Mixed convection flow with non-uniform heat source/sink in a doubly stratified magnetonanofluid
Mehmood, K.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.
2016-06-01
In this study, we explore the unsteady flow of viscous nanofluid driven by an inclined stretching sheet. The novelty of the present study is to account for the effect of a non-uniform heat source/sink in a thermally and solutally stratified magnetonanofluid. Governing system of nonlinear partial differential equations is converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Solution of the transformed system is obtained using RK4 method with shooting technique. It is observed that increase in the values of thermal and mass stratification parameter reduce the velocity profile and increase in the values of variable thermal conductivity parameter and non-uniform heat source/sink parameters enhance the temperature distribution. Moreover, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are discussed. Obtained results are displayed both graphically and in tabular form to illustrate the effect of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Numerical results are compared with previous published results and found to be in good agreement for special cases of the emerging parameters.
Fluttering in Stratified Flows
Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva
2016-11-01
The descent motion of heavy objects under the influence of gravitational and aerodynamic forces is relevant to many branches of engineering and science. Examples range from estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying the settlement of marine larvae and its influence on underwater ecology. The behavior of regularly shaped objects freely falling in homogeneous fluids is relatively well understood. For example, the complex interaction of a rigid coin with the surrounding fluid will cause it to either fall steadily, flutter, tumble, or be chaotic. Less is known about the effect of density stratification on the descent behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in a linearly salt-stratified fluids where the density is varied from 1.0 to 1.14 of that of water where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is 1.7 rad/sec and the Froude number Fr robots for space exploration and underwater missions.
Topographic Effects on Stratified Flows
2003-09-30
Gabersek, S., Gohm, A., Mayr, R., Mobbs, S., Nance, L. B., Vergeiner, I. Vergeiner, J. and Whiteman, C. D. 2003. GAP flow measurements during the...Darby, L. S., Durran, D. R., Gabersek, S., Gohm, A., Mayr, R., Mobbs, S., Nance, L. B., Vergeiner, I. Vergeiner, J. and Whiteman, C. D. 2003. GAP ... flow measurements during the Mesoscale Alpine Programme. Met. and Atm. Phys. (in press, refereed) Eastwood, C. D., Armi, L. and Lasheras, J. C. 2003
Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley
Mahrt, L.
2017-01-01
Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.
Topological Structures in Rotating Stratified Flows
Redondo, J. M.; Carrillo, A.; Perez, E.
2003-04-01
Detailled 2D Particle traking and PIV visualizations performed on a series of large scale laboratory experiments at the Coriolis Platform of the SINTEF in Trondheim have revealed several resonances which scale on the Strouhal, the Rossby and the Richardson numbers. More than 100 experiments spanned a wide range of Rossby Deformation Radii and the topological structures (Parabolic /Eliptic /Hyperbolic) of the quasi-balanced stratified-rotating flows were studied when stirring (akin to coastal mixing) occured at a side of the tank. The strong asymetry favored by the total vorticity produces a wealth of mixing patterns.
贾俊梅; 刘宇陆
2012-01-01
采用大涡模拟的方法,研究了均匀剪切稳定分层流动.主要对不同梯度Richardson数下湍流动量和标量输运特性进行分析研究.结果表明:随着梯度Richardson数的增大,湍流动能减小,湍流势能增大；垂向热通量和雷诺应力减弱,流向热通量增强；并且在强分层情况下,存在动量和热量的逆梯度输运现象.%LES method is applied to study the sheared homogeneous stratified turbulent flows. The turbulent momentum and scalar transport properties of different gradient Richardson numbers are mainly analyzed. The primary conclusions are; with the increase of gradient Richardson number, turbulent kinetic energy decreases, while the turbulent potential energy increases; vertical heat flux and the Reynolds stress decrease,but the streamwise heat flux increases;Turbulent momentum and heat CGT in strong stratification are more obvious than those of the weak stratified turbulence.
Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.
Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken
Turbulent Mixing in Stably Stratified Flows
2008-03-01
Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, volume 46, page 19889898. Elsevier, 1987. R. M. Kerr. Higher-order derivative correlations and the alignment of...19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, volume 46, pages 3-9. Elsevier, 1988. P. Meunier and G. Spedding. Stratified propelled
Stratified Flow Past a Hill: Dividing Streamline Concept Revisited
Leo, Laura S.; Thompson, Michael Y.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J. S.
2016-06-01
The Sheppard formula (Q J R Meteorol Soc 82:528-529, 1956) for the dividing streamline height H_s assumes a uniform velocity U_∞ and a constant buoyancy frequency N for the approach flow towards a mountain of height h, and takes the form H_s/h=( {1-F} ) , where F=U_{∞}/Nh. We extend this solution to a logarithmic approach-velocity profile with constant N. An analytical solution is obtained for H_s/h in terms of Lambert-W functions, which also suggests alternative scaling for H_s/h. A `modified' logarithmic velocity profile is proposed for stably stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flows. A field experiment designed to observe H_s is described, which utilized instrumentation from the spring field campaign of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Multiple releases of smoke at F≈ 0.3-0.4 support the new formulation, notwithstanding the limited success of experiments due to logistical constraints. No dividing streamline is discerned for F≈ 10, since, if present, it is too close to the foothill. Flow separation and vortex shedding is observed in this case. The proposed modified logarithmic profile is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.
Elastic instability in stratified core annular flow.
Bonhomme, Oriane; Morozov, Alexander; Leng, Jacques; Colin, Annie
2011-06-01
We study experimentally the interfacial instability between a layer of dilute polymer solution and water flowing in a thin capillary. The use of microfluidic devices allows us to observe and quantify in great detail the features of the flow. At low velocities, the flow takes the form of a straight jet, while at high velocities, steady or advected wavy jets are produced. We demonstrate that the transition between these flow regimes is purely elastic--it is caused by the viscoelasticity of the polymer solution only. The linear stability analysis of the flow in the short-wave approximation supplemented with a kinematic criterion captures quantitatively the flow diagram. Surprisingly, unstable flows are observed for strong velocities, whereas convected flows are observed for low velocities. We demonstrate that this instability can be used to measure the rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions that are difficult to assess otherwise.
Elastic instability in stratified core annular flow
Bonhomme, Oriane; Leng, Jacques; Colin, Annie
2010-01-01
We study experimentally the interfacial instability between a layer of dilute polymer solution and water flowing in a thin capillary. The use of microfluidic devices allows us to observe and quantify in great detail the features of the flow. At low velocities, the flow takes the form of a straight jet, while at high velocities, steady or advected wavy jets are produced. We demonstrate that the transition between these flow regimes is purely elastic -- it is caused by viscoelasticity of the polymer solution only. The linear stability analysis of the flow in the short-wave approximation captures quantitatively the flow diagram. Surprisingly, unstable flows are observed for strong velocities, whereas convected flows are observed for low velocities. We demonstrate that this instability can be used to measure rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions that are difficult to assess otherwise.
Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.
2004-01-01
The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels
Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima
2016-01-01
Linear stability of stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict parameter regions in which stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by critical wavenumbers and spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of ...
Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows
King, Michael R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)
2000-01-01
The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Numerical Simulation on Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge
LI Ling; Shigeo Kimura
2007-01-01
The characteristics of stratified flow over an isolated mountain ridge have been investigated numerically. The two-dimensional model equations, based on the time-dependent Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations, are solved numerically using an implicit time integration in a fitted body grid arrangement to simulate stratified flow over an isolated ideally bell-shaped mountain. The simulation results are in good agreement with the existing corresponding analytical and approximate solutions. It is shown that for atmospheric conditions where non-hydrostatic effects become dominant, the model is able to reproduce typical flow features. The dispersion characteristics of gaseous pollutants in the stratified flow have also been studied. The dispersion patterns for two typical atmospheric conditions are compared. The results show that the presence of a gravity wave causes vertical stratification of the pollutant concentration and affects the diffusive characteristics of the pollutants.
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels
Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima; Vitoshkin, Helen
2016-01-01
Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems the stratified flow with smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively lo...
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels
Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.
2016-08-01
Linear stability of the stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in the inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict the parameter regions in which the stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in the inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of the non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of the steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by the critical wavenumbers and the spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by the streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of two stable stratified flow configurations in a region of low flow rates in the countercurrent liquid-liquid flows. These configurations become unstable with respect to the shear mode of instability. It was revealed that in slightly upward inclined flows the lower and middle solutions for the holdup are stable in the part of the triple solution region, while the upper solution is always unstable. In the case of downward flows, in the triple solution region, none of the solutions are stable with respect to the short-wave perturbations. These flows are stable only in the single solution region at low flow rates of the heavy phase, and the long-wave perturbations are the most unstable ones.
Linear Inviscid Damping for Couette Flow in Stratified Fluid
Yang, Jincheng
2016-01-01
We study the inviscid damping of Coutte flow with an exponentially stratified density. The optimal decay rates of the velocity field and density are obtained for general perturbations with minimal regularity. For Boussinesq approximation model, the decay rates we get are consistent with the previous results in the literature. We also study the decay rates for the full equations of stratified fluids, which were not studied before. For both models, the decay rates depend on the Richardson number in a very similar way. Besides, we also study the inviscid damping of perturbations due to the exponential stratification when there is no shear.
Elementary stratified flows with stability at low Richardson number
Barros, Ricardo [Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Choi, Wooyoung [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102-1982 (United States)
2014-12-15
We revisit the stability analysis for three classical configurations of multiple fluid layers proposed by Goldstein [“On the stability of superposed streams of fluids of different densities,” Proc. R. Soc. A. 132, 524 (1931)], Taylor [“Effect of variation in density on the stability of superposed streams of fluid,” Proc. R. Soc. A 132, 499 (1931)], and Holmboe [“On the behaviour of symmetric waves in stratified shear layers,” Geophys. Publ. 24, 67 (1962)] as simple prototypes to understand stability characteristics of stratified shear flows with sharp density transitions. When such flows are confined in a finite domain, it is shown that a large shear across the layers that is often considered a source of instability plays a stabilizing role. Presented are simple analytical criteria for stability of these low Richardson number flows.
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels
Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A.; Vitoshkin, H.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.
2016-04-01
Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the stratified flow with a smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively low flow rates, which is in agreement with experiments, but is not predicted by long-wave analysis. Depending on the flow conditions, the critical perturbations can originate mainly at the interface (so-called "interfacial modes of instability") or in the bulk of one of the phases (i.e., "shear modes"). The present analysis revealed that there is no definite correlation between the type of instability and the perturbation wavelength.
Stone stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.
2007-01-01
The current research is aimed at finding a dimensionless stability parameter for non-uniform flow in which the effect of turbulence is incorporated. To this end, experiments were carried out in which both the bed response (quantified by a dimensionless entrainment rate) and the flow field (velocity
Stability of steam-water countercurrent stratified flow
Lee, S C
1985-10-01
Two flow instabilities which limit the normal condensation processes in countercurrent stratified steam-water flow have been identified experimentally: flooding and condensation-induced waterhammer. In order to initiate condensation-induced waterhammer in nearly horizontal or moderately-inclined steam/subcooled-water flow, two conditions, the appearance of a wavy interface and complete condensation of the incoming steam, are necessary. Analyses of these conditions are performed on a basis of flow stability and heat transfer considerations. Flooding data for several inclinations and channel heights are collected. Effects of condensation, inclination angle and channel height on the flooding characteristics are discussed. An envelope theory for the onset of flooding in inclined stratified flow is developed, which agrees well with the experimental data. Some empirical information on basic flow parameters, such as mean film thickness and interfacial friction factor required for this theory are measured. The previous viewpoints on flooding appear not to conflict with the present experimental data in nearly horizontal flow but the flooding phenomena in nearly vertical flow appear to be more complicated than those described by these viewpoints because of liquid droplet entrainment.
The Universal Aspect Ratio of Vortices in Rotating Stratifi?ed Flows: Experiments and Observations
Aubert, Oriane; Gal, Patrice Le; Marcus, Philip S
2012-01-01
We validate a new law for the aspect ratio $\\alpha = H/L$ of vortices in a rotating, stratified flow, where $H$ and $L$ are the vertical half-height and horizontal length scale of the vortices. The aspect ratio depends not only on the Coriolis parameter f and buoyancy (or Brunt-Vaisala) frequency $\\bar{N}$ of the background flow, but also on the buoyancy frequency $N_c$ within the vortex and on the Rossby number $Ro$ of the vortex such that $\\alpha = f \\sqrt{[Ro (1 + Ro)/(N_c^2- \\bar{N}^2)]}$. This law for $\\alpha$ is obeyed precisely by the exact equilibrium solution of the inviscid Boussinesq equations that we show to be a useful model of our laboratory vortices. The law is valid for both cyclones and anticyclones. Our anticyclones are generated by injecting fluid into a rotating tank filled with linearly-stratified salt water. The vortices are far from the top and bottom boundaries of the tank, so there is no Ekman circulation. In one set of experiments, the vortices viscously decay, but as they do, they c...
A study of stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Johnson, George W.
2005-07-01
This work includes both theoretical modelling and experimental observations which are relevant to the design of gas condensate transport lines. Multicomponent hydrocarbon gas mixtures are transported in pipes over long distances and at various inclinations. Under certain circumstances, the heavier hydrocarbon components and/or water vapour condense to form one or more liquid phases. Near the desired capacity, the liquid condensate and water is efficiently transported in the form of a stratified flow with a droplet field. During operating conditions however, the flow rate may be reduced allowing liquid accumulation which can create serious operational problems due to large amounts of excess liquid being expelled into the receiving facilities during production ramp-up or even in steady production in severe cases. In particular, liquid tends to accumulate in upward inclined sections due to insufficient drag on the liquid from the gas. To optimize the transport of gas condensates, a pipe diameters should be carefully chosen to account for varying flow rates and pressure levels which are determined through the knowledge of the multiphase flow present. It is desirable to have a reliable numerical simulation tool to predict liquid accumulation for various flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure levels which is not presently accounted for by industrial flow codes. A critical feature of the simulation code would include the ability to predict the transition from small liquid accumulation at high flow rates to large liquid accumulation at low flow rates. A semi-intermittent flow regime of roll waves alternating with a partly backward flowing liquid film has been observed experimentally to occur for a range of gas flow rates. Most of the liquid is transported in the roll waves. The roll wave regime is not well understood and requires fundamental modelling and experimental research. The lack of reliable models for this regime leads to inaccurate prediction of the onset of
Instabilities developed in stratified flows over pronounced obstacles
Varela, J.; Araújo, M.; Bove, I.; Cabeza, C.; Usera, G.; Martí, Arturo C.; Montagne, R.; Sarasúa, L. G.
2007-12-01
In the present work we study numerical and experimentally the flow of a two-layer stratified fluid over a topographic obstacle. The problem reflects a wide number of oceanographic and meteorological situations, where the stratification plays an important role. We identify the different instabilities developed by studying the pycnocline deformation due to a pronounced obstacle. The numerical simulations were made using the model caffa3D.MB which works with a numerical model of Navier-Stokes equations with finite volume elements in curvilinear meshes. The experimental results are contrasted with numerical simulations. Linear stability analysis predictions are checked with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Simulation and study of stratified flows around finite bodies
Gushchin, V. A.; Matyushin, P. V.
2016-06-01
The flows past a sphere and a square cylinder of diameter d moving horizontally at the velocity U in a linearly density-stratified viscous incompressible fluid are studied. The flows are described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. Variations in the spatial vortex structure of the flows are analyzed in detail in a wide range of dimensionless parameters (such as the Reynolds number Re = Ud/ ν and the internal Froude number Fr = U/( Nd), where ν is the kinematic viscosity and N is the buoyancy frequency) by applying mathematical simulation (on supercomputers of Joint Supercomputer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and three-dimensional flow visualization. At 0.005 < Fr < 100, the classification of flow regimes for the sphere (for 1 < Re < 500) and for the cylinder (for 1 < Re < 200) is improved. At Fr = 0 (i.e., at U = 0), the problem of diffusion-induced flow past a sphere leading to the formation of horizontal density layers near the sphere's upper and lower poles is considered. At Fr = 0.1 and Re = 50, the formation of a steady flow past a square cylinder with wavy hanging density layers in the wake is studied in detail.
Interfacial instabilities in a stratified flow of two superposed fluids
Schaflinger, Uwe
1994-06-01
Here we shall present a linear stability analysis of a laminar, stratified flow of two superposed fluids which are a clear liquid and a suspension of solid particles. The investigation is based upon the assumption that the concentration remains constant within the suspension layer. Even for moderate flow-rates the base-state results for a shear induced resuspension flow justify the latter assumption. The numerical solutions display the existence of two different branches that contribute to convective instability: long and short waves which coexist in a certain range of parameters. Also, a range exists where the flow is absolutely unstable. That means a convectively unstable resuspension flow can be only observed for Reynolds numbers larger than a lower, critical Reynolds number but still smaller than a second critical Reynolds number. For flow rates which give rise to a Reynolds number larger than the second critical Reynolds number, the flow is absolutely unstable. In some cases, however, there exists a third bound beyond that the flow is convectively unstable again. Experiments show the same phenomena: for small flow-rates short waves were usually observed but occasionally also the coexistence of short and long waves. These findings are qualitatively in good agreement with the linear stability analysis. Larger flow-rates in the range of the second critical Reynolds number yield strong interfacial waves with wave breaking and detached particles. In this range, the measured flow-parameters, like the resuspension height and the pressure drop are far beyond the theoretical results. Evidently, a further increase of the Reynolds number indicates the transition to a less wavy interface. Finally, the linear stability analysis also predicts interfacial waves in the case of relatively small suspension heights. These results are in accordance with measurements for ripple-type instabilities as they occur under laminar and viscous conditions for a mono-layer of particles.
Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.
Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian
2017-04-01
Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux
Turbulence comes in bursts in stably stratified flows
Rorai, C; Pouquet, A
2013-01-01
There is a clear distinction between simple laminar and complex turbulent fluids. But in some cases, as for the nocturnal planetary boundary layer, a stable and well-ordered flow can develop intense and sporadic bursts of turbulent activity which disappear slowly in time. This phenomenon is ill-understood and poorly modeled; and yet, it is central to our understanding of weather and climate dynamics. We present here a simple model which shows that in stably stratified turbulence, the stronger bursts can occur when the flow is expected to be more stable. The bursts are generated by a rapid non-linear amplification of energy stored in waves, and are associated with energetic interchanges between vertical velocity and temperature (or density) fluctuations. Direct numerical simulations on grids of 2048^3 points confirm this somewhat paradoxical result of measurably stronger events for more stable flows, displayed not only in the temperature and vertical velocity derivatives, but also in the amplitude of the field...
Frames of most uniform Hubble flow
Kraljic, David
2016-01-01
It has been observed that the locally measured Hubble parameter converges quickest to the background value and the dipole structure of the velocity field is smallest in the reference frame of the Local Group of galaxies. We study the statistical properties of Lorentz boosts with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background frame which make the Hubble flow look most uniform around a particular observer. We use a very large N-Body simulation to extract the dependence of the boost velocities on the local environment such as underdensities, overdensities, and bulk flows. We find that the observation is not unexpected if we are located in an underdensity, which is indeed the case for our position in the universe. The amplitude of the measured boost velocity for our location is consistent with the expectation in the standard cosmology.
Mixing and entrainment in hydraulically driven stratified sill flows
Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Pratt, Larry; Helfrich, Karl
2004-01-01
that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over...... model. Self-similarity is not observed in the numerically generated flow, but the observed critical section continues to lie upstream of the location predicted by the reduced gravity model. The factors influencing this result are explored.......The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross...
Local properties of countercurrent stratified steam-water flow
Kim, H J
1985-10-01
A study of steam condensation in countercurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water has been carried out in a rectangular channel/flat plate geometry over a wide range of inclination angles (4/sup 0/-87/sup 0/) at several aspect ratios. Variables were inlet water and steam flow rates, and inlet water temperature. Local condensation rates and pressure gradients were measured, and local condensation heat transfer coefficients and interfacial shear stress were calculated. Contact probe traverses of the surface waves were made, which allowed a statistical analysis of the wave properties. The local condensation Nusselt number was correlated in terms of local water and steam Reynolds or Froude numbers, as well as the liquid Prandtl number. A turbulence-centered model developed by Theofanous, et al. principally for gas absorption in several geometries, was modified. A correlation for the interfacial shear stress and the pressure gradient agreed with measured values. Mean water layer thicknesses were calculated. Interfacial wave parameters, such as the mean water layer thickness, liquid fraction probability distribution, wave amplitude and wave frequency, are analyzed.
Mixing and entrainment in hydraulically driven stratified sill flows
Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Pratt, Larry; Helfrich, Karl
2004-09-01
The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross-interface entrainment velocity is compared with numerical simulations based on a model with continuously varying stratification and velocity. The locations of critical flow (hydraulic control) in the continuous model are estimated by observing the direction of propagation of small-amplitude long-wave disturbances introduced into the flow field. Although some of the trends predicted by the shallow-water model are observed in the continuous model, the agreement between the interface profiles and the position of critical flow is quantitatively poor. A reformulation of the equations governing the continuous flow suggests that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over the lower-layer depth. Under conditions of self-similarity (as in Wood's similarity solution) the shape coefficients are constant and the formulation determines a new criterion for and location of critical flow. This location generally lies upstream of the critical section predicted by the reduced-gravity model. Self-similarity is not observed in the numerically generated flow, but the observed critical section continues to lie upstream of the location predicted by the reduced gravity model. The factors influencing this result are explored.
Hassanzadeh, Pedram
Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to
Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows
Matulka, A.; Cano, D.
2009-04-01
Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.
Experiments on the transition from stratified to slug flow in multiphase pipe flow
Kristiansen, Olav
2004-12-01
Severe slugging is reported from some field operations, where an increase in the production rate leads to a transition from steady stratified flow to slug flow in the pipeline. The slugs can be longer than anticipated for hydrodynamic slugging and the flow transients can then be a limitation for the production capacity. The objective was to perform a study on the flow pattern transition from stratified to slug flow. A particular point of interest was the possible occurrence of metastable flow and large initial slugs at elevated pressures. New data have been acquired in an experimental investigation of the transition from stratified to slug flow in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes at atmospheric and pressurised conditions. The experiments were performed with two-phase gas liquid and three-phase gas-liquid-liquid flows. Two flow facilities were used the NTNU Multiphase Flow Laboratory (short flow loop) and the SINTEF Multi-phase Flow Laboratory (long flow loop). Hold-up and pressure drop were measured, and flow patterns were determined visually and by evaluation of hold-up time traces. The following parameters were varied: 1) Inlet flow condition by variation of inlet pipe inclination. 2) System pressure (gas density). 3) Test section inclination (horizontal and near-horizontal). 4) Water cut. 5) Gas and liquid flow rates. 6) Pipe length. Slug flow or stratified flow was introduced upstream to promote either early or delayed transition to slug flow in the test section. A time series analysis was performed on the hold-up time traces, and average and distribution slug characteristics are reported, e.g. slug frequency, bubble propagation velocity, slug fraction, slug length, and growth rate. The results have been compared with steady state model predictions. The work consists of the following parts. 1) An initial study was performed at atmospheric air-water conditions in a short pipe. 2) Experiments at atmospheric and elevated pressures were performed in the medium
Mixing efficiency of turbulent patches in stably stratified flows
Garanaik, Amrapalli; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas Karan
2016-11-01
A key quantity that is essential for estimating the turbulent diapycnal (irreversible) mixing in stably stratified flow is the mixing efficiency Rf*, which is a measure of the amount of turbulent kinetic energy that is irreversibly converted into background potential energy. In particular, there is an ongoing debate in the oceanographic mixing community regarding the utility of the buoyancy Reynolds number (Reb) , particularly with regard to how mixing efficiency and diapycnal diffusivity vary with Reb . Specifically, is there a universal relationship between the intensity of turbulence and the strength of the stratification that supports an unambiguous description of mixing efficiency based on Reb ? The focus of the present study is to investigate the variability of Rf* by considering oceanic turbulence data obtained from microstructure profiles in conjunction with data from laboratory experiments and DNS. Field data analysis has done by identifying turbulent patches using Thorpe sorting method for potential density. The analysis clearly shows that high mixing efficiencies can persist at high buoyancy Reynolds numbers. This is contradiction to previous studies which predict that mixing efficiency should decrease universally for Reb greater than O (100) . Funded by NSF and ONR.
Chen Xiao-Gang; Guo Zhi-Ping; Song Jin-Bao
2008-01-01
In the present paper,the random interfacial waves in N-layer density-stratified fluids moving at different steady uniform speeds are researched by using an expansion technique,and the second-order asymptotic solutions of the random displacements of the density interfaces and the associated velocity potentials in N-layer fluid are presented based on the small amplitude wave theory.The obtained results indicate that the wave-wave second-order nonlinear interactions of the wave components and the second-order nonlinear interactions between the waves and currents are described.As expected,the solutions include those derived by Chen(2006)as a special case where the steady uniform currents of the N-layer fluids are taken as zero,and the solutions also reduce to those obtained by Song(2005)for second-order solutions for random interracial waves with steady uniform currents if N=2.
Sharma, A.; Leo, L. S.; Thompson, M. Y.; Di Sabatino, S.; Fernando, H. J.; Zhong, Q.; Wang, H.
2015-12-01
It is well known that, when a stably stratified flow with approach velocity U and buoyancy frequency N flows over an obstacle of height h, the low-level flow goes around the object while the rest flows over it for low F = U / N h. The streamline that separates the two types of flow is the dividing streamline, and the prediction of its height Hs is of great practical interest. Sheppard (1956) provided the analytical solution Hs = h (1 - F) and, because of its practical utility, the formula continues to be largely employed, notwithstanding the criticism it has attracted because of certain underlying assumptions, viz., 1) the crude approximation of constant N and uniform approach velocity U, which is unrealistic for atmospheric flows; 2) the incorrect assumption of a complete balance between kinetic and potential energy at the mountain summit, which neglects the energy contributions of the perturbation pressure field as well as viscous dissipation adjacent to the hill surface. In this study, the first limitation is addressed by considering a logarithmic approach velocity profile but with constant N. A modified logarithmic velocity profile for stably stratified flows is proposed, and an analytical solution is obtained for Hs in terms of Lambert-W functions. Results are tested against smoke visualization experiments and related field measurements made during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Some of the assumptions and perceived violations of them are tested using laboratory experiments conducted in a stratified water channel.
The Universal Aspect Ratio of Vortices in Rotating Stratified Flows: Theory and Simulation
Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Gal, Patrice Le
2012-01-01
We derive a relationship for the vortex aspect ratio $\\alpha$ (vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) for steady and slowly evolving vortices in rotating stratified fluids, as a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex $N_c$ and in the background fluid outside the vortex $\\bar{N}$, the Coriolis parameter $f$, and the Rossby number $Ro$ of the vortex: $\\alpha^2 = Ro(1+Ro) f^2/(N_c^2-\\bar{N}^2)$. This relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and the background density gradient need not be uniform. Our relation for $\\alpha$ has many consequences for equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have $N_c^2 > \\bar{N}^2$; weak anticyclones (with $|Ro| \\bar{N}^2$. We verify our relation for $\\alpha$ with numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations for a wide variety of vortices, including: vortices that are i...
Transport Phenomena in Stratified Multi-Fluid Flow in the Presence and Absence of Gravity
Chigier, Norman; Humphrey, William
1996-01-01
Experiments are being conducted to study the effects of buoyancy on planar density-stratified shear flows. A wind tunnel generates planar flows separated by an insulating splitter plate, with either flow heated, which emerge from a two-dimensional nozzle. The objective is to isolate and define the effect of gravity and buoyancy on a stratified shear layer. To this end, both stably and unstably stratified layers will be investigated. This paper reports on the results of temperature and velocity measurements across the nozzle exit plane and downstream along the nozzle center plane.
QIU Xiang
2006-01-01
Turbulence structures and turbulent Counter-Gradient Transport(CGT) properties in the stratified flows with a sharp temperature interface are investigated by experimental measurements using LIF and PIV, by LES and by correlation analysis.
Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow
Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the sto
Inviscid Uniform Shear Flow past a Smooth Concave Body
Abdullah Murad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Uniform shear flow of an incompressible inviscid fluid past a two-dimensional smooth concave body is studied; a stream function for resulting flow is obtained. Results for the same flow past a circular cylinder or a circular arc or a kidney-shaped body are presented as special cases of the main result. Also, a stream function for resulting flow around the same body is presented for an oncoming flow which is the combination of a uniform stream and a uniform shear flow. Possible fields of applications of this study include water flows past river islands, the shapes of which deviate from circular or elliptical shape and have a concave region, or past circular arc-shaped river islands and air flows past concave or circular arc-shaped obstacles near the ground.
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
1995-09-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.
Short-wave vortex instability in stratified flow
Bovard, Luke
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate a new instability of the Lamb-Chaplygin dipole in a stratified fluid. Through numerical linear stability analysis, a secondary peak in the growth rate emerges at vertical scales about an order of magnitude smaller than the buoyancy scale $L_{b}=U/N$ where $U$ is the characteristic velocity and $N$ is the Brunt-V\\"{a}is\\"{a}l\\"{a} frequency. This new instability exhibits a growth rate that is similar to, and even exceeds, that of the zigzag instability, which has the characteristic length of the buoyancy scale. This instability is investigated for a wide range of Reynolds $Re=2000-20000$ and horizontal Froude numbers $F_{h}=0.05-0.2$, where $F_{h}=U/NR$, $Re=UR/\
Sung, Chang Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents a theoretical approach of the instability criterion from stratified to nonstratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions. The new theoretical instability criterion for the stratified and nonstratified flow transition in horizontal pipe has been developed by hyperbolic equations in two-phase flow. Critical flow condition criterion and onset of slugging at cocurrent flow condition correspond to zero and imaginary characteristics which occur when the hyperbolicity of a stratified two-phase flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present theory and the Kukita et al. [1] experimental data of pipes, it is shown that they are in good agreement with data. 4 refs., 2 figs. (Author)
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters
Stratified shear flow in an inclined duct: coherent structures and mixing
Lefauve, Adrien; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Linden, Paul
2016-11-01
We present laboratory experiments on the exchange flow in an inclined square duct connecting two reservoirs at different densities. This system generates and maintains a stratified shear flow, which can be laminar, wavy or turbulent depending on the density difference and inclination angle. It is believed that the mean dissipation is set by the angle, and that high buoyancy Reynolds numbers (i.e. turbulent intensity) can be maintained, making this system suited for the study of continuously forced stratified turbulence. The talk will focus on the analysis of time-resolved, near-instantaneous 3D velocity and density data obtained by stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). This data allow for the visualisation of 3D coherent structures as well as turbulent mixing properties, which are key in understanding the dynamics of stratified turbulence. Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled "Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence".
