güth, Werner; Snidal, Duncan


    Hegemony is a central feature of contemporary international politics but it remains seriously under-theorized. We draw on cooperative game theory to represent and analyze different aspects of hegemony. After developing a general conception of hegemony, we analyze the circumstances under which a Hegemon needs assistance from allies, examine when prospective allies have incentives to cooperate with or challenge Hegemon and evaluate the prospects for exploitation by Hegemon. Throughout, we conne...


    Margarita Išoraitė


    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  2. Testing the Origins of Nonmarine Stratigraphic Sequences, Iglesia Basin, Northwest Argentina

    Ruskin, B. G.; Jordan, T.


    The Iglesia Basin is an entirely nonmarine Andean foreland basin consisting of approximately 3.5 km of Tertiary strata unconformably overlying Paleozoic basement. Best described as a wedge-top basin, Iglesia Basin is located in San Juan Province, Argentina at S 30-31\\deg between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera fold-thrust belt. Interpretations of seismic reflection profiles and field reconnaissance have suggested basin-wide stratigraphic sequences. Additionally, radiometric and magnetostratigraphic data constrain sequence deposition between approximately 17 and 4 Ma. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: temporal variability of which control caused development of unconformity-bound nonmarine sequences? Prior to this work, hypotheses about the factors at play, notably tectonism and climate change, remained untested, and fieldwork provided only localized information about the nature of the sequences. The present study examines basin lithofacies more broadly and will independently constrain discharge history (a proxy for climate) and intrabasinal tectonics. Thus far, fuller knowledge of the sedimentation patterns, structural expression, and volcanic history of Iglesia Basin is supplied by information from new outcrop localities near the northern paleomargin and basin center, and from reinterpretation of previously studied localities. A substantial volcanic component to the history of the oldest sequences is inferred from age relationships and continuity of deposits in proximity to the Cerro Negro intrabasinal andesitic center. Reassessment of field-assigned sequence boundaries in terms of continuity and expression, both along-strike and across intrabasinal faults, suggests that lithofacies shifts are more prevalent than erosive surfaces. Radiometric dating of additional tuffaceous units in the Tertiary sequences will allow more conclusive correlation among discontinuous outcrops. Floodplain assemblages of Aridosols and Inceptisols indicate

  3. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.


    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  4. The Manannan Impact Crater on Europa: Determination of Surface Compositions of Key Stratigraphic Units

    Dalton, J. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Shirley, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Kamp, L.


    Mannanan is a 22-km-diameter impact crater located at 3 N, 240 W on Europa's orbital trailing side. Detailed high resolution geologic mapping by Moore et al. (2001) revealed the likely presence of extensive deposits of impact melt materials largely filling the crater floor, together with surrounding continuous ejecta deposits that may have been excavated from Europa's interior. Terrains surrounding Mannanàn include some of Europa's visibly darkest surfaces, with extensive areas of chaos, traversed by the prominent structure of Belus Linea. The Mannannàn impact crater and its surrounding areas were imaged during the C3 orbital encounter of the Galileo Mission by the orbiter's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS). This NIMS observation (C3ENLINEA01A) has not been subjected to a detailed investigation until now, possibly due to the presence of moderate levels of radiation noise. A "despiked" version of this observation has been produced using methods described in Shirley et al. (2010). In addition, new geologic mapping precisely registered to the NIMS coverage of Manannàn and its surroundings allows the extraction of high-quality near-infrared spectra that are specific to individual geologic units and morphological features. We will present linear mixture modeling solutions for the compositions of several of Manannàn's key stratigraphic units, including the crater floor deposits and the adjacent chaos and linea materials. We will interpret these results in the context of ongoing investigations of the interplay of exogenic and endogenic influences on the surface composition of Europa. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University-Applied Physics Laboratory, and the SETI Institute under a contract with NASA. Support by NASA's Outer Planets Research program is gratefully acknowledged. Moore, J. M. and 25 others 2001. Impact Features on Europa: Results of the Galileo Europa Mission (GEM

  5. Stratigraphic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the Alika 2 giant Hawaiian submarine landslide

    McMurtry, Gary M.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Cremer, Maximilian D.; Smith, John R.; Resig, Johanna; Sherman, Clark; Torresan, Michael E.


    Previous work has found evidence for giant tsunami waves that impacted the coasts of Lanai, Molokai and other southern Hawaiian Islands, tentatively dated at 100 + and 200 + ka by U-series methods on uplifted coral clasts. Seafloor imaging and related work off Hawaii Island has suggested the Alika phase 2 debris avalanche as the source of the ~ 100 ka "giant wave deposits", although its precise age has been elusive. More recently, a basaltic sand bed in ODP site 842 (~ 300 km west of Hawaii) estimated at 100 ?? 20 ka has been suggested to correlate with this or another large Hawaiian landslide. Our approach to the timing and linkage of giant submarine landslides and paleo-tsunami deposits is a detailed stratigraphic survey of pelagic deposits proximal to the landslide feature, beginning with a suite of seven piston, gravity and box cores collected in the vicinity of the Alika 2 slide. We used U-series dating techniques, including excess 230Th and 210Pb profiling, high-resolution paleomagnetic stratigraphy, including continuous, U-channel analysis, δ18O stratigraphy, visual and X-ray sediment lithology, and the petrology and geochemistry of the included turbidites and ash layers. Minimum ages for the Alika phase 2a slide from detailed investigation of two of the cores are 112 ± 15 ka and 125 ± 24 ka (2σ) based on excess 230Th dating. A less precise age for the Alika phase 1 and/or South Kona slide is 242 ± 80 ka (2σ), consistent with previous geological estimates. Oxygen isotope analyses of entrained planktonic foraminifera better constrain the Alika phase 2a maximum age at 127 ± 5 ka, which corresponds to the beginning of the stage 5e interglacial period. It is proposed that triggering of these giant landslides may be related to climate change when wetter periods increase the possibility of groundwater intrusion and consequent phreatomagmatic eruptions of shallow magma chambers. Our study indicates the contemporaneity of the Alika giant submarine landslides

  6. Stratigraphic significance and global distribution of the δ13C Suess effect during the Anthropocene

    Paul, André; Mulitza, Stefan


    The Anthropocene is the proposed term for the present geological epoch (from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards), during which human influence significantly impacts the environment. We argue that the burning of isotopically light fossil fuel that causes the so-called 'δ13C Suess effect' leaves such a strong imprint on marine sediments that it may serve to define the onset of this geological epoch, at least since the so-called 'Great Acceleration', i.e., the second half of the 20th century. Sediment data with high temporal resolution from the recent past indeed reveal a trend that corresponds to a negative carbon isotope excursion of the order of one permil, comparable to carbon isotope excursions in the deep past that define stratigraphic boundaries such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). A global carbon cycle model based on the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm), fitted with carbon isotopes 13C and 14C and forced with observed changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon isotopic ratio 13C/12C, allows to investigate the temporal evolution and three-dimensional structure of the anomaly. We show the carbon isotopic ratios of fossil shells of benthic foraminifera (δ13Cc) from two ocean sediment cores GeoB6008 (31° N) und GeoB9501 (17° N) over the Anthropocene (mainly the 20th century). The decrease in δ13Cc at 31° N is about 0.8 permil; off Mauretania (at 17° N in the shadow zone of the subtropical gyre) it still amounts to about 0.4 permil. While the magnitude of the change in the global carbon cycle model is similar, the difference is smaller: The decrease in the model is around 0.9 permil near the location of the northern core and around 0.8 permil near the location of the southern core. The smaller difference of only about 0.1 permil points to a bias in the simulated as opposed to the observed ventilation of the thermocline. We further use a carbon cycle multi-box model to extrapolate this change in δ13

  7. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan


    and stratigraphic constraints show that some of the epidosites formed within the top 1.4 km of the crust, others between 1.2 and 1.7 km depth, whereas the deepest formed between 2.6 and 3.8 km below the paleo-seafloor. Finally, the timing constraints do not prescribe a strict temporal relationship between epidotization and the formation of the numerous seafloor massive-sulphide (VMS) deposits known in the ophiolite. However, a role for epidosites as source rocks for the metals in the deposits remains permissible.

  8. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.


    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  9. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.


    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  10. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.


    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  11. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    Laddad, Ramnivas


    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  12. Forestry certification social aspects

    Hamman, J


    Full Text Available intimidating to respondents. Related to the question of language is the question of race. South Africa's political history has been characterised by colonialist dispossession and racial exclusivity in political decision-making. The effect of this on rural... and environmental aspects of the audit, the forester seems to be more uncomfortable responding to the social auditor. The skill levels required to gain and maintain the trust of the forest management is very high, and the same racial factors play a role...

  13. Fractal aspects of hadrons

    Deppman, Airton


    The non extensive aspects of $p_T$ distributions obtained in high energy collisions are discussed in relation to possible fractal structure in hadrons, in the sense of the thermofractal structure recently introduced. The evidences of self-similarity in both theoretical and experimental works in High Energy and in Hadron Physics are discussed, to show that the idea of fractal structure of hadrons and fireballs have being under discussion for decades. The non extensive self-consistent thermodynamics and the thermofractal structure allow one to connect non extensivity to intermittence and possibly to parton distribution functions in a single theoretical framework.

  14. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)


    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  15. Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Lower Delta Plain and its Relation to Groundwater Arsenic Distributions

    Patrick, M. G.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gilligan, J. M.; Tasich, C. M.; Hossain, S.; Ahmed, K. M.


    Bangladesh is plagued by high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in the shallow groundwater of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), leading to widespread poisoning of people in the region. Most of the 156 million people in Bangladesh obtain their drinking water through hand-pumped tube wells that often draw arsenic-contaminated water from shallow, Holocene-age aquifers of the delta. The distribution of arsenic within these aquifers is heterogeneous and linked with the complex stratigraphy of the GBMD through its controls on hydrogeology and aquifer biogeochemistry. This research investigates differences in the fluvio-deltaic deposits formed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, as well as differences in the tectonic setting across the lower delta plain. Furthermore, we investigate how these overarching controls influence stratigraphic architecture and the resulting aquifer systems, and ultimately the distribution of As within the shallow aquifers of the lower delta plain. To accomplish this, a transect of 55 sediment cores spanning the entire lower delta plain of Bangladesh was drilled to a depth of 90 m. In addition to knowledge of the stratigraphic architecture gained from borehole lithologs, samples from these cores were analyzed for provenance and grain size to determine source of the sediments and the depositional history of the rivers. Relating delta stratigraphy to As distribution was accomplished by measuring groundwater As in 10-20 tubewells within a 1 km radius of each borehole. This data was combined with groundwater data from the Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project within 25 km of the transect. Statistical analysis of the groundwater data was then conducted using hierarchical regressions as well as a nearest neighbor algorithm. This study provides a better understanding of Holocene delta evolution and river behavior, as well as a more complete understanding of the geologic controls on As and the characteristics of

  16. The Daptocephalus Assemblage Zone (Lopingian), South Africa: A proposed biostratigraphy based on a new compilation of stratigraphic ranges

    Viglietti, Pia A.; Smith, Roger M. H.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Kammerer, Christian F.; Fröbisch, Jörg; Rubidge, Bruce S.


    The Dicynodon Assemblage Zone (DiAZ) of South Africa's Karoo Basin is one of the eight biostratigraphic zones of the Beaufort Group. It spans the uppermost Permian strata (Balfour, Teekloof, and Normandien formations) and traditionally has been considered to terminate with the disappearance of Dicynodon lacerticeps at the Permo-Triassic Boundary. We demonstrate that the three index fossils currently used to define the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone (Dicynodon lacerticeps, Theriognathus microps, and Procynosuchus delaharpeae) have first appearance datums (FADs) below its traditionally recognized lower boundary and have ranges mostly restricted to the lower portion of the biozone, well below the Permo-Triassic Boundary. We propose re-establishing Daptocephalus leoniceps as an index fossil for this stratigraphic interval, and reinstating the name Daptocephalus Assemblage Zone (DaAZ) for this unit. Furthermore, the FAD of Lystrosaurus maccaigi in the uppermost reaches of the biozone calls for the establishment of a two-fold subdivision of the current Dicynodon Assemblage Zone. The biostratigraphic utility of Da. leoniceps and other South African dicynodontoids outside of the Karoo Basin is limited due to basinal endemism at the species level and varying temporal ranges of dicynodontoids globally. Therefore, we recommend their use only for correlation within the Karoo Basin at this time. Revision of the stratigraphic ranges of all late Permian tetrapods does not reveal a significant change in faunal diversity between the lower and upper DaAZ. However, the last appearance datums of the abundant taxa Di. lacerticeps, T. microps, P. delaharpeae, and Diictodon feliceps occur below the three extinction phases associated with the end-Permian mass extinction event. Due to northward attenuation of the strata, however, the stratigraphic position of the extinction phases may need to be reconsidered.


    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,


    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  18. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.


    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  19. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Jurassic siliciclastics in the eastern Kopet-Dagh Basin, NE Iran

    Zand-Moghadam, Hamed; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Mahboubi, Asadollah; Aghaei, Ali


    The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) Mozduran Formation is the most important gas reservoirs of the northeast Iran. Siliciclastic facies of this formation in eastern most parts of the basin have not been studied yet. Therefore, four stratigraphic sections of Mozduran Formation have been selected in the Kole-Malekabad, Kale-Karab, Deraz-Ab and Karizak to interpret depositional history and analyze depositional sequences. Based on texture and sedimentary structures, 14 slilciclastic lithofacies were identified and classified into four categories, including conglomerate (Gms, Gp, Gt), sandstone (Sh, Sp, St, Sr, Sl, Sm, Se), mud rock (Fl) and intermediate sandstone-mud rock (Sr (Fl), Sr/Fl, Fl (Sr)). Identified lithofacies formed four architectural elements CH, SB, LA and FF. Lithofacies characteristics and architectural elements with mostly bimodal pattern of paleocurrents show that the majority of Mozduran lithofacies deposited in the coastal environment (tidal influence). Sequence stratigraphic analysis shows that the Kole-Malekabad section consists of two depositional sequences while other sections are characterized by three depositional sequences. The lower and upper sequence boundaries of the Mozduran Formation in all stratigraphic sections are SB1 that are distinguished by paleosol and sometime conglomerate horizons. Most of depositional sequences in studied sections are composed only of TST and HST. The TST deposits consist mostly of quartzarenite and litharenite petrofacies that have been deposited in the tidal zone. HST packages are mostly including mud rocks with interdeds of sandstone lithofacies that are deposited in supratidal setting. The LST facies is recognized only in the DS3 (equivalent to the second depositional sequences of the Kole-Malekabad), which consist of conglomerate facies. Instead, the Kole-Malekabad section is often composed of supratidal gypsiferrous shales, indicating sea level fall in the study area.

  20. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes


    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  1. Geochemistry of Precambrian sedimentary rocks used to solve stratigraphical problems: An example from the Neoproterozoic Volta basin, Ghana

    Kalsbeek, F.; Frei, Robert


    units, in upward succession the Bombouaka, Oti and Obosum Groups, but poor exposure has resulted in major disagreements on stratigraphical correlations and on the areal extents of these units. Geochemical data (major and trace element concentrations as well as Rb–Sr, Pb and Sm–Nd isotope data...... anamalies, higher 87Sr/86Sr, and more negative var epsilonNd values. Geochemical distinction between samples from the Oti and Obosum Groups is ambiguous because published geological maps differ with respect to the relative extents of the Oti and Obosum Groups. Rb–Sr isotope data, combined with high degrees...

  2. Stratigraphic responses to a major tectonic event in a foreland basin: the Ecuadorian Oriente Basin from Eocene to Oligocene times

    Christophoul, Frédéric; Baby, Patrice; Dávila, Celso


    The Eocene to Oligocene sediments of the Ecuadorian Oriente Basin record two kinds of second-order stratigraphic response to the tectonic evolution. Lower Eocene shows evidences of local scale syntectonic deposits. This tectonic activity can be related to right lateral convergent movements inverting pre-cretaceous extensional structures. Upper Eocene and Oligocene sediments are integrated as the expression of an isostatic rebound characterizing a basin scale syntectonic deposition. This response is evidenced by a reciprocal architecture of the depositional sequences identified in the sedimentary formations. These data have allowed us to propose a new geodynamic model for the Paleogene evolution of the Oriente Basin.

  3. A not-so-big crisis: re-reading Silurian conodont diversity in a sequence-stratigraphic framework

    Jarochowska, Emilia; Munnecke, Axel


    Conodonts are extensively used in Ordovician through Triassic biostratigraphy and fossil-based geochemistry. However, their distribution in rock successions is commonly taken at face value, without taking into account their diverse and poorly understood ecology. Multielement taxonomy, ontogenetic and environmental variability, difficulties in extraction, and relative rarity all contribute to the general lack of quantitative studies on conodont stratigraphic distribution and temporal turnover. With respect to Silurian conodonts, the concept of recurrent conodont extinction events - the so called Ireviken, Mulde and Lau events - has become a standard in the stratigraphic literature. The concept has been proposed based on qualitative observations of local extirpations of open-marine pelagic or nekto-benthic taxa and temporary dominance of shallow-water species in the Silurian succession of the Swedish island of Gotland. These changes coincided with positive carbon isotope excursions, abrupt facies shifts, "blooms" of benthic fauna, and changes in reef communities, which have all been combined into a general view of Silurian bio-geochemical events. This view posits a deterministic, reproducible pattern in Silurian conodont diversity, attributed to recurrent ecological or geochemical conditions. The growing body of sequence-stratigraphic interpretations across these events in Gotland and other sections worldwide indicate that in all cases the Silurian "events" are associated with rapid global regressions. This suggests that faunal changes such as the dominance of shallow-water, low-diversity conodont fauna and the increase of benthic invertebrate diversity and abundance represent predictable consequences of the variation in the completeness of the rock record and preservation potential of different environments. Our studies in Poland and Ukraine indicate that the magnitude of change in the taxonomic composition of conodont assemblages across the middle Silurian global

  4. Neurological aspects of grief.

    Silva, Adriana C; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Natalia P; de Mello Schier, Alexandre R; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flavia; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Pessoa, Tamires M


    Despite grief being a universal experience and the increased scientific attention paid to grief and bereavement in recent years, studies that seek to better understand the role of the neurological aspects of grief are still scarce. We found 5 studies that discussed the relationship between the neurological aspects of grief due to the death of a loved one. All studies showed an activation of common areas, i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula and amygdala. These findings could indicate that there is a group of areas working together and responding to generate the symptomatology of grief. Because grief is a universal experience, it is essential that the necessary and effective support can be provided to those who experience the loss of someone considered important in their lives, and this requires understanding grief's manifestation, its differential diagnosis in reference to other clinical conditions, mainly psychiatric ones, and adequate forms of intervention and treatment when necessary. Proper understanding and support can help prevent the emergence of more serious health problems.


    Tatiana Sergeevna SIRENKO


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the prag-matic aspect of citation in fictional text from the in-tertextual point of view. The theory of intertextuality was formed in the works of M.Bakhtin and devel-oped by Y. Kristeva after the analysis of the works of post-modern writers. So allusion and citation began to be investigated not from the philology point of view only but from the linguistics as well. The pur-pose of the article is to investigate the pragmatic aspect of citation which includes also the investiga-tion of its pragmatic functions. Different views on the citation classification are also mentioned in the article as it is an actual problem in modern linguis-tics. Novels by British writer J. Fforde are the mate-rial for the investigation article because they pos-sess a big amount of intertextual inclusion in the text in general and citation in particular.

  6. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the episodic development of elevated, passive continental margins

    Green, Paul F.


    Full Text Available The continental margin of West Greenland is similar in many respects to other elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs around the world. These margins are characterised by extensive regions of low relief at elevations of 1–2 kilometres above sea level sloping gently inland, with a much steeper, oceanward decline, often termed a 'Great Escarpment', terminating at a coastal plain. Recent studies, based on integration of geological, geomorphological and thermochronological evidence, have shown that the high topography of West Greenland was formed by differential uplift and dissection of an Oligo-Miocene peneplain since the late Miocene, many millions of years after continental break-up between Greenland and North America. In contrast, many studies of other EPCMs have proposed a different style of development in which the high plateaux and the steep, oceanward decline are regarded as a direct result of rifting and continental separation. Some studies assume that the elevated regions have remained high since break-up, with the high topography continuously renewed by isostasy. Others identify the elevated plains as remnants of pre-rift landscapes. Key to understanding the development of the West Greenland margin is a new approach to the study of landforms, stratigraphic landscape analysis, in which the low-relief, high-elevation plateaux at EPCMs are interpreted as uplifted peneplains: low-relief surfaces of large extent, cutting across bedrock of different age and resistance, and originally graded to sea level. Identification of different generations of peneplain (re-exposed and epigene from regional mapping, combined with geological constraints and thermochronology, allows definition of the evolution leading to the formation of the modern-day topography. This approach is founded particularly on results from the South Swedish Dome, which document former sea levels as base levels for the formation of peneplains. These results support the view

  7. The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale

    Khomentovsky, V. V.


    In Russia, the terminal Neoproterozoic formally includes the Vendian of western part of the East European platform and the concurrent Yudoma Group of Siberia. As is shown in this work, the designated subdivisions correspond in the stratotypes only to the upper, Yudomian Series of the Vendian. In the Siberian platform, the Ust-Yudoma and Aim horizons of the Yudomian are tightly interrelated. The lower of them, bearing remains of Ediacaran Fauna, represents the Ediacarian Stage, whereas the upper one containing small-shelled fossils (SSF) corresponds to the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage divided into the trisulcatus and antiqua superregional zones. In more complete sections of the platform periphery, sediments of these subdivisions conformably rest on siliciclastic succession that should be ranked as basal subdivision of the Yudomian. The succession is concurrent to the Laplandian Stage of the East European platform. According to geochronological dates obtained recently, the Yudomian Series spans interval of 600-540 Ma. In the East European platform, the Upper Vendian (Yudomian) begins with the Laplandian basal tillites of synonymous stage. In the west of the platform, tillites are dated at 600 Ma like the Upper Vendian base in Siberia. The next Ediacarian Stage of the East European platform is stratigraphic equivalent of the Redkino Horizon, while summary range of the Kotlin and Rovno horizons is concurrent to that of the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage. The Vendian of Russia is conformably overlain by the Tommotian Stage of the Lower Cambrian. Intense pre-Vendian events constrained distribution areas of the Lower Vendian sediments in Russia. The Lower Vendian deposits of the East European platform are most representative and well studied in the central Urals, where they are attributed to the Serebryanka Group. In Siberia, separate subdivisions representing the Lower Vendian are the Maastakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift, two lower members of the Ushakovka Formation in the Baikal

  8. Stratigraphic signatures of climatic change during the Holocene evolution of the Tigris Euphrates delta, lower Mesopotamia

    Aqrawi, Adnan A. M.