Prediction of Stratified Flow Temperature Profiles in a Fully Insulated Environment
Ahmad S. Awad
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present an analytical model to predict the temperature profiles in thermal stratified environment. Thermal stratification is encountered in many situations. The flow of contaminants and hydrocarbons in environment often get stratified. The prediction of temperature profiles and flow characteristics are essential for HVAC applications, environment and energy management. The temperature profiles in the stratified region are successfully obtained, in terms of flow-operating functions. The analytical model agrees well with the published experimental data as well as the related closed-form solutions, which is helpful for HVAC applications. The model will be further developed and incorporated within a numerical model in order to investigate the flow field characteristics and establish correlations for a wide range of parameters.
Experimental investigation on isothermal stratified flow mixing in a horizontal T-junction
Isaev, Alexander; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)
2016-10-15
Turbulent and stratified flows can lead to thermal fatigue in piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). Such flows can be investigated in the University of Stuttgart Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) facility with a T-Junction at thermal conditions with temperature differences of up to 255 K and at pressures of maximum 75 bars.
A dynamic subgrid-scale model for the large eddy simulation of stratified flow
刘宁宇; 陆夕云; 庄礼贤
2000-01-01
A new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, including subgrid turbulent stress and heat flux models for stratified shear flow is proposed by using Yoshizawa’ s eddy viscosity model as a base model. Based on our calculated results, the dynamic subgrid-scale model developed here is effective for the large eddy simulation (LES) of stratified turbulent channel flows. The new SGS model is then applied to the large eddy simulation of stratified turbulent channel flow under gravity to investigate the coupled shear and buoyancy effects on the near-wall turbulent statistics and the turbulent heat transfer at different Richardson numbers. The critical Richardson number predicted by the present calculation is in good agreement with the value of theoretical analysis.
A dynamic subgrid-scale model for the large eddy simulation of stratified flow
无
2000-01-01
A new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model, including subgrid turbulent stress and heat flux models for stratified shear flow is proposed by using Yoshizawa's eddy viscosity model as a base model. Based on our calculated results, the dynamic subgrid-scale model developed here is effective for the large eddy simulation (LES) of stratified turbulent channel flows. The new SGS model is then applied to the large eddy simulation of stratified turbulent channel flow under gravity to investigate the coupled shear and buoyancy effects on the near-wall turbulent statistics and the turbulent heat transfer at different Richardson numbers. The critical Richardson number predicted by the present calculation is in good agreement with the value of theoretical analysis.
A NONHYDROSTATIC NUMERICAL MODEL FOR DENSITY STRATIFIED FLOW AND ITS APPLICATIONS
无
2008-01-01
A modular numerical model was developed for simulating density-stratified flow in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining interactions between stratified flow and topography, e.g., tidally driven flow over two-dimensional sills or internal solitary waves propagating over a shoaling bed. The model was based on the non-hydrostatic vorticity-stream function equations for a continuously stratified fluid in a rotating frame. A self-adaptive grid was adopted in the vertical coordinate, the Alternative Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme was used for the time marching equations while the Poisson equation for stream-function was solved based on the Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) iteration with the Chebyshev acceleration. The numerical techniques were described and three applications of the model were presented.
ZHONG; Fengquan(仲峰泉); LIU; Nansheng(刘难生); LU; Xiyun(陆夕云); ZHUANG; Lixian(庄礼贤)
2002-01-01
In the present paper, a new dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) model of turbulent stress and heat flux for stratified shear flow is proposed. Based on our calculated results of stratified channel flow, the dynamic subgrid-scale model developed in this paper is shown to be effective for large eddy simulation (LES) of stratified turbulent shear flows. The new SGS model is then applied to the LES of the stratified turbulent channel flow to investigate the coupled shear and buoyancy effects on the behavior of turbulent statistics, turbulent heat transfer and flow structures at different Richardson numbers.
Stability of stratified flow and slugging in horizontal gas-liquid flow
GU Hanyang; GUO Liejin
2005-01-01
A transient one-dimensional two-fluid model is proposed to investigate numerically the interfacial instability and the onset of slugging for liquid-gas flow in a horizontal duct. In the present model, the effects of surface tension and transverse variations in dynamic pressure are taken into account. The evolution of interfacial disturbances is displayed and compared with the linear viscous KelvinHelmholtz stability analyses. It shows that interfacial wave is more instable due to the non-linear effect. The model predicts well the stability limit of stratified flow in comparison with the experimental data, and also automatically tracks the onset of slugging. The results show that the initiation of hydrodynamic slugging is related to local interfacial instability. Based on the cycle of slugging, a model for slug frequency is presented, which predicts the trends of slug frequencies with gas/liquid flow rate well in comparison with the available data. The effects of physical properties on slugging have been examined. It is found that with the increase in the gas viscosity and liquid density the slugging would be inhibited, whereas, with the increase in liquid viscosity and gas density, the slugging can be promoted.
Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows
Neary, Vincent S [ORNL
2011-01-01
Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow
Stratified Flow in a Room with Displacement Ventilation and Wall-Mounted Air Terminal devices
Nielsen, Peter V.
This paper describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The stratified flow in the room is analyzed, and the influence of stratification and the influence of room dimensions on the velocity level and on the length scale are proved. The velocity level in the occupied zone can be d...
Hirota, Makoto, E-mail: hirota@dragon.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Morrison, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2016-05-06
Highlights: • New stability criteria of stably stratified shear flow are discovered. • Our criteria substantially improve the Howard–Miles criterion (1961). • Our criteria also generalize Rayleigh's inflection point theorem. • The novel approach we found is also efficient as a numerical approach. - Abstract: Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm–Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor–Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh–Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.
Doubly stratified mixed convection flow of Maxwell nanofluid with heat generation/absorption
Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, B. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-15
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) doubly stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid in presence of mixed convection is analyzed in this article. Effects of thermophoresis, Brownian motion and heat generation/absorption are present. The flow is induced due to linear stretching of sheet. Mathematical formulation is made under boundary layer approach. Expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are developed. The obtained results are plotted and discussed to examine the variations in temperature and nanoparticles concentration due to different physical parameters. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Impact of sundry parameters on the flow quantities is analyzed graphically. - Highlights: • Double stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid with mixed convection is modeled. • Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are encountered. • Computations are made to obtain the solution expressions. • Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined.
Chirped Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
Abeysekera, Chamara; Oldham, James; Prozument, Kirill; Joalland, Baptiste; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian; Suits, Arthur; Zack, Lindsay
2014-06-01
We present preliminary results describing the development of a new instrument that combines two powerful techniques: Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform MicroWave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows. It promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver quantitative isomer, conformer, and vibrational level specific detection, characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates and perform unique spectroscopic, kinetics and dynamics measurements. We have constructed a new high-power K_a-band, 26-40 GHz, chirped pulse spectrometer with sub-MHz resolution, analogous to the revolutionary CP-FTMW spectroscopic technique developed in the Pate group at University of Virginia. In order to study smaller molecules, the E-band, 60-90 GHz, CP capability was added to our spectrometer. A novel strategy for generating uniform supersonic flow through a Laval nozzle is introduced. High throughput pulsed piezo-valve is used to produce cold (30 K) uniform flow with large volumes of 150 cm^3 and densities of 1014 molecules/cm3 with modest pumping facilities. The uniform flow conditions for a variety of noble gases extend as far as 20 cm from the Laval nozzle and a single compound turbo-molecular pump maintains the operating pressure. Two competing design considerations are critical to the performance of the system: a low temperature flow is needed to maximize the population difference between rotational levels, and high gas number densities are needed to ensure rapid cooling to achieve the uniform flow conditions. At the same time, collision times shorter than the chirp duration will give inaccurate intensities and reduced signal levels due to collisional dephasing of free induction decay. Details of the instrument and future directions and challenges will be discussed.
Experimental data on Stone Stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.
2007-01-01
Previous research (e.g., Jongeling et al 2003; Hofland 2005) has shown that turbulence has an important influence on stone stability and in non-uniform flow it should be modeled explicitly. The dimensionless entrainment rate should be used to describe the bed response because of its complete
Garaud, Pascale; Gagnier, Damien; Verhoeven, Jan
2017-03-01
Shear-induced turbulence could play a significant role in mixing momentum and chemical species in stellar radiation zones, as discussed by Zahn. In this paper we analyze the results of direct numerical simulations of stratified plane Couette flows, in the limit of rapid thermal diffusion, to measure the turbulent viscosity and the turbulent diffusivity of a passive tracer as a function of the local shear and the local stratification. We find that the stability criterion proposed by Zahn, namely that the product of the gradient Richardson number and the Prandtl number must be smaller than a critical values {(J\\Pr )}c for instability, adequately accounts for the transition to turbulence in the flow, with {(J\\Pr )}c≃ 0.007. This result recovers and confirms the prior findings of Prat et al. Zahn’s model for the turbulent diffusivity and viscosity, namely that the mixing coefficient should be proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the gradient Richardson number, does not satisfactorily match our numerical data. It fails (as expected) in the limit of large stratification where the Richardson number exceeds the aforementioned threshold for instability, but it also fails in the limit of low stratification where the turbulent eddy scale becomes limited by the computational domain size. We propose a revised model for turbulent mixing by diffusive stratified shear instabilities that properly accounts for both limits, fits our data satisfactorily, and recovers Zahn’s model in the limit of large Reynolds numbers.
Nonlinear dynamics at the interface of two-layer stratified flows over pronounced obstacles
Cabeza, C; Bove, I; Freire, D; Marti, Arturo C; Sarasua, L G; Usera, G; Montagne, R; Araújo, M
2008-01-01
The flow of a two--layer stratified fluid over an abrupt topographic obstacle, simulating relevant situations in oceanographic problems, is investigated numerically and experimentally in a simplified two--dimensional situation. Experimental results and numerical simulations are presented at low Froude numbers in a two-layer stratified flow and for two abrupt obstacles, semi--cylindrical and prismatic. We find four different regimes of the flow immediately past the obstacles: sub-critical (I), internal hydraulic jump (II), Kelvin-Helmholtz at the interface (III) and shedding of billows (IV). The critical condition for delimiting the experiments is obtained using the hydraulic theory. Moreover, the dependence of the critical Froude number on the geometry of the obstacle are investigated. The transition from regime III to regime IV is explained with a theoretical stability analysis. The results from the stability analysis are confirmed with the DPIV measurements. In regime (IV), when the velocity upstream is lar...
Laboratory Studies of the Stratified Rotating Flow Passing over an Isolated Obstacle
高守亭; 平凡
2003-01-01
We study the flow of a density-stratified fluid passing over an isolated obstacle, using towing-tank experiments.Our special concern is the response of the flow with different Froude numbers passing over a three-dimensional obstacle. A series of experiments of the stratified rotating flow passing over an isolated obstacle was carried out with the towering-tank controlled by the similarity laws and dynamic non-dimension parameters. These experiments show that the Froude number is a very important parameter, and the lee wave and the eddy structure appear simultaneously under an appropriate conditions. The effect of rotation on the lee wave is mainly to change wave amplitude, particularly to restrain the development of the lee wave and to promote the formation of an eddy.
Numerical study of thermally stratified flows of a fluid overlying a highly porous material
Antoniadis, Panagiotis D.; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.
2014-11-01
In this talk we are concerned with thermally stratified flows in domains that contain a macroscopic interface between a highly porous material and a pure-fluid domain. Our study is based on the single-domain approach according to which the same set of governing equations is employed both inside the porous medium and in the pure-fluid domain. Also, the mathematical model that we employ treats the porous skeleton as a rigid solid that is in thermal non-equilibrium with the fluid. First, we present briefly the basic steps of the derivation of the mathematical model. Then, we present and discuss numerical results for both thermally stratified shear flows and natural convection. Our discussion focuses on the role of thermal stratification on the flows of interest and on the effect of thermal non-equilibrium between the solid matrix and the fluid inside the porous medium. This work is supported by the National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Belgium.
Gopal-Krishna, Samir; Sircar, Pronoy; Wiita, Paul J
2007-01-01
We present analytical modelling of conical relativistic jets, in order to evaluate the role of the jet opening angle on certain key parameters that are inferred from VLBI radio observations of blazar nuclear jets. The key parameters evaluated are the orientation angle (i.e., the viewing angle) of the jet and the apparent speed and Doppler factor of the radio knots on parsec scales. Quantitative comparisons are made of the influence of the jet opening angle on the above parameters of the radio knots, as would be estimated for two widely discussed variants of relativistic nuclear jets, namely, those having uniform bulk speed and those in which the bulk Lorentz factor of the flow decreases with distance from the jet axis (a `spine--sheath' flow). Our analysis shows that for both types of jet velocity distributions the expectation value of the jet orientation angle at first falls dramatically with increases in the (central) jet Lorentz factor, but it levels off at a fraction of the opening angle for extremely rel...
Instabilities of uniform filtration flows with phase transition
Il'Ichev, A. T.; Tsypkin, G. G.
2008-10-01
New mechanisms of instability are described for vertical flows with phase transition through horizontally extended two-dimensional regions of a porous medium. A plane surface of phase transition becomes unstable at an infinitely large wavenumber and at zero wavenumber. In the latter case, the unstable flow undergoes reversible subcritical bifurcations leading to the development of secondary flows (which may not be horizontally uniform). The evolution of subcritical modes near the instability threshold is governed by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. Two examples of flow through a porous medium are considered. One is the unstable flow across a water-bearing layer above a layer that carries a vapor-air mixture under isothermal conditions in the presence of capillary forces at the phase transition interface. The other is the vertical flow with phase transition in a high-temperature geothermal reservoir consisting of two high-permeability regions separated by a low-permeability stratum.
Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.
2016-05-01
Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.
Joginder S. Dhiman; Rekha Dadwal
2012-12-01
The problem of self-gravitational instability of an infinite, homogeneous stratified gaseous medium with finite thermal conductivity and infinite electrical conductivity, in the presence of non-uniform rotation and magnetic field in the Chandrasekhar’s frame of reference, is studied. It is found that the magnetic field, whether uniform or non-uniform, has no effect on the Jeans’ criterion for gravitational instability and remains essentially unaffected. However, the thermal conductivity has the usual stabilizing effect on the criterion that the adiabatic sound velocity occurring in the Jeans criterion is replaced by the isothermal sound velocity. Thus, the present analysis extends the results of Chandrasekhar for the case of heat conducting medium and for non-uniform rotation and magnetic field.
Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method
Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
1995-09-01
A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.
A 3D Spectral Anelastic Hydrodynamic Code for Shearing, Stratified Flows
Barranco, J A; Barranco, Joseph A.; Marcus, Philip S.
2005-01-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (e.g. the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier-Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to ...
Mixed Convection Flow along a Stretching Cylinder in a Thermally Stratified Medium
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis for the axisymmetric laminar boundary layer mixed convection flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid towards a stretching cylinder immersed in a thermally stratified medium is presented in this paper. Similarity transformation is employed to convert the governing partial differential equations into highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by a shooting method. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface is lower for flow in a thermally stratified medium compared to that of an unstratified medium. Moreover, both the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are larger for a cylinder compared to that for a flat plate.
Experimental study of temperature fluctuations in forced stably stratified turbulent flows
Eidelman, A; Gluzman, Y; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I
2013-01-01
We study experimentally temperature fluctuations in stably stratified forced turbulence in air flow. In the experiments with an imposed vertical temperature gradient, the turbulence is produced by two oscillating grids located nearby the side walls of the chamber. Particle Image Velocimetry is used to determine the turbulent and mean velocity fields, and a specially designed temperature probe with sensitive thermocouples is employed to measure the temperature field. We found that the ratio [(\\ell_x \
A Model for Predicting Holdup and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow
无
2001-01-01
The time-dependent liquid film thickness and pressure drop were measured by using parallel-wire conductance probes and capacitance differential-preesure transducers. Applying the eddy viscosity theory and an appropriate correlation of interfacial sear stress,a new two-dimensional separated model of holdup and pressure drop of turbulent/turbulent gas-liquid stratified flow was presented. Prediction results agreed well with experimental data.
An immersed interface method for two-dimensional modelling of stratified flow in pipes
Berthelsen, Petter Andreas
2004-01-01
This thesis deals with the construction of a numerical method for solving two-dimensional elliptic interface problems, such as fully developed stratified flow in pipes. Interface problems are characterized by its non-smooth and often discontinuous behaviour along a sharp boundary separating the fluids or other materials. Classical numerical schemes are not suitable for these problems due to the irregular geometry of the interface. Standard finite difference discretization across the interface...
A Model of Turbulent-Laminar Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow
无
2001-01-01
The time-dependent liquid film thickness and pressure drop are measured by using parallel-wire conduc tance probes and capacitance differential-pressure transducer. A mathematical model with iterative procedure to calculate holdup and pressure drop in horizontal and inclined gas-liquid stratified flow is developed. The predictions agree well with over a hundred experimental data in 0.024 and 0.04 m diameter pipelines.
Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body
Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim
2016-04-01
The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results
An affordable and accurate conductivity probe for density measurements in stratified flows
Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo
2015-11-01
In stratified flow experiments, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The probes typically used can provide very fine spatial scales, but can be fragile, expensive to replace, and sensitive to environmental noise. A complementary instrument, comprising a low-cost conductivity probe, would prove valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. We propose using micro-USB cables as the actual conductivity sensors. By removing the metallic shield from a micro-B connector, 5 gold-plated microelectrodes are exposed and available for 4-wire measurements. These have a cell constant ~550m-1, an intrinsic thermal noise of at most 30pA/Hz1/2, as well as sub-millisecond time response, making them highly suitable for many stratified flow measurements. In addition, we present the design of a custom electronic board (Arduino-based and Matlab-controlled) for simultaneous acquisition from 4 sensors, with resolution (in conductivity, and resulting density) exceeding the performance of typical existing probes. We illustrate the use of our conductivity-measuring system through stratified flow experiments, and describe plans to release simple instructions to construct our complete system for around 200.
Implications of Air Ingress Induced by Density-Difference Driven Stratified Flow
Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Richard Schultz; David Petti; C. P. Liou
2008-06-01
One of the design basis accidents for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is air ingress subsequent to a pipe break. Following a postulated double-ended guillotine break in the hot duct, and the subsequent depressurization to nearly reactor cavity pressure levels, air present in the reactor cavity will enter the reactor vessel via density-gradient-driven-stratified flow. Because of the significantly higher molecular weight and lower initial temperature of the reactor cavity air-helium mixture, in contrast to the helium in the reactor vessel, the air-helium mixture in the cavity always has a larger density than the helium discharging from the reactor vessel through the break into the reactor cavity. In the later stages of the helium blowdown, the momentum of the helium flow decreases sufficiently for the heavier cavity air-helium mixture to intrude into the reactor vessel lower plenum through the lower portion of the break. Once it has entered, the heavier gas will pool at the bottom of the lower plenum. From there it will move upwards into the core via diffusion and density-gradient effects that stem from heating the air-helium mixture and from the pressure differences between the reactor cavity and the reactor vessel. This scenario (considering density-gradient-driven stratified flow) is considerably different from the heretofore commonly used scenario that attributes movement of air into the reactor vessel and from thence to the core region via diffusion. When density-gradient-driven stratified flow is considered as a contributing phenomena for air ingress into the reactor vessel, the following factors contribute to a much earlier natural circulation-phase in the reactor vessel: (a) density-gradient-driven stratified flow is a much more rapid mechanism (at least one order of magnitude) for moving air into the reactor vessel lower plenum than diffusion, and consequently, (b) the diffusion dominated phase begins with a
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others
1995-09-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.
Jet-mixing of initially-stratified liquid-liquid pipe flows: experiments and numerical simulations
Wright, Stuart; Ibarra-Hernandes, Roberto; Xie, Zhihua; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar
2016-11-01
Low pipeline velocities lead to stratification and so-called 'phase slip' in horizontal liquid-liquid flows due to differences in liquid densities and viscosities. Stratified flows have no suitable single point for sampling, from which average phase properties (e.g. fractions) can be established. Inline mixing, achieved by static mixers or jets in cross-flow (JICF), is often used to overcome liquid-liquid stratification by establishing unstable two-phase dispersions for sampling. Achieving dispersions in liquid-liquid pipeline flows using JICF is the subject of this experimental and modelling work. The experimental facility involves a matched refractive index liquid-liquid-solid system, featuring an ETFE test section, and experimental liquids which are silicone oil and a 51-wt% glycerol solution. The matching then allows the dispersed fluid phase fractions and velocity fields to be established through advanced optical techniques, namely PLIF (for phase) and PTV or PIV (for velocity fields). CFD codes using the volume of a fluid (VOF) method are then used to demonstrate JICF breakup and dispersion in stratified pipeline flows. A number of simple jet configurations are described and their dispersion effectiveness is compared with the experimental results. Funding from Cameron for Ph.D. studentship (SW) gratefully acknowledged.
Prediction of the bed-load transport by gas-liquid stratified flows in horizontal ducts
Franklin, Erick de Moraes
2016-01-01
Solid particles can be transported as a mobile granular bed, known as bed-load, by pressure-driven flows. A common case in industry is the presence of bed-load in stratified gas-liquid flows in horizontal ducts. In this case, an initially flat granular bed may be unstable, generating ripples and dunes. This three-phase flow, although complex, can be modeled under some simplifying assumptions. This paper presents a model for the estimation of some bed-load characteristics. Based on parameters easily measurable in industry, the model can predict the local bed-load flow rates and the celerity and the wavelength of instabilities appearing on the granular bed.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent statistical and transport properties in stably stratified flows
Xiang QIU; Yong-xiang HUANG; Zhi-ming LU; Yu-lu LIU
2009-01-01
Three dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) is performed in the inves-tigation of stably stratified turbulence with a sharp thermal interface. Main results are focused on the turbulent characteristic scale, statistical properties, transport properties,and temporal and spatial evolution of the scalar field. Results show that the buoyancy scale increases first, and then goes to a certain constant value. The stronger the mean shear, the larger the buoyancy scale. The overturning scale increases with the flow, and the mean shear improves the overturning scale. The flatness factor of temperature de-parts from the Ganssian distribution in a fairly large region, and its statistical properties are clearly different from those of the velocity fluctuations in strong stratified cases. Tur-bulent mixing starts from small scale motions, and then extends to large scale motions.
Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R
2015-01-01
An analytical model and a computational fluid dynamic model of particle removal in dissolved air flotation were developed that included the effects of stratified flow and bubble-particle clustering. The models were applied to study the effect of operating conditions and formation of stratified flow on particle removal. Both modeling approaches demonstrated that the presence of stratified flow enhanced particle removal in the tank. A higher air fraction was shown to be needed at higher loading rates to achieve the same removal efficiency. The model predictions showed that an optimum bubble size was present that increased with an increase in particle size.
Garaud, P; Verhoeven, J
2016-01-01
Shear-induced turbulence could play a significant role in mixing momentum and chemical species in stellar radiation zones, as discussed by Zahn (1974). In this paper we analyze the results of direct numerical simulations of stratified plane Couette flows, in the limit of rapid thermal diffusion, to measure the turbulent diffusivity and turbulent viscosity as a function of the local shear and the local stratification. We find that the stability criterion proposed by Zahn (1974), namely that the product of the gradient Richardson number and the Prandtl number must be smaller than a critical values $(J\\Pr)_c$ for instability, adequately accounts for the transition to turbulence in the flow, with $(J\\Pr)_c \\simeq 0.007$. This result recovers and confirms the prior findings of Prat et al. (2016). Zahn's model for the turbulent diffusivity and viscosity (Zahn 1992), namely that the mixing coefficient should be proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the gradient Richardson number, does not satisfact...
On the Orientation of Turbulent Structures in Stably Stratified Shear Flows
Jacobitz, Frank; Moreau, Adam; Aguirre, Joylene
2016-11-01
The orientation of turbulent structures in stably stratified shear flows are investigated using the results of a series of direct numerical simulations. The Richardson number is varied from Ri = 0 , corresponding to unstratified shear flow, to Ri = 1 , corresponding to strongly stratified shear flow. The evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy changes from growth for small Richardson numbers to decay for strong stratification. The orientation of turbulent structures in the flows is determined by the three-dimensional two-point autocorrelation coefficient of velocity magnitude, vorticity magnitude, and fluctuating density. An ellipsoid is fitted to the surface given by a constant autocorrelation coefficient value and the major and minor axes are used to determine the inclination angle of turbulent structures in the plane of shear. The inclination angle is observed to be fairly unaffected by the choice of the autocorrelation coefficient value. In was found that the inclination angle decreases with increasing Richardson number. The structure of the turbulent motion, as characterized by the inclination angle, is therefore directly related to the eventual evolution of the turbulence, as described by the growth or decay rate of the turbulent kinetic energy.
Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow
YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting
2006-01-01
@@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.
Radiation from a lined duct in uniform flow
Juhl, Peter Møller
1999-01-01
This paper presents a boundary element formulation for modelling the sound field inside and outside a duct in uniform flow. The model is the first step towards models for predicting the noise radiated from turbo fan engines. For this purpose the frequency range is very large (up to ka=40), and non......-axisymmetric excitation is important (spinning modes). In addition the model allows the duct to be partially or fully treated with an axisymmetric locally reacting liner. Results determined with the model are compared with results from the literature and results calculated with an analytic model....
Testing of RANS Turbulence Models for Stratified Flows Based on DNS Data
Venayagamoorthy, S. K.; Koseff, J. R.; Ferziger, J. H.; Shih, L. H.
2003-01-01
In most geophysical flows, turbulence occurs at the smallest scales and one of the two most important additional physical phenomena to account for is strati cation (the other being rotation). In this paper, the main objective is to investigate proposed changes to RANS turbulence models which include the effects of stratifi- cation more explicitly. These proposed changes were developed using a DNS database on strati ed and sheared homogenous turbulence developed by Shih et al. (2000) and are described more fully in Ferziger et al. (2003). The data generated by Shih, et al. (2000) (hereinafter referred to as SKFR) are used to study the parameters in the k- model as a function of the turbulent Froude number, Frk. A modified version of the standard k- model based on the local turbulent Froude number is proposed. The proposed model is applied to a stratified open channel flow, a test case that differs significantly from the flows from which the modified parameters were derived. The turbulence modeling and results are discussed in the next two sections followed by suggestions for future work.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Janus Particle Dynamics in Uniform Flow
Archereau, Aurelien Y M; Willmott, Geoff R
2016-01-01
We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the dynamics of Janus particles, micro- or nanoparticles which are not spherically symmetric, in the uniform flow of a simple liquid. In particular we consider spheres with an asymmetry in the solid-liquid interaction over their surfaces and calculate the forces and torques experienced by the particles as a function of their orientation with respect to the flow. We also examine particles that are deformed slightly from a spherical shape. We compare the simulation results to the predictions of a previously introduced theoretical approach, which computes the forces and torques on particles with variable slip lengths or aspherical deformations that are much smaller than the particle radius. We find that there is good agreement between the forces and torques computed from our simulations and the theoretical predictions, when the slip condition is applied to the first layer of liquid molecules adjacent to the surface.
Elastic deformations driven by non-uniform lubrication flows
Rubin, Shimon; Tulchinsky, Arie; Gat, Amir D.; Bercovici, Moran
2017-02-01
The ability to create dynamic deformations of micron-sized structures is relevant to a wide variety of applications such as adaptable optics, soft robotics, and reconfigurable microfluidic devices. In this work we examine non-uniform lubrication flow as a mechanism to create complex deformation fields in an elastic plate. We consider a Kirchoff-Love elasticity model for the plate and Hele-Shaw flow in a narrow gap between the plate and a parallel rigid surface. Based on linearization of the Reynolds equation, we obtain a governing equation which relates elastic deformations to gradients in non-homogenous physical properties of the fluid (e.g. body forces, viscosity, and slip velocity). We then focus on a specific case of non-uniform Helmholtz-Smoluchowski electroosmotic slip velocity, and provide a method for determining the zeta-potential distribution necessary to generate arbitrary static and quasi-static deformations of the elastic plate. Extending the problem to time-dependent solutions, we analyze transient effects on asymptotically static solutions, and finally provide a closed form solution for a Green's function for time periodic actuations.
Elastic deformations driven by non-uniform lubrication flows
Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran
2016-01-01
The ability to create dynamic deformations of micron-sized structures is relevant to a wide variety of applications such as adaptable optics, soft robotics, and reconfigurable microfluidic devices. In this work we examine non-uniform lubrication flow as a mechanism to create complex deformation fields in an elastic plate. We consider a Kirchoff-Love elasticity model for the plate and Hele-Shaw flow in a narrow gap between the plate and a parallel rigid surface. Based on linearization of the Reynolds equation, we obtain a governing equation which relates elastic deformations to gradients in non-homogenous physical properties of the fluid (e.g. body forces, viscosity, and slip velocity). We then focus on a specific case of non-uniform Helmholtz-Smoluchowski electroosmotic slip velocity, and provide a method for determining the zeta-potential distribution necessary to generate arbitrary static and quasi-static deformations of the elastic plate. Extending the problem to time-dependent solutions, we analyze transi...
Rapaka, Narsimha R.; Sarkar, Sutanu
2016-10-01
A sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is developed to simulate density-stratified turbulent flows in complex geometry using a Cartesian grid. The basic numerical scheme corresponds to a central second-order finite difference method, third-order Runge-Kutta integration in time for the advective terms and an alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme for the viscous and diffusive terms. The solver developed here allows for both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) approaches. Methods to enhance the mass conservation and numerical stability of the solver to simulate high Reynolds number flows are discussed. Convergence with second-order accuracy is demonstrated in flow past a cylinder. The solver is validated against past laboratory and numerical results in flow past a sphere, and in channel flow with and without stratification. Since topographically generated internal waves are believed to result in a substantial fraction of turbulent mixing in the ocean, we are motivated to examine oscillating tidal flow over a triangular obstacle to assess the ability of this computational model to represent nonlinear internal waves and turbulence. Results in laboratory-scale (order of few meters) simulations show that the wave energy flux, mean flow properties and turbulent kinetic energy agree well with our previous results obtained using a body-fitted grid (BFG). The deviation of IBM results from BFG results is found to increase with increasing nonlinearity in the wave field that is associated with either increasing steepness of the topography relative to the internal wave propagation angle or with the amplitude of the oscillatory forcing. LES is performed on a large scale ridge, of the order of few kilometers in length, that has the same geometrical shape and same non-dimensional values for the governing flow and environmental parameters as the laboratory-scale topography, but significantly larger Reynolds number. A non-linear drag law
Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis
2015-11-01
We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').
An experimental investigation of stratified two-phase pipe flow at small inclinations
Espedal, Mikal
1998-12-31
The prediction of stratified flow is important for several industrial applications. Stratified flow experiments were carefully performed in order to investigate the performance of a typical model which uses wall friction factors based on single phase pipe flow as described above. The test facility has a 18.5 m long and 60 mm i.d. (L/D=300) acrylic test section which can be inclined between -10 {sup o} and +10 {sup o}. The liquid holdup was measured by using fast closing valves and the pressure gradients by using three differential pressure transducers. Interfacial waves were measured by thin wire conductance probes mounted in a plane perpendicular to the main flow. The experiments were performed using water and air at atmospheric pressure. The selected test section inclinations were between -3 {sup o} and +0.5 {sup o} to the horizontal plane. A large number of experiments were performed for different combinations of air and water flow rates and the rates were limited to avoid slug flow and stratified flow with liquid droplets. The pressure gradient and the liquid holdup were measured. In addition the wave probes were used to find the wave heights and the wave power spectra. The results show that the predicted pressure gradient using the standard models is approximately 30% lower than the measured value when large amplitude waves are present. When the flow is driven by the interfacial force the test section inclination has minor influence on the deviation between predicted and measured pressure gradients. Similar trends are apparent in data from the literature, although they seem to have gone unnoticed. For several data sets large spread in the predictions are observed when the model described above was used. Gas wall shear stress experiments indicate that the main cause of the deviation between measured and predicted pressure gradient and holdup resides in the modelling of the liquid wall friction term. Measurements of the liquid wall shear stress distribution
Self-regulation of mean flows in strongly stratified sheared turbulence
Salehipour, Hesam; Caulfield, Colm-Cille; Peltier, W. Richard
2016-11-01
We investigate the near-equilibrium state of shear-driven stratified turbulence generated by the breaking of Holmboe wave instability (HWI) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). We discuss DNS analyses associated with HWI under various initial conditions. We analyze the time-dependent distribution of the gradient Richardson number, Rig (z , t) associated with the horizontally-averaged velocity and density fields. We demonstrate that unlike the KHI-induced turbulence, the fully turbulent flow that is generated by HWI is robustly characterized by its high probability of Rig 0 . 2 - 0 . 25 , independent of the strength of the initial stratification and furthermore that the turbulence evolves in a 'near-equilibrium' state. The KHI-induced turbulence may become grossly 'out of equilibrium', however, and therefore decays rapidly when the initial value at the interface, Rig (0 , 0) , is closer to the critical value of 1/4; otherwise as Rig (0 , 0) -> 0 the KHI-induced turbulence is close to a state of equilibrium and hence is much more long-lived. We conjecture that stratified shear turbulence tends to adjust to a state of 'near-equilibrium' with horizontally-averaged flows characterized by a high probability of Rig <= 1 / 4 , and hence sustained turbulence over relatively long times.
Kozitsyna, M. V.; Trufanova, N. M.
2017-01-01
Today the process of coextrusion is the most technological in the cable production with cross-linked polyethylene, composed of two or more layers of polymeric insulation. Since the covering technology is a simultaneous imposition of all necessary layers (two semiconducting shields on the insulation and conductor and one - on insulation), the main focus of this study is the analysis of significance of various factors influence on stratified flows characteristics. This paper has considered the flow of two abnormally viscous liquids in the cable head. The problem has been solved through a three-dimensional statement by applying the finite element method in the Ansys software package. The influence has been estimated by varying the rheological properties of materials to create all necessary layers thickness.
Nonlinear waves in stratified Taylor--Couette flow. Part 1. Layer formation
Leclercq, Colin; Augier, Pierre; Caulfield, Colm-Cille P; Dalziel, Stuart B; Linden, Paul F
2016-01-01
This paper is the first part of a two-fold study of mixing, i.e. the formation of layers and upwelling of buoyancy, in axially stratified Taylor--Couette flow, with fixed outer cylinder. Using linear analysis and direct numerical simulation, we show the critical role played by non-axisymmetric instability modes, despite the fact that the flow is centrifugally unstable in the sense of Rayleigh's criterion. Interactions between helical modes of opposite handedness leads to the formation of nonlinear coherent structures: (mixed)-ribbons and (mixed)-cross-spirals. These give birth to complex density interface patterns, seemingly appearing and disappearing periodically as the coherent structure slowly rotates around the annulus. These coherent structures seem to be responsible for the formation of layers reported in a recent experiment by Oglethorpe et al. (2013). We distinguish `dynamic layering', instantaneous, localized and caused by the vortical motions, from `static layering' corresponding to the formation of...
Mohd Hafizi Mat Yasin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present the numerical investigation of the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a thermally stratified porous medium saturated by a nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations, using the similarity transformations. The similarity equations are solved numerically for three types of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu, alumina (Al2O3, and titania (TiO2, in a water-based fluid to investigate the effect of the solid volume fraction or nanoparticle volume fraction parameter φ of the nanofluid on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The skin friction coefficient and the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.
E. J. Suarez-Dominguez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Production of heavy crude oil in Mexico, and worldwide, is increasing which has led to the application of different methods to reduce viscosity or to enhance transport through stratified flow to continue using the existing infrastructures. In this context, injecting a viscosity improver that does not mix completely with the crude, establishes a liquid-liquid stratified flow. On the basis of a parallel plates model, comparing the increase of flow that occurs in the one-phase case which assumes a complete mixture between the crude and the viscosity improver against another stratified liquid-liquid (no mixing between the oil and compared improver; it was found that in both cases there is a flow increase for the same pressure drop with a maximum for the case in which the flow improver is between the plates and the crude.
Chang, Chih-Hao; Liou, Meng-Sing
2007-07-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations . Secondly, the AUSM + scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM +-up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion. However, conservative form is lost in these balance equations when considering each individual phase; in fact, the interactions that exist simultaneously in both phases manifest themselves as nonconservative terms.
Long ring waves in a stratified fluid over a shear flow
Khusnutdinova, K R
2014-01-01
Oceanic waves registered by satellite observations often have curvilinear fronts and propagate over various currents. In this paper, we study long linear and weakly-nonlinear ring waves in a stratified fluid in the presence of a depth-dependent horizontal shear flow. It is shown that despite the clashing geometries of the waves and the shear flow, there exists a linear modal decomposition (different from the known decomposition in Cartesian geometry), which can be used to describe distortion of the wavefronts of surface and internal waves, and systematically derive a 2+1 - dimensional cylindrical Korteweg - de Vries - type equation for the amplitudes of the waves. The general theory is applied to the case of the waves in a two-layer fluid with a piecewise - constant shear flow, with an emphasis on the effect of the shear flow on the geometry of the wavefronts. The distortion of the wavefronts is described by the singular solution (envelope of the general solution) of the nonlinear first-order differential equ...
On the lifetime of a pancake anticyclone in a rotating stratified flow
Facchini, Giulio; Le Bars, Michael
2016-11-01
We present an experimental study of the time evolution of an isolated anticyclonic pancake vortex in a laboratory rotating stratified flow. Motivations come from the variety of compact anticyclones observed to form and persist for a strikingly long lifetime in geophysical and astrophysical settings combining rotation and stratification. We generate anticyclones by injecting a small amount of isodense fluid at the center of a rotating tank filled with salty water linearly stratified in density. Our two control parameters are the Coriolis parameter f and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N. We observe that anticyclones always slowly decay by viscous diffusion, spreading mainly in the horizontal direction irrespective of the initial aspect ratio. This behavior is correctly explained by a linear analytical model in the limit of small Rossby and Ekman numbers, where density and velocity equations reduce to a single equation for the pressure. Direct numerical simulations further confirm the theoretical predictions. Notably, they show that the azimuthal shear stress generates secondary circulations, which advect the density anomaly: this mechanism is responsible for the slow time evolution, rather than the classical viscous dissipation of the azimuthal kinetic energy.
Law of the wall in an unstably stratified turbulent channel flow
Scagliarini, Andrea; Gylfason, Ármann; Toschi, Federico
2015-01-01
We perform direct numerical simulations of an unstably stratified turbulent channel flow to address the effects of buoyancy on the boundary layer dynamics and mean field quantities. We systematically span a range of parameters in the space of friction Reynolds number ($Re_{\\tau}$) and Rayleigh number ($Ra$). Our focus is on deviations from the logarithmic law of the wall due to buoyant motion. The effects of convection in the relevant ranges are discussed providing measurements of mean profiles of velocity, temperature and Reynolds stresses as well as of the friction coefficient. A phenomenological model is proposed and shown to capture the observed deviations of the velocity profile in the log-law region from the non-convective case.
Free convective flow of a stratified fluid through a porous medium bounded by a vertical plane
H. K. Mondal
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional free convection flow of a thermally stratified viscous fluid through a highly porous medium bounded by a vertical plane surface of varying temperature, is considered. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and the rate of heat transfer are obtained by perturbation method. Velocity distribution and rate of heat transfer for different values of parameters are shown in graphs. Velocity distribution is also obtained for certain values of the parameters by integrating the coupled differential equations by Runge-Kutta method and compared with the analytical solution. The chief concern of the paper is to study the effect of equilibrium temperature gradient on the velocity and the rate of heat transfer.
Time-dependent rotating stratified shear flow: exact solution and stability analysis.
Salhi, A; Cambon, C
2007-01-01
A solution of the Euler equations with Boussinesq approximation is derived by considering unbounded flows subjected to spatially uniform density stratification and shear rate that are time dependent [S(t)= partial differentialU3/partial differentialx2]. In addition to vertical stratification with constant strength N(v)2, this base flow includes an additional, horizontal, density gradient characterized by N(h)2(t). The stability of this flow is then analyzed: When the vertical stratification is stabilizing, there is a simple harmonic motion of the horizontal stratification N(h)2(t) and of the shear rate S(t), but this flow is unstable to certain disturbances, which are amplified by a Floquet mechanism. This analysis may involve an additional Coriolis effect with Coriolis parameter f, so that governing dimensionless parameters are a modified Richardson number, R=[S(0)2+N(h)4(0)/N(v)2]1/2, and f(v)=f/N(v), as well as the initial phase of the periodic shear rate. Parametric resonance between the inertia-gravity waves and the oscillating shear is demonstrated from the dispersion relation in the limit R-->0. The parametric instability has connection with both baroclinic and elliptical flow instabilities, but can develop from a very different base flow.
The stability of stratified spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number
Garaud, Pascale, E-mail: pgaraud@ucsc.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Gallet, Basile [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, DSM/IRAMIS, CNRS UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Bischoff, Tobias [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 170-25, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2015-08-15
This work addresses the question of the stability of stratified, spatially periodic shear flows at low Péclet number but high Reynolds number. This little-studied limit is motivated by astrophysical systems, where the Prandtl number is often very small. Furthermore, it can be studied using a reduced set of “low-Péclet-number equations” proposed by Lignières [“The small-Péclet-number approximation in stellar radiative zones,” Astron. Astrophys. 348, 933–939 (1999)]. Through a linear stability analysis, we first determine the conditions for instability to infinitesimal perturbations. We formally extend Squire’s theorem to the low-Péclet-number equations, which shows that the first unstable mode is always two-dimensional. We then perform an energy stability analysis of the low-Péclet-number equations and prove that for a given value of the Reynolds number, above a critical strength of the stratification, any smooth periodic shear flow is stable to perturbations of arbitrary amplitude. In that parameter regime, the flow can only be laminar and turbulent mixing does not take place. Finding that the conditions for linear and energy stability are different, we thus identify a region in parameter space where finite-amplitude instabilities could exist. Using direct numerical simulations, we indeed find that the system is subject to such finite-amplitude instabilities. We determine numerically how far into the linearly stable region of parameter space turbulence can be sustained.
Transition to turbulence in stratified shear flow: experiments in an inclined square duct
Meyer, Colin; Linden, Paul
2013-11-01
We describe laboratory experiments of countercurrent stratified shear flow in an inclined square duct. To achieve this, a long water tank was partitioned into regions of higher and lower density saltwater that are connected by an inclined square duct. The flow regime was characterized to be turbulent, intermittent, Holmboe or laminar as a function of the duct inclination, θ, and the density difference, Δρ , between the two reservoirs. The density difference and duct angle were systematically varied and a phase plane of flow regime was developed. The transition between the interrmittent regime and turbulence was experimentally determined to occur at θΔρ ~= 20 [degrees kg m-3]. This critical combination of parameters fits into the buoyancy-compensated Reynolds number scaling proposed by Brethouwer et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2007). The turbulent interfacial thickness was found to be a function of the inclination angle, which can be predicted using the buoyancy lengthscale from Waite and Bartello (J. Fluid Mech., 2004) and others. Furthermore, we measured the density profiles at multiple points along the duct, and using these profiles, we modeled the entrainment at the interface. Support provided by the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States.
DONG Yu-hong; LU Xi-yun; ZHUANG Li-xian
2004-01-01
Thermally-stratified shear turbulent channel flow with temperature oscillation on the bottom wall of the channel was investigated with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach coupled with dynamic Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS) models. The effect of temperature oscillation on the turbulent channel flow behavior was examined. The phase-averaged velocities and temperature, and flow structures at different Richardson numbers and periods of the oscillation was analyzed.
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
F. Terzuoli
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Nonlinear waves in stratified Taylor--Couette flow. Part 2. Buoyancy flux
Leclercq, Colin; Caulfield, Colm-Cille P; Dalziel, Stuart B; Linden, Paul F
2016-01-01
This paper is the second part of a two-fold study of mixing, i.e. the formation of layers and upwelling of buoyancy, in axially stratified Taylor--Couette flow, with fixed outer cylinder. In a first paper, we showed that the dynamics of the flow was dominated by coherent structures made of a superposition of nonlinear waves. (Mixed)-ribbons and (mixed)-cross-spirals are generated by interactions between a pair of linearly unstable helical modes of opposite `handedness', and appear to be responsible for the formation of well-mixed layers and sharp density interfaces. In this paper, we show that these structures are also fully accountable for the upwards buoyancy flux in the simulations. The mechanism by which this occurs is a positive coupling between the density and vertical velocity components of the most energetic waves. This coupling is primarily caused by diffusion of density at low Schmidt number Sc, but can also be a nonlinear effect at larger Sc. Turbulence was found to contribute negatively to the buo...
Coherent structures and enstrophy dynamics in highly stratified flow past a sphere at Re = 3700
Chongsiripinyo, Karu; Pal, Anikesh; Sarkar, Sutanu
2016-11-01
Vortex dynamics of flow past a sphere in a linearly stratified environment is investigated. Simulations are carried out for a flow with Reynolds number of 3700 and for several Froude numbers (Fr) ranging as low as 0.025. Isosurface of Q criterion is used to identify vortical structures whose cross-section and orientation are found to be affected by buoyancy. At low Fr = 0 . 025 , pancake eddies and surfboard-like inclined structures emerge in the near wake and have a regular streamwise spacing that is associated with the frequency of vortex shedding from the sphere. Similar to turbulent kinetic energy, the enstrophy in the near wake decreases with decreasing Fr (increasing stratification) until a minimum at Fr = 0 . 5 but the trend reverses in the low- Fr regime. Vortex stretching by fluctuating and mean strain are both responsible for enhancing vorticity with relatively small contribution from the baroclinic term. Decreasing Fr to O (1) values tends to suppress vortex stretching. Upon further reduction of Fr below 0.25, the vortex stretching term takes large values near the sphere.
Stability of 3D Gaussian vortices in rotating stratified Boussinesq flows: Linear analysis
Mahdinia, Mani; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang
2016-01-01
The linear stability of three-dimensional (3D) vortices in rotating, stratified flows has been studied by analyzing the non-hydrostatic inviscid Boussinesq equations. We have focused on a widely-used model of geophysical and astrophysical vortices, which assumes an axisymmetric Gaussian structure for pressure anomalies in the horizontal and vertical directions. For a range of Rossby number ($-0.5 < Ro < 0.5$) and Burger number ($0.02 < Bu < 2.3$) relevant to observed long-lived vortices, the growth rate and spatial structure of the most unstable eigenmodes have been numerically calculated and presented as a function of $Ro-Bu$. We have found neutrally-stable vortices only over a small region of the $Ro-Bu$ parameter space: cyclones with $Ro \\sim 0.02-0.05$ and $Bu \\sim 0.85-0.95$. However, we have also found that anticyclones in general have slower growth rates compared to cyclones. In particular, growth rate of the most unstable eigenmode for anticyclones in a large region of the parameter space ...
A Fractal Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Granular Flow with Non-uniform Particles
ZHANG Duan-Ming; LEI Ya-Jie; YU Bo-Ming; ZHANG Mei-Jun; HUANG Ming-Tao; LI Zhi-Hua; GUAN Li
2002-01-01
The equipartition of energy applied in binary mixture of granular flow is extended to granular flow withnon-uniform particles. Based on the fractal characteristic of granular flow with non-uniform particles as well as energyequipartition, a fractal velocity distribution function and a fractal model of effective thermal conductivity are derived.Thermal conduction resulted from motions of particles in the granular flow, as well as the effect of fractal dimension oneffective thermal conductivity, is discussed.
Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho
2008-12-01
The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i
Investigations of Reduced Equations for Rotating, Stratified and Non-hydrostatic Flows
Nieves, David J.
boundary conditions. These results imply that any horizontal thermal variation along the boundaries that varies on the scale of the convection has no leading order influence on the interior convection, thus providing insight into geophysical and astrophysical flows where stress-free mechanical boundary conditions are often assumed. The final study presented here contrasts the previous investigations. It presents an investigation of rapidly rotating and stably stratified turbulence where the stratification strength is varied from weak (large Froude number) to strong (small Froude number). The investigation is set in the context of the asymptotically reduced model which efficiently retains anisotropic inertia-gravity waves with order-one frequencies and highlights a regime of wave-eddy interactions. Numerical simulations of the reduced model are performed where energy is injected by a stochastic forcing of vertical velocity. The simulations reveal two regimes: one characterized by the presence of well-formed, persistent and thin turbulent layers of locally-weakened stratification: the other characterized by the absence of layers at large Froude numbers. Both regimes are characterized by a large-scale barotropic dipole in a sea of small-scale turbulence. When the Reynolds number is not too large a direct cascade of barotropic kinetic energy is observed and leads to an equilibration of total energy. We examine net energy exchanges that occur through vortex stretching and vertical buoyancy flux and diagnose the horizontal scales active in these exchanges. We find that baroclinic motions inject energy directly to the largest scales of the barotropic mode governed by the two-dimensional vorticity equation, and implies that the large-scale barotropic dipole is not the end result of an inverse cascade within the two-dimensional barotropic mode. An additional yet brief look into the linear vortical and wave modes is considered.
无
2009-01-01
On the numerical simulation of active scalar,a new explicit algebraic expression on active scalar flux was derived based on Wikstrm,Wallin and Johansson model (aWWJ model). Reynolds stress algebraic expressions were added by a term to account for the buoyancy effect. The new explicit Reynolds stress and active scalar flux model was then established. Governing equations of this model were solved by finite volume method with unstructured grids. The thermal shear stratified cylinder wake flow was computed by this new model. The computational results are in good agreement with laboratorial measurements. This work is the development on modeling of explicit algebraic Reynolds stress and scalar flux,and is also a further modification of the aWWJ model for complex situations such as a shear stratified flow.
Ivana Stiperski
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we present an overview of the HyIV-CNRS-SecORo (Hydralab IV-CNRS-Secondary Orography and Rotors Experiments laboratory experiments carried out in the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques large stratified water flume. The experiments were designed to systematically study the influence of double obstacles on stably stratified flow. The experimental set-up consists of a two-layer flow in the water tank, with a lower neutral and an upper stable layer separated by a sharp density discontinuity. This type of layering over terrain is known to be conducive to a variety of possible responses in the atmosphere, from hydraulic jumps to lee waves and highly turbulent rotors. In each experiment, obstacles were towed through the tank at a constant speed. The towing speed and the size of the tank allowed high Reynolds-number flow similar to the atmosphere. Here, we present the experimental design, together with an overview of laboratory experiments conducted and their results. We develop a regime diagram for flow over single and double obstacles and examine the parameter space where the secondary obstacle has the largest influence on the flow. Trapped lee waves, rotors, hydraulic jumps, lee-wave interference and flushing of the valley atmosphere are successfully reproduced in the stratified water tank. Obstacle height and ridge separation distance are shown to control lee-wave interference. Results, however, differ partially from previous findings on the flow over double ridges reported in the literature due to the presence of nonlinearities and possible differences in the boundary layer structure. The secondary obstacle also influences the transition between different flow regimes and makes trapped lee waves possible for higher Froude numbers than expected for an isolated obstacle.
Amy, L. A.; Peakall, J.; Talling, P. J.
2005-08-01
Vertical stratification of particle concentration is a common if not ubiquitous feature of submarine particulate gravity flows. To investigate the control of stratification on current behaviour, analogue stratified flows were studied using laboratory experiments. Stratified density currents were generated by releasing two-layer glycerol solutions into a tank of water. Flows were sustained for periods of tens of seconds and their velocity and concentration measured. In a set of experiments the strength of the initial density and viscosity stratification was increased by progressively varying the lower-layer concentration, CL. Two types of current were observed indicating two regimes of behaviour. Currents with a faster-moving high-concentration basal region that outran the upper layer were produced if CL < 75%. Above this critical value of CL, currents were formed with a relatively slow, high-concentration base that lagged behind the flow front. The observed transition in behaviour is interpreted to indicate a change from inertia- to viscosity-dominated flow with increasing concentration. The reduction in lower-layer velocity at high concentrations is explained by enhanced drag at low Reynolds numbers. Results show that vertical stratification produces longitudinal stratification in the currents. Furthermore, different vertical and temporal velocity and concentration profiles characterise the observed flow types. Implications for the deposit character of particle-laden currents are discussed and illustrated using examples from ancient turbidite systems.
DENG Yue; HUANG Weiping; ZHAO Jingli
2014-01-01
With the increase of petroleum and gas production in deep ocean, marine risers of circular cylinder shape are widely used in the offshore oil and gas platform. In order to research the hydrodynamic performance of marine risers, the dynamic mesh technique and User-Defined Function (UDF) are used to simulate the circular cylinder motion. The motion of a transversely oscillat-ing circular cylinder in combination of uniform flow and oscillating flow is simulated. The uniform flow and oscillating flow both are in x direction. SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The User-Defined Function is used to control the cylinder transverse vibration and the inlet flow. The lift and drag coefficient changing with time and the map of vorticity isolines at different phase angle are obtained. Force time histories are shown for uniform flow at Reynolds number (Re) of 200 and for the com-bination of uniform and oscillating flows. With the increase of amplitude of oscillating flow in combined flow, the change of lift am-plitude is not sensitive to the the change of cylinder oscillating frequency. Lift amplitude increases with the increase of oscillating flow amplitude in the combined flow, but there is no definite periodicity of the lift coefficient. The drag and inertia force coefficients change when the maximum velocity of the oscillating flow increases in the combined flow. The vortex shedding near the circular cylinder shows different characteristics.
Deng, Yue; Huang, Weiping; Zhao, Jingli
2014-06-01
With the increase of petroleum and gas production in deep ocean, marine risers of circular cylinder shape are widely used in the offshore oil and gas platform. In order to research the hydrodynamic performance of marine risers, the dynamic mesh technique and User-Defined Function (UDF) are used to simulate the circular cylinder motion. The motion of a transversely oscillating circular cylinder in combination of uniform flow and oscillating flow is simulated. The uniform flow and oscillating flow both are in x direction. SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The User-Defined Function is used to control the cylinder transverse vibration and the inlet flow. The lift and drag coefficient changing with time and the map of vorticity isolines at different phase angle are obtained. Force time histories are shown for uniform flow at Reynolds number (Re) of 200 and for the combination of uniform and oscillating flows. With the increase of amplitude of oscillating flow in combined flow, the change of lift amplitude is not sensitive to the the change of cylinder oscillating frequency. Lift amplitude increases with the increase of oscillating flow amplitude in the combined flow, but there is no definite periodicity of the lift coefficient. The drag and inertia force coefficients change when the maximum velocity of the oscillating flow increases in the combined flow. The vortex shedding near the circular cylinder shows different characteristics.
Effects of uniform rotational flow on predator-prey system
Lee, Sang-Hee
2012-12-01
Rotational flow is often observed in lotic ecosystems, such as streams and rivers. For example, when an obstacle interrupts water flowing in a stream, energy dissipation and momentum transfer can result in the formation of rotational flow, or a vortex. In this study, I examined how rotational flow affects a predator-prey system by constructing a spatially explicit lattice model consisting of predators, prey, and plants. A predation relationship existed between the species. The species densities in the model were given as S (for predator), P (for prey), and G (for plant). A predator (prey) had a probability of giving birth to an offspring when it ate prey (plant). When a predator or prey was first introduced, or born, its health state was assigned an initial value of 20 that subsequently decreased by one with every time step. The predator (prey) was removed from the system when the health state decreased to less than zero. The degree of flow rotation was characterized by the variable, R. A higher R indicates a higher tendency that predators and prey move along circular paths. Plants were not affected by the flow because they were assumed to be attached to the streambed. Results showed that R positively affected both predator and prey survival, while its effect on plants was negligible. Flow rotation facilitated disturbances in individuals’ movements, which consequently strengthens the predator and prey relationship and prevents death from starvation. An increase in S accelerated the extinction of predators and prey.
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey;
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
A short remark on Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct
Liu Hong-Yan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concludes that Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct is for a differential-difference. Some generalized variational principles are elucidated with or without Stewart’s discrete treatment.
Bakri, Barbara; Weimer, Marco; Hauck, Gerrit; Reich, Gabriele
2015-11-01
Scope of the study was (1) to develop a lean quantitative calibration for real-time near-infrared (NIR) blend monitoring, which meets the requirements in early development of pharmaceutical products and (2) to compare the prediction performance of this approach with the results obtained from stratified sampling using a sample thief in combination with off-line high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and at-line near-infrared chemical imaging (NIRCI). Tablets were manufactured from powder blends and analyzed with NIRCI and HPLC to verify the real-time results. The model formulation contained 25% w/w naproxen as a cohesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium as cohesive excipients and free-flowing mannitol. Five in-line NIR calibration approaches, all using the spectra from the end of the blending process as reference for PLS modeling, were compared in terms of selectivity, precision, prediction accuracy and robustness. High selectivity could be achieved with a "reduced" approach i.e. API and time saving approach (35% reduction of API amount) based on six concentration levels of the API with three levels realized by three independent powder blends and the additional levels obtained by simply increasing the API concentration in these blends. Accuracy and robustness were further improved by combining this calibration set with a second independent data set comprising different excipient concentrations and reflecting different environmental conditions. The combined calibration model was used to monitor the blending process of independent batches. For this model formulation the target concentration of the API could be achieved within 3 min indicating a short blending time. The in-line NIR approach was verified by stratified sampling HPLC and NIRCI results. All three methods revealed comparable results regarding blend end point determination. Differences in both mean API concentration and RSD values could be
Turbulent fluxes of entropy and internal energy in temperature stratified flows
Rogachevskii, Igor
2015-01-01
We derive equations for the mean entropy and the mean internal energy in the low-Mach-number temperature stratified turbulence (i.e., for turbulent convection or stably stratified turbulence), and show that turbulent flux of entropy is given by ${\\bf F}_s=\\overline{\\rho} \\, \\overline{{\\bf u} s}$, where $\\overline{\\rho}$ is the mean fluid density, $s$ are fluctuations of entropy and overbars denote averaging over an ensemble of turbulent velocity field, ${\\bf u}$. We demonstrate that the turbulent flux of entropy is different from the turbulent convective flux, ${\\bf F}_c=\\overline{T} \\, \\overline{\\rho} \\, \\overline{{\\bf u} s}$, of the fluid internal energy, where $\\overline{T}$ is the mean fluid temperature. This turbulent convective flux is well-known in the astrophysical and geophysical literature, and it cannot be used as a turbulent flux in the equation for the mean entropy. This result is exact for low-Mach-number temperature stratified turbulence and is independent of the model used. We also derive equa...
2008-01-01
Theoretical relations that predict the transition from a stratified pattern to a slug pattern,including a onedimensional wave model that contains less empiricism than the commonly used Taitel-Dukler model,and the ideal model for stratified flow for the gas-liquid flow in horizontal pipes are presented.Superficial velocities of each phase,as the onset of slugging occurs,were predicted,and theoretical analysis was conducted on the stratified to slug flow regime transition.The friction,existing between the fluid and pipe wall,and on the interface of two phases,was especially taken into account.A theoretical model was applied to an experiment about air-oil two-phase flow in a 50 mm horizontal pipe.The effect of pipe diameter on the transition was also studied.The results show that this approach gives a reasonable prediction over the whole range of flow rates,and better agreement has been achieved between predicted and measured critical parameters.
Asymmetric collapse by dissolution or melting in a uniform flow
Rycroft, Chris H
2015-01-01
An advection--diffusion-limited dissolution model of an object being eroded by a two-dimensional potential flow is presented. By taking advantage of the conformal invariance of the model, a numerical method is introduced that tracks the evolution of the object boundary in terms of a time-dependent Laurent series. Simulations of a variety of dissolving objects are shown, which shrink and then collapse to a single point in finite time. The simulations reveal a surprising exact relationship whereby the collapse point is the root of a non-analytic function given in terms of the flow velocity and the Laurent series coefficients describing the initial shape. This result is subsequently derived using residue calculus. The structure of the non-analytic function is examined for three different test cases, and a practical approach to determine the collapse point using a generalized Newton--Raphson root-finding algorithm is outlined. These examples also illustrate the possibility that the model breaks down in finite tim...