    Fluctuations in climate, sea level and sedimentation rates, in addition to the neotectonic activity, during the geological evolution of the Tigris-Euphrates delta (in the last 10,000 years) had resulted in the deposition of various sedimentary units. Previously, five main stratigraphic units, with other sub-units, have been identified by the author during the study of the Holocene deltaic successions of Lower Mesopotamia and as based upon the results of petrological, geochemical, palaeontological and radiometric analyses of his PhD dissertation. Each unit has been produced through various depositional and diagenetic processes in addition to the dominant climate. Such processes together have been clearly recorded in the forms of either the authigenic minerals occurring in each sequence, particularly the Ca-Mg carbonates, evaporites and clay minerals, the biological activities represented by shell remains of molluscs, foraminifers and ostracods, or the preservation of organic matters within organic-rich layers. This review discusses the impact climatic changes had on the accumulated sedimentary facies during the Holocene evolution of the Tigris-Euphrates delta. Arid climate dominated the study area in the early Holocene after a long period of the wetter conditions of Pleistocene. Such a climatic change has resulted in the formation of gypcretes rich in palygorskite and dolomite occurring within the calcareous fluvial-plain muds, similar to the modern fluvial plain deposits. However, the sediments were highly admixed with coarser sandy deposits of playa and aeolian sources in the western desertic margins, and with older reworked sands of Zagros foothills to the Northeast of Lower Mesopotamia. During the mid-Holocene marine invasion, when the climate became wetter as well, brackish-water/marine sedimentary sub-units were deposited, overlying the previous fluvial plain deposits. The deposition started with a transitional sub-unit flourishing over the older early

  9. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    Hong, D K


    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.


    Margarita IŠORAITĖ


    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  11. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  12. Formal aspects of resilience

    Diana-Maria Drigă


    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  13. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    Faircloth, D C


    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  14. Aspects of Gond Astronomy

    Vahia, M N


    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment o...

  15. Mobile Learning Aspects and Readiness

    Hana Mohammed Eltayeb Abdall; Mohammed Osman Ali Hegazi


      This paper provide the aspects of mobile learning by presenting the differences techniques and aspects of using mobile devices in education according to the perspective of researches and studies...


    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana


    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  17. {sup 14}C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    Wild, E.M., E-mail: [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Gauss, W. [Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens, Leof. Alexandras 26, Gr10683 Athens (Greece); Forstenpointner, G. [University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Dept. of Pathobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Unit on Archaeozoology and Comparative Morphology, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna (Austria); Lindblom, M. [Dept. of Archaeology and Ancient History Uppsala, University Box 626, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Smetana, R. [Altertumswissenschaften, University of Salzburg, Residenzplatz 1/I, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Steier, P. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Thanheiser, U. [Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS), Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Weninger, F. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)


    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been {sup 14}C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the {sup 14}C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna {sup 14}C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  18. Stratigraphic and Petrological Constraints of Cretaceous Subduction Initiation and Arc-Continent Collision in the Northern Andes

    Leon, S.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Parra, M.


    Middle to Late-Cretaceous orogenic events in the northern Andes have been commonly reconstructed from the analysis of inland basins or the integration of regional scale thermochronological, geochronological and geochemical datasets from the accreted blocks. In contrast, limited studies have been developed on the stratigraphic and deformational record of magmatic and sedimentary sequences exposed near the suture zones. New field and petrologic data are used to characterize an ophiolite type sequence that outcrops in the western flank from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Stratigraphic analysis indicate the existence of Albian-Aptian deep marine pelitic sequence interbedded with minor chert and thin quartz sandstone beds that apparently change to a volcanic dominate stratigraphy. Deformed ophiolite-like mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks and isolated pillow lavas are also exposed to the east in fault contact with the pelitic sequence. The pelitic and interlayered volcanic rocks represent the growth of an extensional Early-Cretaceous basin that followed a Late-Jurassic magmatic quiescence in the Northern Andes. The volcano-sedimentary record is probably related to the growth of a fore-arc basin in a new subduction zone that extends until the Late Cretaceous. The deformation and obduction of the ophiolitic association and the fore-arc basin were probably triggered by the Late Cretaceous collision with an allocthonous plateau-arc associated to the migration of the Caribbean plate.

  19. A unique fossil record from neptunian sills: the world's most extreme example of stratigraphic condensation (Jurassic, western Sicily)

    Wendt, Jobst


    Neptunian sills at Rocca Busambra, a fragment of the Trapanese/Saccense Domain in western Sicily, host the most abundant ammonite and gastropod fauna which has ever been recorded from the Jurassic of the western Tethys. The fauna is dominated by parautochthonous organisms which were swept into the sills by gentle transport. Ammonites are characterized by perfect preservation and small size, a feature which is due to the predominance of microconchs but also of stunting. The most complete sill is 0.7 m thick and could be separated into 17 levels which range in age from the early Toarcian into the late Kimmeridgian, thus representing the most extreme case of palaeontologically and depositionally documented stratigraphic condensation in Earth history. The unique feature of the Rocca Busambra sills is due to the interaction of three processes: extreme stratigraphic condensation on the sea floor, weak tectonic fracturing of the host rock and repeated reopening on top of already existing sills. Contrasting percentages of gastropods in individual levels reflect sea-level oscillations which correspond to long known low- and highstands during the Jurassic of the western Tethys. Comparisons with other ammonite-bearing sill faunas reveal several similarities, but represent only short-timed phases of tectonic pulses and deposition.

  20. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone–Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    Sudarsan Sahu; Dipankar Saha


    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone–Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur–Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width–depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE–SW direction.

  1. Geochemistry and stratigraphic correlation of basalt lavas beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Reed, M.F.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Hughes, S.S.


    Thirty-nine samples of basaltic core were collected from wells 121 and 123, located approximately 1.8 km apart north and south of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Samples were collected from depths ranging from 15 to 221 m below land surface for the purpose of establishing stratigraphic correlations between these two wells. Elemental analyses indicate that the basalts consist of three principal chemical types. Two of these types are each represented by a single basalt flow in each well. The third chemical type is represented by many basalt flows and includes a broad range of chemical compositions that is distinguished from the other two types. Basalt flows within the third type were identified by hierarchical K-cluster analysis of 14 representative elements: Fe, Ca, K, Na, Sc, Co, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Ta, and Th. Cluster analyses indicate correlations of basalt flows between wells 121 and 123 at depths of approximately 38-40 m, 125-128 m, 131-137 m, 149-158 m, and 183-198 m. Probable correlations also are indicated for at least seven other depth intervals. Basalt flows in several depth intervals do not correlate on the basis of chemical compositions, thus reflecting possible flow margins in the sequence between the wells. Multi-element chemical data provide a useful method for determining stratigraphic correlations of basalt in the upper 1-2 km of the eastern Snake River Plain.

  2. Study on the application of seismic sedimentology in a stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir in central Junggar Basin

    Yu, Yixin; Xia, Zhongmou


    This paper discusses the research idea of description for stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir based on seismic sedimentology methods. The sandstone reservoir of Jurrassic XiShanyao Formation in Junggar Basin is studied according to the theory and approaches of seismic sedimentology. By making full use of borehole data, the technologies of layer correlation based on the stratigraphic sequence framework, the forward seismic modeling, the stratal slicing and lithologic inversion are applied. It describes the range of denudation line, the distribution characteristics of sedimentary facies of the strata, the vertical and horizontal distribution of sand bodies and the favourable oil-gas bearing prospective area. The results shows that study area are dominated braided delta deposition including underwater distributary channel and distributary bay microfacies, the nip-out lines of the formation are northeast to southwest from north to south, the second Middle Jurassic sand body is the most widely distributed one among three sand bodies, the prospective oil-gas bearing area located in the south part and around the YG2 well area. The study result is effective on the practice of exploration in study area.

  3. NACSN, note 67--Application for revision of Articles 36 and 37, Lithodemic units of the North American stratigraphic code

    Easton, Robert M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Duguet, Manuel; Ferrusquia-Villafranca, Ismael


    Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).

  4. Sequence Stratigraphic Delineation and Correlation of the Dongying Formation in the Nearshore and Adjacent Sea Areas, Bohai Bay Basin

    Zhu Hongtao; Du Yuansheng; Liu Keyu; Yan Jiaxin; Xu Yajun; Yang Ping; Liu Xinyu


    Based on the analysis of well logs, seismic data, core studies, the Dongying (东营) into three third-order sequences from base to top: namely, sequences SQ1, SQ2 and SQ3. The three sequences have different wireline (SP) log responses, showing triple-section characteristics with SQ1 being characterized by primarily flat baseline with intercalation of relatively low spontaneous potential, SQ2 generally exhibiting weak or moderate amplitude spontaneous potential with finger-shaped peaks, and SQ3 having relatively high spontaneous potential with funnel-shaped log curves. On the basis of the triple-section characteristics, the stratigraphic sequences can be correlated consistently throughout the entire study area. A stratigraphic and sedimentary model for sequences SQ1 to SQ3 of the Dongying Formation in the study area has been proposed. The accommodation space change in the two sides of the asymmetrical basin was examined and the asymmetrical basin has the feature of the asymmetrical accommodation space change. The asymmetrical physiography is a vital factor to influence the accommodation changes in additional to the lake level change, tectonism and sediment supply. This may have important implications to similar basins in other parts of China or elsewhere.

  5. Systematic study and stratigraphic correlation of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of northwest and eastern Europe.

    Higgs; Avkhimovitch; Loboziak; Maziane-Serraj; Stempien-Salek; Streel


    In northwest and eastern Europe different miospore zonation schemes have been erected for the Famennian rocks, and correlation of these has proved problematical. However, in both regions of Europe Grandispora taxa are common elements in the respective Famennian spore successions, and it appears these taxa may have important intra-continental correlation potential. In order to assess this potential, a C.I.M.P. working group has undertaken a taxonomic study of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of both regions. Representative material from Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium, France and Ireland has been exchanged, and then jointly studied, at four workshop meetings. A consensus of agreement has been reached on the morphological delineation and nomenclature of 13 species of Grandispora, and a description of each taxon is presented. One new species Grandispora tamarae is erected, and six new generic combinations are proposed. The stratigraphic range of each species in both regions is documented and calibrated with the respective conodont zonation schemes. It can be shown that many of the Grandispora species seem to have their first occurrence at similar stratigraphic levels. These new data allow detailed correlations of the Famennian miospore zonation schemes to be proposed.

  6. Stratigraphical discontinuities, tropical landscape evolution and soil distribution relationships in a case study in SE-Brazil

    M. Cooper


    Full Text Available On a regional summit surface in the county of Piracicaba (SP within the Peripheric Depression of São Paulo, formed of discontinued flattened tops, there is an abrupt transition between a Typic Hapludox and a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox, together with two stoneline layers. Using stratigraphical, mineralogical, and cartographic studies, this transition and the soil distribution of this surface were studied, correlating them with the different parent materials and the morphoclimatic model of landscape evolution in Southeastern Brazil. The Typic Hapludox was formed on a sandy Cenozoic deposit (Q that overlies a pellitic deposit of the Iratí formation (Pi, representing a regional erosive discordance. Westwards to the Piracicaba River, this sequence is interrupted by a diabase sill overlain by a red clayey material which gave origin to the Kandiudalfic Eutrudox. Two post-Permian depositional events were identified by the two stonelines and stratigraphical discontinuities. The first event generated the deposition of a sandy sediment in the form of levelled alveoluses on regional barriers, most of these formed by dikes and diabase sills, probably during a drier phase. The second depositional event, leading to the deposition of the red clay was probably the dissection of the previously formed pediplane during a humid climate, followed by another pedimentation process during a later, drier period.

  7. Sr Isotopic Variation in Shallow Water Carbonate Sequences: Stratigraphic, Chronostratigraphic, and Eustatic Implications of the Record at Enewetak Atoll

    Quinn, Terrence M.; Lohmann, K. C.; Halliday, A. N.


    Sr isotope data from two boreholes within the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have been used to evaluate the use of such data to correlate, date, and monitor sea level change in shallow water carbonate sequences. Correlative stratigraphic intervals of relatively invariant δ87Sr, separated by abrupt transitions to lower δ87Sr with increasing depth, are recognized in both boreholes. Conversion of δ87Sr values to age via calibration with the seawater δ87Sr trend with age indicates that correlative and synchronous deposition of atoll sediments occurred at ˜ 0.4, 1.2, and 2.1 Ma. In contrast, a ˜5 m.y. hiatus is recognized in one borehole but not the other. Sr isotope stratigraphy (SIS) is a powerful stratigraphic and chronostratigraphic tool in shallow water carbonate sequences only when significant secular variation of δ87Sr occurs and retention of depositional δ87Sr values is demonstrated. The latter is best demonstrated when δ87Sr data, are integrated with δ18O, δ13C, Sr content data and petrographic observations. Several diagenetically altered intervals have greater δ87Sr values, low δ13C values, and low Sr/Ca ratios relative to adjacent intervals, a combination that is consistent with open-system meteoric diagenesis. Calcite cements from these intervals have early Pleistocene (˜1.2 Ma) δ87Sr values despite their occurrence well within the late Pliocene (˜2.1 Ma) sequence. Thus local sedimentological and diagenetic processes have produced intralagoon variability in the SIS of the two boreholes, complicating subsurface stratigraphic correlations. The occurrence of anomalously young calcite cement relative to adjacent limestone is a direct response of the interaction of sea level change and meteoric phreatic diagenesis whereby overlying metastable carbonates, with greater δ87Sr values, are dissolved during periods of atoll emergence and sea level lowstand liberating Sr and soil-gas CO2 to the pore fluid, which is then incorporated into downflow meteoric

  8. 基于特征识别与PSO结合的地层对比算法%A Stratigraphic Correlation Algorithm Based on Characteristics Identification and PSO

    许少华; 张宇航; 宋美玲; 许辰


    For small layer contrast problem of oilfield development block between two adjacent wells,propose an algorithm with small lay-ers logging curve directly as identification characteristics and combined with particle swarm optimization algorithm in stratigraphic correla-tion. By defining the generalized Hausdorff distance measured curve feature similarity,build small layers compared objective function with multistage penalty function constraint,directly taken the original logging curves of adjacent two contrastive wells as the characteristic vari-ables of detail correlation of reservoir bed. Use the experience memory,information sharing and track traverse searching from PSO for sol-ving global optimization objective function,achieving the optimal matching of small layer between two wells. Algorithm can highlight the well logging curve process characteristics and combination of integral multiple curve form,improve the recognition and matching of corre-sponding relationship between small layers of contrast wells,which has better adaptability for stratigraphic correlation problem in the as-pect of mechanism. Conducting the actual processing for oilfield development block adjacent wells,the results show the effectiveness of the model and algorithm.%针对油田开发区块相邻两井之间的小层对比问题,提出了一种以小层测井曲线直接作为过程特征并与粒子群优化相结合的地层对比算法。通过定义可度量曲线特征相似度的距离指标,直接将相邻两口对比井的原始测井曲线作为小层对比特征变量,以此构建带多级罚函数约束的小层对比目标函数。综合利用粒子群算法( PSO)的经验记忆、信息共享和遍历搜索性质优化目标函数参数,实现两井小层之间的最佳匹配。算法可突出测井曲线的过程特征以及多条曲线的整体组合形态,提高对比井段小层之间对应关系的辨识和匹配能力,对于地层对比问题在机制上具


    P. S. Kyzlasov


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S


    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  11. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M


    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  12. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Franci Gabrovsek


    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  13. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Hacer Sezgin


    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  14. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  15. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari


    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  16. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo


    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  17. Stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Flores, Romeo M.; Erpenbeck, Michael F.


    This report illustrates and describes the detailed stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation exposed in isolated badlands and along washes within a 20-mile outcrop belt in the Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, southwestern San Juan Basin, Nex Mexico (see index). The stratigraphic framework showing the vertical and lateral distributions of rock types and the lateral continuity of coal beds is illustrated in cross sections. The cross sections were constructed from 112 stratigraphic sections measured at an average distance of 0.4 mi apart. Each section contained key marker beds (sandstone, coal, and tonstein) that were physically traced to adjacent sections. Each measured section was "hung" on multiple marker beds arranged in a geometric best-fit method that accounts for the differential compaction and facies associations of the deposits. 

  18. A Climatic Sequence Stratigraphic Model in the Terrestrial Lacustrine Basin:A Case Study of Green River Formation,Uinta Basin,USA

    WANG Junling; ZHENG Herong; XIAO Huanqin; ZHONG Guohong; Ronald STEEL; YIN Peigui


    In recent years,with the development of terrestrial sequence stratigraphy,more attention has been focused on the study of the terrestrial lacustrine sequence stratigraphic model globally. Different viewpoints are preferred by researchers.Under the guidance of the theory of sequence stratigraphy,the findings of this paper indicate that climate is a major factor controlling the formation of the fourth-order sequence,based upon the study of the sequence stratigraphy in the Green River Formation of the Uinta basin in the USA.It also divides the fourth-order sequence in the terrestrial lacustrine basin into two system tracts:the wet(rising)half-cycle and the dry(falling)half-cycle,establishing a new-style fourth-order sequence stratigraphic model for the terrestrial lacustrine basin,that is,the climate-genetic sequence stratigraphic model.As a result, the theory of sequence stratigraphy is greatly enriched.


    Mitrofanova, I.I.


    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  20. Computational Aspects of Equilibria

    Yannakakis, Mihalis

    Equilibria play a central role in game theory and economics. They characterize the possible outcomes in the interaction of rational, optimizing agents: In a game between rational players that want to optimize their payoffs, the only solutions in which no player has any incentive to switch his strategy are the Nash equilibria. Price equilibria in markets give the prices that allow the market to clear (demand matches supply) while the traders optimize their preferences (utilities). Fundamental theorems of Nash [34] and Arrow-Debreu [2] established the existence of the respective equilibria (under suitable conditions in the market case). The proofs in both cases use a fixed point theorem (relying ultimately on a compactness argument), and are non-constructive, i.e., do not yield an algorithm for constructing an equilibrium. We would clearly like to compute these predicted outcomes. This has led to extensive research since the 60’s in the game theory and mathematical economics literature, with the development of several methods for computation of equilibria, and more generally fixed points. More recently, equilibria problems have been studied intensively in the computer science community, from the point of view of modern computation theory. While we still do not know definitely whether equilibria can be computed in general efficiently or not, these investigations have led to a better understanding of the computational complexity of equilibria, the various issues involved, and the relationship with other open problems in computation. In this talk we will discuss some of these aspects and our current understanding of the relevant problems. We outline below the main points and explain some of the related issues.

  1. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Hari D. Maharajh


    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  2. Tectonic and climate driven fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level of a Cenozoic continental coal basin, northwestern Andes

    Silva Tamayo, J. C.; Sierra, G. M.; Correa, L. G.


    Changes in the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of the coal-bearing middle Oligocene-late Miocene siliciclastic Amagá Formation, northwestern Colombia, reflect major fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level within the Amagá Basin, which paralleled three major stages of evolution of the middle Cenozoic Andean Orogeny. These stages, which are also traceable by the changes in the compositional modes of sandstones, controlled the occurrence of important coal deposits. The initial stage of evolution of the Amagá Basin was related to the initial uplift of the Central Cordillera of Colombia around 25 Ma, which promoted moderate subsidence rates and high rates of sediment supply into the basin. This allowed the development of aggradational braided rivers and widespread channel amalgamation resulting in poor preservation of both, low energy facies and geomorphic elements. The presence of poorly preserved Alfisols within the scarce flood plains and the absence of swamp deposits suggest arid climate during this stage. The compositional modes of sandstones suggest sediment supply from uplifted basement-cored blocks. The second stage of evolution was related to the late Oligocene eastward migration of the Pre-Andean tholeitic magmatic arc from the Western Cordillera towards the Cauca depression. This generated extensional movements along the Amagá Basin, enhancing the subsidence and increasing the accommodation space along the basin. As a result of the enhanced subsidence rates, meandering rivers developed, allowing the formation of extensive swamps deposits (currently coal beds). The excellent preservation of Entisols and Alfisols within the flood plain deposits suggests rapid channels migration and a humid climate during deposition. Moderate to highly mature channel sandstones support this contention, and point out the Central Cordillera of Colombia as the main source of sediment. Enhanced subsidence during this stage also prevented channels

  3. Review and protection possibilities of some trans-border (East Serbia-West Bulgaria stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites

    Jovanović Velimir


    Full Text Available Stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites of Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia are well developed in the area of Serbian/Bulgarian state border, where with this occassion, three sections of exeptional geological and scientific interest are selected: Jelovica, Rosomač and Senokos. These geosites represent the important localities for study of Triassic and Jurassic terrigene-carbonate deposits, for which the scientific value from the domains of palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology is widely known. The aim of this work is to represent the main scientific arguments for inventory and protection of detached transborder geological sites that are unique according to their composition and content.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  4. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.


    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  5. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.