Analysis on Non-Uniform Flow in Steam Generator During Steady State Natural Circulation Cooling
Susyadi
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Investigation on non uniform flow behavior among U-tube in steam generator during natural circulation cooling has been conducted using RELAP5. The investigation is performed by modeling the steam generator into multi channel models, i.e. 9-tubes model. Two situations are implemented, high pressure and low pressure cases. Using partial model, the calculation simulates situation similar to the natural circulation test performed in LSTF. The imposed boundary conditions are flow rate, quality, pressure of the primary side, feed water temperature, steam generator liquid level, and pressure in the secondary side. Calculation result shows that simulation using model with nine tubes is capable to capture important non-uniform phenomena such as reverse flow, fill-and-dump, and stagnant vertical stratification. As a result of appropriate simulation of non uniform flow, the calculated steam generator outlet flow in the primary loop is stable as observed in the experiments. The results also clearly indicate the importance of simulation of non-uniform flow in predicting both the flow stability and heat transfer between the primary and secondary side. In addition, the history of transient plays important role on the selection of the flow distribution among tubes. © 2007 Atom Indonesia. All rights reserved
Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2013-01-01
Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography have been extensively studied in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. The upwind turbulence level, the atmospheric thermal stability and the shape of the topography as well as surface characteristics play important roles in turbulent transport of momentum and scalar fluxes. However, to the best of our knowledge, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been taken into account in laboratory simulations, particularly in wind-tunnel experiments. Extension of such studies in thermally-stratified wind tunnels will substantially advance our understanding of thermal stability effects on the physics of flow over complex topography. Additionally, high-resolution experimental data can be used for development of new parameterization of surface fluxes and validation of numerical models such as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). A series of experiments of neutral and thermally-stratified boundary-layer flows over a wall-mounted 2-D block were conducted at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory boundary-layer wind tunnel. The 2-D block, with a width to height ratio of 2:1, occupied the lowest 25% of the turbulent boundary layer. Stable and convective boundary layers were simulated by independently controlling the temperature of air flow, the test section floor, and the wall-mounted block surfaces. Measurements using high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), x-wire/cold-wire anemometry, thermal-couples and surface heat flux sensors were made to quantify the turbulent properties and surface fluxes in distinct macroscopic flow regions, including the separation/recirculation zones, evolving shear layer and the asymptotic far wake. Emphasis will be put on addressing thermal stability effects on the spatial distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalar from the near to far wake region. Terms of the TKE budget equation are also inferred from measurements and
Chu, In Cheol; Yu, Seon Oh; Chun, Moon Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byong Sup; Kim, Yang Seok; Kim, In Hwan; Lee, Sang Won [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
An interfacial condensation heat transfer phenomenon in a steam/water countercurrent stratified flow in a nearly horizontal pipe has been experimentally investigated. The present study has been focused on the measurement of the temperature and velocity distributions within the water layer. In particular, the water layer thickness used in the present work is large enough so that the turbulent mixing is limited and the thermal stratification is established. As a result, the thermal resistance of the water layer to the condensation heat transfer is increased significantly. An empirical correlation of the interfacial condensation heat transfer has been developed. The present correlation agrees with the data within {+-} 15%. 5 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
Irreversible Flow of Particle Suspensions with Non-uniform Strain
Gollub, J. P.; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Ross, Andrew S.
2010-03-01
Despite the time reversibility of their governing equations (Stokes equations), particle trajectories in concentrated, periodically-sheared suspensions are irreversible above a critical strain amplitude [Pine et al., Nature (2005)]. Many-body interactions between particles are responsible for the chaotic dynamics, and a phase transition is observed between reversible and irreversible states [Corte et al., Nature Physics (2008)]. We extend previous experiments to a system with inhomogeneous strain: an oscillatory, rectangular channel flow. Deviations from reversible particle trajectories are parameterized by the mean square particle displacements sampled once per cycle, and by the particle fluctuation relaxation time, studied as a function of strain amplitude. We find that irreversibility increases roughly exponentially with the wall strain, and strikingly, the particle motions across the entire channel become irreversible simultaneously, despite the spatially varying strain. Random particle motion and shear-induced migration apparently produce reorganization of the suspension leading to a global onset of irreversibility.
Trailing edge noise theory for rotating blades in uniform flow
Sinayoko, Samuel; Agarwal, Anurag
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new formulation for trailing edge noise radiation from rotating blades based on an analytical solution of the convective wave equation. It accounts for distributed loading and the effect of mean flow and spanwise wavenumber. A commonly used theory due to Schlinker and Amiet (1981) predicts trailing edge noise radiation from rotating blades. However, different versions of the theory exist; it is not known which version is the correct one and what the range of validity of the theory is. This paper addresses both questions by deriving Schlinker and Amiet's theory in a simple way and by comparing it to the new formulation, using model blade elements representative of a wind turbine, a cooling fan and an aircraft propeller. The correct form of Schlinker and Amiet's theory (1981) is identified. It is valid at high enough frequency, i.e. for a Helmholtz number relative to chord greater than one and a rotational frequency much smaller than the angular frequency of the noise sources.
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
Controlled uniform coating from the interplay of Marangoni flows and surface-adsorbed macromolecules
Kim, Hyoungsoo; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Button, Ernie; Stone, Howard A
2016-01-01
Surface coatings and patterning technologies are essential for various physicochemical applications. In this Letter, we describe key parameters to achieve uniform particle coatings in binary solutions: First, multiple sequential Marangoni flows, set by solute and surfactant simultaneously, prevent non-uniform particle distributions and continuously mix suspended materials during droplet evaporation. Second, we show the importance of particle-surface interactions that can be established by surface-adsorbed macromolecules. To achieve a uniform deposit in a binary mixture a small concentration of surfactant and surface-adsorbed polymer (0.05 wt% each) is sufficient, which offers a new physicochemical avenue for control of coatings.
Lam Ghai Lim
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
Loganathan Parasuraman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out to investigate the influence of combined effects of MHD, suction and radiation on forced convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet, embedded in a thermally stratified medium. The governing boundary layer equations of the problem are formulated and transformed into ordinary differential equations, using a similarity transformation. The resulting ordinary differential equations are solved numerically, by the shooting method. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied and discussed in detail. Different types of nanoparticles, namely, Cu, Ag, Al2O3 and TiO2, with water as the base fluid, are studied. It is found that the effects of the radiation parameter, volume fraction and suction are same on the temperature profiles, in contrast to the effects of the thermal stratification. Comparisons with previously published works are performed in some special cases, and found to be in good agreement.
A k-Model for Stably Stratified Nearly Horizontal Turbulent Flows
Kranenburg, C.
1985-01-01
A k-model is formulated that consists of the turbulent kinetic energy equation and an algebraic expression for the mixing length taking into account the influence of stratification. Applicability of the model is restricted to shallow, nearly horizontal flows. For local-equilibrium flows the model re
A kinetic theory treatment of heat transfer in plane Poiseuille flow with uniform pressure
Bahrami, Parviz A.
1992-01-01
Plane compressible Poiseuille flow with uniform pressure (Couette flow with stationary boundaries) is revisited where the Lees two-steam method with the Enskog equation of change is applied. Single particle velocity distribution functions are chosen, which preserve the essential physical features of this flow with arbitrary but uniform plate temperatures and gas pressure. Lower moments are shown to lead to expressions for the parameter functions, molecular number densities, and temperatures which are entirely in agreement with those obtained in the analysis of Lees for compressible plane Couette flow in the limit of low Mach number and vanishing mean gas velocity. Important simplifications result, which are helpful in gaining insight into the power of kinetic theory in fluid mechanics. The temperature distribution, heat flux, as well as density, are completely determined for the whole range of Knudson numbers from free molecular flow to the continuum regime, when the pressure level is specified.
Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Joalland, Baptiste; Mebel, Alexander M.; Suits, Arthur
2016-06-01
Chirped - Pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in uniform supersonic flows (Chirped- Pulse/Uniform Flow: CPUF) has been applied to study the photodissociation of two atmospherically relevant N containing heterocyclic compounds; pyridine and isoxazole. Products were detected using rotational spectroscopy. HC3N, HCN were observed for pyridine and CH3CN, HCO and HCN were observed for isoxazole and we report the first detection of HNC for both of the systems. Key points in potential energy surface were explored and compared with the experimental observations. Branching ratios were calculated for all the possible channels and will be presented.
Investigations of non-hydrostatic, stably stratified and rapidly rotating flows
Nieves, David; Juilen, Keith; Weiss, Jeffrey B
2016-01-01
We present an investigation of rapidly rotating (small Rossby number $Ro\\ll 1$) and stratified turbulence where the stratification strength is varied from weak (large Froude number $Fr\\gg1$) to strong ($Fr\\ll1$). The investigation is set in the context of a reduced model derived from the Boussinesq equations that efficiently retains anisotropic inertia-gravity waves with order-one frequencies and highlights a regime of wave-eddy interactions. Numerical simulations of the reduced model are performed where energy is injected by a stochastic forcing of vertical velocity, which forces wave modes only. The simulations reveal two regimes characterized by the presence of well-formed, persistent and thin turbulent layers of locally-weakened stratification at small Froude numbers, and by the absence of layers at large Froude numbers. Both regimes are characterized by a large-scale barotropic dipole enclosed by small-scale turbulence. When the Reynolds number is not too large a direct cascade of barotropic kinetic ener...
Suppression of stratified explosive interactions
Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics
1998-01-01
Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)
Computation of Viscous Uniform and Shear Flow over A Circular Cylinder by A Finite Element Method
赵明; 滕斌
2004-01-01
The incompressible viscous uniform and shear flow past a circular cylinder is studied. The two-dimensional NavierStokes equations are solved by a finite element method. The governing equations are discretized by a weighted residual method in space. The stable three-step scheme is applied to the momentum equations in the time integration. The numerical model is firstly applied to the computation of the lid-driven cavity flow for its validation. The computed results agree well with the measured data and other numerical results. Then, it is used to simulate the viscous uniform and shear flow over a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000. The transient time interval before the vortex shedding occurs is shortened considerably by introduction of artificial perturbation. The computed Strouhal number, drag and lift coefficients agree well with the experimental data. The computation shows that the finite element model can be successfully applied to the viscous flow problem.
Study of shear-thinning/thickening effects on plane Couette-Poiseuille flow with uniform crossflow
刘玉泉; 朱克勤
2014-01-01
The shear-thinning/thickening effects on the plane Couette-Poiseuille flow with a uniform crossflow are studied. The detailed solution procedures for both theo-retical and numerical purposes are given. In order to clarify the difference between the Newtonian flow and the power-law flow, all cases of the plane Couette-Poiseuille flows with uniform crossflows for different power indexes are assigned to the phase diagram in the parameter plane corresponding to the Couette number and the crossflow Reynolds number. The effects of shear-thinning/thickening on the phase diagram are discussed. An important feature of the shear-thinning circumstance distinguished from the shear-thickening circumstance is discovered.
Modelling of stratified flows in the problem of the morphological behaviour of a sandpit
Parshakova, Ya N.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Ivantsov, A. O.
2016-02-01
The problem of the removal of brines from underwater sand pits is studied. The intensity of the removal of brines from the pits due to the changes in the hydrological regime of the river is calculated in three-dimensional approach. It is found that for the flow rates typical for the summer, the removal of brines collected in underwater pits does not occur. At flow rates typical for the spring, there is a fairly intensive removal of accumulated brines. Numerical experiments have shown that the underwater pits can serve as brines batteries, becoming an additional source of river pollution under certain hydrological conditions.
Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.; Antoniadis, Panagiotis D.
2015-11-01
In this talk we are concerned with thermally stratified flows at the interface between superposed porous and pure-fluid layers. In our study we employ a thermo-mechanical model for the flows of interest that was recently developed by our team. According to this model, both the fluid and the solid matrix are treated as two separate and identifiable continua that are in thermal non-equilibrium with each other. This allows for the derivation of a single set of equations that are simultaneously valid both in the porous and pure-fluid regions. First, we briefly present the basic steps of the derivation of the mathematical model and describe an algorithm for its numerical treatment. Then, we present and discuss numerical results for transient shear flows in the domains of interest, under both stable and unstable thermal stratification. Emphasis is placed on the effects of buoyancy to the evolution of the flow structures at the interface and on the mechanisms that induce thermal non-equilibrium inside the porous medium. This work is supported by the National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Belgium.
Convective MHD Oscillatory Flow past a Uniformly Moving Infinite Vertical Plate
N. Ahmed
1992-01-01
Full Text Available The convective magnetohydrodynamic flow past a uniformly moving infinite vertical plate, with the magnetic field and the suction velocity applied normal to the plate has been analysed. Presence of heat source or sink has also been considered. The findings are expected to throw light on some problems of defence applications in the areas of aeronautical designs and also flow and heat transfer problems of a chemically reacting fluid.
Turbulence of non-uniform open channel flows and mean velocity scaling
Stewart, R.; Fox, J.
2014-12-01
Turbulence and mean velocity distributions are well studied for uniform flows, however fully turbulent non-uniform open channel flows over rough gravel beds are an understudied class of realistic flows with significant geomorphologic importance. The two-fold objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of flow deceleration on multi-layer turbulence and determine velocity scales that produce self-similar profiles using turbulent boundary layer theory. Turbulence statistics were calculated from data collected using a three-dimensional acoustic Doppler velocimeter in backwater region produced by placing cylindrical obstruction downstream of measuring location. Results indicate inner turbulent processes are set according to shear velocity while outer layer of turbulence is not. Mean streamwise velocity profiles of 101 published datasets including 2211 data points from non-uniform decelerating rivers and laboratory flumes are scaled using inner, outer and 2 mixed methods. Theoretical arguments indicate the outer velocity scale determined from the AIP definition of equilibrium provides a more appropriate scaling for the velocity deficit of non-uniform open channel flows than inner scaling determined from Clauser equilibrium. Scaling results of mean profiles show outer scaling collapses data better than inner scaling. Mixed scaling approaches, which account for upstream conditions and the effect of bed roughness felt throughout the flow, provide a better scaling choice for this class of flows than either inner or outer scales alone. Results of this analysis provide insight on the behavior of turbulence in decelerating fully turbulent open channel flow over a rough gravel bed and provides a scaling useful for predicting velocity distributions.
Fabric inlet stratifiers for solar tanks with different volume flow rates
Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon
2006-01-01
in the centre of a glass tank (400 x 400 x 900 mm). The forced volume flow rate is in the range of 6 – 10 l/min, and water enters the stratification pipe from the bottom of the tank. The thermal behaviour of the stratification pipes is investigated for different realistic operation conditions...
Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip
Ghosh, Sukhendu
2016-01-01
The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed lay...
Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip
Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.
2016-10-01
The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed layer) when the mixed layer is away/close from/to the slippery inclined wall. The trend of slip effect is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid, and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. The stabilizing characteristics of slip can be favourably used to suppress the non-linear breakdown which may happen due to the coexistence of the unstable modes in a flow over a substrate with no slip. The results of the present study suggest that it is desirable to design a slippery surface with appropriate slip sensitivity in order to meet a particular need for a specific application.
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations (Bio
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations (Bio
Developed ‘laminar’ bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes
无
2001-01-01
Bubbles with different sizes have different dynamic and kineticbehavior in a two-phase bubbly flow. A common two-fluid model based on the uniform bubble size assumption is not suitable for a bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes. To deal with non-uniform bubbly flows, a multi-fluid model is established, with which bubbles are divided into several groups according to their sizes and a set of basic equations is derived for each group of bubbles with almost the same size. Through analyzing the bubble-bubble and bubble-pipe wall interactions, two new constitutive laws for the wall-force and pressure difference between the liquid phase and interface are developed to close the averaged basic equations. The respective phase distributions for each group of bubbles measured by a specially designed three-dimensional photographic method are used to check the model. Comparison between model-predicted values and experimental data shows that the model can describe laminar bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes.
A boundary element model for lined circular ducts with uniform flow
Juhl, Peter Møller
1996-01-01
A boundary element method has been developed for predicting the acoustics in a circular duct in which a uniform flow propagates. Such a model may be used to predict the performance of different liner designs for inlets of turbo fan engines, which is important for the aeronautics industry...
Free-surface flow of liquid oxygen under non-uniform magnetic field
Bao, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Rui-Ping; Wang, Kai; Zhi, Xiao-Qin; Qiu, Li-Min
2017-01-01
The paramagnetic property of oxygen makes it possible to control the two-phase flow at cryogenic temperatures by non-uniform magnetic fields. The free-surface flow of vapor-liquid oxygen in a rectangular channel was numerically studied using the two-dimensional phase field method. The effects of magnetic flux density and inlet velocity on the interface deformation, flow pattern and pressure drop were systematically revealed. The liquid level near the high-magnetic channel center was lifted upward by the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The interface height difference increased almost linearly with the magnetic force. For all inlet velocities, pressure drop under 0.25 T was reduced by 7-9% due to the expanded local cross-sectional area, compared to that without magnetic field. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of employing non-uniform magnetic field to control the free-surface flow of liquid oxygen. This non-contact method may be used for promoting the interface renewal, reducing the flow resistance, and improving the flow uniformity in the cryogenic distillation column, which may provide a potential for enhancing the operating efficiency of cryogenic air separation.
Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I
2011-01-01
In this paper we advance physical background of the EFB turbulence closure and present its comprehensive description. It is based on four budget equations for the second moments: turbulent kinetic and potential energies (TKE and TPE) and vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy; a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time-scale; and advanced concept of the inter-component exchange of TKE. The EFB closure is designed for stratified, rotating geophysical flows from neutral to very stable. In accordance to modern experimental evidence, it grants maintaining turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at Ri 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr_T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri that implies strong suppressing of the heat transfer compared to momentum transfer. For use in different applications, the EFB turbulence closure is formulated a...
Ababou, R.
1991-08-01
This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs.
Restricted Equilibrium and the Energy Cascade in Rotating and Stratified Flows
Herbert, Corentin; Marino, Raffaele
2014-01-01
Most of the turbulent flows appearing in nature (e.g. geophysical and astrophysical flows) are subjected to strong rotation and stratification. These effects break the symmetries of classical, homogenous isotropic turbulence. In doing so, they introduce a natural decomposition of phase space in terms of wave modes and potential vorticity modes. The appearance of a new time scale associated to the propagation of waves, in addition to the eddy turnover time, increases the complexity of the energy transfers between the various scales; nonlinearly interacting waves may dominate at some scales while balanced motion may prevail at others. In the end, it is difficult to predict \\emph{a priori} if the energy cascades downscale as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, upscale as expected from balanced dynamics, or follows yet another phenomenology. In this paper, we suggest a theoretical approach based on equilibrium statistical mechanics for the ideal system, inspired from the restricted partition function formalism i...
Sid, Samir; Terrapon, Vincent; Dubief, Yves
2015-11-01
Results of direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows under unstable stratification are reported. Two Reynolds number are considered: Reτ = 180 , 395 and the Rayleigh number ranges between Ra = [106 -109 ] . The Prandtl number is set to 1. The channel is periodic in both streamwise and spanwise directions and non-slip/isothermal boundary conditions are imposed at the walls. The temperature difference between the walls is set so that the stratification is unstable and the coupling between temperature and momentum is achieved using the Boussinesq approximation. The dependency of the typical large scale convective structures on both Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers are investigated through cross flow sectional statistics and instantaneous flow field visualizations. Moreover, the effects of the natural convection on the coherent structures associated to the cycle of wall-bounded turbulence (Jimenez, et al. JFM 1999), namely velocity streaks and streamwise vortices, are examined. Finally, macroscopic quantities such as friction coefficient and Nusselt number are reported as a function of the Rayleigh number and are compared for both Reynolds numbers. The Belgian Team acknowledges computational resources from CÉCI (F.R.S.-FNRS grant No.2.5020.11) and the PRACE infrastructure. YD acknowledges the support of NSF and DOE under grant NSF/DOE 1258697.
A Computer Method of Steady Non-Uniform Gradually Varied Flow in Open Channel & in River
无
1999-01-01
Most of water flow in open channel or in river belongs to steady non-uniform flow. The surface profiles are caused by changes of channel section. It is very important to analyze its computation. According to the regularity of its surface change, the suitable sectional dimensions of open channel or flood control work can be designed. Commonly, computation of non-uniform flow adopts the traditional methods by hand or by graphic method. The speed and precision of computation are restricted. In this paper, a software to calculate water surface profile is introduced. The software is put forward by using C++ .By means of interpolate method and dialogue between user and computer, we can calculate the water surface profile much more quickly and exactly.
Comparative studies of hemoperfusion devices. II. Pressure drop and flow uniformity tests.
Cooney, D O; Infantolino, W; Kane, R
1979-01-01
One resin-based hemoperfusion device and three charcoal-based hemoperfusion devices were tested to determine their pressure drop and flow uniformity characteristics. Measurements were made on pressure drop versus flow rate using distilled water and on pressure drop versus time using bovine blood. Effluent concentration curves obtained after the step-change introduction of a high molecular weight dye solution to each unit were used to determine the priming volumes of the devices and were interpreted to yield information regarding the uniformities of flow in each device. The pressure drop and priming volume values for the resin-based device were significantly higher than the corresponding values for the charcoal-based units.
Theoretical study of motion of small spherical air bubbles in a uniform shear flow of water
Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sin [School of Energy Systems Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
A simple Couette flow velocity profile with an appropriate correlation for the free terminal rise velocity of a single bubble in a quiescent liquid can produce reliable results for the trajectories of small spherical air bubbles in a low-viscosity liquid (water) provided the liquid remains under uniform shear flow. Comparison of the model adopted in this paper with published results has been accomplished. Based on this study it has also been found that the lift coefficient in water is higher than its typical value in a high-viscosity liquid and therefore a modified correlation for the lift coefficient in a uniform shear flow of water within the regime of the Eoetvoes number 0:305 ≤ Eo ≤ 1:22 is also presented.
Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Indarto,
2015-01-01
In the chemical, petroleum and nuclear industries, pipelines are often used to transport fluids from one process site to another one. The understanding of the fluids behavior inside the pipelines is the most important consideration for the engineers and scientists. From the previous studies, there are several two-phase flow patterns in horizontal pipe. One of them is stratified flow pattern, which is characterized by the liquid flowing along the bottom of the pipe and the gas moving above it cocurrently. Another flow patterns are slug and plug flow patterns. This kind of flow triggers the damage in pipelines, such as corrosion, abrasion, and blasting pipe. Therefore, slug and plug flow patterns are undesirable in pipelines, and the flow is maintained at the stratified flow condition for safety reason. In this paper, the analytical-based study on the experiment of the stratified flow pattern in a 26 mm i.d. horizontal pipe is presented. The experiment is performed to develop a high quality database of the stra...
Oldham, James M; Abeysekera, Chamara; Joalland, Baptiste; Zack, Lindsay N; Prozument, Kirill; Sims, Ian R; Park, G Barratt; Field, Robert W; Suits, Arthur G
2014-10-21
We report the development of a new instrument that combines chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy with a pulsed uniform supersonic flow. This combination promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver isomer and conformer specific, quantitative detection and spectroscopic characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates, product vibrational distributions, and molecular excited states. This first paper in a series of two presents a new pulsed-flow design, at the heart of which is a fast, high-throughput pulsed valve driven by a piezoelectric stack actuator. Uniform flows at temperatures as low as 20 K were readily achieved with only modest pumping requirements, as demonstrated by impact pressure measurements and pure rotational spectroscopy. The proposed technique will be suitable for application in diverse fields including fundamental studies in spectroscopy, kinetics, and reaction dynamics.
Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank
Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan
2005-01-01
are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...... performance and for the excellent utilization of the solar radiation is the high hot-water consumption and the good system design making use of external heat exchangers and stratification inlet pipes....
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady MHD flow of viscous fluid between two parallel rotating disks. Fluid fills the porous space. Energy equation has been constructed by taking Joule heating, thermal stratification and radiation effects into consideration. We convert system of partial differential equations into system of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations after employing the suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Behavior of different involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles is examined graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and inspected. It is found that tangential velocity profile is increasing function of rotational parameter. Fluid temperature reduces for increasing values of thermal stratification parameter. At upper disk heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Eckert and Prandtl numbers.
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the unsteady MHD flow of viscous fluid between two parallel rotating disks. Fluid fills the porous space. Energy equation has been constructed by taking Joule heating, thermal stratification and radiation effects into consideration. We convert system of partial differential equations into system of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations after employing the suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Behavior of different involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles is examined graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and inspected. It is found that tangential velocity profile is increasing function of rotational parameter. Fluid temperature reduces for increasing values of thermal stratification parameter. At upper disk heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Eckert and Prandtl numbers.
Turbulence energetics in stably stratified geophysical flows: strong and weak mixing regimes
Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I; Mauritsen, T; Miles, M W
2008-01-01
Traditionally, turbulence energetics is characterized by turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and modelled using solely the TKE budget equation. In stable stratification, TKE is generated by the velocity shear and expended through viscous dissipation and work against buoyancy forces. The effect of stratification is characterized by the ratio of the buoyancy gradient to squared shear, called Richardson number, Ri. It is widely believed that at Ri exceeding a critical value, Ric, local shear cannot maintain turbulence, and the flow becomes laminar. We revise this concept by extending the energy analysis to turbulent potential and total energies (TPE and TTE = TKE + TPE), consider their budget equations, and conclude that TTE is a conservative parameter maintained by shear in any stratification. Hence there is no "energetics Ric", in contrast to the hydrodynamic-instability threshold, Ric-instability, whose typical values vary from 0.25 to 1. We demonstrate that this interval, 0.25>1, clarify principal difference betw...
Upscaling of Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Stratified Reservoirs
Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2011-01-01
forces and gravity may be neglected. The method is discussed on the example of its basic application: waterflooding in petroleum reservoirs. We apply asymptotic analysis to a system of two-dimensional (2D) mass conservation equations for incompressible fluids. For high anisotropy ratios, the pressure...... gradient in vertical direction may be set zero, which is the only assumption of our derivation. In this way, the 2D Buckley–Leverett problem may be reduced to a one-dimensional problem for a system of quasi-linear hyperbolic equations, of a number equal to the number of layers in the reservoir....... They are solved numerically, based on an upstream finite difference algorithm. Self-similarity of the solution makes it possible to compute pseudofractional flow functions depending on the average saturation. The computer partial differential equation solver COMSOL is used for comparison of the complete 2D...
Vallee, Christophe
2012-08-22
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at different test facilities with horizontal test sections in order to provide an experimental database for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These channels were designed with rectangular cross-sections to enable optimal observation conditions for the application of optical measurement techniques. Consequently, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera, delivering data with highresolution in space and time as needed for CFD code validation. Generic investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two air/water channels made of acrylic glass. Divers preliminary experiments were conducted with various measuring systems in a test section mounted between two separators. The second test facility, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), is dedicated to co-current flow investigations. The hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was studied in this closed channel. Moreover, the instable wave growth leading to slug flow was investigated from the test section inlet. For quantitative analysis of the optical measurements, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames, allowing statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. The third test apparatus was installed in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility in order to be operated at reactor typical conditions under pressure equilibrium with the vessel atmosphere. The test section representing a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor (PWR) scaled at 1:3 is equipped with large glass side walls in the region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber to allow visual observations. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and water at
Capponi, A.; James, M. R.; Lane, S. J.
2016-02-01
The canonical Strombolian paradigm of a gas slug ascending and bursting in a homogeneous low-viscosity magma cannot explain the complex details in eruptive dynamics recently revealed by field measurements and textural and geochemical analyses. Evidence points to the existence of high-viscosity magma at the top of the conduit of Strombolian-type volcanoes, acting as a plug. Here, new experiments detail the range of flow configurations that develop during the ascent and burst of a slug through rheologically stratified magma within a conduit. End-member scenarios of a tube fully filled with either high- or low-viscosity liquid bracket three main flow configurations: (1) a plug sufficiently large to fully accommodate an ascending gas slug; (2) A plug that can accommodate the intrusion of low-viscosity liquid driven by the gas expansion, but not all the slug volume, so the slug bursts with the nose in the plug whilst the base is still in the low-viscosity liquid; (3) Gas expansion is sufficient to drive the intrusion of low-viscosity liquid through the plug, with the slug bursting in the low-viscosity layer emplaced dynamically above the plug. We show that the same flow configurations are viable at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results demonstrate that the key parameters controlling the transition between each configuration are gas volume, plug thickness and plug viscosity. The flow processes identified include effective dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, instabilities within the falling magma film, transient partial and complete blockage of the conduit, and slug disruption. These complexities influence eruption dynamics and vigour, promoting magma mingling and resulting in pulsatory release of gas.
Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Esau, I.
2013-03-01
Here we advance the physical background of the energy- and flux-budget turbulence closures based on the budget equations for the turbulent kinetic and potential energies and turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy, and a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time scale. The closure is designed for stratified geophysical flows from neutral to very stable and accounts for the Earth's rotation. In accordance with modern experimental evidence, the closure implies the maintaining of turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at {Ri ≪ 1} typical of boundary-layer flows and characterized by the practically constant turbulent Prandtl number Pr T; and "weak turbulence" at Ri > 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri (which implies very strong suppression of the heat transfer compared to the momentum transfer). For use in different applications, the closure is formulated at different levels of complexity, from the local algebraic model relevant to the steady-state regime of turbulence to a hierarchy of non-local closures including simpler down-gradient models, presented in terms of the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity, and a general non-gradient model based on prognostic equations for all the basic parameters of turbulence including turbulent fluxes.
Microbridge structures for uniform interval control of flowing droplets in microfluidic networks
Lee, Do-Hyun; Lee, Wonhye; Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun
2011-01-01
Precise temporal control of microfluidic droplets such as synchronization and combinatorial pairing of droplets is required to achieve a variety range of chemical and biochemical reactions inside microfluidic networks. Here, we present a facile and robust microfluidic platform enabling uniform interval control of flowing droplets for the precise temporal synchronization and pairing of picoliter droplets with a reagent. By incorporating microbridge structures interconnecting the droplet-carryi...