    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  6. Social and environmental impact of volcaniclastic flows related to 472 AD eruption at Vesuvius from stratigraphic and geoarcheological data

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; de Vita, Sandro; Rucco, Ilaria; Bini, Monica; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Aurino, Paola; Cesarano, Mario; Ebanista, Carlo; Rosi, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giovanni


    There is a growing number of evidences in the surrounding plain of Somma-Vesuvius volcano which indicate that along with primary volcanic processes (i.e. fallout, pyroclastic density currents) the syn-eruptive and post-eruptive volcaniclastic remobilization has severely impacted the ancient civilizations, which flourished in the area. This represents an important starting point for understanding the future hazard related to a potential (and not remote) renewal of volcanic activity of the Campaniana volcanoes. We present geoarcheological and stratigraphic data obtained from the analysis of more than 160 sections in the Campanian plain showing the widespread impact of volcaniclastic debris flows and floods originated from the rapid remobilization of the products of the AD 472 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, both on the environment and on the human landscape. This eruption was one of the two sub-Plinian historical events of Somma Vesuvius. This event largely impacted the northern and eastern territory surrounding the volcano with deposition of a complex sequence of pyroclastic-fallout and -current deposits. These sequences were variably affected by syn- and post-eruptive mobilization both along the Somma-Vesuvius slopes and the Apennine valleys with the emplacement of thick mud- and debris-flows which strongly modified the preexisting paleogeography of the Plain with irretrievable damages to the agricultural and urban landscape. The multidisciplinary approach to the study of the sequences permitted to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment before the eruption and the timing of the emplacement of both pyroclastic and volcanoclastic deposits. The preexisting landscape was characterized by intense human occupation, although showing strong evidences of degradation and abandonment due to the progressive decline of the Roman Empire. The impact of volcaniclastic flows continued for decades after the eruption as highlighted in the studied sequences by stratigraphic and archaeologic

  7. Proposed Auxiliary Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) for the base of the Ordovician System at Lawson Cove, Utah, USA

    Miller, James F.; Evans, Kevin R.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Freeman, Rebecca; Loch, James D.; Repetski, John E.; Ripperdan, Robert; Taylor, John F.


    The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ordovician System is at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus at Green Point in Newfoundland, Canada. Strata there are typical graptolitic facies that were deposited near the base of the continental slope.We propose establishing an Auxiliary boundary Stratotype Section and Point (ASSP) at the FAD of I. fluctivagus at the Lawson Cove section in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. There, strata consist of typical shelly facies limestones that were deposited on a tropical carbonate platform and contain abundant conodonts, trilobites, brachiopods, and other fossil groups. Cambrian and Ordovician strata in this area are ~5300m thick, with the Lawson Cove section spanning 243m in three overlapping segments. Six other measured and studied sections in the area show stratigraphic relationships similar to those at Lawson Cove. Faunas have been used to divide these strata into 14 conodont and 7 trilobite zonal units. The widespread olenid trilobite Jujuyaspis occurs ~90cm above the proposed boundary at Lawson Cove; this genus is generally regarded as earliest Ordovician. Rhynchonelliform and linguliform brachiopods are common to abundant and are useful for correlation. The FAD of Iapetognathus fluctivagus and occurrences of Jujuyaspis and the Lower Ordovician planktonic graptolite Anisograptus matanensis all occur within a 2.4m interval of strata at a nearby section. Non-biological correlation tools include a detailed sequence stratigraphic classification and a detailed carbon-isotope profile. Especially useful for correlation is a positive 13C excursion peak ~15cm below the proposed boundary horizon. All of these correlation tools form an integrated framework that makes the Lawson Cove section especially useful as an ASSP for global correlation of strata with faunas typical of shallow, warm-water, shelly facies.

  8. Seismic interpretation of the sedimentation systems, structural geology and stratigraphic of the Chicxulub crater, carbonate platform of Yucatan, Mexico.

    Iza, Canales-Garcia; Jaime, Urrutia-Fucugauchi; Joaquin Eduardo, Aguayo-Camargo; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel


    In order to describe the structural and stratigraphic features of the Chicxulub crater, was performed the present work of seismic interpretation, seismic attributes and generation of 3D surfaces. Load data it was performed in SEG-Y format, to display a total of 19 seismic reflection profiles were worked at domain time; the corresponding interpretation was carried out by separating five packages with textural differences, for this separation were used five horizons with seismic response representing the base of these packages, the correlation of horizons was made for all lines, creating composed lines so that all profiles were interpret together at intersections for form a grid. Multiple fault zones, were interpreted with the help of seismic attributes, like RMS amplitude, complex trace analysis, gradient of the trace and cosine phase. Was obtained the structural and stratigraphic interpretation , 3D models of the surfaces interpreted with which it is possible to observe the morphology of the base of the basin, it is controlled by the effect of the impact that formed the crater, has the features as a multi-ring crater. Shallower horizons shows that the topography of the base of the crater continues to affect the upper relief, which tends to be horizontal as it approaches the surface but is modeled by themselves sedimentary processes of the carbonate platform of Yucatán; packages below the base of the crater show the characteristics that own carbonated breccia, product the rupture of the material at impact, the material was deposited in a chaotic way, at this level we found the faults and fractures zone.

  9. Geodynamic Evolution of Northeastern Tunisia During the Maastrichtian-Paleocene Time: Insights from Integrated Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis

    Abidi, Oussama; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi; Sebei, Kawthar; Amiri, Adnen; Boussiga, Haifa; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Salem, Abdelhamid Ben; Elabed, Mahmoud


    The Maastrichtian-Paleocene El Haria formation was studied and defined in Tunisia on the basis of outcrops and borehole data; few studies were interested in its three-dimensional extent. In this paper, the El Haria formation is reviewed in the context of a tectono-stratigraphic interval using an integrated seismic stratigraphic analysis based on borehole lithology logs, electrical well logging, well shots, vertical seismic profiles and post-stack surface data. Seismic analysis benefits from appropriate calibration with borehole data, conventional interpretation, velocity mapping, seismic attributes and post-stack model-based inversion. The applied methodology proved to be powerful for charactering the marly Maastrichtian-Paleocene interval of the El Haria formation. Migrated seismic sections together with borehole measurements are used to detail the three-dimensional changes in thickness, facies and depositional environment in the Cap Bon and Gulf of Hammamet regions during the Maastrichtian-Paleocene time. Furthermore, dating based on their microfossil content divulges local and multiple internal hiatuses within the El Haria formation which are related to the geodynamic evolution of the depositional floor since the Campanian stage. Interpreted seismic sections display concordance, unconformities, pinchouts, sedimentary gaps, incised valleys and syn-sedimentary normal faulting. Based on the seismic reflection geometry and terminations, seven sequences are delineated. These sequences are related to base-level changes as the combination of depositional floor paleo-topography, tectonic forces, subsidence and the developed accommodation space. These factors controlled the occurrence of the various parts of the Maastrichtian-Paleocene interval. Detailed examinations of these deposits together with the analysis of the structural deformation at different time periods allowed us to obtain a better understanding of the sediment architecture in depth and the delineation of

  10. Prototyping and Composing Aspect Languages: using an Aspect Interpreter Framework

    Havinga, W.K.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet


    Domain specific aspect languages (DSALs) are becoming more popular because they can be designed to represent recurring concerns in a way that is optimized for a specific domain. However, the design and implementation of even a limited domain-specific aspect language can be a tedious job. To address

  11. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon;


    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...




    Full Text Available a major impediment to program comprehension, maintenance and resolvability is the existence of crosscutting concerns scattered across different modules tangled with implementations of other concerns. Presence of crosscutting concerns in software systems can lead to bloated and inefficient software systems that are difficult to evolve, hard to analyse, difficult to reuse and costly to maintain. Aspect-oriented programming is a complementary programming technique to the object-oriented programming. It provides tools for managing so called cross-cutting concerns. The concept of aspect orientation with presentation of a method could modulate crosscutting concerns into the single manageable unit called, aspect. This method will solve many problems such as tangling and scattering of code. But the identification and specification of crosscutting concerns and considering it as aspects is not an easy job. The proposed method defines requirements and concerns in the formal form by Petri Nets and named them as requirement nets and concern nets. Concern nets with dependencies which there are between requirement nets, model the final system. The execution of final modelled software system based on Petri Nets and monitoring its transitions, shows crosscutting concerns which are candidate aspects. In this paper, we propose a formal method based on Petri Nets, for the identification of aspect and finding out the most dominant aspect. Then the aspect realization is done by using programming language with some case study.

  13. Revision and update of the Callovian-Ryazanian Stratigraphic Nomenclature in the northern Dutch offshore, i.e. Central Graben Subgroup and Scruff Group

    Munsterman, D.K.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Witmans, N.; Kerstholt-Boegehold, S.; Abbink, O.A.


    Exploration in a mature basin requires a detailed classification and standardisation of rock stratigraphy to adequately comprehend the depositional history and prospect architecture. The pre-Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands compiled by Van Adrichem Boogaert &Kouwe in 1993 pro

  14. Carnian bauxite horizon on the Kopitov grič near Borovnica (Slovenia – is there a »forgotten« stratigraphic gap in its footwall?

    Bogomir Celarc


    Full Text Available Beds underlying the Carnian bauxite on the Kopitov gri~ (Slovenia are by the author’s opinion not Carnian (Cordevolian, but Ladinian age. The considerable stratigraphical gap is presented between Carnian clastic rocks and underlying limestones and dolomites. Bauxite is result of the weathering during the emersion.

  15. Tense and Aspect in English

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels


    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  16. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke


    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  17. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den


    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  18. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke


    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  19. Contribution of GIS and digital archaeology to the interpretation of stratigraphic relations on the Bronze Age site al-Khidr, Failaka island, State of Kuwait : Imagery analyses of trenches 22S and 22T - case study

    Benediková, Lucia; Štolc, Svorad; Bartík, Martin; Ďuriš, Jozef


    The paper presents the results of the stratigraphic analysis of the northern part of excavated KH-1 mound on al-Khidr site (Failaka island, State of Kuwait) based on the GIS and digital archaeology approaches. The results are compared with already published results of stratigraphic analysis based on the field observations only.

  20. Sequence stratigraphic features of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in the Sichuan Basin and their controls on source rocks and reservoirs

    Wang Su


    Full Text Available Well Shuangyushi 1 and Well Nanchong l deployed in the NW and central Sichuan Basin have obtained a high-yield industrial gas flow in the dolomite and karst reservoirs of the Middle Permian Maokou Formation, showing good exploration prospects of the Maokou Formation. In order to identify the sequence stratigraphic features of the Maokou Formation, its sequence stratigraphy was divided and a unified sequence stratigraphic framework applicable for the entire basin was established to analyze the stratigraphic denudation features within the sequence framework by using the spectral curve trend attribute analysis, together with drilling and outcrop data. On this basis, the controls of sequence on source rocks and reservoirs were analyzed. In particular, the Maokou Formation was divided into two third-order sequences – SQ1 and SQ2. SQ1 was composed of members Mao 1 Member and Mao 3, while SQ2 was composed of Mao 4 Member. Sequence stratigraphic correlation indicated that the Maokou Formation within the basin had experienced erosion to varying extent, forming “three intense and two weak” denuded regions, among which, the upper part of SQ2 was slightly denuded in the two weak denuded regions (SW Sichuan Basin and locally Eastern Sichuan Basin, while SQ2 was denuded out in the three intense denuded regions (Southern Sichuan Basin–Central Sichuan Basin, NE and NW Sichuan Basin. The development of source rocks and reservoirs within sequence stratigraphic framework was significantly affected by sequence boundary; the grain banks that can form effective reservoir were predominately distributed in SQ1 highstand systems tract (HST, while effective source rocks were predominately distributed in SQ1 transgressive system tract (TST. It is concluded that the sequence division method is objective and reasonable, which can effectively guide oil and gas exploration in this region.

  1. Stratigraphic and interregional changes in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation: Environmental inferences

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.


    the Middle Pennsylvanian swamps. Paralleling the changes in floras through the Pennsylvanian are changes in preservational aspects of the peat. These include a decline in shoot/root ratios from approximately 1 to stress bringing on the third, and most severe, vegetational change. ?? 1986.

  2. 3D stratigraphic modeling of the Congo turbidite system since 210 ka: an investigation of factors controlling sedimentation

    Laurent, Dimitri; Picot, Marie; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Granjeon, Didier; Molliex, Stéphane


    The geometry and internal functioning of turbidite systems are relatively well-constrained today. However, the respective role of autogenic (topographic compensation, dynamics of turbidity currents…) and allogenic factors (tectonics, sea-level, climate) governing their architectural evolution is still under debate. The geometry of the Quaternary Congo Fan is characterized by successive sedimentary prograding/retrograding cycles bounded by upfan avulsions, reflecting a periodic control of sedimentation (Picot et al., 2016). Multi-proxy studies revealed a strong interplay between autogenic control and climate forcing as evidenced by changes in fluvial sediment supplies consistent with arid and humid periods in the Congo River Basin. In the light of these results, the aim of this study is to investigate the relative impact of internal and external forcing factors controlling, both in time and space, the formation and evolution of depocenters of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan since 210 ka. This work represents the first attempt to model in 3D the stratigraphic architecture of the Congo turbidite system using DionisosFlow (IFP-EN), a diffusion process-based software. It allows the simulation of sediment transport and the 3D geometry reproduction of sedimentary units based on physical processes such as sea level changes, tectonics, sediment supply and transport. According to the modeling results, the role of topographic compensation in the deep-sea fan geometry is secondary compared to climate changes in the drainage basin. It appears that a periodic variation of sediment discharge and water flow is necessary to simulate the timing and volume of prograding/retrograding sedimentary cycles and more particularly the upfan avulsion events. The best-fit simulations show that the overriding factor for such changes corresponds to the expansion of the vegetation cover in the catchment basin associated to the Milankovitch cycle of precession which controlled the West African Monsoon

  3. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  4. Age and stratigraphic context of Pliopithecus and associated fauna from Miocene sedimentary strata at Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China

    Kaakinen, Anu; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Liu, Liping; Salminen, Johanna; Wang, Lihua; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortelius, Mikael


    Since the discovery of mammalian fossils in Central Inner Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century, this area has produced a rich and diverse record of Miocene faunas. Nevertheless, the stratigraphy has remained poorly constrained owing to scattered faunal horizons and lack of continuous vertical exposures. Consequently, most age estimates of these Miocene sites are based on paleontological evidence alone, with very few sites having been dated independently. Our field investigations in Damiao, in Siziwang Qi, Inner Mongolia have yielded more than 30 new fossiliferous localities from three horizons, including a pliopithecid fauna. This study presents the litho-, bio- and magnetostratigraphy of the Damiao area and provides age estimates for the three fossil-bearing horizons. The sedimentary sequence is interpreted as the remains of a fluvial system comprising channels, subaerially exposed floodplains and floodbasin environments. The two local stratigraphic sections measured and sampled for paleomagnetic analysis coincide with species-rich vertebrate fossil localities. The paleomagnetic results and faunal evidence suggest a correlation of lowermost fossil horizon (DM16) producing relatively rich small mammal assemblage to the early Miocene chron C6Ar or C6An.1r, roughly in 20-21 Ma age range. The pliopithecid locality level (DM01) represents latest middle Miocene and has an age estimate of about 12.1 Ma while the youngest localities (DM02) with cervoids and abundant and diverse small mammal fauna represents the earliest late Miocene with an age estimate of about 11.6 Ma. Our magnetostratigraphic results confirm that the Damiao strata constitute one of the best sequences in Inner Mongolia with early, middle and late Miocene mammalian faunas in stratigraphic superposition. The results also provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental evolution and bioevents of the area. The occurrence of pliopithecid primates in the middle Miocene of Inner Mongolia suggests humid

  5. The Role of Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis in the Messinian crisis at Baltim Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M.; Abu El-Ata, A. S.; El-Gendy, N. H.


    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  6. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis for Delineating the Sedimentation Characteristic and Modeling of Nidoco Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    Nasr El Deen, Ahmed; Abu El-Ata, Ahmed; El-Gendy, Nader


    The Egyptian Nile Delta has recognized over the different human civilizations, as the source of life/ basket of wheat. In the recent time, the Nile Delta revealed another hidden treasure that hidden below the Mediterranean Sea within its sediments. This treasure reflects a number of giant gas reservoirs that require only the suitable technology and the assured ideas to commence injecting gas into the industrial veins of the growing Egyptian economy. The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore of the Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied for a selected area, using a variety of subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs (e.g. gamma ray, density, neutron and sonic logs), where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Different methods and techniques were applied by using different softwares such as Petrel and Interactive petrophysical software. Four missing times were identified intra-Pleistocene, Late Pliocene, Late Pliocene-Early Pliocene and Messinian. It has concluded that, the depositional environments ranged from shallow marine to middle nerritic and may reach upper bathyal toward the northern part of the study area. The top of Abu Madi Formation dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN12a, while the base dated with NN11c, and its age varied from 5.2 Ma to 5.7 Ma. The maximum flooding surface is dated with the calcareous nannofossils zone NN13 and the planktonic foraminiferal zone SN18 at 5 Ma (the acme presence of the Sphaeroidinellopsis sp.). From the utility of wireline logs for

  7. New insights into the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Malvinas Basin, offshore of the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.


    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin was achieved by the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named units U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. Unit U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement. Unit U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) thickens and deepens southwards. Units U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults that exhibit a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions: (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic), and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the Jurassic back-arc extension of Gondwana and probably later with the onset of the opening of the South Atlantic during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time. Unit U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Unit U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformable unit U3. It deepens in the south because of an N-S/NW-SE directed extensional regime. Accumulation rates decrease during units U2, U3, and U4 from 4.84, to 1.23 to 0.8 km3/Ma × 103. Units U5a and U5b (42.5-5.5 and 5.5-0 Ma, transpressional foredeep phase) finally represent a change from aggradation to progradation sedimentary pattern and to a left-lateral transpressional regime in the south. The sediment supply was considerably higher than before and a thick sedimentary wedge has been deposited until today. Accumulations rates increased in units U5a and U5b from 2.28 to 8.91 km3/Ma × 103.

  8. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Irvine, George W.


    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  9. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Svetla Koeva


    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  10. Laboratory Aspects of Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis

    Rykova, O.V.


    The paper presents the modern laboratory aspects of diagnosing hyperprolactinemia and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline 2011.

  11. Motivational aspects of sport volunteers

    Mičinec, Adam


    Title: The motivational aspects of sport volunteerism. Objectives: The main aim of this bachelor work is to find out motivational aspects of sport volunteers, who have taken part in sport event. Methods: In this thesis was used quality method to get informations - specifically it was a structure interview with associated questions. Results: It was find out that it is appropriate to get those volunteers with inner motivation. These volunteers do not need to be so much motivated by external mot...

  12. Paleo-geomorphic evolution of the Ciomadul volcano (East Carpathians, Romania) using integrated volcanological, stratigraphical and radiometric data

    Karátson, Dávid; Wulf, Sabine; Veres, Daniel; Gertisser, Ralf; Telbisz, Tamás; Magyari, Enikö


    , called "TGS" (Targu Seciuesc) eruptions. Noteworthy, these products can be pointed out from drilling in the Mohos crater, inactive by that time, the tuff units being intercalated between lacustrine deposits. The TGS eruptions, further shaping St. Ana crater, started with lava dome disruption and pumiceous block-and-ash flows, and possibly terminated by a plinian event distributing pumice fall to the SE. Finally, after some ka dormancy, the youngest eruption of Ciomadul, again of phreatomagmatic type, took place at ca. 29 ka ("Latest St. Ana" eruption). Its products can be also recovered from Mohos crater, and at the same time they drape the landscape to the S and E. That this eruption was a really violent, crater-forming event, accounting for the relatively large crater of present-day St. Ana (~1600 m), can be explained by the wide distribution of this latest tephra, identified as far as 350 km from vent near Odessa ('Roxolany tephra').

  13. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.


    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  14. Fossil gastropods from the MGS3 stratigraphic segment in the Salawusu River Valley and their climatic and environmental implications

    LI BaoSheng; YE JianPing; GUO YunHai; CHEN DeNiu; David Dian ZHANG; WEN XiaoHao; QIU ShiFan; OU XianJiao; DU ShuHuan; NIU DongFeng; YANG Yi


    Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler,etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions,and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4,5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.

  15. Fossil gastropods from the MGS3 stratigraphic segment in the Salawusu River Valley and their climatic and environmental implications

    David; Dian


    Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler, etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions, and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4, 5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.

  16. Sub-grid parameterisation of fluvio-deltaic processes and architecture in a basin-scale stratigraphic model

    Dalman, Rory A. F.; Weltje, Gert Jan


    We present a parameterisation of fluvio-deltaic drainage network evolution and alluvial architecture in a basin-scale 2-DH model. The model setup is capable of producing convergent and divergent channel networks. Major elements are the alluvial-ridge aggradation and the coupled overbank deposition, the dimension and style of the channel belt and the sub-grid stratigraphic expression. Avulsions are allowed to develop out of randomly instigated crevasses. Channel stability is modelled one dimensionally by calculating the flow and sediment transport at prospective avulsion nodes. The ultimate fate of crevasses (failed avulsion, successful avulsion, stable bifurcation) depends on the ratio of cross-valley and in-channel gradients in the local neighbourhood of the grid cell under consideration and on the amount and distribution of the suspended sediment load in the water column. The sub-grid parameterisation yields implicit knowledge of the alluvial architecture, which may be analysed stochastically. Stochastic realisations of the alluvial architecture allow us to investigate the relationship between basin-fill architecture and small-scale alluvial architecture, which is likely to improve geological reservoir modelling of these notoriously complex deposits. Modelling results under conditions of time-invariant forcing indicate significant quasi-cyclic autogenic behaviour of the fluvio-deltaic system. Changes in the avulsion frequency are correlated with the number and length of distributary channels, which are in turn related to alternating phases of progradational and aggradational delta development. The resulting parasequences may be difficult to distinguish from their allogenically induced counterparts.

  17. The characteristics of gas hydrates recovered from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Lu, H.; Lorenson, T.D.; Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Ratcliffe, C.I.


    Systematic analyses have been carried out on two gas hydrate-bearing sediment core samples, HYPV4, which was preserved by CH4 gas pressurization, and HYLN7, which was preserved in liquid-nitrogen, recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. Gas hydrate in the studied core samples was found by observation to have developed in sediment pores, and the distribution of hydrate saturation in the cores imply that gas hydrate had experienced stepwise dissociation before it was stabilized by either liquid nitrogen or pressurizing gas. The gas hydrates were determined to be structure Type I hydrate with hydration numbers of approximately 6.1 by instrumentation methods such as powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and solid state 13C NMR. The hydrate gas composition was predominantly methane, and isotopic analysis showed that the methane was of thermogenic origin (mean ??13C=-48.6??? and ??D=-248??? for sample HYLN7). Isotopic analysis of methane from sample HYPV4 revealed secondary hydrate formation from the pressurizing methane gas during storage. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Sedimentary-volcanic tuffs formed during the early Middle Triassic volcanic event in Guizhou Province and their stratigraphic significance

    XIAO Jiafei; HU Ruizhong


    The sedimentary-volcanic tuff (locally called "green-bean rock") formed during the early Middle Triassic volcanic event in Guizhou Province is characterized as being thin, stable, widespread, short in forming time and predominantly green in color. The green-bean rock is a perfect indicator for stratigraphic division. Its petrographic and geochemical features are unique, and it is composed mainly of glassy fragments and subordinately of crystal fragments and volcanic ash balls. Analysis of the major and trace elements and rare-earth elements (REE), as well as the related diagrams, permits us to believe that the green-bean rock is acidic volcanic material of the calc-alkaline series formed in the Indosinian orogenic belt on the Sino-Vietnam border, which was atmospherically transported to the tectonically stable areas and then deposited as sedimentary-volcanic rocks there. According to the age of green-bean rock, it is deduced that the boundary age of the Middle-Lower Triassic overlain by the sedimentary-volcanic tuff is about 247 Ma.

  19. Inversion aided systems for stratigraphic models; Systemes d'aide a l'inversion des modeles stratigraphiques

    Dobranszky, G.


    Stratigraphic modeling aims at rebuilding the history of the sedimentary basins by simulating the processes of erosion, transport and deposit of sediments using physical models. The objective is to determine the location of the bed-rocks likely to contain the organic matter, the location of the porous rocks that could trap the hydrocarbons during their migration and the location of the impermeable rocks likely to seal the reservoir. The model considered within this thesis is based on a multi-lithological diffusive transport model and applies to large scales of time and space. Due to the complexity of the phenomena and scales considered, none of the model parameters is directly measurable. Therefore it is essential to inverse them. The standard approach, which consists in inverting all the parameters by minimizing a cost function using a gradient method, proved very sensitive to the choice of the parameterization, to the weights given to the various terms of the cost function (hearing on data of very diverse nature) and to the numerical noise. These observations led us to give up this method and to carry out the in-version step by step by decoupling the parameters. This decoupling is not obtained by fixing the parameters but by making several assumptions on the model resulting in a range of reduced but relevant models. In this thesis, we show how these models enable us to inverse all the parameters in a robust and interactive way. (author)

  20. New insights into the stratigraphic, paleogeographic and tectonic evolution and petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, Eastern Tunisia

    Elfessi, Maroua


    This work presents general insights into the stratigraphic and paleogeographic evolution as well as the structural architecture and the petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, located in the Eastern Tunisia Foreland, from Cenomanian to Pliocene times. Available data from twenty wells mostly drilled in Cercina and Chergui fields are used to establish three lithostratigraphic correlations as well as isopach and isobath maps in order to point out thickness and depth variations of different geological formations present within our study area; in addition to a synthetic log and isoporosity map of the main carbonate reservoir (the nummulites enriched Reineche Member). The integrated geological study reveals relatively condensed but generally continuous sedimentation and a rugged substrate with horsts, grabens and tilted blocks due to the initiation and the individualization of Kerkennah arch throughout the studied geological times. Furthermore, a relationship was highlighted between the evolution of our study zone and those of Sirt basin, Western Mediterranean Sea and Pelagian troughs; this relationship is due to the outstanding location of Kerkennah Islands. The main Bou Dabbous source rock is thicker and more mature within the central-east of the Gulf of Gabes indicating therefore the southeast charge of Reineche reservoir which shows NW-SE trending tilted block system surrounded by normal faults representing the hydrocarbon migration pathways. Besides, the thick Oligo-Miocene formations deposited during the collapse of the Pelagian block caused the maturation of the Ypresian source rock, while the Pliocene unconformity allowed basin inversion and hydrocarbon migration.

  1. On the question of stratigraphic detail Konkian deposits Borysthenian Bay (southern Ukraine on the fauna of molluscs

    Staryn D.A.


    Full Text Available The results of study marine bivalve and gastropod from konkian-sarmatian deposits of the Southern Ukraine are gave. Their lateral and vertical distribution is studied. Local stratigraphic schemes for the Northern Black Sea region, Plane Crimea and Kerch peninsula are built. It is confirmed the Konkian regional stage divisible into three parts: the Kartvel (Ervilia and Pholada, Sartagan and Veselyanka layers. The lower part (Kartvel layers is characterized by monomorphic fauna of Ervilia and / or Pholada; other shellfish are virtually absent. The middle part (Sartagan layers contains polihalin shellfish such as Turritella, Chlamys et al., but their findings are rare. In this common transit fauna, which can cause significant difficulties in the stratification of the regional stage. The upper part (Veselyanka layers by the absence of (or single polihalin elements and extensive development of some types of Cardiidae. The individual seams with Ervilia and Barnea met throughout the section tram and fauna differ from the Kartvel layers joint finding other taxa Konkian shellfish and usually less power. The possibility of fractional stratification Sarmatian regional stage in different structural-facial areas of the Southern Ukraine. Change shellfish communities on the border of the lower and middle Sarmatian occurs gradually in clay sediments and more clearly in the coastal sandy and sandy-clay rocks. Separation of Vasilyevsky and Dnepropetrovsk layers of middle Sarmatian malacofauna problematic in areas of strong recrystallized limestone. For the detail section is necessary to study rocks in thin sections.

  2. A 3D forward stratigraphic model of fluvial meander-bend evolution for prediction of point-bar lithofacies architecture

    Yan, Na; Mountney, Nigel P.; Colombera, Luca; Dorrell, Robert M.


    Although fundamental types of fluvial meander-bend transformations - expansion, translation, rotation, and combinations thereof - are widely recognised, the relationship between the migratory behaviour of a meander bend, and its resultant accumulated sedimentary architecture and lithofacies distribution remains relatively poorly understood. Three-dimensional data from both currently active fluvial systems and from ancient preserved successions known from outcrop and subsurface settings are limited. To tackle this problem, a 3D numerical forward stratigraphic model - the Point-Bar Sedimentary Architecture Numerical Deduction (PB-SAND) - has been devised as a tool for the reconstruction and prediction of the complex spatio-temporal migratory evolution of fluvial meanders, their generated bar forms and the associated lithofacies distributions that accumulate as heterogeneous fluvial successions. PB-SAND uses a dominantly geometric modelling approach supplemented by process-based and stochastic model components, and is constrained by quantified sedimentological data derived from modern point bars or ancient successions that represent suitable analogues. The model predicts the internal architecture and geometry of fluvial point-bar elements in three dimensions. The model is applied to predict the sedimentary lithofacies architecture of ancient preserved point-bar and counter-point-bar deposits of the middle Jurassic Scalby Formation (North Yorkshire, UK) to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of PB-SAND in modelling 3D architectures of different types of meander-bend transformations. PB-SAND serves as a practical tool with which to predict heterogeneity in subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs and water aquifers.

  3. Chronostratigraphy of the Trenton Group and Utica Shale, Pt. II: Stratigraphic correlations using Ordovician glasses in K-bentonites

    Delano, J.W.; Tice, S. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Mitchell, C.E.; Goldman, D. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology); Samson, S.D. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    Rhyolitic glasses in the form of pristine melt inclusions that occur within quartz phenocrysts are being used for the geochemical fingerprinting of Ordovician K-bentonites in the northern Appalachian Basin. These melt inclusions are samples of pre-eruptive magma that became trapped during phenocryst growth in the deep crustal magma chambers. Plinian eruptions led to quenching of the enclosed rhyolitic magma to form glass when the quartz phenocrysts were blasted into the atmosphere. Preservation of this Ordovician glass is due to its being hermetically sealed within a mineral (quartz) that is resistant to weathering and diagenetic alteration. Chemical compositions of glasses in four Ordovician K-bentonites from the Mohawk Valley of New York State have been acquired using high-precision, electron microprobe analyses. The elements Mg, Cl, Ca, Ti, and Fe are often diagnostic. The accompanying figure illustrates one combination of elements that is effective in distinguishing K-bentonites, which are not stratigraphically equivalent. These K-bentonites were selected to test competing chronostratigraphies of the northern Appalachian Basin and indicate problems with the model by Cisne et al.

  4. Regional stratigraphic framework and compositional variability of the Montney Formation : the never-ending search for reservoir quality

    Bereskin, S.R.; Edwards, D.E.


    The Montney Formation is not a shale, but is largely comprised of silt/sand and a spectrum of diagenetic products. It is variably pressured, and can produce oil and/or gas. The reservoir quality is affected by original depositional setting and also by diagenetic products. The regional stratigraphic framework and compositional variability of the Montney Formation and the never-ending search for reservoir quality was discussed in this presentation. Several illustrations and figures were also shown, including a type log; paleogeography; a depositional model of basin filling; and lower and upper Montney correlation. Major facies such as shoreface facies, shelf facies, turbidite facies, and shale basin facies were also discussed and illustrated through photographs. Other topics that were also discussed, such as coregraphs; Doig phosphate; porosity in siltstone; laminar porosity; porosity occlusion; and types of diagenetic products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of important parameters and thoughts such as that sand content is somewhat conducive to reservoir development. tabs., figs.

  5. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea Community along a Stratigraphic Permafrost Profile from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Shiping Wei


    Full Text Available Accompanying the thawing permafrost expected to result from the climate change, microbial decomposition of the massive amounts of frozen organic carbon stored in permafrost is a potential emission source of greenhouse gases, possibly leading to positive feedbacks to the greenhouse effect. In this study, the community composition of archaea in stratigraphic soils from an alpine permafrost of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was investigated. Phylogenic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the community was predominantly constituted by Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The active layer contained a proportion of Crenarchaeota at 51.2%, with the proportion of Euryarchaeota at 48.8%, whereas the permafrost contained 41.2% Crenarchaeota and 58.8% Euryarchaeota, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. OTU1 and OTU11, affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A within Crenarchaeota and the unclassified group within Euryarchaeota, respectively, were widely distributed in all sediment layers. However, OTU5 affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A was primarily distributed in the active layers. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands from the 16S rRNAs of methanogenic archaea showed that the majority of methanogens belonged to Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales affiliated to Euryarchaeota and the uncultured ZC-I cluster affiliated to Methanosarcinales distributed in all the depths along the permafrost profile, which indicated a dominant group of methanogens occurring in the cold ecosystems.

  6. Hydrodynamism, crude oil distribution and geochemistry of the stratigraphic column in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Gallango, O.; Escandon, M.; Alberdi, M. (Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela)); Parnaud, F.; Pascual, J.C. (Beicip, Rueil Malmaison (France))


    The hydrocarbon accumulation history in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin is closely related to the generation and migration process as a consequence of the stratigraphic, structural and tectonic evolution of the basin during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic times. Thermal maturity assessment based on kinetic parameters using the appropriate software indicates that the generation of oil from the marine facies of the Querecual and San Antonio source rocks in the northern part of the basin took place during early Paleocene to early Miocene times prior to the start of thrusting, while the second and third phase occurred during middle Miocene to recent times in zones beneath the principal thrust in the Maturing area. The third phase of oil generation is associated with the latter thrusts which are out of sequence. Taking into consideration the development of the oil and gas kitchen through time, the hydrodynamism, the characteristics and distribution of the hydrocarbons, the migration of oil and gas have been outlined. The major differences observed among the oils, are due to maturity and post-accumulation processes such as oil mixing and biodegradation. A wide range of thermal maturity was observed in the oils, which is mainly due to the thermal stress experienced by the source rock. Association of light crudes with meteoric waters have been observed, as well as heavy to extra-heavy crudes with connate waters at greater depth. These unusual associations of crudes and formation waters are related to the hydrodynamical regime in the basin.

  7. High resolution spectroscopic mapping imaging applied in situ to multilayer structures for stratigraphic identification of painted art objects

    Karagiannis, Georgios Th.


    The development of non-destructive techniques is a reality in the field of conservation science. These techniques are usually not so accurate, as the analytical micro-sampling techniques, however, the proper development of soft-computing techniques can improve their accuracy. In this work, we propose a real-time fast acquisition spectroscopic mapping imaging system that operates from the ultraviolet to mid infrared (UV/Vis/nIR/mIR) area of the electromagnetic spectrum and it is supported by a set of soft-computing methods to identify the materials that exist in a stratigraphic structure of paint layers. Particularly, the system acquires spectra in diffuse-reflectance mode, scanning in a Region-Of-Interest (ROI), and having wavelength range from 200 up to 5000 nm. Also, a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, i.e., the particular soft-computing algorithm, produces the mapping images. The evaluation of the method was tested on a byzantine painted icon.

  8. A Review of Magneto/Dielectric Techniques Applied to the Study of Venezuelan Stratigraphic and Archeological Problems

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.


    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (Caracas, Venezuela), has combined rock magnetic and dielectric properties (thermally stimulated depolarization currents or TSDC) of fossil- poor sedimentary rocks (eastern and western Venezuela) in order to set up new physical markers that could be used as alternative means for stratigraphic correlations. These magneto/dielectric characterizations have also proven useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently, this two-fold technique has been applied to archeological materials (potsherds) to track down clay sources and find out about different methods of pottery craftsmanship. Rock magnetic characterizations include the measurement of bulk properties that provide information about nature, concentration and granulometries of magnetic minerals. Rock dielectric characterizations examine the thermal relaxation to equilibrium of electrically polarizable entities that are affected by their molecular surroundings and therefore by the type of material analyzed. Thermal remanent magnetic acquisitions and TSDC analyses are based on two distinct physical properties albeit similar process of polarization and thermal relaxation to equilibrium.

  9. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Missourian) boundary in North America

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Heckel, P.H.; DiMichele, W.A.; Blake, B.M.; Easterday, C.R.; Eble, C.F.; Elrick, S.; Gastaldo, R.A.; Greb, S.F.; Martino, R.L.; John, Nelson W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Phillips, T.L.; Rosscoe, S.J.


    Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem groupings in the Midcontinent are recognizable in the Illinois Basin. In the Appalachian Basin, however, the grouping at the base of the Missourian is represented only by paleosols and localized coal. The immediately preceding grouping was removed very locally by paleovalley incision, as is evident at the 7-11 Mine, Columbiana County, Ohio, from which the original megafloral data were derived. At the few localities where incised paleodrainage exists, there may be a gap of ???1000 kyr, but a gap of no more than ???600 kyr occurs elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin at that level and its magnitude progressively decreases westward into the Illinois (???300 kyr) and Midcontinent (North America, it is typically more than an order of magnitude smaller than that originally proposed and is similar to the gaps inferred at sequence boundaries between cyclothems at many horizons in the Pennsylvanian of North America. Copyright ?? 2011, SEPM.




    Full Text Available The Cretaceous to Quaternary succession of the Apulia Platform cropping out on the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula shows a special stratigraphic architecture. Whereas on the platform top, i.e. on the Salento Peninsula proper, the succession is at most a few tens of metres thick and is punctuated by unconformities, on the margin and slope of the platform, along the present-day eastern coast of the peninsula, several carbonate systems are laterally disposed and grafted one upon the other. Three of these systems are clinostratified and include well developed reef tracts of Priabonian, early Chattian and early Messinian age. The geologic conclusion of our study is that, since the Late Cretaceous, the eastern coast of the Salento Peninsula grossly coincided with the margin of the Apulia Platform. This paleogeographic element acted as a foreland horst and registered important geodynamic events related to the growth of the adjacent Hellenide and Apennine thrust belts. During the last 60 m.y., the horst carapace was constantly near sea level and sediments were mainly accommodated and preserved on the deep margin and slope of the platform. 

  11. Middle and Late Devonian microbial carbonates, reefs and mounds in Guilin, South China and their sequence stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic significance

    SHEN Jianwei; TENG Jianbin; Pedoja Kevin


    Microbial precipitation of calcium carbonate has played a major role in formation of carbonate platforms since the Archean. Also, microbial carbonates and biologically induced cement are important contributors to reef framework volume and rigidity in carbonate platform systems during times of significant environmental change including transgressive events in platform environments and the recovery interval following the major biotic crisis. The stratigraphic distribution of different types of microbial carbonates appears to vary within the sequence stratigraphic framework. Reefs and mounds within the Late Devonian carbonate platforms in Guilin, South China are formed primarily by calcimicrobes and biologically induced cement, representing the microbe-dominated and characteristic carbonate buildups within a reefal ecosystem that nearly all reef-building metazoans were absent after the Frasnian/Famennian biotic crisis. Microbial community and microbialite seem to be linked with specific palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate, suggesting that they could be used as indicators of environmental change and biotic events.

  12. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic description of the upper part of the Avon Park Formation and the Arcadia Formation in U.S. Geological Survey G–2984 test corehole

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Robinson, Edward


    Rock core and sediment from U.S. Geological Survey test corehole G–2984 completed in 2011 in Broward County, Florida, provide an opportunity to improve the understanding of the lithostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic framework of the intermediate confining unit and Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida. A multidisciplinary approach including characterization of sequence stratigraphy, lithofacies, ichnology, foraminiferal paleontology, depositional environments, porosity, and permeability was used to describe the geologic samples from this test corehole. This information has produced a detailed characterization of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of the upper part of the middle Eocene Avon Park Formation and Oligocene to middle Miocene Arcadia Formation. This enhancement of the knowledge of the sequence stratigraphic framework is especially important, because subaerial karst unconformities at the upper boundary of depositional cycles at various hierarchical scales are commonly associated with secondary porosity and enhanced permeability in the Floridan aquifer system.

  13. Stratigraphic architecture of a fluvial-lacustrine basin-fill succession at Desolation Canyon, Uinta Basin, Utah: Reference to Walthers’ Law and implications for the petroleum industry

    Ford, Grace L.; David R. Pyles,; Dechesne, Marieke


    A continuous window into the fluvial-lacustrine basin-fill succession of the Uinta Basin is exposed along a 48-mile (77-kilometer) transect up the modern Green River from Three Fords to Sand Wash in Desolation Canyon, Utah. In ascending order the stratigraphic units are: 1) Flagstaff Limestone, 2) lower Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 3) middle Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 4) upper Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 5) Uteland Butte member of the lower Green River Formation, 6) lower Green River Formation, 7) Renegade Tongue of the lower Green River Formation, 8) middle Green River Formation, and 9) the Mahogany oil shale zone marking the boundary between the middle and upper Green River Formations. This article uses regional field mapping, geologic maps, photographs, and descriptions of the stratigraphic unit including: 1) bounding surfaces, 2) key upward stratigraphic characteristics within the unit, and 3) longitudinal changes along the river transect. This information is used to create a north-south cross section through the basin-fill succession and a detailed geologic map of Desolation Canyon. The cross section documents stratigraphic relationships previously unreported and contrasts with earlier interpretations in two ways: 1) abrupt upward shifts in the stratigraphy documented herein, contrast with the gradual interfingering relationships proposed by Ryder et al., (1976) and Fouch et al., (1994), 2) we document fluvial deposits of the lower and middle Wasatch to be distinct and more widespread than previously recognized. In addition, we document that the Uteland Butte member of the lower Green River Formation was deposited in a lacustrine environment in Desolation Canyon.

  14. The role of sediment supply in large-scale stratigraphic architecture of ancient Gilbert-type deltas (Pliocene Siena-Radicofani Basin, Italy)

    Martini, Ivan; Ambrosetti, Elisa; Sandrelli, Fabio


    Aggradation, progradation and retrogradation are the main patterns that define the large-scale architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. These patterns are governed by the ratio between the variation in accommodation space and sediment supply experienced during delta growth. Sediment supply variations are difficult to estimate in ancient settings; hence, it is rarely possible to assess its significance in the large-scale stratigraphic architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. This paper presents a stratigraphic analysis of a Pliocene deltaic complex composed of two coeval and narrowly spaced deltaic branches. The two branches recorded the same tectonic- and climate-induced accommodation space variations. As a result, this deltaic complex represents a natural laboratory for testing the effects of sediment supply variations on the stratigraphic architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. The field data suggest that a sediment supply which is able to counteract the accommodation generated over time promotes the aggradational/progradational attitude of Gilbert-type deltas, as well as the development of thick foreset deposits. By contrast, if the sediment supply is not sufficient for counterbalancing the generated accommodation, an aggradational/retrogradational stratigraphic architecture is promoted. In this case, the deltaic system is forced to withdraw during the different phases of generation of accommodation, with the subsequent flooding of previously deposited sub-horizontal topset deposits (i.e., the delta plain). The subsequent deltaic progradation occurs above these deposits and, consequently, the available space for foresets growth is limited to the water depth between the base-level and the older delta plain. This leads to the vertical stacking of relatively thin deltaic deposits with an overall aggradatational/retrogradational attitude.

  15. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira


    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  16. Aeolian sedimentary processes at the Bagnold Dunes, Mars: Implications for modern dune dynamics and sedimentary structures in the aeolian stratigraphic record of Mars

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Sullivan, Rob; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lamb, Mike P.; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Gupta, Sanjeev


    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under Martian conditions. In-situ observations of sand dunes (informally called the Bagnold Dunes) by Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provide the first opportunity to make observations of dunes from the grain-to-dune scale thereby filling the gap in knowledge between theory and orbital observations and refining our understanding of the martian aeolian stratigraphic record. We use the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera (Navcam), Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), to make observations of the Bagnold Dunes. Measurements of sedimentary structures are made where stereo images are available. Observations indicate that structures generated by gravity-driven processes on the dune lee slopes, such as grainflow and grainfall, are similar to the suite of aeolian sedimentary structures observed on Earth and should be present and recognizable in Mars' aeolian stratigraphic record. Structures formed by traction-driven processes deviate significantly from those found on Earth. The dune hosts centimeter-scale wind ripples and large, meter-scale ripples, which are not found on Earth. The large ripples migrate across the depositional, lee slopes of the dune, which implies that these structures should be present in Mars' stratigraphic record and may appear similar to compound-dune stratification.The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Team is acknowledged for their support of this work.

  17. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  18. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Ennio Marsella


    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  19. From a stratigraphic sequence to a landscape evolution model: Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanism, soil formation and land use in the shade of Mount Vesuvius (Italy)

    Sebastian Vogel; Michael Märker; Ivano Rellini; Philipp Hoelzmann; Sabine Wulf; Mark Robinson; Linda Steinhübel; Giovanni Di Maio; Catello Imperatore; Pia Kastenmeier; Liana Liebmann; Domenico Esposito; Florian Seiler


    Detailed lithostratigraphic, geochemical, pedological, micromorphological and archaeological analyses were carried out at a stratigraphic sequence of Scafati, about 3 km east of ancient Pompeii. It comprises roughly the last 22,000 years of landscape history consisting of a multilayered succession of repeated volcanic deposition and pedogenesis. The former is caused by several phases of volcanic activity of Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, reflecting a large spectrum of eruption type...