Simulation of flexible filaments in a uniform flow by the immersed boundary method
Huang, Wei-Xi; Shin, Soo Jai; Sung, Hyung Jin
2007-10-01
An improved version of the immersed boundary (IB) method is developed for simulating flexible filaments in a uniform flow. The proposed IB method is based on an efficient Navier-Stokes solver adopting the fractional step method and a staggered Cartesian grid system. The fluid motion defined on an Eulerian grid and the filament motion defined on a Lagrangian grid are independently solved and their interaction force is explicitly calculated using a feedback law. A direct numerical method is developed to calculate the filament motion under the constraint of inextensibility. When applied to the case of a swinging filament analogous to a rope pendulum, the proposed method gave results very similar to those of the analytical solution derived using the perturbation method. For a flexible filament flapping in a uniform flow, the mechanism by which small vortex processions are produced was investigated. The bistable property of the system was observed by altering the filament length, and the effects of the boundary condition at the fixed end (simply supported or clamped) were studied. For two side-by-side filaments in a uniform flow, both in-phase flapping and out-of-phase flapping were reproduced in the present simulations. A repulsive force was included in the formulation to handle collisions between the free ends of side-by-side filaments undergoing out-of-phase flapping.
Schneiderman, Steven; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Zhang, Lifeng; Fong, Hao; Menkhaus, Todd J
2011-12-23
A mathematical model has been investigated to predict protein breakthrough during membrane adsorption/chromatography operations. The new model incorporates a non-uniform boundary condition at the column inlet to help describe the deviation from plug flow within real membrane adsorption devices. The model provides estimated breakthrough profiles of a binding protein while explicitly accounting for non-uniform flow at the inlet of the separation operation by modeling the flow distribution by a polynomial. We have explored experimental breakthrough curves produced using commercial membrane adsorption devices, as well as novel adsorption media of nanolayered nanofiber membranes, and compare them to model predictions. Further, the impact of using various simplifying assumptions is considered, which can have a dramatic effect on the accuracy and predictive ability of the proposed models. The new model, using only simple batch equilibrium and kinetic uptake rate data, along with membrane properties, is able to accurately predict the non-uniform and unsymmetrical shape for protein breakthrough during operation of membrane adsorption/chromatography devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Microbridge structures for uniform interval control of flowing droplets in microfluidic networks.
Lee, Do-Hyun; Lee, Wonhye; Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun
2011-09-01
Precise temporal control of microfluidic droplets such as synchronization and combinatorial pairing of droplets is required to achieve a variety range of chemical and biochemical reactions inside microfluidic networks. Here, we present a facile and robust microfluidic platform enabling uniform interval control of flowing droplets for the precise temporal synchronization and pairing of picoliter droplets with a reagent. By incorporating microbridge structures interconnecting the droplet-carrying channel and the flow control channel, a fluidic pressure drop was derived between the two fluidic channels via the microbridge structures, reordering flowing droplets with a defined uniform interval. Through the adjustment of the control oil flow rate, the droplet intervals were flexibly and precisely adjustable. With this mechanism of droplet spacing, the gelation of the alginate droplets as well as control of the droplet interval was simultaneously achieved by additional control oil flow including calcified oleic acid. In addition, by parallel linking identical microfluidic modules with distinct sample inlet, controlled synchronization and pairing of two distinct droplets were demonstrated. This method is applicable to facilitate and develop many droplet-based microfluidic applications, including biological assay, combinatorial synthesis, and high-throughput screening.
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad [Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf, E-mail: hadiyan.y.kuntoro@mail.ugm.ac.id; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Deendarlianto, E-mail: deendarlianto@ugm.ac.id [Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K-1A Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Hudaya, Akhmad Zidni; Dinaryanto, Okto [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)
2016-06-03
Due to the importance of the two-phase flow researches for the industrial safety analysis, many researchers developed various methods and techniques to study the two-phase flow phenomena on the industrial cases, such as in the chemical, petroleum and nuclear industries cases. One of the developing methods and techniques is image processing technique. This technique is widely used in the two-phase flow researches due to the non-intrusive capability to process a lot of visualization data which are contain many complexities. Moreover, this technique allows to capture direct-visual information data of the flow which are difficult to be captured by other methods and techniques. The main objective of this paper is to present an improved algorithm of image processing technique from the preceding algorithm for the stratified flow cases. The present algorithm can measure the film thickness (h{sub L}) of stratified flow as well as the geometrical properties of the interfacial waves with lower processing time and random-access memory (RAM) usage than the preceding algorithm. Also, the measurement results are aimed to develop a high quality database of stratified flow which is scanty. In the present work, the measurement results had a satisfactory agreement with the previous works.
Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Hudaya, Akhmad Zidni; Dinaryanto, Okto; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Deendarlianto
2016-06-01
Due to the importance of the two-phase flow researches for the industrial safety analysis, many researchers developed various methods and techniques to study the two-phase flow phenomena on the industrial cases, such as in the chemical, petroleum and nuclear industries cases. One of the developing methods and techniques is image processing technique. This technique is widely used in the two-phase flow researches due to the non-intrusive capability to process a lot of visualization data which are contain many complexities. Moreover, this technique allows to capture direct-visual information data of the flow which are difficult to be captured by other methods and techniques. The main objective of this paper is to present an improved algorithm of image processing technique from the preceding algorithm for the stratified flow cases. The present algorithm can measure the film thickness (hL) of stratified flow as well as the geometrical properties of the interfacial waves with lower processing time and random-access memory (RAM) usage than the preceding algorithm. Also, the measurement results are aimed to develop a high quality database of stratified flow which is scanty. In the present work, the measurement results had a satisfactory agreement with the previous works.
de Castro, Marcelo Souza; Rodriguez, Oscar Mauricio Hernandez
2016-06-01
The study of the hydrodynamic stability of flow patterns is important in the design of equipment and pipelines for multiphase flows. The maintenance of a particular flow pattern becomes important in many applications, e.g., stratified flow pattern in heavy oil production avoiding the formation of emulsions because of the separation of phases and annular flow pattern in heat exchangers which increases the heat transfer coefficient. Flow maps are drawn to orientate engineers which flow pattern is present in a pipeline, for example. The ways how these flow maps are drawn have changed from totally experimental work, to phenomenological models, and then to stability analysis theories. In this work an experimental liquid-liquid flow map, with water and viscous oil as work fluids, drawn via subjective approach with high speed camera was used to compare to approaches of the same theory: the interfacial-tension-force model. This theory was used to drawn the wavy stratified flow pattern transition boundary. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches of the interfacial-tension-force model for transition boundaries of liquid-liquid flow patterns: (i) solving the wave equation for the wave speed and using average values for wave number and wave speed; and (ii) solving the same equation for the wave number and then using a correlation for the wave speed. The results show that the second approach presents better results.
Continuous-Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy in a Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flow
Thawoos, Shameemah; Suas-David, Nicolas; Suits, Arthur
2017-06-01
We introduce a new approach that couples a pulsed uniform supersonic flow with high sensitivity continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (UF-CRDS) operated in the near infrared (NIR). This combination is related to the CRESU technique developed in France and used for many years to study reaction kinetics at low temperature, and to the microwave based chirped-pulse uniform supersonic flow spectrometer (CPUF) developed in our group which has successfully demonstrated the use of pulsed uniform supersonic flow to probe reaction dynamics at temperatures as low as 22 K. CRDS operated with NIR permits access to the first overtones of C-H and O-H stretching/bending which, in combination with its extraordinary sensitivity opens new experiments complementary to the CPUF technique. The UF-CRDS apparatus (Figure) utilizes the pulsed uniform flow produced by means of a piezo-electric stack valve in combination with a Laval nozzle. At present, two machined aluminum Laval nozzles designed for carrier gases Ar and He generate flows with a temperature of approximately 25 K and pressure around 0.15 mbar. This flow is probed by an external cavity diode laser in the NIR (1280-1380 nm). Laval nozzles designed using a newly developed MATLAB-based program will be used in the future. A detailed illustration of the novel UF-CRDS instrumentation and its performance will be presented along with future directions and applications. I. Sims, J. L. Queffelec, A. Defrance, C. Rebrion-Rowe, D. Travers, P. Bocherel, B. Rowe, I. W. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 4229-4241, (1994). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, A. G. Suits, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599-1604, (2015). N. Suas-David, T. Vanfleteren, T. Foldes, S. Kassi, R. Georges, M. Herman, J. Phys. Chem.A, 119, 10022-10034, (2015). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, Y. Shi, A. Kamasah, J. M. Oldham, A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 116107, (2014).
Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Dinaryanto, Okto; Deendarlianto,; Indarto,
2015-01-01
Experimental series of stratified gas-liquid two-phase flows had been carried out in a 26 mm i.d. transparent acrylic horizontal pipe. The study was aimed to determine the interfacial wave characteristics of the flow and to develop a high quality database of it. The longitudinal section of the pipe was used as the reference section of image recording. Air and water were used as the test fluids, flowing co-currently inside the pipe. The flow behavior was recorded by using a high-speed video camera around 5 m in axial distance from the inlet pipe to ensure the fully-developed stratified gas-liquid two-phase flow. To correct the refraction due to the acrylic pipe, a correction box was employed in the visualization test section. The group of stratified smooth and wavy two-phase flows were successfully recorded and classified on the basis of the visualization study from 24 couples of test condition of superficial water and air velocities. Digital image processing technique was then used to perform quantitative ana...
On the stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow with uniform cross-flow
Guha, Anirban
2010-01-01
We present a detailed study of the linear stability of plane Couette-Poiseuille flow in the presence of a cross-flow. The base flow is characterised by the cross flow Reynolds number, $R_{inj}$ and the dimensionless wall velocity, $k$. Squire's transformation may be applied to the linear stability equations and we therefore consider 2D (spanwise-independent) perturbations. Corresponding to each dimensionless wall velocity, $k\\in[0,1]$, two ranges of $R_{inj}$ exist where unconditional stability is observed. In the lower range of $R_{inj}$, for modest $k$ we have a stabilisation of long wavelengths leading to a cut-off $R_{inj}$. This lower cut-off results from skewing of the velocity profile away from a Poiseuille profile, shifting of the critical layers and the gradual decrease of energy production. Cross-flow stabilisation and Couette stabilisation appear to act via very similar mechanisms in this range, leading to the potential for robust compensatory design of flow stabilisation using either mechanism. As...
Accelerated micropolar fluid--flow past an uniformly rotating circular cylinder
Siddiqui, Abuzar Abid
2016-01-01
In this paper, we formulated the non-steady flow due to the uniformly accelerated and rotating circular cylinder from rest in a stationary, viscous, incompressible and micropolar fluid. This flow problem is examined numerically by adopting a special scheme comprising the Adams-Bashforth Temporal Fourier Series method and the Runge-Kutta Temporal Special Finite-Difference method. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equation for micropolar fluids for this problem into system of finite-difference equations. This system was further solved numerically by point SOR-method. These results were also further extrapolated by the Richardson extrapolation method. This scheme is valid for all values of the flow and fluid-parameters and for all time. Moreover the boundary conditions of the vorticity and the spin at points far from the cylinder are being imposed and encountered too. The results are compared with existing results (for non-rotating circular cylinder in Newtonian fluids). The comparison is good. The ...
Why do inverted-flags flap in a uniform steady flow?
Sader, John; Cossé, Julia; Kim, Daegyoum; Fan, Boyu; Gharib, Morteza
2016-11-01
The dynamics of a cantilevered elastic sheet, with a uniform steady flow impinging on its clamped-end, have been studied widely and provide insight into the stability of flags and biological phenomena. Recent measurements by Kim et al. show that reversing the sheet's orientation, with the flow impinging on its free-edge, dramatically alters its dynamics. In this talk, we use a combination of mathematical theory, scaling analysis and measurement to explore the physical mechanisms driving the observed large-amplitude flapping motion of an inverted-flag. Flapping is found to be periodic predominantly, with a transition to chaos as flow speed increases. These findings have implications to leaf motion and other biological processes, such as the dynamics of individual hairs, because they also can present an inverted-flag configuration. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea; Australian Research Council Grants scheme.
The Thermal Conductivity Theory of Non-uniform Granular Flow and the Mechanism Analysis
ZHANGDuan-Ming; LEIYa-Jie; YUBo-Ming; PANGui-Jun
2003-01-01
According to the fractal characteristics appearing in non-uniform granular system, we found the fractal model to study the effective thermal conductivity in the mixed system. Considering the quasi-equilibrium, we bring forward the fractal velocity probability distribution function. The equipartition of energy is employed to the non-uniform granular system, and the granular temperature is derived. We investigate the thermal conductivity in granular flow due to the movement of the particles, namely the heat transfer induced by the streaming mode only. The thermal conductivity in the mixed system changes with the fractal parameters such as the solid fraction v, structural character parameter η, and fractal dimension D of size distribution. These parameters depict the characteristics of the thermal conductivity in the actual complex granular system. Comparing our conclusion with the correlative experimental data and the theoretical conclusion of binary mixture of granular materials, the results can qualitatively confirm the generality of our prediction on the granular system.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-02-01
Ultrasonic flow meter with non-invasive no-moving-parts construction has good prospective application for space on-orbit fluid gauging. In traditional pulse transit time flow meter, inconsistency of ultrasonic transducers leads to measurement error and plane wave theory, bases of transit time flow meter, is valuable only for low-frequency wave propagation in inviscid fluid and will lose feasibility when fluid viscosity is considered. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamics of viscous fluid, wave propagation with uniform flow profile is mathematically formulated and a novel solution for viscous fluid using potential theory is firstly presented. Then a novel design methodology of continuous ultrasonic flow meter is proposed, where high measurement rangeability and accuracy are guaranteed individually by solving the integral ambiguity using multi-tone wide laning strategy and the fractional phase shift using phase lock loop tracking method. A comparison with transit time ultrasonic flow meter shows the advantage of proposed methodology. In the end, parametric analysis of viscosity on wave propagation and ultrasonic flow meter is compressively investigated.
Chang, Lei; Li, Qingchong; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Yinghong; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Bailing; Zhuang, Zhong
2016-08-01
The effect of the radial density configuration in terms of width, edge gradient and volume gradient on the wave field and energy flow in an axially uniform helicon plasma is studied in detail. A three-parameter function is employed to describe the density, covering uniform, parabolic, linear and Gaussian profiles. It finds that the fraction of power deposition near the plasma edge increases with density width and edge gradient, and decays in exponential and “bump-on-tail” profiles, respectively, away from the surface. The existence of a positive second-order derivative in the volume density configuration promotes the power deposition near the plasma core, which to our best knowledge has not been pointed out before. The transverse structures of wave field and current density remain almost the same during the variation of density width and gradient, confirming the robustness of the m=1 mode observed previously. However, the structure of the electric wave field changes significantly from a uniform density configuration, for which the coupling between the Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) mode and the helicon mode is very strong, to non-uniform ones. The energy flow in the cross section of helicon plasma is presented for the first time, and behaves sensitive to the density width and edge gradient but insensitive to the volume gradient. Interestingly, the radial distribution of power deposition resembles the radial profile of the axial component of current density, suggesting the control of the power deposition profile in the experiment by particularly designing the antenna geometry to excite a required axial current distribution. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405271)
M. Ali Abbas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Chen, Wen-Yau; Lai, Jeng-You; Young, D. L.
2010-11-01
Asymptotic and transient stability analyses of unbounded uniform granular shear flow at high solids volume fractions were carried out in the paper, based on a model composed of the viscoplastic constitutive law [P. Jop, Y. Forterre, and O. Pouliquen, Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] and the dilatancy law [O. Pouliquen et al., J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2006) P07020]. We refer to this model as the VPDL (meaning of the "viscoplastic and dilatancy laws") thereinafter. In this model, dense granular flows were treated as a viscoplastic fluid with a Drucker-Prager-like yielding criterion. We compared our results to those obtained using the frictional-kinetic model (FKM) [M. Alam and P. R. Nott, J. Fluid Mech. 343, 267 (1997)]. Our main result is that unbounded uniform dense granular shear flows are always asymptotically stable at large time based on the VPDL model, at least for two-dimensional perturbations. This is valid for disturbances of layering modes (i.e., the perturbations whose wavenumber vectors are aligned along the transverse coordinate) as well as for nonlayering modes (the streamwise component of the wavenumber vector is nonzero). By contrast, layering modes can be unstable based on the FKM constitutive laws. Interestingly, in the framework of the VPDL, the analysis shows that significant transient growth may occur owing to the non-normality of the linear system, although disturbances eventually decay at large time.
Cpuf: Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
Suits, Arthur; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Joalland, Baptiste; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian
2015-06-01
Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy has stimulated a resurgence of interest in rotational spectroscopy owing to the dramatic reduction in spectral acquisition time it enjoys when compared to cavity-based instruments. This suggests that it might be possible to adapt the method to study chemical reaction dynamics and even chemical kinetics using rotational spectroscopy. The great advantage of this would be clear, quantifiable spectroscopic signatures for polyatomic products as well as the possibility to identify and characterize new radical reaction products and transient intermediates. To achieve this, however, several conditions must be met: 1) products must be thermalized at low temperature to maximize the population difference needed to achieve adequate signal levels and to permit product quantification based on the rotational line strength; 2) a large density and volume of reaction products is also needed to achieve adequate signal levels; and 3) for kinetics studies, a uniform density and temperature is needed throughout the course of the reaction. These conditions are all happily met by the uniform supersonic flow produced from a Laval nozzle expansion. In collaboration with the Field group at MIT we have developed a new instrument we term a CPUF (Chirped-pulse/Uniform Flow) spectrometer in which we can study reaction dynamics, photochemistry and kinetics using broadband microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy as a product probe. We will illustrate the performance of the system with a few examples of photodissociation and reaction dynamics, and also discuss a number of challenges unique to the application of chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in the collisional environment of the flow. Future directions and opportunities for application of CPUF will also be explored.
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho
2011-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.
Tabi, C. B.; Motsumi, T. G.; Bansi Kamdem, C. D.; Mohamadou, A.
2017-08-01
A nonlinear model of blood flow in large vessels is addressed. The influence of radiations, viscosity and uniform magnetic fields on velocity and temperature distribution waveforms is studied. Exact solutions for the studied model are investigated through the F - expansion method. Based on the choice of parameter values, single-, multi-soliton and Jacobi elliptic function solutions are obtained. Viscosity and permanent magnetic field bring about wave spreading and reduce the velocity of blood, while radiations have reversed effects with strong impact on the waveform frequency of both the velocity and temperature distribution.
Haleh Kangarlou
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Ti films of the same thickness, deposition angle (near normal and deposition rate were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature under UHV conditions. Approach: Different annealing temperatures 423 K, 523 K and 623 K with uniform 7 cm3 sec-1, oxygen flow, were used to produce titanium oxide layers. Results: Thin film structures were studied using AFM, XRD and spectrophotometer methods. Roughness of the films changed due to annealing process. Conclusion/Recommendations: The getting property of Ti and annealing temperature can play an important role on the structure of the films.
Study on bed load transport for uniform sediment in laminar flow
无
2010-01-01
Previous studies focused on the bed load transport rate for the condition of turbulent flow,while the knowledge of sediment transport in laminar flow is very limited.As an extreme case to reflect the viscous effect on sediment transport,sediment transport in laminar flow is considered in this paper.There are at least two factors affecting the transport rate of sediment under laminar flow conditions: (1) fluid forces;(2) particle to particle interactions.Together,these two factors represent the physical transport system.First,an exposure degree Probability Density Function (PDF) is developed to explore how the transport rate can be associated with characteristics of laminar flow and this factor reflects the particle to particle interactions,and the pickup probability equation in the absence of turbulence is developed based on the stochastic approach which reflects the exposure degree influence.Then,the formulas to calculate the critical shear stress of incipient motion and the bed load transport rate of fine uniform sediment are established.The derivation is made mainly based on Einstein’s bed load theory;we choose Einstein’s equation to model this system because we believe that the probabilistic approach taken is an appropriate way to account for the spatial and temporal variations in the forces causing sediment transport.These formulas have been tested against a wide range of existing laboratory data and compared with other existing empirical or semiempirical methods.The predictions by these newly proposed formulas are very good.
Bed Slope Effect on Non-uniform Flow through Porous Media
Bhanu Prakasham Reddy, N.; Krishnaiah, S.; Ramakrishna Reddy, M.
2016-09-01
The tilting angle or bed slope (φ) effect on piezometric head was studied in a tilting angle converging permeameter for different rate of flows and for different bed slopes or tilting angles (φ) and the equipotential lines of piezometric head are depicted pictorially to establish the suitability of the convergent flow assumption and have a proper insight into the subject of seepage flow. The porosity effect is considered while computing seepage velocity (V), linear parameter, non-linear parameter, increases with decrease of porosity (N) and increases with decrease of angle of inclination. In order to meet the objective of this study, a crushed rock of size 7.30 mm was used as media and water as fluid, to develop curves relating friction factor (FR) and Reynolds number (RR) for different ratios of width using hydraulic radius (R) as characteristic length for different bed slopes or tilting angles (φ). The effect of varying tilting angles (φ) on head loss of fluid flow through porous media when packed between convergent boundaries for different ratios of width (B1/B2) was studied and inferred that tilting angles (φ) have a significant effect on the non uniform flow.
Uniform surface polished method of complex holes in abrasive flow machining
A-Cheng WANG; Lung TSAI; Kuo-Zoo LIANG; Chun-Ho LIU; Shi-Hong WENG
2009-01-01
Abrasive flow machining(AFM) is an effective method that can remove the recasting layer produced by wire electrical discharge machining(WEDM). However, the surface roughness will not be easily uniform when a complex hole is polished by this method. CFD numerical method is aided to design good passageways to find the smooth roughness on the complex hole in AFM. Through the present method, it reveals that the shear forces in the polishing process and the flow properties of the medium in AFM play the roles in controlling the roughness on the entire surface. A power law model was firstly set up by utilizing the effect of shear rates on the medium viscosities, and the coefficients of the power law would be found by solving the algebraic equation from the relations between the shear rates and viscosities. Then the velocities, strain rates and shear forces of the medium acting on the surface would be obtained in the constant pressure by CFD software. Finally, the optimal mold core put into the complex hole could be designed after these simulations. The results show that the shear forces and strain rates change sharply on the entire surface if no mold core is inserted into the complex hole, whereas they hardly make any difference when the core shape is similar to the complex hole. Three experimental types of mold core were used. The results demonstrate that the similar shape of the mold core inserted into the hole could find the uniform roughness on the surface.
Hydromagnetic Blood Flow of Sisko Fluid in a Non-uniform Channel Induced by Peristaltic Wave
Zeeshan, A.; Bhatti, M. M.; Akbar, N. S.; Sajjad, Y.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a smooth repetitive oscillating wave traveling down the elastic walls of a non-uniform two-dimensional channels is considered. It is assumed that the fluid is electrically conducting and a uniform magnetic field is perpendicular to flow. The Sisko fluid is grease thick non-Newtonian fluid can be considered equivalent to blood. Taking long wavelength and low Reynolds number, the equations are reduced. The analytical solution of the emerging non-linear differential equation is obtained by employing Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). The outcomes for dimensionless flow rate and dimensionless pressure rise have been computed numerically with respect to sundry concerning parameters amplitude ratio ϕ, Hartmann number M, and Sisko fluid parameter b 1. The behaviors for pressure rise and average friction have been discussed in details and displayed graphically. Numerical and graphical comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian has also been evaluated for velocity and pressure rise. It is observed that the magnitude of pressure rise is maximum in the middle of the channel whereas for higher values of fluid parameter it increases. Further, it is also found that the velocity profile shows converse behavior along the walls of the channel against multiple values of fluid parameter.
Om Ariara Guhan C.P.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Oval substrates are widely used in automobiles to reduce the exhaust emissions in Diesel oxidation Catalyst of CI engine. Because of constraints in space and packaging Oval substrate is preferred rather than round substrate. Obtaining the flow uniformity is very challenging in oval substrate comparing with round substrate. In this present work attempts are made to optimize the inlet cone design to achieve the optimal flow uniformity with the help of CATIA V5 which is 3D design tool and CFX which is 3D CFD tool. Initially length of inlet cone and mass flow rate of exhaust stream are analysed to understand the effects of flow uniformity and pressure drop. Then short straight cones and angled cones are designed. Angled cones have been designed by two methodologies. First methodology is rotating flow inlet plane along the substrate in shorter or longer axis. Second method is shifting the flow inlet plane along the longer axis. Large improvement in flow uniformity is observed when the flow inlet plane is shifted along the direction of longer axis by 10, 20 and 30 mm away from geometrical centre. When the inlet plane is rotated again based on 30 mm shifted geometry, significant improvement at rotation angle of 20° is observed. The flow uniformity is optimum when second shift is performed based on second rotation. This present work shows that for an oval substrate flow, uniformity index can be optimized when inlet cone is angled by rotation of flow inlet plane along axis of substrate.
Peristaltic flow in non-uniform vessels of the micro-circulatory system
Maiti, S
2013-01-01
Of concern in the paper is generalized a theoretical study concerning the peristaltic flow of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered to be of non-uniform cross-section and blood to be a non-Newtonian fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to the flow of physiological fluids. The non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is illustrated by considering the Herschel-Bulkley fluid model. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. Considerable quantitative differences between the results obtained for transport in two dimensional channel and an axisymmetric circular tube are noticed. The study shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shea...
Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)
2007-08-01
This paper presents continuum simulations of viscous polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for embossing tools having irregular spacings and sizes. Simulations varied non-uniform embossing tool geometry to distinguish geometric quantities governing cavity filling order, polymer peak deformation, and global mold filling times. A characteristic NIL velocity predicts cavity filling order. In general, small cavities fill more quickly than large cavities, while cavity spacing modulates polymer deformation mode. Individual cavity size, not total filling volume, dominates replication time, with large differences in individual cavity size resulting in non-uniform, squeeze flow filling. High density features can be modeled as a solid indenter in squeeze flow to accurately predict polymer flow and allow for optimization of wafer-scale replication. The present simulations make it possible to design imprint templates capable of distributing pressure evenly across the mold surface and facilitating symmetric polymer flow over large areas to prevent mold deformation and non-uniform residual layer thickness.
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim
2009-12-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2016-10-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2017-04-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Om Prakash; Devendra Kumar; Y K Dwivedi
2012-12-01
The paper investigates the effects of heat transfer in MHD flow of viscoelastic stratified fluid in porous medium on a parallel plate channel inclined at an angle . A laminar convection flow for incompressible conducting fluid is considered. It is assumed that the plates are kept at different temperatures which decay with time. The partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by perturbation technique. Expressions for the velocity of fluid and particle phases, temperature field, Nusselt number, skin friction and flow flux are obtained within the channel. The effects of various parameters like stratification factor, magnetic field parameter, Prandtl number on temperature field, heat transfer, skin friction, flow flux, velocity for both the fluid and particle phases are displayed through graphs and discussed numerically.
Yasuyuki Nishi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.
Chauchat, J.; Revil-Baudard, T.; Hurther, D.
2014-12-01
Sheet flow is believed to be a major process for morphological evolution of natural systems. An important research effort has been dedicated to laboratory and numerical studies of sheet flow regime that have allowed to make some progress in the understanding of the underlying physical processes. Recent advances made in high resolution measurement techniques allows to give new insights into the small scale physical processes. In this contribution, a novel uniform and steady sheet flow dataset based on an Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP) is presented. Profile of colocated velocities (streamwise and wall-normal) and sediment concentration has been measured at high-resolution (3 mm ; 78 Hz for the velocities and 4.9 Hz for the concentration). The measured profiles extend over the whole water column, from the free surface down to the fixed bed and an ensemble averaging over eleven realisations of the same experimental conditions has been used to obtain mean profiles of streamwise velocity, concentration, sediment flux and turbulent shear stress. The present experiment corresponds to a Shields number of θ=0.44 and a suspension number of ws/u*=1.1 corresponding to the lower limit of the no-suspension sheet flow regime. The analysis of the mixing length profile allows to identify two layers, a dilute suspension layer dominated by turbulence and a dense moving bed layer dominated by granular interactions. Our measurements show that the Von Karman parameter is reduced by a factor of more than two and that the Schmidt number is almost constant with a mean value of σs=0.44. Frictional and collisional interactions are encountered in the bed layer. Frictional interactions dominate close to the fixed bed interface whereas collisional interactions seems to control the flow at the transition between the dense and dilute layers. The relevancy of different constitutive laws for two-phase flow models are discussed.
Accelerated micropolar fluid-flow past an uniformly rotating circular cylinder
Siddiqui, Abuzar Abid
2016-10-01
In this paper, we formulated the non-steady flow due to the uniformly accelerated and rotating circular cylinder from rest in a stationary, viscous, incompressible and micropolar fluid. This flow problem is examined numerically by adopting a special scheme comprising the Adams-Bashforth Temporal Fourier Series method and the Runge-Kutta Temporal Special Finite-Difference method. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equation into a system of finite-difference equations. This system was further solved numerically by point successive-over-relaxation method. These results were also further extrapolated by the Richardson extrapolation method. This scheme is valid for all values of the flow and fluid-parameters and for all time. Moreover the boundary conditions of the vorticity and the spin at points far from the cylinder are being imposed and encountered too. The results are compared with existing results (for non-rotating circular cylinder in Newtonian fluids). The comparison is good. The enhancement of lift and reduction in drag is observed if the micropolarity effects are intensified. Same is happened if the rotation of a cylinder increases. Furthermore, the vortex-pair in the wake is delayed to successively higher times as rotation parameter increases. In addition, the rotation helps not only in dissolving vortices adjacent to the cylinder and adverse pressure region but also in dissolving the boundary layer separation. Furthermore, the rotation reduces the micropolar spin boundary layer.
Accelerated micropolar fluid–flow past an uniformly rotating circular cylinder
Abuzar Abid Siddiqui
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we formulated the non-steady flow due to the uniformly accelerated and rotating circular cylinder from rest in a stationary, viscous, incompressible and micropolar fluid. This flow problem is examined numerically by adopting a special scheme comprising the Adams-Bashforth Temporal Fourier Series method and the Runge-Kutta Temporal Special Finite-Difference method. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equation into a system of finite-difference equations. This system was further solved numerically by point successive-over-relaxation method. These results were also further extrapolated by the Richardson extrapolation method. This scheme is valid for all values of the flow and fluid-parameters and for all time. Moreover the boundary conditions of the vorticity and the spin at points far from the cylinder are being imposed and encountered too. The results are compared with existing results (for non-rotating circular cylinder in Newtonian fluids. The comparison is good. The enhancement of lift and reduction in drag is observed if the micropolarity effects are intensified. Same is happened if the rotation of a cylinder increases. Furthermore, the vortex-pair in the wake is delayed to successively higher times as rotation parameter increases. In addition, the rotation helps not only in dissolving vortices adjacent to the cylinder and adverse pressure region but also in dissolving the boundary layer separation. Furthermore, the rotation reduces the micropolar spin boundary layer.