  20. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla


    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  1. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    Halpern, Andrea R


    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada

    François Clayer


    Full Text Available The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1, a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2 and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3. These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.

  3. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.


    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  4. Prehistoric floods on the Tennessee River—Assessing the use of stratigraphic records of past floods for improved flood-frequency analysis

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.


    Stratigraphic analysis, coupled with geochronologic techniques, indicates that a rich history of large Tennessee River floods is preserved in the Tennessee River Gorge area. Deposits of flood sediment from the 1867 peak discharge of record (460,000 cubic feet per second at Chattanooga, Tennessee) are preserved at many locations throughout the study area at sites with flood-sediment accumulation. Small exposures at two boulder overhangs reveal evidence of three to four other floods similar in size, or larger, than the 1867 flood in the last 3,000 years—one possibly as much or more than 50 percent larger. Records of floods also are preserved in stratigraphic sections at the mouth of the gorge at Williams Island and near Eaves Ferry, about 70 river miles upstream of the gorge. These stratigraphic records may extend as far back as about 9,000 years ago, giving a long history of Tennessee River floods. Although more evidence is needed to confirm these findings, a more in-depth comprehensive paleoflood study is feasible for the Tennessee River.

  5. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    Stassen, Flemming


    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  6. Technical aspects of data communication

    MacNamara, John E


    Technical Aspects of Data Communication, Third Edition provides information pertinent to the technical aspects of data communication. This book discusses a simple asynchronous interface implemented with a specialized integrated circuit called a UART.Organized into 28 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the interface standards ranging from the classic EIA-232-D to the EIA-530. This text then describes modems and modem control, with material on high-speed modems and error-correcting modems. Other chapters discuss hardware and software methods. This book discusses as well digital tr

  7. Mathematical aspects of natural dynamos

    Dormy, Emmanuel


    Although the origin of Earth's and other celestial bodies' magnetic fields remains unknown, we do know that the motion of electrically conducting fluids generates and maintains these fields, forming the basis of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and, to a larger extent, dynamo theory. Answering the need for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary introduction to this area, ""Mathematical Aspects of Natural Dynamos"" provides a foundation in dynamo theory before moving on to modeling aspects of natural dynamos.Bringing together eminent international contributors, the book first introduces governing equatio

  8. SPAM -- Technological and Legal Aspects

    Banday, M Tariq


    In this paper an attempt is made to review technological, economical and legal aspects of the spam in detail. The technical details will include different techniques of spam control e.g., filtering techniques, Genetic Algorithm, Memory Based Classifier, Support Vector Machine Method, etc. The economic aspect includes Shaping/Rate Throttling Approach/Economic Filtering and Pricing/Payment based spam control. Finally, the paper discusses the legal provisions for the control of spam. The scope of the legal options is limited to USA, European Union, New Zealand, Canada, Britain and Australia.

  9. Investigation of gas hydrate-bearing sandstone reservoirs at the "Mount Elbert" stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, Alaska

    Boswell, R.M.; Hunter, R. (ASRC Energy Services, Anchorage, AK); Collett, T. (USGS, Denver, CO); Digert, S. (BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, AK); Hancock, S. (RPS Energy Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada); Weeks, M. (BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., Anchorage, AK); Mt. Elbert Science Team


    In February 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc., and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive data collection effort at the "Mount Elbert #1" gas hydrates stratigraphic test well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The 22-day field program acquired significant gas hydrate-bearing reservoir data, including a full suite of open-hole well logs, over 500 feet of continuous core, and open-hole formation pressure response tests. Hole conditions, and therefore log data quality, were excellent due largely to the use of chilled oil-based drilling fluids. The logging program confirmed the existence of approximately 30 m of gashydrate saturated, fine-grained sand reservoir. Gas hydrate saturations were observed to range from 60% to 75% largely as a function of reservoir quality. Continuous wire-line coring operations (the first conducted on the ANS) achieved 85% recovery through 153 meters of section, providing more than 250 subsamples for analysis. The "Mount Elbert" data collection program culminated with open-hole tests of reservoir flow and pressure responses, as well as gas and water sample collection, using Schlumberger's Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool. Four such tests, ranging from six to twelve hours duration, were conducted. This field program demonstrated the ability to safely and efficiently conduct a research-level openhole data acquisition program in shallow, sub-permafrost sediments. The program also demonstrated the soundness of the program's pre-drill gas hydrate characterization methods and increased confidence in gas hydrate resource assessment methodologies for the ANS.

  10. 3D Structural and Stratigraphic Architecture of the Northwest Santa Barbara Basin: Implications for Slope Stability and Submarine Landslide Occurrence

    Wright, A.; Brothers, D. S.; Kluesner, J.; Johnson, S. Y.


    Multiple submarine landslides have been documented on the north flank of the Santa Barbara Basin and such failures are considered capable of generating local tsunami hazards to the Santa Barbara region. Past 2D seismic reflection data has provided a general view of the regional framework geology resulting from north-south compression, but fails to identify along-strike variations of faults and folds. This study uses industry 3D seismic reflection data encompassing the slope surrounding the 3.8 km2-Gaviota submarine landslide to investigate structural and stratigraphic controls of slope failure in this region. The 3D depth-migrated volume shows a complex network of faults that result in both broad and local zones of compression, folding, and uplift along the slope. One localized zone of enhanced anticlinal folding and uplift associated with small-scale thrust faults is located directly beneath the Gaviota slide, while another is beneath a seafloor fissure west of the slide inferred to represent incipient failure. New high-resolution 2D transects constrain the character of shallow deformation above the locally uplifted blocks. 3D isopach maps indicate the seafloor fissures trend along a key threshold of thickness between the seafloor and a shallow horizon; the fissures are also coincide with an apparent zone of shallow, gas-charged strata that onlap the steeply dipping flanks of local anticlinal deformation. Because the seafloor gradient near the Gaviota slide is significantly lower than the internal friction angle for fine-grained marine sediments, we propose that a combination of active deformation, sediment compaction, and gas charging acted to precondition the slope of the Gaviota landslide for failure by reducing the shear strength. Similar factors occur beneath intact sections of the slope adjacent to the slide, which should be considered prone to future landsliding.

  11. Stratigraphical and sedimentary characters of Late Cretaceous formations outcropping in central and southern Tunisia, Tethyan southern margin

    Jaballah, J.; Negra, M. H.


    The main goals of our approach are to identify some local to global events in relation with tectonic instabilities and/or sea-level changes, occurring during the deposition of Cenomanian-Coniacian carbonate series in Tunisia. Several sections surveyed in Central-Southern Tunisia, along a North-South transect extending from Sidi Bouzid to Gafsa area, show that the Cenomanian-Coniacian series include rudist-rich facies associated to other shallow marine to deeper deposits. Detailed sedimentological studies supported by new biostratigraphical data (provided by H. Bismuth, oral comm.), have allowed to add more precisions on the lithostratigraphical stacking and thus on the Central Tunisia Stratigraphic Chart. Some carbonate members such as the Middle Turonian Bireno and the Late Turonian-Coniacian Douleb have been identified in certain localities for the first time. Indeed, these members were never described before at Jebel el Kébar and Jebel Meloussi. In the Sidi Bouzid area, especially at Jebel el Kébar, the Cenomanian-Coniacian carbonate members are characterized by frequent and rapid changes, related to the existence of highs (horsts, probably) and depressed depositional domains (grabens, probably), which formed during the deposition of the two lower Units of the Middle Turonian Bireno Member. Above, the Late Turonian to Coniacian deposits, have tended to seal the irregular paleotopography affected, at least locally, by Middle Turonian extensional tectonic movements. They could be related, in contrast, to a drowning linked to a sea level rise. Similar events were described abroad during Late Turonian times; a partial drowning of carbonate platforms was already identified in other localities of the African Tethyan margin. However, the global drowning corresponding to the C/T event was not identified in the present study, although previous works have described this event North of the studied sector. As demonstrated in other localities, a global eustatic event could

  12. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis


    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  13. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo


    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  14. Investigation of gas hydrate-bearing sandstone reservoirs at the Mount Elbert stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, Alaska

    Boswell, R. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Hunter, R. [ASRC Energy Services, Anchorage, AK (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Digert, S.; Weeks, M. [BP Exploration Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Hancock, S. [RPS Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Gas hydrates occur within the shallow sand reservoirs on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The mean estimate for gas hydrate in-place resources on the ANS is 16.7 trillion cubic metres. In the past, they were viewed primarily as a drilling hazard to be managed during the development of deeper oil resources. In 2002, a cooperative research program was launched to help determine the potential for environmentally-sound and economically-viable production of methane from gas hydrates. Additional objectives were to refine ANS gas hydrate resource potential, improve the geologic and geophysical methods used to locate and asses gas hydrate resources, and develop numerical modeling capabilities that are essential in both planning and evaluating gas hydrate field programs. This paper reviewed the results of the an extensive data collection effort conducted at the Mount Elbert number 1 gas hydrates stratigraphic test well on the ANS. The 22-day field program acquired significant gas hydrate-bearing reservoir data, including a suite of open-hole well logs, over 500 feet of continuous core, and open-hole formation pressure response tests. The logging program confirmed the existence of approximately 30 m of gas hydrate saturated, fine-grained sand reservoir. Gas hydrate saturations were observed to range from 60 to 75 per cent. Continuous wire-line coring operations achieved 85 per cent recovery. The Mount Elbert field program also involved gas and water sample collection. It demonstrated the ability to safely and efficiently conduct a research-level open-hole data acquisition program in shallow, sub-permafrost sediments and increased confidence in gas hydrate resource assessment methodologies for the ANS. 10 refs., 9 figs.




    Full Text Available A "mid-Carnian" transgressive succession, developed between the Breno carbonate platform and the semiarid coastal carbonates-sabkhas facies of the S. Giovanni Bianco Fm., is recorded in the northern Bergamasc Alps. This episode is characterized by the presence of two stratigraphic markers:  a Dark grey shales and siltstones ("Black Pelites", considered previously as the northern closure of the Gorno-Lower S. Giovanni Bianco Fms., but re-interpreted as the western pinch-out of the Lozio Shale depositional system. The Early Carnian Lozio Shale was deposited first in the Valle di Scalve-Lozio trough and later covered the carbonate platform (Breno Fm..b Fossiliferous, open subtidal limestones, marls and burrowed marly limestones ("Bioclastic Horizon" of the northern Bergamasc Alps. The spreading of shales and siltstones represents the first transgressive stage of the last Carnian sequence in Lombardy, after the "mid- Carnian" (Julian substage regional carbonate platform crisis (top of the Valcamonica Breno Fm.. The "Bioclastic Horizon" records the mfs represented by normal, open marine facies, identified and correlated throughout the Bergamasc Alps. Different petrographic and chemical characters between the Lozio Shale - "Black Pelites" and the Gorno-San Giovanni Bianco Fms. suggest different source areas: the former units are characterized by clasts derived from a metamorphic-intrusive area (placed northward and westward, whereas the latter units are characterized by prevailing volcaniclastic material. A climatic change (from arid to relatively humid conditions may be invoked to explain the crisis of the "mid-Carnian" carbonate platforms in the western Southern Alps and the regional spreading of fine-grained terrigenous material. 

  16. The Ufa indenter: stratigraphic and geophysic evidences for an actual indentation of the Southern Urals by the East European craton

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Danukalova, Guzel


    Study of the altitudes of the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene and Aktschagylian-Quaternary stratigraphic ensembles known on the western slope of the Southern Urals evidences the existence of an East-West elongated dome which follows the N53° latitude. This ridge is superimposed at depth with the remnants of the Sernovodsk-Abdulino Aulacogen and with the Belaya tear fault, which support the existence of a recent rejuvenation of these old structures. North of these disruptions the Southern Urals display a clear bent towards the East. Detailed microstructural studies show that this curvature is associated with a typical stress pattern which suggests the existence of an indentation of the fold belt by the East European craton. The hypothesis of an Ufa indenter is not supported by an equivalent East-West deep fault north of the bend. However, a long N100° magnetic anomaly, interpreted as a shear zone, suggests that the indenter is a reality. Quaternary uplift and crustal thickening at its front as well as seismological data support our interpretation. It is not stressed that the curvature of the Urals observed at 56° latitude results solely from this recent indentation. It is only assumed that the actual indentation is rejuvenating a former unevenness which existed before in the East European craton. Study of the inner part of the indenter shows that this type of structure is not necessarily rigid and undeformed. Some of the structures described on the URSEIS deep seismic line could be much younger than previously expected.

  17. Stratigraphic and geochemical evolution of an oceanic arc upper crustal section: The Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation, south-central Alaska

    Clift, P.D.; Draut, A.E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Blusztajn, J.; Greene, A.


    The Early Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation forms the upper stratigraphic level of an oceanic volcanic arc complex within the Peninsular Terrane of south-central Alaska. The section comprises a series of lavas, tuffs, and volcaniclastic debris-How and flow turbidite deposits, showing significant lateral facies variability. There is a general trend toward more volcaniclastic sediment at the top of the section and more lavas and tuff breccias toward the base. Evidence for dominant submarine, mostly mid-bathyal or deeper (>500 m) emplacement is seen throughout the section, which totals ???7 km in thickness, similar to modern western Pacific arcs, and far more than any other known exposed section. Subaerial sedimentation was rare but occurred over short intervals in the middle of the section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is dominantly calc-alkatine and shows no clear trend to increasing SiO2 up-section. An oceanic subduction petrogenesis is shown by trace element and Nd isotope data. Rocks at the base of the section show no relative enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) versus heavy rare earth elements (REES) or in melt-incompatible versus compatible high field strength elements (HFSEs). Relative enrichment of LREEs and HFSEs increases slightly up-section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is typically more REE depleted than average continental crust, although small volumes of light REE-enriched and heavy REE-depleted mafic lavas are recognized low in the stratigraphy. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation was formed in an intraoceanic arc above a north-dipping subduction zone and contains no preserved record of its subsequent collisions with Wrangellia or North America. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  18. Probabilistic aspects of ocean waves

    Battjes, J.A.


    Background material for a special lecture on probabilistic aspects of ocean waves for a seminar in Trondheim. It describes long term statistics and short term statistics. Statistical distributions of waves, directional spectra and frequency spectra. Sea state parameters, response peaks, encounter

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Suszycki, Lee H.


    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  20. Probabilistic aspects of ocean waves

    Battjes, J.A.


    Background material for a special lecture on probabilistic aspects of ocean waves for a seminar in Trondheim. It describes long term statistics and short term statistics. Statistical distributions of waves, directional spectra and frequency spectra. Sea state parameters, response peaks, encounter pr

  1. Hispathologic aspects of Lyme Borreliosis.

    Koning, Johannes de


    As a result of the recent interest in Lyme disease a large number of papers has been published on its different aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to present a comprehensive study of the most important histopathological manifestations based on the experience obtained during the last 11 years. In

  2. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect



    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  3. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards

    Brand, John Richard

    Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues

  4. Aspects on Aspect : Theory and Applications of Grammatical Aspect in Spanish

    González González, P.


    This thesis provides an overview of disciplines related to the grammatical phenomenon of aspect. There are several claims advocated in this thesis, according to the different disciplines dealt with in each chapter. Chapter 1 claims that intra-sentential semantic structure contains three potential le

  5. Aspects on Aspect : Theory and Applications of Grammatical Aspect in Spanish

    González González, P.


    This thesis provides an overview of disciplines related to the grammatical phenomenon of aspect. There are several claims advocated in this thesis, according to the different disciplines dealt with in each chapter. Chapter 1 claims that intra-sentential semantic structure contains three potential le

  6. Aspects on Aspect : Theory and Applications of Grammatical Aspect in Spanish

    González González, P.


    This thesis provides an overview of disciplines related to the grammatical phenomenon of aspect. There are several claims advocated in this thesis, according to the different disciplines dealt with in each chapter. Chapter 1 claims that intra-sentential semantic structure contains three potential

  7. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Grubor Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  8. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim


    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  9. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.

    Keymling, M


    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...


    Rade R. Babic


    Full Text Available Vertebral bones are among the bones of osteoarticular system which are most often affected by secondary malignoma.In the paper we present radiodiagnostical aspects of secondary malignoma in vertebral bones by conventional radiograms, and we illustrate and describe radiodiagnostic characteristics of the osteoplastic, osteolytic and osteolytic-osteoplastic metastasis.Author conclude that the diagnosis of metastasis in vertebral bones is always important for TNM classification, and that their character often points to the primary locus of malignoma.

  11. Formal aspects of component software

    Sun, Meng; Schatz, B.


    This issue includes extended versions of selected best papers from the 7th International Workshop on Formal Aspects of Component Software (FACS 2010) held in Guimarães, Portugal on October 14–16, 2010. The component-based software development approach has emerged as a promising paradigm to cope with an ever increasing complexity of present-day software solutions by bringing sound production and engineering principles into software engineering. However, many conceptual and technological iss...


    Bogdan NAZAT


    Full Text Available This project aims to study in detail the theoretical aspects concerning the contract assignment, as provided by the relevant regulation, and the doctrine corresponding to old and current regulations. In this respect, this project aims to give the reader a comprehensive look on the institution in question, the regulation offered by the current Civil Code is reviewed taking into account the national and international doctrine.

  13. Aspects of Household Cooling Technology

    Mrzyglod, Matthias; Holzer, Stefan


    Actually available household cooling appliances in the highest efficiency class may consume less then 10W average electrical power. To achieve such power consumptions special challenges for the cooling system had to overcome. The related cooling system design has to consider several effects, which arise from the corresponding low cooling capacity demand, start/stop cycles and additional power consumptions by control accessories. The lecture provides symptomatic aspects of cooling technology, ...

  14. Economical aspect of website memorability

    Miłosz, Marek; Luján Mora, Sergio


    The economic model for estimation of hidden costs of using websites is presented in this paper. These costs are the result of productivity loss in connection with the use of poorly, non-usability designed web pages. One of the elements of usability is memorability. This aspect is considered in detail. The experiment to determine the loss of time due to poor memorability are presented.

  15. Mechanical Aspects of Tissue Engineering

    Liebschner, Michael; Bucklen, Brandon; Wettergreen, Matthew


    Tissue engineering describes an initiative whereby a deficit of tissue may be replaced with an engineered construct, typically thought to be some combination of a structural support element and a cellular element. There are several mechanical aspects that come into play during the design of such a construct. First, the way in which the mechanical behavior of a tissue is characterized varies depending on the tissue type. For example, one would not consider the ultimate strength of a non–load-b...

  16. New aspects of canine pyometra

    Hagman, Ragnvi


    Pyometra is a common and lethal disease in bitches characterised by uterine bacterial infection leading to subsequent systemic illness. The objectives of the present thesis were to investigate the incidence of the disease in relation to breed and age, to assess bacteriological aspects of pyometra and to evaluate the involvement of endotoxin and prostaglandin F2α in the pathogenesis. Animal insurance data revealed age- and breed-dependent differences in the incidence of pyometra. On average 23...

  17. Molecular aspects of mammalian fertilization

    Hector Serrano; Dolores Garcia-Suarez


    Mammalian fertilization is a highly regulated process, much of which are not clearly understood. Here we present some information in order to elaborate a working hypothesis for this process, beginning with the sperm modifications in the epidydimis up to sperm and egg plasmalemma interaction and fusion. We also discuss the still poorly understood capacitation process, the phenomenon of sperm chemo-attraction that brings the capacitated sperm to interact with the oocyte vestments and certain aspects of the acrosome reaction.

  18. Stratigraphic reconstruction of two debris avalanche deposits at Colima Volcano (Mexico): Insights into pre-failure conditions and climate influence

    Roverato, M.; Capra, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.