Uniform flow around a square cylinder using the Self-induced angular Moment Method turbulence model
Johansson, Jens; Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Nielsen, Leif Otto
2012-01-01
The uniform flow around a square cylinder at Reynolds number 1e5 is simulated in a threedimensional domain by means of the newly developed Self-induced angular Moment Method, SMoM. The model does not utilize Reynolds averaging. No additional transport equations are introduced and no implicit...... or explicit filtering is performed. The model is, in all its simplicity, a modification of the classical constitutive equations of fluids to which a term is added that accounts for the transfer for angular momentum between parts of the fluid.The time-mean and fluctuating force coefficients, pressure...... distributions and velocity fields have been determined along with circumferential surface pressure correlations. All simulated quantities have been compared to experimental findings and state-of-the-art Large Eddy Simulations, LES. No LES simulations could be found in literature, which provided results...
Flapping states of an el astically anchored wing in a uniform flow
Orchini, A; Guerrero, J; Festa, R; Boragno, C
2012-01-01
Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored wing in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the wing by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between wing and fluid, spring elastic constant and distance between the wing center of mass and the spring anchor point on the wing. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number direct numerical simulations. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem which has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, w...
Propulsive performance of a passively flapping plate in a uniform flow
韩瑞; 张杰; 曹垒; 陆夕云
2015-01-01
Propulsive performance of a passively flapping plate in a uniform viscous flow has been studied numerically by means of a multiblock lattice Boltzmann method. The passively flapping plate is modeled by a rigid plate with a torsion spring acting about the pivot at the leading-edge of the plate, which is called a lumped-torsional-flexibility model. When the leading-edge is forced to take a vertical oscillation, the plate pitches passively due to the fluid-plate interaction. Based on our numerical simulations, various fundamental mechanisms dictating the propulsive performance, including the forces on the plate, power consumption, propulsive efficiency and vortical structures, have been studied. It is found that the torsional flexibility of the passively pitching plate can improve the propulsive performance. The results obtained in this study provide some physical insights into the understanding of the propulsive behaviors of swimming and flying animals.
Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress
Paterson, C.
2014-09-14
© 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-11-01
Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).
Characteristics of aerodynamic sound sources generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow
Matsumoto, H.; Nishida, K.; Saitoh, K.
2003-11-01
This study deals experimentally with aerodynamic sounds generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow. The coiled wire is a model of the hair dryer's heater. In the experiment, the effects of the coil diameter D, wire diameter d and coil spacing s of the coiled wire on the aerodynamic sound have been clarified. The results of frequency analyses of the aerodynamic sounds show that an Aeolian sound is generated by the coiled wire, when s/d is larger than 1. Also the peak frequencies of Aeolian sounds generated by the coiled wires are higher than the ones generated by a straight cylinder having the same diameter d. To clarify the characteristics of the aerodynamic sound sources, the directivity of the aerodynamic sound generated by the coiled wire has been examined, and the coherent function between the velocity fluctuation around the coiled wire and the aerodynamic sound has been calculated. Moreover, the band overall value of coherent output power between the sound and the velocity fluctuations has been calculated. This method has clarified the sound source region of the Aeolian sound generated by the coiled wire. These results show that the Aeolian sound is generated by the arc part of the coiled wire, which is located in the upstream side of the air-flow.
Stability analysis of the rimming flow inside a uniformly heated rotating horizontal cylinder
Kumawat, Tara Chand; Tiwari, Naveen
2017-03-01
The stability analysis is presented for a thin viscous liquid film flowing inside a uniformly heated horizontal cylinder that is rotating about its axis. The free surface evolution equation for the liquid-gas interface is obtained by simplifying the Navier-Stokes and energy equations within the lubrication approximation. Various dimensionless numbers are obtained that quantify the effect of gravity, viscous drag, inertia, surface tension, and thermocapillary stress. The film thickness evolution equation is solved numerically to obtain two-dimensional, steady state solutions neglecting axial variations. A liquid pool forms at the bottom of the cylinder when gravity dominates other forces. This liquid pool is shifted in the direction of rotation when inertia or viscous drag is increased. Small axial perturbations are then imposed to the steady solutions to study their stability behavior. It is found that the inertia and capillary pressure destabilize whereas the gravity and thermocapillary stress stabilize the rimming flow. The influence of Marangoni number is reported by computing the stable and unstable parametric regions. Thicker films are shown to be more susceptible to become unstable.
Lava-flow hazard with optimized non-uniform grid of vents
Lucà, Federica; Rongo, Rocco; Lupiano, Valeria; Iovine, Giulio
2016-10-01
The aim of the study is to assess the sensitivity to vents (in terms of number and distribution) of sectors affected by lava flows and of hazard values at Mount Etna. The proposed methodology relies on the application of the Cellular Automata model SCIARA, and on the adoption of an optimization algorithm for progressively integrating an initial uniform distribution of 1006 vents (1-km spaced) with 500 additional sources. Vents have iteratively been added, at steps of 50, through spatial simulated annealing, using slope roughness as weigh function. For each vent, 41 types of simulations have been executed to take into proper account the potential behaviour of the volcano, based on historical records. The performed simulations have been further processed to derive lava-flow hazard, by assigning each simulation: i) a spatial likelihood of vent opening; ii) a magnitude probability, depending on the type of eruption; and iii) a temporal probability of source activation, based on historical occurrences in the past 400 years. First results are discussed, and the influence of the number and distribution of additional vents is preliminarily investigated.
One-dimensional numerical simulation of non-uniform sediment transport under unsteady flows
Hongwei FANG; Minghong CHEN; Qianhai CHEN
2008-01-01
One-dimensional numerical models are popularly used in sediment transport research because they can be easily programmed and cost less time compared with two-and three-dimensional numerical models.In particular,they possess greater capacity to be applied in large river basins with many tributaries.This paper presents a one-dimensional numerical model capable of calculating total-load sediment transport.The cross-section-averaged sediment transport capacity and recovery coefficient are addressed in the suspended load model.This one-dimensional model,therefore,can be applied to fine suspended loads and to hyperconcentrated flows in the Yellow River.Moreover,a new discretization scheme for the equation of unsteady non-uniform suspended sediment transport is proposed.The model is calibrated using data measured from the Yantan Reservoir on the Hongshui River and the Sanmenxia Reservoir on the Yellow River.A comparison of the calculated water level and river bed deformation with field measurements shows that the improved numerical model is capable of predicting flow,sediment transport,bed changes,and bed-material sorting in various situations,with reasonable accuracy and reliability.
Deformations of a pre-stretched elastic membrane driven by non-uniform electroosmotic flow
Bercovici, Moran; Boyko, Evgeniy; Gat, Amir
2016-11-01
We study viscous-elastic dynamics of fluid confined between a rigid plate and a pre-stretched elastic membrane subjected to non-uniform electroosmotic flow, and focus on the case of a finite-size membrane clamped at its boundaries. Considering small deformations of a strongly pre-stretched membrane, and applying the lubrication approximation for the flow, we derive a linearized leading-order non-homogenous 4th order diffusion equation governing the deformation and pressure fields. We derive a time-dependent Green's function for a rectangular domain, and use it to obtain several basic solutions for the cases of constant and time varying electric fields. In addition, defining an asymptotic expansion where the small parameter is the ratio of the induced to prescribed tension, we obtain a set of four one-way coupled equations providing a first order correction for the deformation field. Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Grant agreement No. 678734 (MetamorphChip).
Characteristics of reservoir density flow in stratified water environment%分层环境中水库密度流运动特性研究
任实; 张小峰; 陆俊卿
2013-01-01
A flume experiment for the motion of reservoir density current in steady temperature stratified environment was used. Through different tests, simulated the density flow movement under the conditions of different temperature stratification, and analyzed the effects of stratified strength and outlet condition on density flow movement. The density flow movement characteristics under different reservoir operation modes were researched on the basis of model simulation. The research results can provide reference for the management about the water quality of the reservoir and aquatic environment, also can give reference for the early warning plan of reservoir emergency.%该文采用水槽试验对稳定温度分层水库的密度流运动进行了模拟.通过不同的试验方案,模拟了不同温度分层条件下密度流运动形态,分析了水体分层强度和出口条件对密度流运动的影响,并在此基础上,对不同水库运行方式下密度流运动特征进行了模拟研究.该文研究结果为水库水质、水生环境管理与调度以及水库应急预警方案的制定提供了参考.
Hossain, Delowar; Samad, Abdus; Alam, Mahmud
2017-06-01
The ion-slip effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow past an infinite vertical porous plate with the effect of temperature stratified porous medium in a rotating system with viscous dissipation and Joule heating has been studied numerically. Introducing a time dependent suction to the plate, a similarity procedure has been adopted by taking a time dependent similarity parameter. The governing differential equations are transformed by introducing usual similarity variables. The resultant equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. Resulting non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are then presented graphically for different values of the parameters entering into the problem.
Uniform rovibrational collisional N2 bin model for DSMC, with application to atmospheric entry flows
Torres, E.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Magin, T. E.
2016-11-01
A state-to-state model for internal energy exchange and molecular dissociation allows for high-fidelity DSMC simulations. Elementary reaction cross sections for the N2 (v, J)+ N system were previously extracted from a quantum-chemical database, originally compiled at NASA Ames Research Center. Due to the high computational cost of simulating the full range of inelastic collision processes (approx. 23 million reactions), a coarse-grain model, called the Uniform RoVibrational Collisional (URVC) bin model can be used instead. This allows to reduce the original 9390 rovibrational levels of N2 to 10 energy bins. In the present work, this reduced model is used to simulate a 2D flow configuration, which more closely reproduces the conditions of high-speed entry into Earth's atmosphere. For this purpose, the URVC bin model had to be adapted for integration into the "Rarefied Gas Dynamics Analysis System" (RGDAS), a separate high-performance DSMC code capable of handling complex geometries and parallel computations. RGDAS was developed at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Novosibirsk, Russia for use by the European Space Agency (ESA) and shares many features with the well-known SMILE code developed by the same group. We show that the reduced mechanism developed previously can be implemented in RGDAS, and the results exhibit nonequilibrium effects consistent with those observed in previous 1D-simulations.
Non-Uniformity of the Combustor Exit Flow Temperature in Front of the Gas Turbine
Błachnio Józef
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Various types of damages to gas-turbine components, in particular to turbine blades, may occur in the course of gas turbine operation. The paper has been intended to discuss different forms of damages to the blades due to non-uniformity of the exit flow temperature. It has been shown that the overheating of blade material and thermal fatigue are the most common reasons for these damages. The paper presents results from numerical experiments with use of the computer model of the aero jet engine designed for simulations. The model has been purposefully modified to take account of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field within the working agent at the turbine intake. It turned out that such non-homogeneity substantially affects dynamic and static properties of the engine considered as an object of control since it leads to a lag of the acceleration time and to increase in fuel consumption. The summarized simulation results demonstrate that the foregoing properties of a jet engine are subject to considerable deterioration in pace with gradual increase of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field. The simulations made it possible to find out that variations of the temperature field nonhomogeneity within the working agent at the turbine intake lead to huge fluctuation of the turbine rpm for the idle run.
Single deformable bubble interaction with turbulence in uniform and shear flows
Feng, Jinyong; Bolotnov, Igor
2014-11-01
Combined direct numerical simulation (DNS) and interface tracking method (ITM) approach is utilized to study the effect of bubble deformability on the bubble-induced turbulence. Set of simulations is performed with 5mm diameter bubble in laminar and turbulent flows. Uniform shear and constant mean velocity profiles are used to perform evaluation of bubble-induced turbulence in various cases. The simulation capabilities allow estimating the turbulent kinetic energy before and after the bubble thus providing the information about bubble's influence on the liquid turbulence. The effect of bubble deformability is studied by separately changing the surface tension parameter. The bubble is controlled in one location of the domain using external forces. The force evolution is managed by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The steady-state values of the lateral and stream-wise forces result in the lift and drag force estimates on the bubble. DNS approach allows for comprehensive, well-defined studies of bubble-induced turbulence and interfacial forces by separately varying bubble's deformability, relative velocity, level of turbulence and local shear. This work presents new opportunities for the development of multiphase computational fluid dynamics closure laws. The presented work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1333993.
Johansson, Jens; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
The uniform flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1e5 is simulated in a three dimensional domain by means of the newly developed Self-induced angular Moment Method, SMoM, turbulence model. The global force coefficients, Strouhal number, pressure distributions and wall shear stress...
Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard
2015-07-01
A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV
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was measured by means of CTD probe sampling. Vertical tempera - tore profile in the place of observaLion was characterized with nearly uniform decay of...iJT 2. • = [i oCe~n~)t/2, Cbe•+R)*/2, j tce-+Tt/2, _¢ tci +R)¢/, o]. The normal form of the dynamfical system, which ahows to express the higher order...IH. 1. and Spalding, D. B. (1987). The Phoenics reference manual . CHAM Ltd., London. Thomas, N. H. and Simpson, J. E. (1985) Mixing of gravity currents
Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or
Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hanczyc, Martin; Hoyland, James
2016-01-01
A PDMS chip is fabricated using soft lithography and applied to investigate the formation and division of nitrobenzene (NB) droplets in a two-phase system stabilized by oleic acid. Using an integrated on-chip flow cytometer setup, effected with optical fibers, droplet size distributions...... are analyzed in situ based on optical signal intensities. By controlling the hydrodynamic flow focusing, uniform droplets of sizes between 100 μm and 300 μm are created with precise size control. Cross-flow shearing allows one to divide these droplets into anything from 2 to 9 individual droplets, depending...
Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Osipova, S. L.; Semenov, A. V.
2016-10-01
The report describes the results of flow field experimental research in TsAGI T-128 transonic wind tunnel. During the tests Mach number, stagnation pressure, test section wall perforation ratio, angles between the test section panels and mixing chamber flaps varied. Based on the test results one determined corrections to the free-stream Mach number related to the flow speed difference in the model location and in the zone of static pressure measurement on the test section walls, nonuniformity of the longitudinal velocity component in the model location, optimal position of the movable test section elements to provide flow field uniformity in the test section and minimize the test leg drag.
P. D. Williams
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We report on a numerical study of the impact of short, fast inertia-gravity waves on the large-scale, slowly-evolving flow with which they co-exist. A nonlinear quasi-geostrophic numerical model of a stratified shear flow is used to simulate, at reasonably high resolution, the evolution of a large-scale mode which grows due to baroclinic instability and equilibrates at finite amplitude. Ageostrophic inertia-gravity modes are filtered out of the model by construction, but their effects on the balanced flow are incorporated using a simple stochastic parameterization of the potential vorticity anomalies which they induce. The model simulates a rotating, two-layer annulus laboratory experiment, in which we recently observed systematic inertia-gravity wave generation by an evolving, large-scale flow. We find that the impact of the small-amplitude stochastic contribution to the potential vorticity tendency, on the model balanced flow, is generally small, as expected. In certain circumstances, however, the parameterized fast waves can exert a dominant influence. In a flow which is baroclinically-unstable to a range of zonal wavenumbers, and in which there is a close match between the growth rates of the multiple modes, the stochastic waves can strongly affect wavenumber selection. This is illustrated by a flow in which the parameterized fast modes dramatically re-partition the probability-density function for equilibrated large-scale zonal wavenumber. In a second case study, the stochastic perturbations are shown to force spontaneous wavenumber transitions in the large-scale flow, which do not occur in their absence. These phenomena are due to a stochastic resonance effect. They add to the evidence that deterministic parameterizations in general circulation models, of subgrid-scale processes such as gravity wave drag, cannot always adequately capture the full details of the nonlinear interaction.
Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-07-01
Electrohydrodynamic deformation and orientation of a neutrally buoyant, leaky dielectric, Newtonian drop suspended in another immiscible, leaky dielectric, Newtonian medium is analyzed under the combined influence of uniform electric field and simple shear flow. Application of uniform electric field, perpendicular to the direction of shear flow, not only deforms the drop but also modifies the rheological behavior of a dilute emulsion. In the creeping flow limit, an analytical solution for the deformed drop shape is obtained when the drop shape remains nearly spherical and the surface charge convection is weak. The effective shear rheology is obtained for a dilute emulsion of non-interacting drops by calculating the one-particle contribution to the emulsion stress. The results show that the combined influence of uniform electric field and shear flow is not a simple linear superposition of the independent contributions from electric field and shear flow. Application of uniform electric field always leads to larger drop deformation with drop inclination more towards the direction of velocity gradient for the particular case of perfectly dielectric drops. Presence of surface charge convection for a leaky dielectric drop can increase or decrease the drop deformation with the drop inclination more towards either the direction of shear flow or velocity gradient. The effective shear viscosity and normal stress differences are found to be independent of shear rate. These quantities are significantly affected by the surface charge convection and shape deformation. Shape deformation always increases the effective viscosity of a dilute emulsion composed of perfectly dielectric drops. Interestingly, for a dilute emulsion composed of leaky dielectric drops, results show that the combined influence of charge convection and shape deformation can augment or decrease the effective shear viscosity.
Naftz, David L.; Carling, Gregory T.; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Pazmiño, Eddy
2014-01-01
Density stratification in saline and hypersaline water bodies from throughout the world can have large impacts on the internal cycling and loading of salinity, nutrients, and trace elements. High temporal resolution hydroacoustic and physical/chemical data were collected at two sites in Great Salt Lake (GSL), a saline lake in the western USA, to understand how density stratification may influence salinity and mercury (Hg) distributions. The first study site was in a causeway breach where saline water from GSL exchanges with less saline water from a flow restricted bay. Near-surface-specific conductance values measured in water at the breach displayed a good relationship with both flow and wind direction. No diurnal variations in the concentration of dissolved (total and MeHg loadings was observed during periods of elevated salinity. The second study site was located on the bottom of GSL where movement of a high-salinity water layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), is restricted to a naturally occurring 1.5-km-wide “spillway” structure. During selected time periods in April/May, 2012, wind-induced flow reversals in a railroad causeway breach, separating Gunnison and Gilbert Bays, were coupled with high-velocity flow pulses (up to 55 cm/s) in the DBL at the spillway site. These flow pulses were likely driven by a pressure response of highly saline water from Gunnison Bay flowing into the north basin of Gilbert Bay. Short-term flow reversal events measured at the railroad causeway breach have the ability to move measurable amounts of salt and Hg from Gunnison Bay into the DBL. Future disturbance to the steady state conditions currently imposed by the railroad causeway infrastructure could result in changes to the existing chemical balance between Gunnison and Gilbert Bays. Monitoring instruments were installed at six additional sites in the DBL during October 2012 to assess impacts from any future modifications to the railroad causeway.
Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.; Naseer, M.
2016-07-01
Present work is made to study the effects of double stratified medium on the mixed convection boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell fluid induced by an inclined stretching cylinder. Flow analysis is conceded in the presence of heat generation/absorption. Temperature and concentration are supposed to be higher than ambient fluid across the surface of cylinder. The arising flow conducting system of partial differential equations is primarily transformed into coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. Numerical solutions of resulting intricate non-linear boundary value problem are computed successfully by utilizing fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm with shooting technique. The effect logs of physical flow controlling parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are examined graphically. Further, numerical findings are obtained for two distinct cases namely, zero (plate) and non-zero (cylinder) values of curvature parameter and the behaviour are presented through graphs for skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. The current analysis is validated by developing comparison with previously published work, which sets a benchmark of quality of numerical approach.
Miyoshi, Koji, E-mail: miyoshi.koj@inss.co.jp; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Taisuke; Sugimoto, Katsumi
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Thermal hydraulics phenomena were discussed in a spray pipe of pressurizer. • Temperature fluctuation was investigated in a stratified steam-water two-phase. • Remarkable liquid temperature fluctuations were observed in the liquid layer. • The observed temperature fluctuations were caused by the internal gravity wave. • The temperature fluctuations decreased with increasing dissolved oxygen. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuation phenomena in a stratified steam-water two-phase flow in a horizontal rectangular duct, which simulate a pressurizer spray pipe of a pressurized water reactor, were studied experimentally. Vertical distributions of the temperature and the liquid velocity were measured with water of various dissolved oxygen concentrations. Large liquid temperature fluctuations were observed when the water was deaerated well and dissolved oxygen concentration was around 10 ppb. The large temperature fluctuations were not observed when the oxygen concentration was higher. It was shown that the observed temperature fluctuations were caused by the internal gravity wave since the Richardson numbers were larger than 0.25 and the temperature fluctuation frequencies were around the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies in the present experimental conditions. The temperature fluctuations decreased by the non-condensable gas since the non-condensable gas suppressed the condensation and the temperature difference in the liquid layer was small.
Druzhinin, Oleg; Troitskaya, Yliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Detailed knowledge of the interaction of surface water waves with the wind flow is of primary importance for correct parameterization of turbulent momentum and heat fluxes which define the energy and momentum transfer between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The objective of the present study is to investigate the properties of the stably stratified turbulent boundary-layer (BL) air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation (DNS) at a bulk Reynolds number varying from 15000 to 80000 and the surface-wave slope up to ka = 0.2. The DNS results show that the BL-flow remains in the statistically stationary, turbulent regime if the Reynolds number (ReL) based on the Obukhov length scale and friction velocity is sufficiently large (ReL > 100). In this case, mean velocity and temperature vertical profiles are well predicted by log-linear asymptotic solutions following from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory provided the velocity and temperature roughness parameters, z0U and z0T, are appropriately prescribed. Both z0U and z0T increase for larger surface-wave slope. DNS results also show that turbulent momentum and heat fluxes and turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations are increased for larger wave slope (ka) whereas the mean velocity and temperature derivatives remain practically the same for different ka. Thus, we conclude that the source of turbulence enhancement in BL-flow are perturbations induced by the surface wave, and not the shear instability of the bulk flow. On the other hand, if stratification is sufficiently strong, and the surface-wave slope is sufficiently small, the BL-flow over waved surface relaminarizes in the bulk of the domain. However, if the surface-wave slope exceeds a threshold value, the velocity and temperature fluctuations remain finite in the vicinity of the critical-layer level, where the surface-wave phase velocity coincides with the mean flow velocity. We call this new stably-stratified BL-flow regime observed in
R. Mantovani
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of symmetric circulations of a rotating baroclinic flow, forced by a steady thermal wind and dissipated by Laplacian friction. The analysis is performed with numerical time-integration. Symmetric flows, vertically bound by horizontal walls and subject to either periodic or vertical wall lateral boundary conditions, are investigated in the region of parameter-space where unstable small amplitude modes evolve into stable stationary nonlinear solutions. The distribution of solutions in parameter-space is analysed up to the threshold of chaotic behaviour and the physical nature of the nonlinear interaction operating on the finite amplitude unstable modes is investigated. In particular, analysis of time-dependent energy-conversions allows understanding of the physical mechanisms operating from the initial phase of linear instability to the finite amplitude stable state. Vertical shear of the basic flow is shown to play a direct role in injecting energy into symmetric flow since the stage of linear growth. Dissipation proves essential not only in limiting the energy of linearly unstable modes, but also in selecting their dominant space-scales in the finite amplitude stage.
Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2001-07-01
An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)
Bongolan, Vena Pearl; Lupiano, Valeria; D'Ambrosio, Donato; Rongo, Rocco; Spataro, William; Iovine, Giulio
2013-04-01
The hazard induced by dangerous flow-type phenomena - e.g. lava flows, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches - can be assessed by analysing a proper set of simulations of hypothetical events. Non-uniform grids are commonly used to study particular areas of interest in computational domains. Examples of application concern, for instance, the turbulence in a boundary layer. While non-uniform grids frequently appear in adaptive methods, they may also be used in a "static" environment. A purposive sampling method, based on a non-uniform grid of sources coupled with numerical simulations of independent events, has recently been employed to evaluate the hazard induced by flow-type phenomena. An example of application to lava-flows at Mount Etna (Italy) is described in this study. The method aims at refining the spatial distribution of hypothetical eruptive vents with respect to an original uniform grid. The density of eruptive vents has been determined by considering the historical distribution of lateral and eccentric vents, and the distribution of the main faults/structures on the volcano. A higher number of sources marks higher-probability zones of vent opening, based on classes of activation: the number of vents in each class has been set proportionally to the probability of activation of the class. By considering the different types of eruption expected from the considered volcano, based on the historical activity of the past 400 years, a set of simulations per each vent has been performed. The employed model is SCIARA-fv2, a Cellular Automata numerical code recently applied to the same study area for preliminary hazard analyses. In this work, calibration could therefore be skipped, by taking advantage from such experience of tuning of the parameters. Performed simulations have been analysed by a GIS, to verify the number of events affecting each cell of the domain. A probability of occurrence could be assigned to each simulation, based on statistics of
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correction a) Axial velocity contours; L b) Perimetral wall stress Fig 7 Prediction of flow In plane channel rotating in orthogonal mode. Symbols; DNS...layer: anticyclonic in the uipper layer (green line), strong anticyclone in the intermediate layer ( red line), cyclonic in the lower layer (blue). a...mostly to the boundaries, and Red ; 50 so the support wires have little effect on the sphere wake itself. The spheres were towed through a 2.4m 2
MHD flow and heat transfer from continuous surface in uniform free stream of non-Newtonian fluid
无
2007-01-01
An analysis is carried out to study the steady flow and heat transfer characteristics from a continuous flat surface moving in a parallel free stream of an electrically conducting non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid. The flow is subjected to a transverse uniform magnetic field. The constitutive equation of the fluid is modeled by that for a second grade fluid. Numerical results are obtained for the distribution of velocity and temperature profiles. The effects of various physical parameters like viscoelastic parameter, magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on various momentum and heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail and shown graphically.
Study of the motion and deposition of micro particles in a vertical tube containing uniform gas flow
Abolpour, Bahador; Afsahi, M. Mehdi; Soltani Goharrizi, Ataallah; Azizkarimi, Mehdi
2017-06-01
In this study, effects of a gaseous jet, formed in a vertical tube containing a uniform gas flow, on the injected micro particles have been investigated. A CFD model has been developed to simulate the particle motion in the tube. This simulation is very close to the experimental data. The results show that, increasing the flow rate of carrier gas or decreasing the flow rate of surrounding gas increases the effect of gaseous jet and also increases trapping rate of the particles by the tube wall. The minimum and maximum residence times of particles approach together with increasing the size of solid particles. Particles larger than 60 μm have a certain and fixed residence time at different flow rates of the carrier or surrounding gas. About 40 μm particle size has minimal trapping by the tube wall at various experimental conditions.
Machado, Anaïs; Bodiguel, Hugues; Beaumont, Julien; Clisson, Gérald; Colin, Annie
2016-01-01
We study flows of hydrolized polyacrylamide solutions in two dimensional porous media made using microfluidics, for which elastic effects are dominant. We focus on semi-dilute solutions (0.1%–0.4%) which exhibit a strong shear thinning behavior. We systematically measure the pressure drop and find that the effective permeability is dramatically higher than predicted when the Weissenberg number is greater than about 10. Observations of the streamlines of the flow reveal that this effect coincides with the onset of elastic instabilities. Moreover, and importantly for applications, we show using local measurements that the mean flow is modified: it appears to be more uniform at high Weissenberg number than for Newtonian fluids. These observations are compared and discussed using pore network simulations, which account for the effect of disorder and shear thinning on the flow properties. PMID:27478522
Samir Kumar Nandy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past a porous deformable sheet, which is stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the fixed point subject to uniform suction or blowing. A uniform shear flow of strain rate β is considered over the stretching sheet. The analysis of the result obtained shows that the magnitude of the wall shear stress increases with the increase of suction velocity and decreases with the increase of blowing velocity and this effect is more pronounced for suction than blowing. It is seen that the horizontal velocity component (at a fixed streamwise position along the plate increases with the increase in the ratio of shear rate β and stretching rate (c (i.e., β/c and there is an indication of flow reversal. It is also observed that this flow reversal region increases with the increase in β/c.
Yadong Li; Gang Xie; Ting Lei; Chongjun Bao; Lin Tian; Yanqing Hou
2016-01-01
The fluid dynamic behavior of feeding gas (TiCl4) in an annular channel affects the combination of O2 and TiCl4 in an oxidation reactor, a key piece of equipment in titanium pigment production. The numerical procedure was validated by a 3-dimensional gas flow in the annular channel. Applying the validated model, the flow character-istics of TiCl4 in the oxidation reactor with a tangential inlet were simulated and characterized. The flow distribu-tion with five rectifying rings of different structure was simulated and analyzed. The results showed that the rectifying ring improved the distribution uniformity of the pressure and outlet velocity. Compared to the original case without a rectifying ring, the non-uniformity of the pressure and outlet velocity could be reduced by up to 91%and 69%respectively. The rectifying ring #5, which can be instal ed and adjusted easily, is more effective in realizing even distribution. In addition, instal ation of the rectifying ring effectively reduced the circulating flow in an annular channel as well as the total energy loss.
Jensen, Kaare
2012-11-01
The effect porous walls are important in the study of biological pipe flows due to the presence of semipermeable cell walls and in industrial filtration applications. Here, we consider slow flow of a viscous incompressible liquid in a channel of constant but arbitrary cross section shape, driven by non-uniform suction or injection through the porous channel walls. A similarity transformation reduces the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of coupled equations for the velocity potential in two dimensions. When the channel aspect ratio and Reynolds number are both small, the problem reduces to solving the biharmonic equation with constant forcing in two dimensions. With the relevant boundary conditions, determining the velocity field in a porous channels is thus equivalent to solving for the vertical displacement of a simply suspended thin plate under uniform load. This allows us to provide analytic solutions for flow in porous channels whose cross-section is e.g. a rectangle or an equilateral triangle, and provides a general framework for the extension of Berman flow (Journal of Applied Physics 24(9), p. 1232, 1953) to three dimensions.
G. Revathi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.
Náraigh, L Ó; Matar, O; Zaki, T
2009-01-01
We investigate the linear stability of a flat interface that separates a liquid layer from a fully-developed turbulent gas flow. In this context, linear-stability analysis involves the study of the dynamics of a small-amplitude wave on the interface, and we develop a model that describes wave-induced perturbation turbulent stresses (PTS). We demonstrate the effect of the PTS on the stability properties of the system in two cases: for a laminar thin film, and for deep-water waves. In the first case, we find that the PTS have little effect on the growth rate of the waves, although they do affect the structure of the perturbation velocities. In the second case, the PTS enhance the maximum growth rate, although the overall shape of the dispersion curve is unchanged. Again, the PTS modify the structure of the velocity field, especially at longer wavelengths. Finally, we demonstrate a kind of parameter tuning that enables the production of the thin-film (slow) waves in a deep-water setting.