    Throughout its history, Colima Volcano has experienced numerous partial edifice collapses with associated emplacement of debris avalanche deposits of contrasting volume, morphology and texture. A detailed stratigraphic study in the south-eastern sector of the volcano allowed the recognition of two debris avalanche deposits, named San Marcos (> 28,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1.3 km 3) and Tonila (15,000-16,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1 km 3 ). This work sheds light on the pre-failure conditions of the volcano based primarily on a detailed textural study of debris avalanche deposits and their associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic successions. Furthermore, we show how the climate at the time of the Tonila collapse influenced the failure mechanisms. The > 28,000 cal yr BP San Marcos collapse was promoted by edifice steep flanks and ongoing tectonic and volcanotectonic deformation, and was followed by a magmatic eruption that emplaced pyroclastic flow deposits. In contrast, the Tonila failure occurred just after the Last Glacial Maximum (22,000-18,000 cal BP) and, in addition to the typical debris avalanche textural characteristics (angular to sub-angular clasts, coarse matrix, jigsaw fit) it shows a hybrid facies characterized by debris avalanche blocks embedded in a finer, homogenous and partially cemented matrix, a texture more characteristic of debris flow deposits. The Tonila debris avalanche is directly overlain by a 7-m thick hydromagmatic pyroclastic succession. Massive debris flow deposits, often more than 10 m thick and containing large amounts of tree trunk logs, represent the top unit in the succession. Fluvial deposits also occur throughout all successions; these represent periods of highly localized stream reworking. All these lines of evidence point to the presence of water in the edifice prior to the Tonila failure, suggesting it may have been a weakening factor. The Tonila failure appears to represent an anomalous event related to the particular climatic

  19. The Crati River Basin: geomorphological and stratigraphical data for the Plio–Quaternary evolution of northern Calabria, South Apennines, Italy

    Robustelli Gaetano


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geomorphological and stratigraphical study carried out in the eastern side of the Crati River valley (northern Calabria, South Italy. This area is characterized by the occurrence of three order palaeosurfaces that, along with low-sloping palaeovalleys and structural landforms, are striking features of the landscape. The relationships between morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Crati Basin has been assessed through sandstone detrital modes, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The two main unconformity surfaces that typify the Quaternary fill were correlated to different steps of landscape evolution. The presence of both erosional and depositional palaeosurfaces has been a useful marker for reconstructing sedimentary and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect drainage network evolution and changes in source sediment area. In particular, we recognized that the study area experienced, during the late Pliocene–Early Pleistocene a period of sub-aerial landscape modelling as suggested by low-sloping palaeovalleys and related fluvial deposits (1st Order Palaeosurface. At that time, the source of the detrital constituents of the PPS Unit sandstones was mainly from the Sila Massif. The onset of Coastal Range identification and uplift (Early Pleistocene marks a change in the geomorphic scenario with tectonic driven stream incision and valley development along the eastern side of Coastal Range, along with the occurrence of depositional and erosional landsurfaces (2nd Order Palaeosurface at footslopes. During this period, the Coastal Range and Sila Massif were the sources for the detrital constituents of the PlS Unit sandstones. The progressive uplift of Coastal Range during late Early Pleistocene and the marked backstepping of the depositional systems along the Sila footslope was accompanied by alternating phases of down-cutting and base

  20. The Crati River Basin: geomorphological and stratigraphical data for the Plio-Quaternary evolution of northern Calabria, South Apennines, Italy

    Robustelli, Gaetano; Muto, Francesco


    In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geomorphological and stratigraphical study carried out in the eastern side of the Crati River valley (northern Calabria, South Italy). This area is characterized by the occurrence of three order palaeosurfaces that, along with low-sloping palaeovalleys and structural landforms, are striking features of the landscape. The relationships between morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Crati Basin has been assessed through sandstone detrital modes, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The two main unconformity surfaces that typify the Quaternary fill were correlated to different steps of landscape evolution. The presence of both erosional and depositional palaeosurfaces has been a useful marker for reconstructing sedimentary and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect drainage network evolution and changes in source sediment area. In particular, we recognized that the study area experienced, during the late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene a period of sub-aerial landscape modelling as suggested by low-sloping palaeovalleys and related fluvial deposits (1st Order Palaeosurface). At that time, the source of the detrital constituents of the PPS Unit sandstones was mainly from the Sila Massif. The onset of Coastal Range identification and uplift (Early Pleistocene) marks a change in the geomorphic scenario with tectonic driven stream incision and valley development along the eastern side of Coastal Range, along with the occurrence of depositional and erosional landsurfaces (2nd Order Palaeosurface) at footslopes. During this period, the Coastal Range and Sila Massif were the sources for the detrital constituents of the PlS Unit sandstones. The progressive uplift of Coastal Range during late Early Pleistocene and the marked backstepping of the depositional systems along the Sila footslope was accompanied by alternating phases of down-cutting and base-level stability resulting in

  1. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas


    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  2. Recent climate cycles on Mars: Stratigraphic relationships between multiple generations of gullies and the latitude dependent mantle

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Barbieri, Lindsay


    Reconstructions of the orbital parameters of Mars spanning the last ∼20 Myr, combined with global circulation models, predict multiple cycles of accumulation and degradation of an ice-rich mantle in the mid-latitudes, driven primarily by insolation at the poles during periods when obliquity was more than ten degrees greater than it is today (i.e., >∼35°). While evidence of an ice-rich "latitude dependent mantle" (LDM) consistent with these predictions is abundant, features indicative of cycles of emplacement and degradation of this unit are isolated and rare. In addition, fundamental physical properties of the LDM, such as paleo-thickness maxima, have not been determined. Gullies, which are sinuous channels found on steep slopes in mid- and high-latitudes, interact with the LDM and provide a stratigraphic feature useful for documenting both cyclical emplacement/removal and thickness estimates in past climate regimes. In the southern hemisphere, where gullies are most common, we present extensive evidence of (1) cyclical degradation and removal of gullies in the lower mid-latitudes (30-40°S), and (2) burial and exhumation of inverted gully channels in the transitional latitude band between dissected and preserved LDM (40-50°S), which can only be accounted for if an additional tens of meters of LDM were present at these locations during channel formation. These relationships support a model in which end-to-end gully evolution is controlled by the behavior of the LDM: at lower latitudes, gullies incise an ice-rich substrate and are removed when that ice becomes unstable, and at higher latitudes gullies are buried by successive emplacement of LDM where ice remains stable near the surface. Further, the presence of dormant buried gullies implies that present-day activity within gullies, likely to be controlled by the behavior of CO2 frost, is insufficient to explain the entire gully population, and that conditions conducive to increased gully activity preceded the

  3. The stratigraphic record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain)

    Soria, J. M.; Caracuel, J. E.; Yébenes, A.; Fernández, J.; Viseras, C.


    The Bajo Segura Basin is a marginal basin of the Western Mediterranean located on the eastern end of the Betic Cordillera (southeastern Spain). Its Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphic record is divided into four allostratigraphic units, with bounding unconformities represented by erosional surfaces corresponding to palaeogeographic changes. The Messinian Unit I (MI) is composed of three depositional systems (fluvial, coastal lagoon, and shelf) which lateral facies changes, deposited in a context of sea level highstand. The upper boundary of the MI Unit corresponds to the intra-Messinian unconformity, a lowstand erosional surface with palaeovalleys of 30 m deep generated by a sea level fall. Messinian Unit II (MII) comprises five correlative depositional systems (from fluvial to coastal) deposited during a new sea level highstand after a reflooding that followed the preceding lowstand. The upper boundary of Unit MII corresponds to the end-Messinian unconformity, which is another lowstand erosional surface with similar palaeovalleys to those of the intra-Messinian unconformity. Messinian Unit MIII forms the fluvial fill of some small incised palaeovalleys, developed during the end-Messinian lowstand. Over the end-Messinian unconformity lies the Pliocene Unit (P), which consists of four depositional systems superimposed in continuity. The first two (littoral and open marine) form a transgressive assemblage that fill the palaeovalley carved over the end-Messinian unconformity. The latter two (shallow marine to coastal in the lower part, and fluvial in the upper part) form a regressive prograding assemblage deposited in a highstand context, when the sea level reached its height in the early Pliocene. In relation to the Messinian salinity crisis, we propose that Unit MII is correlative to the evaporites deposited in the centre of the Bajo Segura Basin (San Miguel Gypsum Formation), corresponding to the marginal evaporites of the Mediterranean. Evaporitic sedimentation

  4. Quality Aspects in Particulate Analysis

    Merkus, Henk G.

    The quality of particle size analysis for the purpose of control of product quality consists of several parts. First, the most relevant parameter(s) have to be chosen to represent the quality of a specific product in a specific application. Some background is given, but an optimum answer to any new product with new properties can only be found by thorough investigation, knowledge and experience. Secondly, the quality aspects of both technique and total procedure for measurement have to be considered in relation to the requirements set for product performance and an adequate procedure selected. The quality aspects of a technique include measurement range, analysis time, precision, noise, drift, bias, accuracy, resolution, sensitivity, lower detection limit, traceability, and investment and labor costs. A quantitative description for these aspects is given together with the major error sources. Altogether, it is advised to set up a protocol for each PSD measurement method in relation to the given application(s), in which all choices made are clearly described.

  5. Lexical and grammatical aspect in language acquisition

    Ioana Stoicescu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relation between lexical and grammatical aspect in child Romanian. It tests the predictions of the Aspect First Hypothesis against the data of one Romanian speaking child. It finds that the Aspect First Hypothesis is not confirmed by child Romanian in its strong interpretation. However, the data supports the prototype reinterpretation of the Aspect First Hypothesis.

  6. Milankovitch cyclicity in modern continental margins: stratigraphic cycles in terrigenous shelf settings; El registro de la ciclicidad de Milankovitch en margenes continentales actuales: ciclos estratigraficos en plataformas terrigenas

    Lobo, F. J.; Ridente, D.


    We present a synthesis of the sedimentary responses to Late Quaternary Milankovitch-type sea-level cycles (100 and 20 kyr periodicities) as a basis for our investigations into the patterns and concepts of composite sequences in shallow-shelf settings. We describe the record of both 100 and 20 kyr cycles as documented worldwide and discuss the pattern of composite cyclicity mainly on the basis of previously published data from the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins. Cycles of 100 kyr are those most frequently documented in Quaternary margins; they occur in the form of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences dominated by fairly uniform pro gradational-regressive units and more variable, though less well developed, transgressive deposits. Sequence boundaries correspond to prominent polygenic (regressive-transgressive) erosional surfaces that bear witness to considerable transgressive reworking of the original sub-aerial unconformity. Although the progradational units making up the greater part of these sequences have usually been interpreted as a record of a falling sea-level stage, recent evidence is pointing towards a more complex stratigraphic picture, including a distinction between relative highstand and lowstand deposits. The 20-kyr stratigraphic motifs show greater variation compared to that displayed by the more common 100-kyr sequences, particularly in the basic structure of systems tracts and the nature of bounding surfaces. The two case studies described here, the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins, highlight the fact that, concomitantly with an increase in frequencies of cycles and sequences, sediment supply and the dynamics of their dispersal significantly affected the stratigraphic response to the main controlling factor, which was sea-level, thus determining the variety of expression in the 20 kyr cycles. (Author)

  7. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke


    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.


    ENUŞ Marilena


    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few important aspects from aerodynamics and aerospace technology. It also, presents important points regarding the improvement of airplanes as a result of research in shape modelling, materials, aerodynamics and 3d design. Several examples based on constructive structures are offered. The embodiment design of a traditional airplane is presented in order to offer directions of conceptual development for improving its performance parameters and shapes. The virtual scale models are created by computer in Catia V5, in order to provide the validation of the features and the performance of aerodynamic configuration in the wind tunnel.

  9. Procedural Aspects Regarding International Arbitration

    Berlingher Remus Daniel


    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes have led to significant changes with regard to the institutions regulated by the 1865 Code of Civil Procedure and other laws, such as Law no. 105/1992 on the regulation of private international law. Among the institutions that have undergone these reconfigurations in the regulation of the Code of Civil Procedure, which entered into force in 2013, one that stands out is arbitration. Our study will analyze the main aspects of private international law arbitration: arbitration agreement, the arbitral tribunal, the proceedings in the matter, as well as the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards

  10. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido


    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  11. International aspect of ecological innovations

    Shkola Viktoriya Yurіyivna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the international aspect of ecological innovations. Today one of the most significant factors to achieve sustainable development in Ukraine is to activate the ecologically oriented innovative activity. This requires new approaches creation for the innovative processes management system at different economic levels. Ecological or “green” start-ups consist in realization of ideas by non-typical way, how it is possible to save ecology and to gain material benefits. All win in business-model of the similar projects: governments save on waste disposal, citizens are awarded for ecological way of life, and sponsors realize social responsibility.

  12. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry 40

    White, Ralph E


    This volume in the acclaimed series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry starts with a dedication to the late Professor Brian Conway who for 50 years helped to guide this series to its current prominence. The remainder of the volume is then devoted to the following topics: PEM fuel cells; the use of graphs in electrochemical reaction newtworks; nanomaterials in Lithium-ion batteries; direct methanolf fuel cells (two chapters); fuel cell catalyst layers. The book is for electrochemists, electrochemical engineers, fuel cell workers and energy generation workers.

  13. [Aesthetic aspects of eyelid reconstruction].

    Bruneau, S; Arnaud, D; Rousseau, P; Belmahi, A; Duron, J-B; Gary-Bobo, A; Malet, T; Darsonval, V; Bardot, J


    In eyelid reconstruction, filling the defect is not sufficient. In young patients, the aim is to obtain a reconstructed eyelid, as normal as possible. In elderly patients, the large amount of available skin and the good quality of scars seem to be favorable. But weakening and stretching of the connective tissue and eyelid structures and deficient production of tears may compromise the functional result. In every case, restoring aspect and function are going together. The purpose of this chapter is to show how different techniques may be used in eyelid reconstruction with good cosmetic result. Different cases are carefully described and illustrated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian


    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  15. Symphonic electronic music: social aspects

    Enfi A.


    Full Text Available In the article «Sympho-electronic music as deep-essential psychotherapy's tool of art-humanitarian practice» we provide definitions and characteristics of the new musicological concepts: «sympho-electronic music» (SEM, and show many benefits of using this music in depth-essential psychotherapy of art-humanitarian creativity, based on the implementation of major principles and basic medical-psychological aspects of the Essence Coding Theory (ECT. Demonstrated a specific example example of the use of SEM in psychotherapeutic practice.

  16. Ecophysiological aspects of Cirsium arvense

    Heilmann, Hartmut


    Full Text Available Even if an existing agricultural holistic production system works without specific measures of control of Cirsium arvense (L. SCOP. scientific questions of pedogene probiotic aspects are left to be answered. Changes in soil structure and pH-Value are not as much due to the conditions of soil but depend on the influences of the Creeping thistle. Investigations of soils with/without thistles at the University of Hohenheim show high differences which hint at saprotroph contributions to nutrition. Thistle growth, rhizome dormancy and subterranean embryogeny are discussed as a nutrition model of thistles as mixotroph plants which can take advantage of organic substances in the soil.

  17. Nonlinear aspects of astrobiological research

    Brandenburg, Axel


    Several aspects of mathematical astrobiology are discussed. It is argued that around the time of the origin of life the handedness of biomolecules must have established itself through an instability. Possible pathways of producing a certain handedness include mechanisms involving either autocatalysis or, alternatively, epimerization as governing effects. Concepts for establishing hereditary information are discussed in terms of the theory of hypercycles. Instabilities toward parasites and possible remedies by invoking spatial extent are reviewed. Finally, some effects of early life are discussed that contributed to modifying and regulating atmosphere and climate of the Earth, and that could have contributed to the highly oxidized state of its crust.

  18. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis

    Gabriela Halpern


    Full Text Available SUMMARY This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with Nacetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  19. Stratigraphic sections, depositional environments, and metal content of the upper part of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, Northern Sangre De Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Clark, R.F.; Walz, D.M.


    The calcareous upper part of the 2,000-meter-thick Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation (Lindsey and others, 1985) in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range is a key stratigraphic interval for correlating rocks and mapping the structure of the range. The stratigraphy of this complex and heretofore poorly known interval is reported here in order to provide a basis for correlation among the structural blocks in the range. Inferred depositional environments of the upper part of the Minturn Formation are described briefly.

  20. New morpho-stratigraphic constraints for the evolution of the alluvial fan system along the northern slopes of the Taburno-Camposauro Mountains (Calore River basin, Southern Italy)

    Leone, Natalia; Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Filocamo, Francesca; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Valente, Ettore; Giralt, Santiago; Casciello, Emilio


    The Lower Calore River Valley is a morphostructural depression located in the inner sector of the Campanian Apennine, between the Taburno-Camposauro and the Matese carbonate massifs. The river is the main left tributary of the Volturno River, it has a meandering channel partially structural-controlled. Numerous morphotectonic clues and historical seismicity data suggest that this part of the Apennine chain was particularly active during the late-Quaternary. In detail, the valley is E-W oriented and presents an asymmetry of the opposed valley slopes. The left side, corresponding to the northern flank of the Camposauro massif, is characterized by a steep slope (70°-35°), partially controlled by a ~E-W oriented fault system, and by a wide less-inclined piedmont aggradation zone. The latter started growing since middle Pleistocene, with the deposition of alluvial fans and slope deposits over the well cemented early Pleistocene breccias of Laiano Synthem. The alluvial fan deposition has been active until present giving rise to three main generations of alluvial fans. The right side of the valley, instead, is characterized by seven orders of fluvial terraces, both of erosional and depositional origin. The quaternary morpho-stratigraphic evolution of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces has been strongly conditioned by the interaction of tectonic phases and climatic variations. A detailed geomorphological study (1:5.000 in scale) was carried out with the aim to map the main depositional and erosional fluvial landforms and to identify the main tectonic lineaments of the area. A detailed field survey allowed to better define the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context in which the alluvial deposits developed and also to find chrono-stratigraphic markers. Tephra-stratigraphic analyses were performed on pyroclastic deposits interbedded into the alluvial fan and fluvial successions. At the moment the age of the first generation of alluvial fans is still under

  1. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H


    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  3. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Youssef Hannad


    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  4. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão


    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  5. Cenozoic stratigraphic development in the north Chilean forearc: Implications for basin development and uplift history of the Central Andean margin

    Hartley, Adrian J.; Evenstar, Laura


    Analysis of the Cenozoic stratigraphic development of the forearc of northern Chile between 18°S and 23°30'S, allows constraints to be placed on the timing and nature of basin formation and the uplift history of the Central Andes. Chronostratigraphic charts have been constructed from 20 lithostratigraphic sections distributed throughout the forearc. Sections were taken from the Longitudinal Valley, Central Depression, Calama Basin, Salar de Atacama, Precordillera and the western flank of the Western Cordillera. Correlation and timing of events is largely based on the presence of dated volcanic horizons in all the studied sections. Three chronostratigraphic units are defined based upon the presence of regional unconformities. Deposition of the Late Eocene to Early Miocene chronostratigraphic unit (38-19 Ma) commenced across an irregular unconformity surface between ˜ 38 and 30 Ma with alluvial fan and fluvial sediments derived from the east interbedded with rhyolitic ignimbrites. Aggradation after 25 Ma resulted in development of a large broad basin over much of northern Chile that expanded eastwards through onlap onto basement. Deposition terminated around 19 Ma with the development of an angular unconformity over much, but not all of the study area. During deposition of the Early to Late Miocene chronostratigraphic unit (18-10 Ma) emergent volcanic source areas to the east provided catchments for large fluvial systems that drained westwards into endorheic ephemeral lacustrine basins. Fold growth affected sedimentation restricting accommodation space to small intra-thrust basins in the Precordillera and localised disruption and unconformity development in the Longitudinal Valley. The Late Miocene to present day chronostratigraphic unit (10-0 Ma) followed the development of a regional angular unconformity at 10 Ma. Sedimentation was restricted to a series of thrust-bounded endorheic basins in both the Central Depression and the Precordillera sourced from the east

  6. Morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of muddy ebb-tidal deltas along a subsiding coast: Barataria Bay, Mississippi River delta

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Kulp, M.; Penland, S.; Flocks, J.; Kindinger, J.


    The Barataria barrier coast formed between two major distributaries of the Mississippi River delta: the Plaquemines deltaic headland to the east and the Lafourche deltaic headland to the west. Rapid relative sea-level rise (1??03 cm year-1) and other erosional processes within Barataria Bay have led to substantial increases in the area of open water (> 775 km2 since 1956) and the attendant bay tidal prism. Historically, the increase in tidal discharge at inlets has produced larger channel cross-sections and prograding ebb-tidal deltas. For example, the ebb delta at Barataria Pass has built seaward > 2??2 km since the 1880s. Shoreline erosion and an increasing bay tidal prism also facilitated the formation of new inlets. Four major lithofacies characterize the Barataria coast ebb-tidal deltas and associated sedimentary environments. These include a proximal delta facies composed of massive to laminated, fine grey-brown to pale yellow sand and a distal delta facies consisting of thinly laminated, grey to pale yellow sand and silty sand with mud layers. The higher energy proximal delta deposits contain a greater percentage of sand (75-100%) compared with the distal delta sediments (60-80%). Associated sedimentary units include a nearshore facies consisting of horizontally laminated, fine to very fine grey sand with mud layers and an offshore facies that is composed of grey to dark grey, laminated sandy silt to silty clay. All facies coarsen upwards except the offshore facies, which fines upwards. An evolutionary model is presented for the stratigraphic development of the ebb-tidal deltas in a regime of increasing tidal energy resulting from coastal land loss and tidal prism growth. Ebb-tidal delta facies prograde over nearshore sediments, which interfinger with offshore facies. The seaward decrease in tidal current velocity of the ebb discharge produces a gradational contact between proximal and distal tidal delta facies. As the tidal discharge increases and the inlet

  7. Cenozoic Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ulukışla and Sivas Basins (Central and Eastern Turkey)

    Gürer, Derya; Darin, Michael H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.


    Because subduction is a destructive process, the surface record of subduction-dominated systems is naturally incomplete. Sedimentary basins may hold the most complete record of processes related to subduction, accretion, collision, and ocean closure, and thus provide key information for understanding the kinematic evolution of orogens. In central and eastern Anatolia, the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Ulukışla and Sivas basins supports the hypothesis that these once formed a contiguous basin. Importantly, their age and geographic positions relative to their very similar basement units and ahead of the Arabian indenter provide a critical record of pre-, syn- and post-collisional processes in the Anatolian Orogen. The Ulukışla-Sivas basin was dissected and translated along the major left-lateral Ecemiş fault zone. Since then, the basins on either side of the fault evolved independently, with considerably more plate convergence accommodated to the east in the Sivas region (eastern Anatolia) than in the Ulukışla region (central Anatolia). This led to the deformation of marine sediments and underlying ophiolites and structural growth of the Sivas Fold-and-Thrust Belt (SSFTB) since latest Eocene time, which played a major role in marine basin isolation and disconnection, along with a regionally important transition to continental conditions with evaporite deposition starting in the early Oligocene. We use geologic mapping, fault kinematic analysis, paleomagnetism, apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to characterize the architecture, deformation style, and structural evolution of the region. In the Ulukışla basin, dominantly E-W trending normal faults became folded or inverted due to N-S contraction since the Lutetian (middle Eocene). This was accompanied by significant counter-clockwise rotations, and post-Lutetian burial of the Niǧde Massif along the transpressional Ecemiş fault zone. Since Miocene

  8. Sequence Stratigraphic Characterization of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene Siliciclastic Aquifer Sediments, Baton Rouge Area, Southeastern Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Hanor, J. S.; Tsai, F. T.


    aggradation associated with sea-level highstands. Superimposed on this longer-term allogenic forcing caused by sea-level changes are shorter-term autogenic events, such as avulsion, which can be recognized from three-dimensional representations of sand body geometries. The ten sandy units identified are less than the 24 relative sea-level reversals documented in Gulf of Mexico offshore marine sequences for the Upper Miocene through the Pleistocene. However, some of these reversals were of short duration and limited magnitude and were not captured as major sequences in the lithology-depth curves generated in this study. In addition, major erosional events in the study area may have removed portions of the geologic record. Sequence stratigraphic characterization provides a process-oriented basis for understanding the origin of the details of the architecture and the hydrologic behavior of these units and is an effective tool for analyzing this highly complex aquifer system.

  9. A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.


    Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.

  10. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming


    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  11. Environmental-stratigraphic cross sections of the Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Richland and Roosevelt Counties, Montana

    Flores, R.M.; Lepp, C.L.


    This study was conducted to determine the stratigraphic, lithofacies, and deopsitional relationships of the Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation and The Paleocene Fort Union Formation. These relationships, shown in sections A-A', B-B', C-C', and D-D', we established form nearly continuous exposures in the Missouri River valley in Richland and Roosevelt Counties, Mont. The river valley topography is characterized by badlands, which permitted detailed description and construction of the stratigraphic framework of the formations within a 30-mi-long belt of exposures paralleling the Missouri River. This area of study is on the western flank of the Williston Basin and east of the Poplar Dome. The latter structure imparted a northeasterly regional dip to the rocks, which averages 25 ft per mi and is as much as 100 ft per mi according to Spencer (1980). The regional dip resulted in exposure of older rocks (Cretaceous) in the west to younger rocks (Tertiary) in the east. 

  12. Sedimentological interpretation and stratigraphical position of glacigenic deposits in the Napęków area (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Ludwikowska-Kędzia Małgorzata


    Full Text Available The identification of depositional conditions and stratigraphical position of glacigenic deposits in the Napęków area is important for the genetic and stratigraphical interpretation of Quaternary deposits in the central part of the Holy Cross Mountains, as well as for a revision of the course and extent of Middle Polish (Saalian glaciations. These deposits comprise a series of diamictons which occur between sandy-gravelly deposits. Based on results of macro- and microscopic sedimentological investigations, analysis of heavy mineral composition, roundness and frosting of quartz grains, as well as OSL dating, this complex must have formed during the Odranian Glaciation (Drenthe, Saalian, MIS 6. Sandy-gravelly deposits are of fluvioglacial and melt-out origin. Diamictons represent subglacial traction till. Their facies diversity is a result of variations in time and space, complex processes of deposition and deformation, responsible for their formation at the base of the active ice sheet. This glacigenic depositional complex was transformed by erosion-denudation and aeolian processes in a periglacial environment during the Vistulian (Weichselian, MIS 5d-2.

  13. Recognition of Milankovitch cycles in the stratigraphic record:application of the CWT and the FFT to well-log data

    YU Ji-feng; SUI Feng-gui; LI Zeng-xue; LIU Hua; WANG Yu-lin


    The authors applied a the combination of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFF)methods to gamma ray well-log data from the Q3, G1 and D2 wells. This high-resolution stratigraphic study was based on Milankovitch's orbital cycle theory. It was found that the CWT scale factors, 'a,' of 12, 24 and 60 match the ratios of the periodicities of precession, obliquity and eccentricity very well. Nine intervals of the Permo-carboniferous strata were recognized to have Milankovitch cycles in them. For example, section A of well Q3 has 29 precession cycles, 15 obliquity cycles and 7 short eccentricity cycles. The wavelengths are 2.7, 4.4 and 7.8 m for precession, obliquity and eccentricity, respectively. Important geological parameters such as the stratigraphic completeness and the accumulation rate were also estimated. These results provide basic information for further cyclostratigraphic correlation studies in the area. They are of great significance for the study of ancient and future climate change.

  14. New Geological and Geophysical Data for the Geometric and Stratigraphic Characterization of the Alhandra Sub-basin (Southeast of Paraíba

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves


    Full Text Available Some recent geological and geophysical reconnaissance studies carried out in the Alhandra Sub-basin (southern segmentof the Paraíba Basin have revealed very interesting structural and stratigraphic behaviors that have not yet been described.Four different structural compartments with NNE-SSW trends were identifi ed, each characterized by a particularstratigraphic pile, as a result of vertical tectonic displacements, probably post-Pliocene in age: the Alto Rio MumbabaHigh (with widespread basement outcrops, the Rio Mamuaba Graben (the well-exposed Beberibe Formation with thicknessesfrom 100 m up to 300 m, the Rio Gramame High (a horst zone, with some basement outcrops, underlying the BeberibeFormation and the Alhandra-Guruji- Conde-Caaporã monoclinal zone, east of the BR-101, limited to the west bya fault line. The stratigraphic sequence of the Paraiba basin represented by the Paraíba Group is complete only along theeastern monoclinal zone, where the Barreiras Group is also preserved. Along the Rio Mamuaba graben, occurrences of theBarreiras Group were not found as would be expected, and this seems to be an indication that more than one phase of verticalmovement occurred, the second of which had probably removed the Barreiras Group. All these observations are preliminaryand demand further geological and geophysical studies, especially at scales greater than 1/50.000.

  15. Sediment accumulation, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in lagoonal sediments: a comparison of 210Pb and 14C/amino acid racemization chronologies

    Kosnik, Matthew A.; Hua, Quan; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Zawadzki, Atun


    Carbon-14 calibrated amino acid racemization (14C/AAR) data and lead-210 (210Pb) data are used to examine sediment accumulation rates, stratigraphic order, and the extent of time-averaging in sediments collected from the One Tree Reef lagoon (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The top meter of lagoonal sediment preserves a stratigraphically ordered deposit spanning the last 600 yrs. Despite different assumptions, the 210Pb and 14C/AAR chronologies are remarkably similar indicating consistency in sedimentary processes across sediment grain sizes spanning more than three orders of magnitude (0.1-10 mm). Estimates of long-term sediment accumulation rates range from 2.2 to 1.2 mm yr-1. Molluscan time-averaging in the taphonomically active zone is 19 yrs, whereas below the depth of final burial (~15 cm), it is ~110 yrs/5 cm layer. While not a high-resolution paleontological record, this reef lagoon sediment is suitable for paleoecological studies spanning the period of Western colonization and development. This sedimentary deposit, and others like it, should be useful, albeit not ideal, for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on coral reef systems.

  16. Sedimentological interpretation and stratigraphical position of glacigenic deposits in the Napęków area (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    Ludwikowska-Kędzia, Małgorzata; Pawelec, Halina; Adamiec, Grzegorz


    The identification of depositional conditions and stratigraphical position of glacigenic deposits in the Napęków area is important for the genetic and stratigraphical interpretation of Quaternary deposits in the central part of the Holy Cross Mountains, as well as for a revision of the course and extent of Middle Polish (Saalian) glaciations. These deposits comprise a series of diamictons which occur between sandy-gravelly deposits. Based on results of macro- and microscopic sedimentological investigations, analysis of heavy mineral composition, roundness and frosting of quartz grains, as well as OSL dating, this complex must have formed during the Odranian Glaciation (Drenthe, Saalian, MIS 6). Sandy-gravelly deposits are of fluvioglacial and melt-out origin. Diamictons represent subglacial traction till. Their facies diversity is a result of variations in time and space, complex processes of deposition and deformation, responsible for their formation at the base of the active ice sheet. This glacigenic depositional complex was transformed by erosion-denudation and aeolian processes in a periglacial environment during the Vistulian (Weichselian, MIS 5d-2).

  17. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Mowaffaq Hajja


    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.


    Egorova Tatiana K.


    Full Text Available In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.

  19. Macroeconomic aspects of financial liberalization

    Mirdala Rajmund


    Full Text Available The positive and the negative macroeconomic aspects of the financial liberalization for the developing and emerging economies are well described in the present literature. But it is not easy to clearly summarize the final effects of the financial integration on the certain country. For instance the argument about the growth benefits of the capital account liberalization is likely to be inadequate considering the financial crises in the emerging markets at the end of the last century. On the other hand, many authors (especially in the financial literature report that the equity market liberalizations help to significantly boost the economic growth. There are also some examples on the microeconomic level (firm level or industry level when the international financial integration brings certain benefits to the integrated enterprises and the capital flows restriction leads to the distortionary effects. In the paper we analyze the macroeconomic effects of the capital flows liberalization.

  20. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.


    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  1. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E


    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  2. Comparative Aspects of Canine Melanoma

    Adriana Tomoko Nishiya


    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms originating from melanocytes. They occur in most animal species, but the dog is considered the best animal model for the disease. Melanomas in dogs are most frequently found in the buccal cavity, but the skin, eyes, and digits are other common locations for these neoplasms. The aim of this review is to report etiological, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of melanomas in dogs. Furthermore, the particular biological behaviors of these tumors in the different body locations are shown. Insights into the therapeutic approaches are described. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and the outcomes after these treatments are presented. New therapeutic perspectives are also depicted. All efforts are geared toward better characterization and control of malignant melanomas in dogs, for the benefit of these companion animals, and also in an attempt to benefit the treatment of human melanomas.

  3. Osteoporosis, Global and Iranian Aspects

    B Larijani


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enlarged bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The mortality rate in elderly persons with hip fracture approaches 20%. Half of them will be disabled in the remained life. Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS developed by Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (EMRC-TUMS and Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2000. The aim of this study with more than 6000 participitants, was to determine normal range of BMD in Iranian population and assessing the current calcium and vitamin D status in Iran. The results were used for determining the normrmogram of BMD in Iranians and prevalence of Vit-D deficinecy among them. This document outlines all aspects of osteoporosis including risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

  4. Psychological aspects of cancer patients

    Graça Cardoso


    Full Text Available Cancer is accompanied by important psychological distress experienced by both patient and family. From the moment of the diagnosis on, the patient has to develop a great number of mechanisms and tasks of adjustment to the illness and its circumstances. The high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders during the course of cancer increases in the end stage disea‐ se. Therefore, a global plan of intervention integrating somatic and psychological/ psychiatric care throughout all the phases of the illness is crucial in the treatment of these patients. Health professionals working on this field can also experience emotional reactions to their patients’ suffering. They should be aware of the emotional aspects involved and develop training to help them intervene adequately with the patient and the family. The articulation between oncologists, palliative care professionals, and mental health care teams can be of great help in providing good quality of care to cancer patients.

  5. Theoretical aspects of Chiral Dynamics

    Leutwyler, H


    Many of the quantities of interest at the precision frontier in particle physics require a good understanding of the strong interaction at low energies. The present talk reviews the theoretical framework used in this context. In particular, I draw attention to the fact that applications of effective field theory methods in the low energy domain involve two different aspects: dependence of the quantities of interest on the quark masses and dependence on the momenta. While the lattice approach gives an excellent handle on the low energy constants that govern the quark mass dependence, the most efficient tool to pin down the momentum dependence is dispersion theory. At the same time, the dispersive analysis enlarges the energy range where the effective theory applies. In the meson sector, the interplay of the various sources of information has led to a coherent framework that describes the low energy structure at remarkably high resolution. The understanding of the low energy properties in the baryon sector is l...

  6. Genetic Aspects of Nephrotic Syndrome

    Joshi, Shivani

    SSNS. In Study IV we performed a literature study on published disease causing variants in SRNS and based upon available evidence we developed a practical diagnostic algorithm for genetic evaluation of patients with SRNS. Several gene variants are involved in the pathogenesis of SRNS and genetic...... steroid dependence or become frequent relapsers. Repeated courses of corticosteroid treatment often cause significant associated morbidity. Familial occurrence of SSNS is rare and suggests a potential genetic origin. However, very little data on molecular genetics of familial SSNS is available...... in literature and no causal genes have yet been identified. Genetic aspects of NS bear important implications in therapeutic decisions and genetic counselling in SRNS patients and family members. During the present Ph.D. project we have studied the influence of genetic factors in patients with SRNS and familial...

  7. The normative aspect of learning

    Wiberg, Merete


    The paper addresses how normative aspects of learning, in terms of individual understanding, motivation and valuation, are part of the learning process itself. In order to understand motivation as more than just inner psychological processes it is helpful to conceptualize how motives of learning...... are constituted from the perspective of the individual struggling to come to terms with what it considers valuable to learn. In this paper, learning is understood as the interplay between individual and world, while the individual – according to Hegel –stands midway between particularity and universality....... Learning is, inspired by the philosophy of John Dewey and G.W. Hegel, seen as an inquiring process consisting of continuous evaluation of the individual’s own understanding. The idea, when focusing on normativity, individuality and learning, is not to prescribe how learning must be facilitated...

  8. Cosmological Aspects of Spontaneous Baryogenesis

    De Simone, Andrea


    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scal...

  9. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark


    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  10. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Andrea Brazdova


    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  11. Aspect in Greek Future Forms

    Lucas, Sandra


    Medieval Greek had three future periphrases making use of a finite verb and an infinitive: μέλλω + INF, ἔχω + INF, θέλω + INF. Given the parallel nature of the periphrases as well as the fact that the infinitive existed in both a perfective and an imperfective version, it might be expected...... of the Modern Greek verbal system: μέλλω + INF has a much higher ratio of imperfective infinitives than the two other periphrases especially in AD I, ἔχω + INF starts out using only the perfective infinitive when referring to the future, and θέλω + INF distinguishes for aspect before it gains future meaning...

  12. Aspects Regarding the Leasing Cost

    Teodor HADA


    Full Text Available The paper aims to present legal aspects regarding leasing in Romania, and to take a look at the characteristics of the operational and financial leasing. The costs of the financial and operational leasing are also analyzed, as is the case study that approaches the cost of a bank loan. By using three examples of a real company, we wish to identify the components for each type of leasing and for the bank loan. The actuarial cost of leasing is determined with the help of an Excel method, which was adapted for this type of equation. By the end af the article, we wish to prove that leasing is beneficial for economic agents.

  13. ElevationOther_ASPECT10M

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Used ElevationDEM_DEM10M and the Arc/Info ASPECT command to create this data layer representing compass direction of the aspect (rounded to whole numbers). Input...


    Stroe Andreea


    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  15. Late Paleozoic Sequence-Stratigraphic Frameworks and Sea Level Changes in Dianqiangui Basin and Its Adjacent Areas with Systematic Revision of Regional Unconformities

    Mei Mingxiang; Ma Yongsheng; Deng Jun; Meng Qingfen; Yi Dinghong; Li Donghai


    The formation process of the Dianqiangui basin, a special basin, occurred after the Caledonian orogeny, in the south of Guizhou, the west of Guangxi and the southeast of Yunnan, experienced three periods: it began in the Devonian, persisted in the Carboniferous, and became fiercer in the Permian. Controlled by syndepositional fault-zones, varieties of isolated carbonate platforms, large and small, were developed in the background of a deep-water basin, namely, an inter-platform ditch. And a special paleogeographical Late Paleozoic pattern marked by "platform-basin-hill-trough" was produced in both the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas. Affected by regional tectonic activities and the global changes in the sea level, the platform carbonates and coal measures superimposed each other cyclically on the attached platform. The reef-building on the isolated platform and the margin of the attached platform corresponds to the development of the shale succession in the deep-water basin. All of these elementary characteristics reflect a regular and sophisticated filling succession of the Dianqiangui basin, a result of the dual controls of the regionally tectonic activities and the eustacy. Based on the two elementary features of the third-order sequences, i.e. the regularity of sedimentary-facies succession in space and the simultaneity of environmental changes in time, 25 third-order sequences could be discerned in the Upper Paleozoic strata in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas. On the basis of the two kinds of facies-changing surfaces and the two kinds of diachronisms in stratigraphic records, the regional Late Paleozoic sequence-stratigraphic framework in the Dianqiangui basin and its adjacent areas can be established. There are two types of facies-changing surfaces and two types of diachronisms in stratigraphic records: the static type, a result of the change in sedimentary facies in space, and the dynamic type, a result of the change in time. These two

  16. Self-Consciousness and Aspects of Identity.

    Cheek, Jonathan M.; Briggs, Stephen R.


    Investigated the relationship between public and private self-consciousness and social and personal aspects of identity. Public self-consciousness correlated more strongly with social than with personal aspects of identity, and private self-consciousness correlated more strongly with personal than with social aspects. Discusses implications for…

  17. Molar-tooth Carbonate Sequences and Sr Isotopes in the Neoproterozoic for Stratigraphic Correlation:Research in the Jilin-Liaoning-Xuzhou-Huaiyang Area of the Sino-Korean Plate and Its Correlation with the Yangtze Plate

    MENG Xianghua; GE Ming; LIU Yanxue; KUANG Hongwei; LIU Weifu; Francoise G. BOURROUILH-LE JAN; Robert BOURROUILH


    Based on a study of Neoproterozoic carbonates in the Jilin-Liaoning-Xuzhou-Huaiyang area, especially its cyclic sequence stratigraphy and Sr isotopes, two maximum sea flooding events (at 820 Ma and 835 Ma) have been identified. The resulting isochronous stratigraphic correlation proves that these Precambrian strata were connected between the Qingbaikou and the Nanhuan systems with a time range from 750 Ma to 850 Ma. The disappearance of microsparite carbonate and coming of a glacial stage offer important evidence for worldwide stratigraphic correlation and open a window for further correlation of the stratigraphic successions across the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates. A new correlation scheme is therefore provided based on our work.

  18. Aspects of the Tutte polynomial

    Ok, Seongmin

    This thesis studies various aspects of the Tutte polynomial, especially focusing on the Merino-Welsh conjecture. We write T(G;x,y) for the Tutte polynomial of a graph G with variables x and y. In 1999, Merino and Welsh conjectured that if G is a loopless 2-connected graph, then T(G;1,1) ≤ max{T(G;2......-Welsh conjecture. Assume the graph G is loopless, bridgeless and has n vertices and m edges. If m ≤ 1.066 n then T(G;1,1) ≤ T(G;2,0). If m ≥ 4(n-1) then T(G;1,1) ≤ T(G;0,2). I improve in this thesis Thomassen's result as follows: If m ≤ 1.29(n-1) then T(G;1,1) ≤ T(G;2,0). If m ≥ 3.58(n-1) and G is 3-edge...


    Aleksandra Sudarić


    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  20. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W


    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  1. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)


    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  2. Some Aspects of PDC Electrolysis

    Poláčik, Ján; Pospíšil, Jiří


    In this paper, aspects of pulsed direct current (PDC) water splitting are described. Electrolysis is a simple and well-known method to produce hydrogen. The efficiency is relatively low in normal conditions using conventional DC. PDC in electrolysis brings about many advantages. It increases efficiency of hydrogen production, and performance of the electrolyser may be smoothly controlled without compromising efficiency of the process. In our approach, ultra-short pulses are applied. This method enhances efficiency of electrical energy in the process of decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Efficiency depends on frequency, shape and width of the electrical pulses. Experiments proved that efficiency was increased by 2 to 8 per cent. One of the prospects of PDC electrolysis producing hydrogen is in increase of efficiency of energy storage efficiency in the hydrogen. There are strong efforts to make the electrical grid more efficient and balanced in terms of production by installing electricity storage units. Using hydrogen as a fuel decreases air pollution and amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the air. In addition to energy storage, hydrogen is also important in transportation and chemical industry.


    Artemy Varshapetian


    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  4. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej


    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  5. Aspects of Malpractice in Prosthodontics.

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria


    Crowns, fixed partial dentures, and removable dentures are the popular prosthetic dental restorations in current dental practice. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of the mouth, particularly in advanced and complex cases, requires careful planning, adequate clinical skills, and exacting technical standards. While a successful outcome is the ultimate goal for any prosthodontic treatment, complications, injuries, dissatisfaction, and/or failure may occur. When such events develop as a result of negligence or violation of standards of care, they are considered under the term of malpractice and may incur ethical and medico-legal implications. This paper reviews and highlights some aspects of malpractice in prosthodontics. The current state of prosthodontic malpractice on a global level will also be evaluated. Standards of prosthodontic care, current literature of prosthodontic malpractice, where and how prosthodontic malpractice occurs, and recommendations for the future are presented. A thorough understanding of what is quality prosthodontic care and what disrupts this care can be a useful guard against professional litigation and may protect patients from poor quality of dental prosthetic care. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    Damjanovich, Sandor


    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...


    Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F


    Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).

  8. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A


    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  9. Ethical aspects in public relations

    Voza Danijela


    Full Text Available The basic aim of this paper is to explore public relations practitioners' different perceptions of professional ethics depending on gender, age, educational level and years of experience. Analysis of professional ethics in Serbian public relations, has gained the ability to introduce all relevant aspects that should act in order to reach the positive developments and improve the existing situation in the field of ethics in public relations. The conclusion may be derived from this research is that business ethics in public relations in Serbia is at a high level. However, we must accept these results with caution, because very critical and sensitive issues of ethics lead to the interviewees to give fulsome answers that prove and practical examples. In order to obtain relevant results in future studies need to be, above all, changed the manner of conducting the survey. So, you need a personal approach with full respect for the respondents of anonymity. Business ethics in Serbia deserves much more attention and through education and research, as well as direct examples of business practice. .

  10. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations

    M. S. V. K. Raju


    Full Text Available Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier′s mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives

  11. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Mahdi Shakeran


    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  12. [Neuropsychological aspects of nicotine craving].

    Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Sanjuan, Rocío; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Vila, Jaime; Montoya, Pedro


    Craving has been defined as the motivation to self-administer a substance previously consumed. It has been hypothesized that craving contributes significantly to compulsive drug use and relapse after a period of abstinence in humans. Neuropsychological and brain-imaging studies have identified numerous brain regions that may be involved in craving. In this paper, the neuropsychological mechanisms of craving for nicotine are reviewed, focusing on three systems that appear to be involved in craving states. First of all, the reward system, responsible for the development of dependence and craving. Secondly, the emotional and associative system, which is related to conditioned craving. And third, the system involved in the neural basis of cognitive and decision making processes. The most influential theoretical models on craving are also reviewed, including those based on conditioning mechanisms, on cognitive mechanisms and on cognitive-behavioral mechanisms, as well as the neurobiological model. Factors related to the evaluation and treatment of craving are also discussed, with particular emphasis on clinical aspects. Finally, we stress the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for achieving a common model on craving and improving the diagnostic tools and treatment strategies.

  13. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi


    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  14. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution.

    Lundberg, A


    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  15. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar


    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  16. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S


    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  17. Computational aspects of premixing modelling

    Fletcher, D.F. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Witt, P.J.


    In the steam explosion research field there is currently considerable effort being devoted to the modelling of premixing. Practically all models are based on the multiphase flow equations which treat the mixture as an interpenetrating continuum. Solution of these equations is non-trivial and a wide range of solution procedures are in use. This paper addresses some numerical aspects of this problem. In particular, we examine the effect of the differencing scheme for the convective terms and show that use of hybrid differencing can cause qualitatively wrong solutions in some situations. Calculations are performed for the Oxford tests, the BNL tests, a MAGICO test and to investigate various sensitivities of the solution. In addition, we show that use of a staggered grid can result in a significant error which leads to poor predictions of `melt` front motion. A correction is given which leads to excellent convergence to the analytic solution. Finally, we discuss the issues facing premixing model developers and highlight the fact that model validation is hampered more by the complexity of the process than by numerical issues. (author)

  18. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    Ho, P.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group


    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S{sub 1}{sup 2} and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S{sub q}{sup 2} and CP{sub q}(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP{sub q}(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  19. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    Marcel ePrax


    Full Text Available Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopologue profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds.