Abiru, K.; Honda, Y.; Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kiss, T., E-mail: kiss@sc.kyushu-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)
2009-10-15
We have visualized non-uniform current flow in RE123 coated conductors by using a scanning Hall-probe magnetic microscopy (SHPM). Newly developed SHPM system allows us to measure two-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high spatial resolution in micro-meter scale. Corresponding current density distribution can be obtained from the magnetic field image by solving inverted Biot-Savart's law. One of the most important advantages of the present system is to visualize the current density distribution in practical high transport current and also in wide scanning area. For example, the system has current leads with large capacity up to 500 A, and the operating distance can be 15 cm by 15 cm with a micro-meter step distance. Using the SHPM system, we have successfully visualized current density distributions in the coated conductor, and clarified different kinds of non-uniform current flow. Those insights are very useful to identify local defects as well as non-uniform tape quality. These results indicate that the SHPM system is a powerful diagnostic tool not only to observe spatial inhomogeneities of transport property but also to understand their reason in practical coated conductors.
Vlahovska, Petia
2015-11-01
Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.
Nemati Hasan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.
无
2010-01-01
The paper studies the problem of the unsteady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat deformable sheet. The flow is started impulsively from rest and the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. An analytical series solution is obtained by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Also, the homotopy-Pade′ technique is employed. An explicit formula for the local friction coefficient is provided. The present formula, different from the perturbation solution, is accurate and uniformly valid for all dimensionless time in the whole spatial region and for all possible values of physical parameter λ, defined as the ratio of the potential flow velocity to the sheet sudden stretching velocity. Numerical tests are done to verify the present formula for its validity and accuracy.
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya
2013-01-01
In this paper,the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied.The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types:direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance.The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations,and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method.The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution.Moreover,the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting.
Chakraborty S.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid on a continuous moving flat plate in presence of uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. The flat plate which is continuously moving in its own plane with a constant speed is considered to be isothermally heated. Assuming the fluid viscosity as an inverse linear function of temperature, the nature of fluid velocity and temperature in presence of uniform magnetic field are shown for changing viscosity parameter at different layers of the medium. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting method. The coefficient of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are calculated at different viscosity parameter and Prandt l number. .
Unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes: a Full Kinetic Appraoch
Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane
2011-01-01
We recall the \\PFS} model constructed for the modeling of unsteady mixed flows in closed water pipes where transition points between the free surface and pressurized flow are treated as a free boundary associated to a discontinuity of the gradient of pressure. Then we present a numerical kinetic scheme for the computations of unsteady mixed flows in closed water pipes. This kinetic method that we call FKA for "Full Kinetic Approach" is an easy and mathematically elegant way to deal with multiple transition points when the changes of state between free surface and pressurized flow occur. We use two approaches namely the "ghost waves approach" and the "Full Kinetic Approach" to treat these transition points. We show that this kinetic numerical scheme has the following properties: it is wet area conservative, under a CFL condition it preserves the wet area positive, it treats "naturally" the drying and flooding area and most of all it preserves every stationary flow. Finally numerical experiment versus laborator...
Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N; Park, G Barratt; Joalland, Baptiste; Oldham, James M; Prozument, Kirill; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M; Sims, Ian R; Field, Robert W; Suits, Arthur G
2014-12-01
This second paper in a series of two reports on the performance of a new instrument for studying chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics at low temperatures. Our approach employs chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to probe photolysis and bimolecular reaction products that are thermalized in pulsed uniform flows. Here we detail the development and testing of a new K(a)-band CP-FTMW spectrometer in combination with the pulsed flow system described in Paper I [J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. B. Park, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202 (2014)]. This combination delivers broadband spectra with MHz resolution and allows monitoring, on the μs timescale, of the appearance of transient reaction products. Two benchmark reactive systems are used to illustrate and characterize the performance of this new apparatus: the photodissociation of SO2 at 193 nm, for which the vibrational populations of the SO product are monitored, and the reaction between CN and C2H2, for which the HCCCN product is detected in its vibrational ground state. The results show that the combination of these two well-matched techniques, which we refer to as chirped-pulse in uniform flow, also provides insight into the vibrational and rotational relaxation kinetics of the nascent reaction products. Future directions are discussed, with an emphasis on exploring the low temperature chemistry of complex polyatomic systems.
Hongtao WANG; Huayong WU
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present a library of analytical solutions for the three-dimensional contam-inant transport in uniform flow field in porous media with the first-order decay, linear sorption, and zero-order pro-duction. The library is constructed using Green's function method (GFM) in combination with available solutions.The library covers a wide range of solutions for various conditions. The aquifer can be vertically finite, semi-infin-itive or infinitive, and laterally semi-infinitive or infinitive.The geometry of the sources can be of point, line, plane or volumetric body; and the source release can be continuous,instantaneous, or by following a given function over time.Dimensionless forms of the solutions are also proposed. A computer code FlowCAS is developed to calculate the solutions. Calculated results demonstrate the correctness of the presented solutions. The library is widely applicable to solve contaminant transport problems of one- or multiple- dimensions in uniform flow fields.
Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations
Chang, S.C.
1979-08-15
The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.
Goldstein, M. E.
1984-01-01
Attention is given to the sound produced by artificially excited, spatially growing instability waves on subsonic shear layers. Real flows that always diverge in the downstream direction allow sound to be produced by the interaction of the instability waves with the resulting streamwise variations of the flow. The upstream influence, or feedback, can interact with the splitter plate lip to produce a downstream-propagating instability wave that may under certain conditions be the same instability wave that originally generated the upstream influence. The present treatment is restricted to very low Mach number flows, so that compressibility effects can only become important over large distances.
Chandrakala P.
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A numerical technique is employed to derive a solution to the transient natural convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an impulsively started infinite isothermal vertical plate with uniform mass diffusion in the presence of a magnetic field and homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The governing equations are solved using implicit finite-difference method. The effects of velocity, temperature and concentration for different parameters such as the magnetic field parameter, chemical reaction parameter, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number and mass Grashof number are studied. It is observed that the fluid velocity decreases with increasing the chemical reaction parameter and the magnetic field parameter.
M. M. Potsane
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.
MHD Stagnation Flow of a Newtonian Fluid towards a Uniformly Heated and Moving Vertical Plate
Mehmet Şirin Demir
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Stagnation flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid towards a moving vertical plate in the presence of a constant magnetic field is investigated. By using the appropriate transformations for the velocity components and temperature, the partial differential equations governing flow and heat transfer are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved approximately using a numerical technique for the following two problems: (i two-dimensional stagnation-point flow on a moving vertical plate, (ii axisymmetric stagnation-point flow on a moving vertical plate. The effects of non-dimensional parameters on the velocity components, wall shear stresses, temperature and heat transfer are examined carefully.
Bartosiewicz, Yann [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)], E-mail: yann.bartosiewicz@uclouvain.be; Lavieville, Jerome [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Seynhaeve, Jean-Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)], E-mail: jm.seynhaeve@uclouvain.be
2008-04-15
This paper presents some results concerning a first benchmark for the new European research code for thermal hydraulics computations: NEPTUNE{sub C}FD. This benchmark relies on the Thorpe experiment to model the occurrence of instabilities in a stratified two-phase flow. The first part of this work is to create a numerical trial case with the VOF approach. The results, in terms of time of onset of the instability, critical wave-number or wave phase speed, are rather good compared to linear inviscid theory and experimental data. Additional numerical tests showed the effect of the surface tension and density ratio on the growing dynamics of the instability and the structure of the waves. In the second part, a code to code (VOF/multi-field) comparison is performed for a case with zero surface tension. The results showed some discrepancies in terms of wave amplitudes, growing rates and a time shifting in the global dynamics. Afterward, two surface tension formulations are proposed in the multi-field approach. Both formulations provided similar results. The time for onset of the instability, the most amplified wave-number and its amplitude were in rather good agreement with the linear analysis and VOF results. However, the time-shifted dynamics was still observed.
Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Broderick, Bernadette M.; Thompson, James O. F.; Suits, Arthur
2016-06-01
Chirped-Pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in uniform supersonic flows (CPUF) has been applied to study the reaction of Cl atoms with propyne. The approach utilizes broad-band microwave spectroscopy to extract structural information with MHz resolution and near universal detection, in conjunction with a Laval flow system, which offers thermalized conditions at low temperatures and high number densities. Our previous studies have exploited this approach to obtain multichannel product branching fractions in a number of polyatomic systems, with isomer and often vibrational level specificity. This report highlights an additional capability of the CPUF technique: here, the state-specific reactant depletion is directly monitored on a microsecond timescale. In doing so, a clear dependence on the rotational quantum number K in the rate of the reaction between Cl atoms and propyne is revealed. Future prospects for the technique will be discussed.
Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David; Alberti, Massimo; Holmstrøm, Kim; Dufva, Martin
2011-11-21
A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert, patterned with distribution channels and reaction chambers. Topology optimization was used to design reaction chambers with uniform flow conditions. The HistoFlex provided uniform hybridization conditions, across the reaction chamber, as determined by hybridization to microscope slides of spotted DNA microarrays when applying probe concentrations generally used in in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The HistoFlex's novel ability in online monitoring of an in situ hybridization assay was demonstrated using direct fluorescent detection of hybridization to 18S rRNA. Tissue sections were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5 h 40 min). We further demonstrate that the improved hybridization efficiency using the HistoFlex permits more complex assays e.g. those comprising sequential hybridization and detection of two miRNAs to be performed with significantly increased sensitivity. The HistoFlex provides a new histological analysis platform that will allow multiple and sequential assays to be performed under their individual optimum assay conditions. Images can subsequently be recorded either in
Propeller Cavitation in Non-Uniform Flow and Correlation with the Near Pressure Field
Francisco Alves Pereira
2016-11-01
Full Text Available An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow retrieving the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based on the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. A remarkable agreement is observed with the actual pressure field.
Sher Akbar, Noreen; Ayub, Ayesha; Wahid Butt, Adil
2017-04-01
An analytical investigation is presented to study the unsteady peristaltic transport of nanofluids. Carbon nanotubes analysis is taken into account. The flow geometry is taken as a non-uniform channel of finite length to explore our model for a wide range of biomedical applications. Exact solutions are obtained for the non-dimensional governing equations subject to physically realistic boundary conditions. The effects of carbon nanotubes on effective thermal conductivity, axial velocity, transverse velocity, temperature, and pressure difference distributions along the length of a non-uniform channel with the variation of different flow parameters are discussed with the help of graphical illustrations. An inherent property of peristaltic transport, i.e., trapping is also discussed. We have noticed that MWCnt's have this exceptional quality to increase the axial velocity as well as the transverse velocity of the governing fluids. This model is applicable in drugs delivery system where different geometries of drugs are delivered and it is also applicable to design a microperistaltic pump for transportation of nanofluids.
XUZenyu; KANGWeishan; PANChuanjie; DENHongyin; ZHANGYanxu
2003-01-01
In lost paper of magneto-hydrodynamic instability analysis of liquid metal free surface jet flow (Part Ⅰ), the magneto-hydrodynamic instability was analyzed for the jet flow in a transverse non-uniform magnetic field, BT. But, as all known, for the real conditions of liquid metal limiter-divertor plasma-facing components are in toroidal and poloidal fields. So, we try to analyze the magneto-hydrodynamic instability of the jet flow (hereby only for circular shape cross section jet flow) in the zone of non-uniform magnetic fields,
Asymptotic solutions for laminar flow in a channel with uniformly accelerating rigid porous walls
无
2007-01-01
A theoretical investigation was done for the generalized Berman problem, which arises in steady laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid along a channel with accelerating rigid porous walls. The existence of multiple solutions and its conditions were established by taking into account exponentially small terms in matched asymptotic expansion. The correctness of the analytical predictions was verified by numerical results.
Non-uniform overland flow-infiltration model for roadside swales
García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.
2017-09-01
There is a need to quantify the hydrologic performance of vegetated roadside swales (drainage ditches) as stormwater control measures (SCMs). To quantify their infiltration performance in both the side slope and the channel of the swale, a model has been developed for coupling a Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML) infiltration submodel with kinematic wave submodels for both overland flow down the side slope and open channel flow for flow in the ditch. The coupled GAML submodel and overland flow submodel has been validated using data collected in twelve simulated runoff tests in three different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN. The percentage of the total water infiltrated into the side slope is considerably greater than into the channel. Thus, the side slope of a roadside swale is the main component contributing to the loss of runoff by infiltration and the channel primarily conveys the water that runs off the side slope, for the typical design found in highways. Finally, as demonstrated in field observations and the model, the fraction of the runoff/rainfall infiltrated (Vi∗) into the roadside swale appears to increase with a dimensionless saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks∗), which is a function of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and dimensions of the swale and contributing road surface. For design purposes, the relationship between Vi∗ and Ks∗ can provide a rough estimate of the fraction of runoff/rainfall infiltrated with the few essential parameters that appear to dominate the results.
Channel roughness in 1D steady uniform flow: Manning or Chézy?
Huthoff, F.; Augustijn, D.
2004-01-01
In river flow applications, consensus on the most appropriate roughness descriptor has yet to be found. A disturbing observation is that the coefficients and formulae of Chézy, Darcy Weisbach, Manning, Strickler and White Colebrook are used rather arbitrarily, and that a widely accepted scientific j
Pasquier-Guilbert, N.
2004-12-15
Simultaneous knowledge of local velocity and equivalence ratio is very important in numerous combustion applications and especially for direct injection engines where the flame propagates through a heterogeneous concentration distribution of fuel-air mixture. This study reproduce heterogeneities of equivalence ratio with propane and air in a constant volume combustion vessel. The local influence of velocity and equivalence ratio on the propagation of a spark-ignited flame is studied. To create a stratification, a rich axisymmetric pulsed jet is injected in a leaner chamber and the mixing is ignited. Two optical diagnostics are used simultaneously, PIV for velocity and FARLIF for equivalence ratio, with or without combustion. All properties and range of applications of PIV and FARLIF have been verified. These methods were then used to study the characteristics of stratified combustion. (author)
Magnetic flux concentrations from turbulent stratified convection
Käpylä, P J; Kleeorin, N; Käpylä, M J; Rogachevskii, I
2015-01-01
(abridged) Context: The mechanisms that cause the formation of sunspots are still unclear. Aims: We study the self-organisation of initially uniform sub-equipartition magnetic fields by highly stratified turbulent convection. Methods: We perform simulations of magnetoconvection in Cartesian domains that are $8.5$-$24$ Mm deep and $34$-$96$ Mm wide. We impose either a vertical or a horizontal uniform magnetic field in a convection-driven turbulent flow. Results: We find that super-equipartition magnetic flux concentrations are formed near the surface with domain depths of $12.5$ and $24$ Mm. The size of the concentrations increases as the box size increases and the largest structures ($20$ Mm horizontally) are obtained in the 24 Mm deep models. The field strength in the concentrations is in the range of $3$-$5$ kG. The concentrations grow approximately linearly in time. The effective magnetic pressure measured in the simulations is positive near the surface and negative in the bulk of the convection zone. Its ...
A mathematical model of turbulence in flows with uniform stationary velocity gradients
Zak, M. A.
1982-01-01
Certain cases of turbulence as a postinstability state of a fluid in motion modeled by the introduction of multivalued velocity fields are examined. The turbulence is regarded as occurring in the form of random pulsations which grow until the external energy input in the average flow is balanced by the dissipated energy of pulsations by means of turbulent friction. Closed form analytic solutions are shown to be possible when the considered velocity fields, the pulsation velocity and the fluid velocity, are decoupled.
Aerodynamic load calculation of horizontal axis wind turbine in non-uniform flow
Lupo, E.
1982-09-01
An aerodynamic computer program, applicable to upwind rotors, was developed to calculate variable loads on rotor blades due to nonuniform flow. This program takes into account the atmospheric boundary layer, the variation in wind direction, and tower reflection. The aerodynamic analysis is based on a combination of momentum and blade element equations. The aerodynamic conditions and the airloads are for 36 azimuth positions of a rigid blade during its rotation. The inputs of the program are the geometric characteristics of the rotor and blades, the aerodynamic characteristic of the airfoil sections, the wind shear expression, the yaw and tilt angle with wind direction and the rotor-tower diameter ratio for cylindrical towers.
Stromberger, Jorg Hermann
Numerous experimental and theoretical investigations on two-phase flow instability and burnout in heated microchannels have been reported in the literature. However none of these investigations deals with the possible effects of wall vibrations on such flow boiling processes within microchannels. Fluid-structure interaction in ultra high power density systems cooled by high velocity single phase forced convection in microchannels may result in vibration amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the diameter of the channel. Such vibrations may significantly impact vapor bubble dynamics at the wall and, hence, the limiting heat fluxes corresponding to the onset of flow instability and/or burnout. The primary purpose of this research was to experimentally quantify the effect of forced wall vibration on the onset of flow instability (OFI) and the critical heat flux (CHF) in uniformly-heated annular microchannels. The secondary interest of this investigation was to compare the experimental data collected in the single-phase regime to commonly used single-phase forced convection correlations. Experimental data acquired in the flow boiling regime were to be utilized to confirm the validity of common flow boiling correlations for microchannel flow. The influence of forced wall vibration on subcooled single-phase forced convection and flow boiling was examined. The Georgia Tech Microchannel Test Facility (GTMTF) was modified to allow such experiments to be conducted at controlled values of transverse wall vibration amplitudes and accelerations for a range of frequencies. The channel demand curves were obtained for various inner and outer surface heat fluxes. Experiments were conducted for broad ranges of transverse wall vibration amplitudes over a range of frequencies. The experiments conducted in this investigation provide designers of high power density systems cooled by forced convection in microchannels with the appropriate data and correlations to confidently
Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow
Dibo Dong
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.
Magne, Stéphan; Moreau, Stéphane; Berry, Alain
2015-01-01
In order to highlight the mechanisms responsible for subharmonic tonal noise, a complete aeroacoustic study of a ring fan in presence of a uniform inlet flow is conducted. Unsteady RANS simulations with a compressible flow solver are used to compute the flow field and identify the acoustic sources on the rotor. The tip clearance recirculation shows upstream vortices that impinge the rotor blades and create the main source of unsteadiness on the fan. Since these vortices rotate at a lower speed than the rotor, the frequency of the impact is lower than the blade passing frequency. The acoustic signature is computed by propagating the noise sources located on the rotor surfaces using two methods: A Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings analogy in the time-domain and an analytical model in the frequency-domain based on the compact rotating dipole formulation. A comparison with experimental results confirms that the aeroacoustic phenomena responsible for the subharmonic tonal noise are well captured and properly propagated by the acoustic codes.
Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung
2016-02-01
Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications.
Hsu, Wei-Lun; Harvie, Dalton J E; Davidson, Malcolm R; Jeong, Helen; Goldys, Ewa M; Inglis, David W
2014-09-21
The simultaneous concentration gradient focusing and separation of proteins in a silica nanofluidic channel of various geometries is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Previous modelling of a similar device [Inglis et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7546] assumed a uniform velocity profile along the length of the nanochannel. Using detailed numerical analysis incorporating charge regulation and viscoelectric effects, we show that in reality the varying axial electric field and varying electric double layer thickness caused by the concentration gradient, induce a highly non-uniform velocity profile, fundamentally altering the protein trapping mechanism: the direction of the local electroosmotic flow reverses and two local vortices are formed near the centreline of the nanochannel at the low salt concentration end, enhancing trapping efficiency. Simulation results for yellow/red fluorescent protein R-PE concentration enhancement, peak focusing position and peak focusing width are in good agreement with experimental measurements, validating the model. The predicted separation of yellow/red (R-PE) from green (Dyl-Strep) fluorescent proteins mimics that from a previous experiment [Inglis et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7546] conducted in a slightly different geometry. The results will inform the design of new class of matrix-free particle focusing and separation devices.
C. Sulochana
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of unsteady MHD flow of a dusty nanofluid over a vertical stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles with non uniform heat source/sink. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Ag-water and Cu-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed in to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles for fluid and dust phases are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately in tabular form. Results indicate that an increase in the volume fraction of dust particles enhances the heat transfer in Cu-water nanofluid compared with Ag-water nanofluid and a raise in the volume fraction of nano particles shows uniform heat transfer in both Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids.
Mansour, M A; El-Kabeir, S M
2000-01-01
Steady laminar boundary layer analysis of heat and mass transfer characteristics in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a micropolar fluid on a circular cylinder maintained at uniform heat and mass flux has been conducted. The solution of the energy equation inside the boundary layer is obtained as a power series of the distance measured along the surface from the front stagnation point of the cylinder. The results of dimensionless temperature, Nusselt number, wall shear stress, wall couple stress and Sherwood number have been presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. The results indicate that the micropolar fluids display a reduction in drag as well as heat transfer rate when compared with Newtonian fluids.
Baumeister, K. J.
1977-01-01
Finite difference equations are derived for sound propagation in a two dimensional, straight, soft wall duct with a uniform flow by using the wave envelope concept. This concept reduces the required number of finite difference grid points by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the length of the duct and the frequency of the sound. The governing acoustic difference equations in complex notation are derived. An exit condition is developed that allows a duct of finite length to simulate the wave propagation in an infinitely long duct. Sample calculations presented for a plane wave incident upon the acoustic liner show the numerical theory to be in good agreement with closed form analytical theory. Complete pressure and velocity printouts are given to some sample problems and can be used to debug and check future computer programs.
Infiltration capacity of roadside filter strips with non-uniform overland flow
García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.
2017-02-01
The side slope to a roadside swale (drainage ditch) constitutes a filter strip that has potential for infiltration of road runoff, thereby serving as a stormwater quantity and quality control mechanism. A total of thirty-two tests were performed during three seasons in four different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN to analyze the infiltration performance of roadside filter strips and the effect of fractional coverage of water on infiltration. Three different application rates were used in the experiments. All the tests showed that water flow on the lateral slope of a roadside swale is concentrated in fingers, instead of sheet flow, at the typical road runoff intensities for which infiltration practices are utilized to improve surface water quality. A linear relationship between flux of water from the road and fraction of wetted surface was observed, for the intensities tested. The average percentage infiltration of the medium road runoff rate (1.55 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) experiments performed in fall was 85% and in spring 70%. For the high road runoff rate (3.1 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests the average amount of water infiltrated was 47% and for the low road runoff rate (7.76 × 10-5 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests it was 69%, both set of tests performed in spring and summer. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of swale soil was high, relative to the values typical of laboratory permeameter measurements for these types of soils. This is believed to be due to the macropores generated by vegetation roots, activity of macrofauna (e.g. earthworms), and construction/maintenance procedures. The trend was to have more infiltration when the saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher and for a greater side slope length, as expected. The vegetation, type of soil and length of the side slope are important to consider for constructing and maintaining roadside swales that will be efficient as stormwater
Pang, Bo; Shao, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Geng, Jia-Zhen; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Hou, Jing-Li
2012-03-01
In this paper, a novel mode of free-flow affinity electrophoresis (FFAE) was developed to indirectly enhance the separation of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE). In the mode of FFAE, a Ni(II) with high electric charge density and histidine (His) is chosen as a model ligand and target solute, respectively. Through the controlling of experimental conditions (10 mM pH 6.0 Na(2)HPO(4)-NaH(2)PO(4) with 2.0 mM NiCl(2)·6H(2)O background buffer), Ni(II) can combine with His and the combination leads to the high electric charge density of affinity complex of His-Ni(II) in contrast to the low density of free His molecule. But the ligand has weak interaction with uninterested amino acids. Thus, the mobility of His existing as His-Ni(II) is greatly increased from 14.5×10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 30.2 × 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1), while those mobilities of uninterested amino acids are almost constant. By virtue of the mode, we developed the FFAE procedure and conducted the relevant experiments. The experiments demonstrated the following merits of the FFAE technique: (i) clear enhancement of separation between the target solute of His and uninterested amino acids; (ii) simplicity, and (iii) low cost. Furthermore, the technique was used for the continuous separation of His from its complex sample, and the purity of His was near to 100%. All of the results demonstrate the feasibility of affinity separation in FFE. The developed FFAE may be used in the separation and pretreatment of some biological molecules (e.g. peptides).
Investigation of the Viscous Flow Around Two Model Propellers in Uniform Inflow
Olsen, Anders Smærup
2001-01-01
The performance of two model ship propellers in open water condition is predicted with the FINFLO RANSE-solver. Chien´s low Reynolds number k-e turbulence model is applied and the method of artificial compressibility is used. For propeller P21 the predicted torque coefficient for advance number 0.......324 and 0.519 differ by less than 1,6% from experimentally obtained values. The difference for the thrust coefficient and the open water efficiency is a little higher, but still less than 7% for both advance numbers. For propeller P89 the open water efficiency differs by less than 1,0% for advance number 0.......331 and 0.514. The thrust and torque coefficients are predicted within 3,3% for both advance numbers. The averaged velocities in the flow around the propellers correspond very well to measurements. The largest difference is for the tangential velocities behind the propeller. The best agreement is achieved...
A Review on Empirical Correlations for Jet/Spray Trajectory of Liquid Jet in Uniform Cross Flow
Soo-Young No
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The empirical correlations for the prediction of jet/spray penetration of liquid jet in subsonic uniform crossflow are reviewed in this study. Considerable number of empirical correlations had been proposed by many investigators. It has generally known that the jet/spray trajectory of a liquid jet in a cross-flow is a function of the liquid to air momentum flux ratio and the normalized distance in the airstream direction from the injector. However, several researchers incorporated the Weber number, liquid-to-water or air viscosity ratio, pressure ratio or Reynolds number, temperature ratio in the empirical correlations. Two different classification methods of correlations, i.e. classification based on mathematic functional form and classification based on flow regime, are introduced in this study. The one classification of existing correlations based on functional form includes correlations in a power-law, logarithmic, and exponential forms, respectively. The other classification of previous correlations based on flow regime includes one, two and three regime, correlations. Correlations in a power-law functional form can be further divided into three groups such as momentum flux ratio, Weber number and other parameters forms. Correlations in logarithmic functional form can be also grouped as momentum flux ratio and Weber number forms. Most of the evaluation studies reported the significant discrepancies of predicted values by the existing correlations. The possible reasons for discrepancies will be summarized as measurement technique, assumptions made in defining terms in the liquid to air momentum flux ratio, difficulties in defining the boundaries of the liquid jets, turbulence level in the core and boundary layer of incoming jet and gas flows, nozzle/injector geometry and its position in the crossflow. However, it can be found from the several evaluation studies that the power-law functional form with momentum flux ratio and two regimes
Torres-Diaz, I.; Cortes, A.; Rinaldi, C., E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9000 (United States); Cedeño-Mattei, Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9019 (United States); Perales-Perez, O. [Department of Engineering Science and Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9044 (United States)
2014-01-15
Ferrofluid flow in cylindrical and annular geometries under the influence of a uniform rotating magnetic field was studied experimentally using aqueous ferrofluids consisting of low concentrations (<0.01 v/v) of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with Brownian relaxation to test the ferrohydrodynamic equations, elucidate the existence of couple stresses, and determine the value of the spin viscosity in these fluids. An ultrasound technique was used to measure bulk velocity profiles in the spin-up (cylindrical) and annular geometries, varying the intensity and frequency of the rotating magnetic field generated by a two pole stator winding. Additionally, torque measurements in the cylindrical geometry were made. Results show rigid-body like velocity profiles in the bulk, and no dependence on the axial direction. Experimental velocity profiles were in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the spin diffusion theory, with a value of the spin viscosity of ∼10{sup −8} kg m/s, two orders of magnitude larger than the value estimated earlier for iron oxide based ferrofluids, and 12 orders of magnitude larger than estimated using dimensional arguments valid in the infinite dilution limit. These results provide further evidence of the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and their role in driving the spin-up flow phenomenon.
Raju CSK
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of MHD boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching surface in porous medium in the presence of radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink, external pressure and suction/injection. Dual solutions are presented for both suction and injection cases. The heat transfer analysis is carried out for both prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed heat flux (PHF cases. The governing equations of the flow are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using bvp4c Matlab package. The impact of various non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, temperature profiles for both PST and PHF cases, friction factor and rate of heat transfer is discussed and presented with the help of graphs and tables. Results indicate that dual solutions exist only for certain range of suction or injection parameters. It is also observed that the exponential parameter have tendency to increase the heat transfer rate for both PST and PHF cases.
Finn, John M., E-mail: finn@lanl.gov [T-5, Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2015-03-15
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
Abdulrahman A. Alatar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, we develop an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for two cultivars viz., Jamila and Tomaland of Solanum lycopersicum L., an economically important vegetable crop throughout the world. Sterilization of seeds with 2.5% (v/v NaOCl was found to be most effective, about 97% of seeds germinated on cotton in magenta box moistened with sterile half strength (½Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. Regeneration efficiency of cotyledonary leaf (CL and cotyledonary node (CN explants derived from 08 days old aseptic seedling were assessed on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinin. CL explants were found more responsive in comparison to CN in both the cultivars. Types of basal media were also assessed and found to have a significant effect on shoot regeneration. Highest regeneration frequency and maximum number of shoots were standardized from CL explants on MS medium supplied with 6-benzyl adenine (BA; 5.0 µM, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 2.5 µM and Kinetin (Kin; 10.0 µM. In vitro regenerated microshoots were rooted on ½MS medium containing 0.5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed roots and shoot system were successfully acclimated to ex vitro condition. Genetic uniformity of tissue culture raised plantlets was first time evaluated using flow cytometry and single primer amplification reaction (SPAR methods viz., DAMD and ISSR. No significant changes in ploidy level and nuclear DNA content profile were observed between in vitro propagated plants and normal plants of both the cultivars. Similarly, the SPAR analysis also revealed monomorphic banding patterns in regenerated plantlets of S. lycopersicum verifying their genetic uniformity and clonal fidelity. This efficient regeneration system can be used as a fast and reproducible method for genetic transformation of this important vegetable crop.