  20. 31+/-17 ka 40Ar/39Ar Plateau Age on the Very Low-Potassium Hat Creek Basalt Fits Stratigraphic and Geochronologic Constraints of Contiguous Units

    Clynne, M. A.; Turrin, B. D.; Champion, D. E.; Muffler, L. P.


    The Hat Creek Basalt is a late Pleistocene low-K olivine tholeiite that floors much of the Hat Creek Valley, north of the Lassen volcanic highland in NE California. The flow erupted from a fissure trending N 10° W located 0.5 to 4.0 km SSE of Old Station and flowed north nearly 30 km, mainly through lava tubes. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the Hat Creek Basalt is a single eruptive unit with an inclination of 64.3° and a declination of 1.0° . The Hat Creek Basalt is overlain by gravel related to the last major glaciation, which ended about 15 to 17 ky ago. The Hat Creek Basalt overlies numerous andesite and basaltic andesite lava flows that are closely related geographically, stratigraphically, petrographically and geochemically and probably represent the same eruptive episode (although not necessarily the same year or century). Three of these flows have been dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method and yield concordant plateau, integrated (total fusion), and isochron ages: Little Potato Butte (1.42% K2O; 67+/-4 ka), Sugarloaf (1.85% K2O; 55+/-7 ka), and Big Potato Butte (1.62% K2O; 73+/-14 ka). The Hat Creek Basalt also overlies the basaltic andesite of Cinder Butte (1.65% K2O) with a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 38+/-7 ka. Given that the age of the Hat Creek Basalt is thus firmly bracketed between ˜15 ka and 38+/-7 ka, we attempted to date this low-potassium tholeiitic basalt directly. One sample produced 40Ar/39Ar data that cannot be interpreted, but a second sample (0.17% K2O) yielded concordant plateau, integrated (total fusion), and isochron ages of 31+/-17 ka, 30+/-20 ka, and 24+/-6 ka; within the time bracket determined by stratigraphic relations. These data indicate that samples of latest Pleistocene tholeiitic basalt with very low K2O can give useful 40Ar/39Ar ages. As with all isotopically determined ages, the confidence of the results are significantly enhanced when additional constraints imposed by other isotopic ages within a stratigraphic context are taken

  1. Stratigraphic cross sections of the Niobrara interval of the Cody Shale and associated rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming

    Finn, Thomas M.


    The Wind River Basin in Wyoming is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny. The basin is nearly 200 miles long, 70 miles wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek uplift, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west.Many important conventional oil and gas fields producing from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary have been discovered in this basin. In addition, an extensive unconventional overpressured basin-centered gas accumulation has been identified in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the deeper parts of the basin. It has long been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales, including the Cody Shale, are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation, there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks.The two stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources of the Niobrara interval of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic relationship of the Niobrara equivalent strata and associated rocks in the lower part of the Cody Shale in the Wind River Basin. These two cross sections were constructed using borehole geophysical logs from 37 wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production, and one surface section along East Sheep Creek

  2. Using the stratigraphic record to document tectonic-geomorphologic interactions in a foreland basin setting: outcrop study of the Ainsa Basin, Spain

    Pyles, D. R.; Moody, J.; Gordon, G.; Hoffman, M.; Moss-Russell, A.; Silalahi, H.; Setiawan, P.; Clark, J.; Bracken, B.; Guzofski, C.


    Eocene strata of the Ainsa Basin (Spain) contain clastic and carbonate strata deposited in a relatively small (100 km^2), structurally active piggyback foreland basin. The basin is bounded by the Mediano Anticline to the east and the Boltana Anticline to the west. Clastic strata were sourced by an eastern fluvial-deltaic system whereas carbonate strata were sourced from shallow-water carbonate systems that rimmed the southern and western margins of the basin. Four time-stratigraphic units, which form an upward transect through the basin-fill succession, were studied in detail: Ainsa, Morillo, Guaso, Sobrarbe-Escanilla. The study uses the stratigraphic record to document linkages between progressive uplift of the basin-bounding structures, spatial-temporal changes in the amount and location of subsidence, and temporal changes in the landscape. The Ainsa unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and exited the basin to the northwest, although some channels locally transfer to lobes near the northwest end of the basin. The Morillo unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east, dispersed onto the basin floor, then converged at the western end of the basin where they continued onto the longitudinally adjacent Jaca Basin. The Guaso unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and transfer to a ponded distributive submarine fan at the center of the basin. The Escanilla-Sobrarbe unit contains a linked shelf-to-basin system that prograded from south to north and records the final filling of the basin. Four lines of evidence collectively support the basin-fill succession was deposited during structural growth. First, the depocenter, which is interpreted to reflect the position of maximum subsidence during deposition, of the systems systematically shifted westward as the basin filled. Second, the axial part of the clastic sediment systematically shifted southward as the basin filled. Third, the

  3. Offshore and onshore stratigraphic constraints to rebuild the evolution of the two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia) over the last 30 Myr

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Blanpied, Christian; Taillepierre, Rachel; Haq, Bilal


    Principles of seismic and sequential stratigraphy [Vail et al., 1977] are applied onto an extensive set of seismic reflection and drilling data in the Provençal Basin to correlate post-rift Miocene and Plio-Quaternary chronostratigraphic markers at the basin-wide scale. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies [Cravatte et al., 1974] for some of the boreholes provide additional information on the depositional environments and the chronostratigraphy of the drilled series. Synthesis of previous onshore studies on the both conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia), and new fieldwork [Rueda, 2014] enable us to establish the stratigraphical link between onshore and offshore syn-rift and post-rift sequences. Miocene peri-Alpine foreland basin is particularly connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water siliciclastic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional onshore sequences are identified [Besson et al., 2005, Rubino et al., 2015] and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. The recognition of these sequences on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian with a good well calibration is fully consistent and integrated in a chronostratigraphic history of the Provençal Basin over the last 30 Myr. We quantify, model and discuss the evolution of vertical movements and sediment budgets since the rifting. This study also allows us to construct a complete sea-level change curve for the western Mediterranean Neogene. Besson, D. (2005). Architecture du bassin rhodano-provençal miocène (Alpes, SE France). Relations entre déformation, physiographie et sédimentation dans un bassin molassique d'avant-pays (Doctoral dissertation, Paris, ENMP). Rueda, T. (2014). Analyse sédimentologique et stratigraphique du remplissage Oligo-Aquitanien du fossé du Campidano - Comparaison avec le remplissage

  4. Review of palaeozygopleurid gastropods (Palaeozygopleuridae, Gastropoda) from Devonian strata of the Perunica microplate (Bohemia), with a re-evaluation of their stratigraphic distribution, notes on their ontogeny, and descriptions of new taxa.

    Frýda, Jiři; Ferrová, Lenka; Frýdová, Barbora


    Review of all species of the family Palaeozygopleuridae Horný, 1955 (Gastropoda) known from the Perunica microplate (Bohemia) is presented with a description of three new species, Palaeozygopleura lukesi sp. nov., Cimrmaniela sveraki gen. et sp. nov. and Cimrmaniela smoljaki gen. et sp. nov. The stratigraphic distributions of the most of Bohemian palaeozygopleurid species are either corrected or refined, based on new records or modern stratigraphic studies. A complete list of the geographic occurrences of all known palaeozygopleurid gastropods from the Perunica microplate is also given together with notes on their ontogeny.

  5. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer


    Perticas Diana Claudia


    Full Text Available Ecofeminism can be understood as the relationship between the manner in which women are treated in society and on how the environment is treated and protected. Ecofeminism starts from the idea according to which "nature is a feminist issue". The explanation for this is based on the feminist philosophy according to which the connection between woman and nature is a strong one, due to the fact that she is the one who gives birth, thus helping nature to regenerate itself. Without women, female plants and animals, the planet could not develop, perpetuate and the end would be death. Furthermore, another explanation related to the first is that animals and people in their capacity as mothers are able to provide a greater amount of love, care, protection, both to their offspring and to nature. This paper aims to analyze the manner in which women are harmed by the environmental degradation in Romania and also the principles that have governed and still govern the current economy. Nowadays society is lead largely by male gender persons. The main accusations against current policies is that they seek concrete and immediate results, such as those related to economic growth, inflation rate etc. in terms of strictly economic indicators such as: gross domestic product, net national product, gross national product etc.. On the contrary, ecofeminist policies suggest that the emphasis should be placed on quality of life issues, which within itself analyzes both economic and also social and environmental aspects. Is not this the reproach for decades now that is brought to current economic policies? The fact that they do not take into account issues related to environmental degradation, in time led to negative consequences in the world whose costs are unimaginable.

  7. Stratigraphic architecture of the Neoproterozoic glacial rocks in the "Xiang-Qian-Gui" region of the central Yangtze Block, South China

    ZHANG Qirui; CHU Xuelei; Heinrich BAHLBURG; FENG Lianjun; Nicole DOBRZINSKI; ZHANG Tonggang


    The Yangtze Block in South China is one of the important regions where Neoproterozoic glacial rocks are well developed and studied. However, the classification and correlation of the Neoproterozoic glacial sequences in the central Yangtze Block still remain controversial among Chinese geologists. The original Sinian sections around the Yangtze Gorges Region became an official standard for classification and correlation since the 1950s. Subsequent regional geologic studies, however, resulted in different classification and correlation, because of its incompleteness. We select one of the complete sections in the bordering areas of Xiang (Hunan), Qian (Guizhou) and Gui (Guangxi), as a standard of classification and correlation. The temporal and spatial distribution, i.e. the stratigraphic architecture, of the glacial rocks in the central Yangtze Block is suggested. Our results indicate that the glacial sequence on the Yangtze Block was deposited during the Nantuo Ice-age, the Datangpo Interglacial-age and Jiangkou Ice-age, in descending order.

  8. Pseudoclypeina? crnogorica Radoičić, 1972: Stratigraphic revision and taxonomic note on a little known dasycladalean alga from Montenegro

    Radoičić Rajka


    Full Text Available Pseudoclypeina? crnogorica was first described in 1972 from the Lower, Cretaceous limestone of the Njegoš Mt. area, Montenegro, Dinaric Carbonate Platform. It differs from other species of the genus Pseudoclypeina by its calcification pattern, the shape and relative length of the first and second order laterals, and by the presence in the type-material (a thin section containing the holotype of sections standing for the sterile portion of the thallus. This is why in this paper, the generic name is left in open nomenclature. On this occasion the species, whose presence is also reported from southern Iran, is re-described and better illustrated, based on material originating from other outcrops in Montenegro. The stratigraphic position is reviewed as well. Pseudoclypeina? crnogorica occurs in shallow water inner platform facies of early Neocomian age, along with Selliporella neocomiensis.

  9. Development of a shelf margin delta due to uplift of Munkagrunnur Ridge at the margin of Faroe-Shetland Basin: a seismic sequence stratigraphic study

    Òlavsdóttir, Jana; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Andersen, Moretn S


    During the last decade several 3D digital reflection seismic datasets have been acquired in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin which allow detailed seismic interpretation and mapping of parts of the area. This study presents mapping and seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation...... of parts of a c. 450 m thick, mid-Eocene delta extending over some 3500 km(2) in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. The delta built out into the basin from the Munkagrunnur Ridge and has been divided into nine seismic units. Isochore maps of these seismic units reveal a NW-SE depositional maximum trend, parallel...... curve indicates that the Faroe-Shetland Basin was characterized by almost continuous relative sea level rise in the mid Eocene. Multiple stages of uplift of the Munkagrunnur Ridge during the mid-Eocene are considered to be the most likely explanation for the multiple cycles of sea level change inferred...

  10. The stratigraphic sequence of Scafati (Italy) - An archive of 10,000 years of volcanism, soil formation and land use in the shade of Mount Vesuvius

    Maerker, Michael; Vogel, Sebastian; Hoelzmann, Phillip; Rellini, Ivano


    In this study we carried out a detailed lithostratigraphic, pedological and micromorphological analysis at a stratigraphic sequence close to Scafati, about 3 km east of ancient Pompeii. It consists of a multilayered succession of repeated volcanic deposition and pedogenesis caused by several phases of volcanic activity of Somma-Vesuvius and volcanic quiescence. This comprises, at least, the last 10,000 years of sedimentation history, on one hand, reflecting the entire spectrum of eruption types of Somma-Vesuvius from Plinian, sub-Plinian, rather small eruptions to effusive volcanic events and, on the other hand, soil formations of different durations, intensities and soil-forming environments. Furthermore, the paleosols repeatedly reveal clear evidence of anthropogenic activity by means of agriculture. Hence, a landscape evolution model was developed trying to reconstruct the last 10,000 years of volcanic activity, soil formation and land use in the hinterland of Pompeii.

  11. Use of OSL dating to establish the stratigraphic framework of Quaternary eolian sediments, Anton scarp upper trench, Northeastern Colorado High Plains, USA

    Mahan, S.A.; Noe, D.C.; McCalpin, J.P.


    This paper contains the results of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating used to establish stratigraphic ages and relationships of eolian sediments in a trench in northeastern Colorado, USA. This trench was located in the upper face of the Anton scarp, a major topographic lineament trending NW-SE for a distance of 135 km, in anticipation of intersecting near-surface faulting. The trench was 180 m long, 4.5-6.0 m deep, and exposed 22 m of stratigraphic section, most of which dipped gently west and was truncated by gulley channeling at the face of the scarp. No direct evidence of faulting was found in the upper trench. The stratigraphy from the trench was described, mapped and dated using OSL on quartz and potassium feldspar, and 14C obtained from woody material. OSL dating identified two upper loess units as Peoria Loess and Gilman Canyon Loess, deposited between 16 and 30 ka ago. The bottom layers of the trench were substantially older, giving OSL ages in excess of 100 ka. These older ages are interpreted as underestimates, owing to saturation of the fast component of OSL. Using OSL and 14C dating, we can constrain the erosion and down cutting of the scarp face as occurring between 16 and 5.7 ka. As the trenching investigation continues in other parts of the scarp face, the results of this preliminary study will be of importance in relating the ages of the strata that underlie different parts of the scarp, and in determining whether Quaternary faulting was a mechanism that contributed to the formation of this regional geomorphic feature.

  12. On the importance of stratigraphic control for vertebrate fossil sites in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA: Examples from new Mammuthus finds on San Miguel Island

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Muhs, Daniel R.; McGeehin, John P.


    Quaternary vertebrate fossils, most notably mammoth remains, are relatively common on the northern Channel Islands of California. Well-preserved cranial, dental, and appendicular elements of Mammuthus exilis (pygmy mammoth) and Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) have been recovered from hundreds of localities on the islands during the past half-century or more. Despite this paleontological wealth, the geologic context of the fossils is described in the published literature only briefly or not at all, which has hampered the interpretation of associated 14C ages and reconstruction of past environmental conditions. We recently discovered a partial tusk, several large bones, and a tooth enamel plate (all likely mammoth) at two sites on the northwest flank of San Miguel Island, California. At both localities, we documented the stratigraphic context of the fossils, described the host sediments in detail, and collected charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells for radiocarbon dating. The resulting 14C ages indicate that the mammoths were present on San Miguel Island between ∼20 and 17 ka as well as between ∼14 and 13 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), similar to other mammoth sites on San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. In addition to documenting the geologic context and ages of the fossils, we present a series of protocols for documenting and reporting geologic and stratigraphic information at fossil sites on the California Channel Islands in general, and in Channel Islands National Park in particular, so that pertinent information is collected prior to excavation of vertebrate materials, thus maximizing their scientific value.

  13. Seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin and their spatial stratigraphic distribution

    Liu, Lei; Zhong, Yijiang; Chen, Hongde; Xu, Changgui; Wu, Kui


    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified from well cores in the Palaeogene deposits of the Liaodong Bay Depression in the Bohai Bay basin, China. These deposits formed as interbedded sand and mud at a delta front or on the slope toe of the prodelta. According to criteria proposed by previous research, we established that these SSDS were induced by earthquakes and that they can be divided into two groups: ductile deformation structures (plastic intrusions, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, boudinage structures, irregular convolute stratifications, and synsedimentary faults and folds) and brittle deformation structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Based on their level of deformation, size, and complexity, the SSDS were divided into three Groups, from weak to strong, to reflect the intensity of palaeo-earthquakes. With consideration of the palaeo-sedimentary environment, we proposed a model to account for the production and preservation of these SSDS. According to the classification adopted in this study and the spatial stratigraphic distribution of the SSDS, the tectonic activities of the Tan-Lu faults in the Bohai Bay basin were investigated. The A and B oilfields (assumed names) are located in the tectonically active zones of the west and east branches of these faults, respectively. The extension tectonic activities in the A oilfield region exhibit a sharply decreasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and increase again in E3d2; whereas the strike-slip tectonic activities in the B oilfield region exhibit an increasing trend from E2s3 to E2s1, and finally, reach a maximum to E3d3. The results of this study show that the method of analysis of the spatial stratigraphic distribution of SSDS is suitable for determining the evolution of tectonic activity and thus, it can provide a new perspective for basin analysis.

  14. Multidisciplinary approach for fault detection: Integration of PS-InSAR, geomorphological, stratigraphic and structural data in the Venafro intermontane basin (Central-Southern Apennines, Italy)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Bellucci Sessa, Eliana; Cesarano, Massimo; Incontri, Pietro; Pappone, Gerardo; Valente, Ettore; Vilardo, Giuseppe


    A multidisciplinary methodology, integrating stratigraphic, geomorphological and structural data, combined with GIS-aided analysis and PS-InSAR interferometric data, was applied to characterize the relationships between ground deformations and the stratigraphic and the morphostructural setting of the Venafro intermontane basin. This basin is a morphostructural depression related to NW-SE and NE-SW oriented high angle normal faults bordering and crossing it. In particular, a well-known active fault crossing the plain is the Aquae Juliae Fault, whose recent activity is evidenced by archeoseismological data. The approach applied here reveals new evidence of possible faulting, acting during the Lower to Upper Pleistocene, which has driven the morphotectonic and the environmental evolution of the basin. In particular, the tectonic setting emerging from this study highlights the influence of the NW-SE oriented extensional phase during the late Lower Pleistocene - early Middle Pleistocene, in the generation of NE-SW trending, SE dipping, high-angle faults and NW-SE trending, high-angle transtensive faults. This phase has been followed by a NE-SW extensional one, responsible for the formation of NW-SE trending, both NW and SE dipping, high-angle normal faults, and the reactivation of the oldest NE-SW oriented structures. These NW-SE trending normal faults include the Aquae Juliae Fault and a new one, unknown until now, crossing the plain between the Venafro village and the Colle Cupone Mt. (hereinafter named the Venafro-Colle Cupone Fault, VCCF). This fault has controlled deposition of the youngest sedimentary units (late Middle Pleistocene to late Upper Pleistocene) suggesting its recent activity and it is well constrained by PS-InSAR data, as testified by the increase of the subsidence rate in the hanging wall block.

  15. The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam

    Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe


    Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

  16. New aspects on atrazine biodegradation

    Luciane Sene


    Full Text Available The world practice of using agrochemicals for long periods, in an indiscriminated and abusive way, has been a concern of the authorities involved in public health and sustainability of the natural resources, as a consequence of environmental contamination. Agrochemicals refer to a broad range of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, and among them stands out atrazine, a herbicide intensively used in sugarcane, corn and sorghum cultures, among others. Researches have demonstrated that atrazine has toxic effects in algae, aquatic plants, aquatic insects, fishes and mammals. Due to the toxicity and persistence of atrazine in the environment, the search of microbial strains capable of degrading it is fundamental to the development of bioremediation processes, as corrective tools to solve the current problems of the irrational use of agrochemicals. This review relates the main microbial aspects and research on atrazine degradation by isolated microbial species and microbial consortia, as well as approaches on the development of techniques for microbial removal of atrazine in natural environments.A prática mundial do uso de agroquímicos por períodos extensos, de maneira indiscriminada e abusiva, tem mobilizado as autoridades envolvidas em saúde pública e sustentabilidade de fontes naturais, como uma conseqüência da contaminação ambiental. Agroquímicos referem-se a uma ampla variedade de inseticidas, fungicidas e herbicidas, entre estes a atrazina, um herbicida intensivamente usado em culturas de cana-de-açúcar, milho, sorgo, entre outros. Pesquisadores têm demonstrado que a atrazina tem efeitos tóxicos em algas, plantas aquáticas, insetos aquáticos, peixes e mamíferos. Devido à toxicidade e à persistência da atrazina no ambiente, a busca de linhagens microbianas capazes de degradá-la é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de processos de biorremediação, com uma ferramenta corretiva para solucionar problemas decorridos do uso

  17. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    Putcha, Lakshmi


    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.


    Cîrstea Ştefan-Dragoş


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to outline the main economical and social benefits that can be obtained by adopting an ethical attitude of the organisations which use a performant environmental management. From the idea that the human being is the master of nature, it was passed to the view according to which the human being must ensure a balance between consumption and the use of resources. In order to achieve our goal we identified the factors that lead to long term or even permanent destructive effects over the environment and we briefly present the reasons for which the organizations adopt and implement environmental management systems. Also, the difficulties encountered in implementing environmental strategies have been briefly enumerated and the competitive and economic advantages that can be achieved by adopting an efficient environmental management and the main reasons that grant to the environmental management a special significance were exposed. This theoretical paper emphasizes the importance of the adoption by organizations of a "green behavior" and reveals correlations between sustainability, economic growth and environmental performance in organizations. The analysis of the ethical aspects of environmental management shows the links that can be created between the development of an ethical culture of organizations and the achievement of the environmental excellence. The research provides an overview of the concept of environmental ethics and encloses it within the scope of environmental management. Someone needs to explain why an increasing number of organizations, both large and small, are setting up environmental management systems, making environmental investments and reducing risks over and beyond legal requirements, even when the benefits are not at all obvious, even in the long run. Also, this paper provides some practical examples of organizations environmental problems and points out how these organizations adapted their

  19. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

    E. N. Shumkova


    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  20. Flying High: The Aeromedical Aspects of Marihuana

    A summary of the discussions from the Civil Aeromedical Institute Symposium on aeromedical aspects of marihuana is presented. The invited panel...discussed the legal aspects of marihuana use and aviation, the experiences of military aviation, and the acute and chronic effects of the drug. For civil...aviation, the panel proposed a 12-16 hour period between marihuana use and work in aviation, no radical changes in FAA policy towards marihuana use, and additional research on aeromedical aspects of marihuana .