Guha, Abhijit; Sengupta, Sayantan
2014-03-01
In this article, the fluid dynamics of work transfer within the narrow spacing (usually of the order of 100 μm) of multiple concentric discs of a Tesla disc turbomachine (turbine or compressor) has been analysed theoretically and computationally. Both the overall work transfer and its spatial development have been considered. It has been established that the work transfer mechanism in a Tesla disc turbomachine is very different from that in a conventional turbomachine, and the formulation of the Euler's work equation for the disc turbomachine contains several conceptual subtleties because of the existence of complex, three dimensional, non-uniform, viscous flow features. A work equivalence principle has been enunciated, which establishes the equality between the magnitudes of work transfer determined rigorously from two different approaches—one based on the shear stress acting on the disc surfaces and the other based on the change in angular momentum of the fluid. Care is needed in identifying the shear stress components that are responsible for the generation or absorption of useful power. It is shown from the Reynolds transport theorem that mass-flow-averaged tangential velocities (as opposed to the normally used area-averaged values) must be used in determining the change in angular momentum; the calculation has to be carefully formulated since both radial velocity (that determines throughput) and tangential velocity (that generates torque) depend strongly on the coordinate perpendicular to the disc surfaces. The principle of work transfer has been examined both in the absolute and relative frames of reference, revealing the subtle role played by Coriolis force. The concept of a new non-dimensional quantity called the torque potential fraction (Δ tilde H) is introduced. The value of Δ tilde H at any radial position increases with a decrease in inter-disc spacing. The computational fluid dynamic analysis shows that, for small value of inter-disc spacing and
Ghofrane Sekrani
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, laminar forced convection nanofluid flows in a uniformly heated horizontal tube were revisited by direct numerical simulations. Single and two-phase models were employed with constant and temperature-dependent properties. Comparisons with experimental data showed that the mixture model performs better than the single-phase model in the all cases studied. Temperature-dependent fluid properties also resulted in a better prediction of the thermal field. Particular attention was paid to the grid arrangement. The two-phase model was used then confidently to investigate the influence of the nanoparticle size on the heat and fluid flow with a particular emphasis on the sedimentation process. Four nanoparticle diameters were considered: 10, 42, 100 and 200 nm for both copper-water and alumina/water nanofluids. For the largest diameter d n p = 200 nm, the Cu nanoparticles were more sedimented by around 80%, while the A l 2 O 3 nanoparticles sedimented only by 2 . 5 %. Besides, it was found that increasing the Reynolds number improved the heat transfer rate, while it decreased the friction factor allowing the nanoparticles to stay more dispersed in the base fluid. The effect of nanoparticle type on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated for six different water-based nanofluids. Results showed that the Cu-water nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient, followed by C, A l 2 O 3 , C u O , T i O 2 , and S i O 2 , respectively. All results were presented and discussed for four different values of the concentration in nanoparticles, namely φ = 0 , 0 . 6 % , 1 % and 1 . 6 % . Empirical correlations for the friction coefficient and the average Nusselt number were also provided summarizing all the presented results.
André, L; Durante, M; Pauss, A; Lespinard, O; Ribeiro, T; Lamy, E
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify non-uniform water flow during dry AD and its implication for biogas production. Laboratory tracer experiments were performed on cattle manure over the course of AD. The evolution of the permeability, the dry bulk density, the dry porosity, the total and volatile solid contents of cattle manure at different stages of AD, revealed waste structure changes, impacting water flow and methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical modeling performed by using a physical non-equilibrium model indicated non-uniform preferential flow patterns during degradation. According to literature, the increase of inoculum recirculation frequency improved methane production rate. However, these results demonstrated that this improvement occurs only at the beginning of manure degradation. After 19 days of degradation the inoculum recirculation and the flow patterns modification had no effect on methane production rate.
Lee, Man
2012-02-22
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Mirkov Nikola S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ju, Yiguang
2013-04-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a stratified flow in a homogeneous compression charge ignition (HCCI) engine are performed to investigate the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and temperature/mixture stratification effects on the autoignition of synthetic dimethyl ether (DME) in the negative temperature combustion region. Detailed chemistry for a DME/air mixture is employed and solved by a hybrid multi-time scale (HMTS) algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The effect of ? to mimic the EGR effect on autoignition are studied. The results show that adding ? enhances autoignition by rapid OH radical pool formation (34-46% reduction in ignition delay time) and changes the ignition heat release rates at different ignition stages. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the important reactions pathways affecting the autoignition are specified. The DNS results show that the scales introduced by thermal and mixture stratifications have a strong effect after the low temperature chemistry (LTC) ignition especially at the locations of high scalar dissipation rates. Compared to homogenous ignition, stratified ignitions show similar first autoignition delay times, but 18% reduction in the second and third ignition delay times. The results also show that molecular transport plays an important role in stratified low temperature ignition, and that the scalar mixing time scale is strongly affected by local ignition in the stratified flow. Two ignition-kernel propagation modes are observed: a wave-like, low-speed, deflagrative mode and a spontaneous, high-speed, ignition mode. Three criteria are introduced to distinguish these modes by different characteristic time scales and Damkhöler numbers using a progress variable conditioned by an ignition kernel indicator. The low scalar dissipation rate flame front is characterized by high displacement speeds and high mixing Damkhöler number. The proposed criteria are applied successfully at the different ignition stages and
Talmon, A.M.
1985-01-01
Wake effects will cause power loss when wínd turbínes are grouped in so called wind turbine parks. Wind tunnel measurements of the wake of a wind turbíne model are conducted in order to refine calculatíons of wake effects. Wake effects caused by tower and nacelle are studied in uniform flow. Wake de
Double criticality and the two-way Boussinesq equation in stratified shallow water hydrodynamics
Bridges, Thomas J.; Ratliff, Daniel J.
2016-06-01
Double criticality and its nonlinear implications are considered for stratified N-layer shallow water flows with N = 1, 2, 3. Double criticality arises when the linearization of the steady problem about a uniform flow has a double zero eigenvalue. We find that there are two types of double criticality: non-semisimple (one eigenvector and one generalized eigenvector) and semi-simple (two independent eigenvectors). Using a multiple scales argument, dictated by the type of singularity, it is shown that the weakly nonlinear problem near double criticality is governed by a two-way Boussinesq equation (non-semisimple case) and a coupled Korteweg-de Vries equation (semisimple case). Parameter values and reduced equations are constructed for the examples of two-layer and three-layer stratified shallow water hydrodynamics.
EL-Dabe, N. T.; Attia, H. A.; Essawy, M. A. I.; Ramadan, A. A.; Abdel-Hamid, A. H.
2016-11-01
The steady MHD axisymmetric flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducting nanofluid impinging on a permeable plate is investigated with heat and mass transfer. An external uniform magnetic field as well as a uniform inflow, in the presence of either suction or injection, are applied normal to the plate. The effects of heat (generation/absorption) and chemical reaction have been accentuated. This study indicates the incorporated influence of both the thermophoresis phenomenon and the Brownian behavior. Numerical solutions for the governing non-linear momentum, energy and nanoparticle equations have been obtained. The rates of heat and mass transfer are presented and discussed.
Abdullah Ahmed Foisal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available MHD free convection over an inclined plate in a thermally stratified high porous medium in the presence of a magnetic field has been studied. The dimensionless momentum and temperature equations have been solved numerically by explicit finite difference technique with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6a. The obtained results of these studies have been discussed for the different values of well known parameters with different time steps. Also, the stability conditions and convergence criteria of the explicit finite difference scheme has been analyzed for finding the restriction of the values of various parameters to get more accuracy. The effects of various governing parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, local and average shear stress and Nusselt number has been investigated and presented graphically.
Asterios Pantokratoras
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.
Udina, Mireia; Sun, Jielun; Kosović, Branko; Soler, Maria Rosa
2016-11-01
Following Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69(1):338-351, 2012), vertical variations of turbulent mixing in stably stratified and neutral environments as functions of wind speed are investigated using the large-eddy simulation capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The simulations with a surface cooling rate for the stable boundary layer (SBL) and a range of geostrophic winds for both stable and neutral boundary layers are compared with observations from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99). To avoid the uncertainty of the subgrid scheme, the investigation focuses on the vertical domain when the ratio between the subgrid and the resolved turbulence is small. The results qualitatively capture the observed dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed under neutral conditions; however, its vertical variation is affected by the damping layer used in absorbing undesirable numerical waves at the top of the domain as a result of relatively large neutral turbulent eddies. The simulated SBL fails to capture the observed temperature variance with wind speed and the observed transition from the SBL to the near-neutral atmosphere with increasing wind speed, although the vertical temperature profile of the simulated SBL resembles the observed profile. The study suggests that molecular thermal conduction responsible for the thermal coupling between the surface and atmosphere cannot be parameterized through the Monin-Obukhov bulk relation for turbulent heat transfer by applying the surface radiation temperature, as is common practice when modelling air-surface interactions.
Mixing by microorganisms in stratified fluids
Wagner, Gregory L; Lauga, Eric
2014-01-01
We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P\\'eclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, $\\eta$, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates $\\eta$ in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, $a$, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, $\\ell = \\left ( \
Hu, Fang; Pizzo, Michelle E.; Nark, Douglas M.
2017-01-01
It has been well-known that under the assumption of a constant uniform mean flow, the acoustic wave propagation equation can be formulated as a boundary integral equation, in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Compared with solving partial differential equations, numerical methods based on the boundary integral equation have the advantage of a reduced spatial dimension and, hence, requiring only a surface mesh. However, the constant uniform mean flow assumption, while convenient for formulating the integral equation, does not satisfy the solid wall boundary condition wherever the body surface is not aligned with the uniform mean flow. In this paper, we argue that the proper boundary condition for the acoustic wave should not have its normal velocity be zero everywhere on the solid surfaces, as has been applied in the literature. A careful study of the acoustic energy conservation equation is presented that shows such a boundary condition in fact leads to erroneous source or sink points on solid surfaces not aligned with the mean flow. A new solid wall boundary condition is proposed that conserves the acoustic energy and a new time domain boundary integral equation is derived. In addition to conserving the acoustic energy, another significant advantage of the new equation is that it is considerably simpler than previous formulations. In particular, tangential derivatives of the solution on the solid surfaces are no longer needed in the new formulation, which greatly simplifies numerical implementation. Furthermore, stabilization of the new integral equation by Burton-Miller type reformulation is presented. The stability of the new formulation is studied theoretically as well as numerically by an eigenvalue analysis. Numerical solutions are also presented that demonstrate the stability of the new formulation.
G. K. Ramesh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the study of momentum and heat transfer characteristics in a hydromagnetic flow of dusty fluid over an inclined stretching sheet with non-uniform heat source/sink, where the flow is generated due to a linear stretching of the sheet. Using a similarity transformation, the governing equations of the problem are reduced to a coupled third-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations and are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth-order method using symbolic software Maple. Our numerical solutions are shown to agree with the available results in the literature and then employ the numerical results to bring out the effects of the fluid-particle interaction parameter, local Grashof number, angle of inclination, heat source/sink parameter, Chandrasekhar number, and the Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results have possible technological applications in liquid-based systems involving stretchable materials.
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir
2016-11-01
We analyze flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell, subjected to spatially non-uniform electroosmotic flow. We specifically focus on power-law fluids with wall depletion properties and derive a p-Poisson equation governing the pressure field, as well as a set of linearized equations representing its asymptotic approximation for weakly non-Newtonian behavior. To investigate the effect of non-Newtonian properties on the resulting fluidic pressure and velocity, we consider several configurations in one and two dimensions, and calculate both exact and approximate solutions. We show that the asymptotic approximation is in good agreement with exact solutions even for fluids with significant non-Newtonian behavior. The asymptotic model thus enables prediction of the flow and pressure fields for non-Newtonian fluids, and may be particularly useful for the analysis and design of microfluidic systems involving electro-kinetic transport of such fluids.
Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)
2016-12-01
Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.
Maity, S.; Singh, S. K.; Kumar, A. V.
2016-12-01
Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.
水平和倾斜管内气液分层流界而稳定性%Stability of Stratified Gas-Liquid Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Pipes
顾汉洋; 郭烈锦
2007-01-01
A viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz criterion of the interfacial wave instability is proposed in this paper based on the linear stability analysis of a transient one-dimensional two-fluid model. In this model, the pressure is evaluated using the local momentum balance rather than the hydrostatic approximation. The criterion predicts well the stability limit of stratified flow in horizontal and nearly horizontal pipes. The experimental and theoretical investigation on the effect of pipe inclination on the inteffacial instability are carried out. It is found that the critical liquid height at the onset of interfacial wave instability is insensitive to the pipe inclination. However, the pipe inclination significantly affects critical superficial liquid velocity and wave velocity especially for low gas velocities.
Two-Phase Flow Instability in Water-side Tube of SG under Axially Uniform Heat Flux Conditions
Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Jung, Yoon; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The SG of PGSFR is of once through integrated type, and is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on shell side and water-steam in tubes. The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability has been observed in many industrial domains like boiling systems, steam generators. In this paper the numerical methods were studied, and a computer code was developed for two-phase flow instability in steam generator, and representative results of the model calculations are presented. A computer code is developed for investigating two-phase flow stability under constant heat flux conditions. Solution algorithm for the sodium flow field and tube conduction will be developed for the application to sodium-heated SG.
Lin, D.N.C.; Faulkner, J. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA); California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics); Papaloizou, J. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics)
1985-01-01
The investigation of accretion disc models relevant to cataclysmic-variable systems is continued. This paper examines the stability and evolution of some simple accretion disc models in which the viscosity is prescribed by an ad hoc uniform-..cap alpha.. model. It is primarily concerned with systems in which the mass-input rate from the secondary to the disc around the primary is assumed to be constant. However, initial calculations with variable mass-input rates are also performed. The time-dependent visual magnitude light-curves are constructed for cataclysmic binaries with a range of disc size, primary mass, mass-input rate, and magnitude of viscosity.
均匀送风风管构件流量特性实验%Experimental study on flowing characteristics of uniform ventilation duct component
刘俊
2014-01-01
提出了一种新型均匀送风风管构件，将该构件应用于所搭建的实验平台，对构件流量特性及系统的均匀送风特性进行了实验研究。结果表明，风机运行在10～50 Hz 时，各风口的风量不平衡率均能维持在5％以内，可实现均匀送风。采用这种形式的构件，在实际长风管空调系统风量调节时，大大降低了调节工作量。%Proposes a new uniform ventilation duct component.In order to investigate the flowing characteristic and the uniformity of air supply,applies the new duct component to the experimental platform.The experimental results show that the unbalance rate maintains below 5% when the fan is running between 10 and 50 Hz,resulting in uniformity of air supply.It can remarkably reduce the cost of adjustment in condition that such design form of component is applied to the actual long duct air conditioning system.
Sandeep N
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the influence of radiation and aligned magneticfield on the flow of ferrofluids over a flat plate in presence of non-uniform heat source/sink and slip velocity. We considered Fe3O4 magnetic nano particles embedded within the two types of base fluids namely water and kerosene. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using bvp5c Matlab package. The effects of dimensionless quantities on the flow and temperature profiles along with the friction factor and Nusselt number is discussed and presented through graphs and tables. It is found that present results have an excellent agreement with the existed studies under some special assumptions. Results indicate that a raise in the aligned angle enhances the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate.
N. Sandeep
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of non-uniform heat source/sink, mass transfer and chemical reaction on an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of a magneto-micropolar fluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and suction/injection. The governing equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and then solved numerically using Shooting technique with Matlab Package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented with the help of their graphical representations. Also, friction factor, heat and mass transfer rates have been computed and presented through tables. Under some special conditions, present results are compared with the existed results to check the accuracy and validity of the present study. An excellent agreement is observed with the existed results.
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady flow of Powell-Eyring fluid past an inclined stretching sheet. Unsteadiness in the flow is due to the time-dependence of the stretching velocity and wall temperature. Mathematical analysis is performed in the presence of thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink. The relevant boundary layer equations are reduced into self-similar forms by suitable transformations. The analytic solutions are constructed in a series form by homotopy analysis method (HAM. The convergence interval of the auxiliary parameter is obtained. Graphical results displaying the influence of interesting parameters are given. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed.
郑平; 赵梁
2016-01-01
The gas-liquid two-phase stratified flow has complex momentum and energy transmission phenomena at interface,although its pattern is simple. There are still no unified conclusions for interfacial shear stress in stratified flow. Current progress of interfacial shear stress in horizontal pipes were elaborated by theoretical models,experimental models and numerical simulations. As for theoretical models,closure models were established by models simplification and empirical correlations. Empirical correlations were corrected with closure relations in experiments. Due to simplifying assumptions and experimental conditions,there are some limitations in predicting the interfacial shear stress with theoretical and experimental ways. The detailed flow fields were studied by numerical simulations,but closure relations have been less obtained so far. Five existing models are compared according to liquid holdup and pressure drop. The future research trends of gas-liquid two-phase stratified flow interfacial shear stress in horizontal pipes were further discussed. More detailed local models are needed to be proposed and engineering practice should be taken into account. It is necessary to develop new methods of gas-liquid interface calculations and closure relations for numerical simulations.%水平管气液两相分层流虽流型简单，但由于界面存在复杂的动量和能量传递，分层流的界面剪切预测至今没有一致的结论。本文从理论模型、实验模型、数值计算3个角度出发，详细阐述水平管气液两相分层流界面剪切预测的研究现状，得出不同研究方法的优势和缺陷。针对3种研究方法，指出理论模型通过模型简化和经验关联式来建立封闭模型，实验模型则在封闭关系上修正经验关联式，但由于简化假设和实验条件的限制，使得这两种研究方法对界面剪切应力的预测具有一定的局限性；数值计算能够弥补机理模型在流场细
Melikhov, Sergey A
2011-01-01
Although topological and uniform approaches to foundations of what was then known as Analysis Situs originated in the same works by M. Frechet and F. Riesz, uniform spaces hopelessly lagged behind in development, and were never taken seriously in algebraic and geometric topology, due in part to the lack of a coherent theory of quotient spaces, and of a reasonable notion of a polyhedron in the uniform category. Yet there are painful side effects of the usual topological foundations: for instance, the non-metrizability of the cone over the real line, and the non-metrizability of RP^\\infty (as a CW-complex or as the geometric realization of a simplicial set). We show that (the topology of) quotient uniformity is, after all, far nicer than quotient topology in the context of metrizable spaces, and that (metrizable, possibly locally infinite-dimensional) uniform polyhedra do exist - and behave nicely - which appears to provide a satisfactory solution to an old open-ended problem by Isbell.
Drainage in a model stratified porous medium
Datta, Sujit S; 10.1209/0295-5075/101/14002
2013-01-01
We show that when a non-wetting fluid drains a stratified porous medium at sufficiently small capillary numbers Ca, it flows only through the coarsest stratum of the medium; by contrast, above a threshold Ca, the non-wetting fluid is also forced laterally, into part of the adjacent, finer strata. The spatial extent of this partial invasion increases with Ca. We quantitatively understand this behavior by balancing the stratum-scale viscous pressure driving the flow with the capillary pressure required to invade individual pores. Because geological formations are frequently stratified, we anticipate that our results will be relevant to a number of important applications, including understanding oil migration, preventing groundwater contamination, and sub-surface CO$_{2}$ storage.
Raheimpour Angeneh, Saeid; Aktas, Murat Kadri
2016-11-01
Effects of the acoustic streaming motion on convective heat transfer in a rectangular shallow enclosure with sinusoidal spatial bottom wall temperature distribution are investigated numerically. Acoustic excitation is generated by the periodic vibration of left wall. The top wall of the enclosure is isothermal while the side walls are adiabatic. A FORTRAN code is developed to predict the oscillatory and mean flow fields by considering the compressible form of the Navier -Stokes equation and solved by flux-corrected transport algorithm. In order to validate the results of the simulations, a case with an unheated bottom wall is considered and compared with the existing literature. Applying the sinusoidal temperature profile to the bottom wall provides axial and transverse temperature gradients. In return these gradients strongly affect the flow pattern in the enclosure. Heat transfer depends on the flow structure considerably. This is the first time that the effect of nonzero mean vibrational flow on thermal convection from a surface with sinusoidal temperature profile investigated. Results of this study may lead up to design of new heat removal applications.
The Influence of Uniform Suction/Injection on Heat Transfer of MHD Hiemenz Flow in Porous Media
Ghsemi, E; Soleimani, S; Barari, Amin
2012-01-01
The steady two-dimensional laminar forced magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) Hiemenz flow against a flat plate with variable wall temperature in a porous medium is analyzed. The transformed nonlinear boundary-layer equations are solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Results for the veloc...
Thermal stratification built up in hot water tank with different inlet stratifiers
Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark
2017-01-01
H is a rigid plastic pipe with holes for each 30 cm. The holes are designed with flaps preventing counter flow into the pipe. The inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS is made of a flexible polymer with openings all along the side and in the full length of the stratifier. The flexibility...... in order to elucidate how well thermal stratification is established in the tank with differently designed inlet stratifiers under different controlled laboratory conditions. The investigated inlet stratifiers are from Solvis GmbH & Co KG and EyeCular Technologies ApS. The inlet stratifier from Solvis Gmb...... of the stratifier prevents counterflow. The tests have shown that both types of inlet stratifiers had an ability to create stratification in the test tank under the different test conditions. The stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS had a better performance at low flows of 1-2 l/min and the stratifier...
Abeysekera, Chamara; Oldham, James M.; Suits, Arthur G.; Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.
2012-06-01
A new experimental scheme is presented that combines two powerful emerging technologies: chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-Wave spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows. It promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver quantitative isomer, conformer, and vibrational level specific detection, characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates, and perform unique spectroscopic, kinetics, and dynamics measurements. Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy, pioneered by Pate and coworkers, allows rapid acquisition of broadband microwave spectrum through advancements in waveform generation and oscilloscope technology. This revolutionary approach has successfully been adapted to higher frequencies by the Field group at MIT. Our new apparatus will exploit amplified chirped pulses in the range of 26-40 GHz, in combination with a pulsed uniform supersonic flow from a Laval nozzle. This nozzle source, pioneered by Rowe, Sims, and Smith for low temperature kinetics studies, produces thermalized reactants at high densities and low temperatures perfectly suitable for reaction dynamics experiments studied using the CP-mmW approach. This combination of techniques shall enhance the thousand-fold improvement in data acquisition rate achieved in the CP method by a further 2-3 orders of magnitude. A pulsed flow alleviates the challenges of continuous uniform flow, e.g. large gas loads and reactant consumption rates. In contrast to other pulsed Laval systems currently in use, we will use a fast piezo valve and small chambers to achieve the desired pressures while minimizing the gas load, so that a 10 Hz repetition rate can be achieved with one turbomolecular pump. The proposed technique will be suitable for many diverse fields, including fundamental studies in spectroscopy and reaction dynamics, reaction kinetics, combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and astrochemistry. We expect a significant advancement in the ability to
Natural convection flow of a nano-fluid over a vertical plate with uniform surface heat flux
Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan); Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States)
2011-07-15
Natural convective flow of a nano-fluid over a vertical plate with a constant surface heat flux is investigated numerically, following a similarity analysis of the transport equations. The transport model employed includes the effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The analysis shows that velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in the respective boundary layers depend, besides the Prandtl and Lewis numbers, on three additional dimensionless parameters, namely a Brownian motion parameter Nb, a thermophoresis parameter Nt, a buoyancy ratio parameter Nr. In addition to the study of these parameters on the boundary layer flow characteristics (velocity, temperature, nano-particle concentration, skin friction, and heat transfer), correlations for the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been developed based on a regression analysis of the data. These correlations predict the numerical results with a maximum error of 5.5% for the reduced Nusselt number and 3.2% for the reduced Sherwood number. (authors)
Lapuerta, C
2006-10-15
During an hypothetical major accident in a pressurized water reactor, the deterioration of the core can produce a stratified pool crossed by a bubbly flow. This latter strongly impacts the heat transfers, whose intensities are crucial in the progression of the accident. In this context, this work is devoted to the diffuse interface modelling for the study of an-isothermal incompressible flows, composed of three immiscible components, with no phase change. In the diffuse interface methods, the system evolution is driven by the minimization of a free energy. The originality of our approach, derived from the Cahn-Hilliard model, is based on the particular form of the energy we proposed, which enables to have an algebraically and dynamically consistent model, in the following sense: on the one hand, the triphasic free energy is equal to the diphasic one when only two phases are present; on the other, if a phase is not initially present then it will not appear during system evolution, this last property being stable with respect to numerical errors. The existence and the uniqueness of weak and strong solutions are proved in two and three dimensions as well as a stability result for metastable states. The modelling of an an-isothermal three phase flow is further accomplished by coupling the Cahn-Hilliard equations with the energy balance and Navier-Stokes equations where surface tensions are taken into account through volume capillary forces. These equations are discretized in time and space in order to preserve properties of continuous model (volume conservation, energy estimate). Different numerical results are given, from the validation case of the lens spreading between two phases, to the study of the heat and mass transfers through a liquid/liquid interface crossed by a single bubble or a series of bubbles. (author)
How stratified is mantle convection?
Puster, Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.
1997-04-01
We quantify the flow stratification in the Earth's mid-mantle (600-1500 km) in terms of a stratification index for the vertical mass flux, Sƒ (z) = 1 - ƒ(z) / ƒref (z), in which the reference value ƒref(z) approximates the local flux at depth z expected for unstratified convection (Sƒ=0). Although this flux stratification index cannot be directly constrained by observations, we show from a series of two-dimensional convection simulations that its value can be related to a thermal stratification index ST(Z) defined in terms of the radial correlation length of the temperature-perturbation field δT(z, Ω). ST is a good proxy for Sƒ at low stratifications (SƒUniformitarian Principle. The bound obtained here from global tomography is consistent with local seismological evidence for slab flux into the lower mantle; however, the total material flux has to be significantly greater (by a factor of 2-3) than that due to slabs alone. A stratification index, Sƒ≲0.2, is sufficient to exclude many stratified convection models still under active consideration, including most forms of chemical layering between the upper and lower mantle, as well as the more extreme versions of avalanching convection governed by a strong endothermic phase change.
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong;
2005-01-01
Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...
Ahmed Y. Ghaly
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the problem of free convection heat transfer near an isothermal stretching sheet. This has been done under the simultaneous action of buoyancy, radiation, and transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are solved by the shooting method. The velocity and temperature functions are represented graphically for various values of the flow parameters: radiation parameter F, free convection parameter Gr, magnetic parameter M, Prandtl number Pr, and the parameter of relative difference between the temperature of the sheet, and the temperature far away from the sheet r. The effects of the radiation and magnetic field parameters on the shear stress and heat flux are discussed.
Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David;
2011-01-01
slides of spotted DNA microarrays when applying probe concentrations generally used in in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The HistoFlex's novel ability in online monitoring of an in situ hybridization assay was demonstrated using direct fluorescent detection of hybridization to 18S rRNA. Tissue sections...... were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...
Lowengrub, John; Allard, Jun; Aland, Sebastian
2016-03-01
The formation of membrane vesicles from a larger membrane that occurs during endocytosis and other cell processes is typically orchestrated by curvature-inducing molecules attached to the membrane. Recent reports demonstrate that vesicles can form de novo in a few milliseconds. Membrane dynamics at these scales are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic interactions. To study this problem, we develop new diffuse interface models for the dynamics of inextensible vesicles in a viscous fluid with stiff, curvature-inducing molecules. The model couples the Navier-Stokes equations with membrane-induced bending forces that incorporate concentration-dependent bending stiffness coefficients and spontaneous curvatures, with equations for molecule transport and for a Lagrange multiplier to enforce local inextensibility. Two forms of surface transport equations are considered: Fickian surface diffusion and Cahn-Hilliard surface dynamics, with the former being more appropriate for small molecules and the latter being better for large molecules. The system is solved using adaptive finite element methods in 3D axisymmetric geometries. The results demonstrate that hydrodynamics can indeed enable the rapid formation of a small vesicle attached to the membrane by a narrow neck. When the Fickian model is used, this is a transient state with the steady state being a flat membrane with a uniformly distributed molecule concentration due to diffusion. When the Cahn-Hilliard model is used, molecule concentration gradients are sustained, the neck stabilizes and the system evolves to a steady-state with a small, compact vesicle attached to the membrane. By varying the membrane coverage of molecules in the Cahn-Hilliard model, we find that there is a critical (smallest) neck radius and a critical (fastest) budding time. These critical points are associated with changes in the vesicle morphology from spherical to mushroom-like as the molecule coverage on the membrane is increased.
BAEK Min-Seon; KWON Sook-Youn; LIM Jae-Hyun
2015-01-01
A complete control type plant factory has high efficiency in terms of cultivation area by constructing vertical multiple layered cultivation beds. However, it has a problem of irregular crop growth due to temperature deviation at upper and lower beds and increases in energy consumption by a prolonged cultivation period. In this work, air flow rate inside a facility was improved by a hybrid control of air flow devices like air conditioning and air circulation fan with an established wireless sensor network to minimize temperature deviations between upper and lower beds and to promote crop growth. The performance of proposed system was verified with an experimental environment or Case A wherein air conditioning device was operated without a control algorithm and Case B wherein air conditioning and circulation fans were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm. After planting leafy vegetables under each experimental condition, crops were cultivated for 21 days. As a result, Case B wherein AC (air conditioning) and ACF (air-circulation fan) were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm showed that fresh mass, number of leaves, and leaf length for the crops grown were increased by 40.6%, 41.1%, and 11.1%, respectively, compared to Case A.
Bertin H.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Nous abordons l'étude des écoulements polyphasiques en milieu poreux hétérogène d'un point de vue théorique (méthodologie de la prise de moyenne à grande échelle et expérimental. Dans une première partie nous présentons la méthodologie permettant d'obtenir les équations à grande échelle. Le point de départ de l'étude est les équations locales, analogues aux équations de Darcy généralisées obtenues par prise de moyenne des équations de Stokes à l'échelle du pore. La prise de moyenne à grande échelle de ces équations permet d'écrire un système d'équations où les coefficients de transport équivalents sont calculés à partir des données locales, par la résolution d'un problème de fermeture explicité dans le cas quasi-statique (effets capillaires dominants. La seconde partie de notre travail concerne l'étude expérimentale d'un écoulement eau-huile dans un milieu poreux stratifié constitué de deux régions de caractéristiques physiques différentes. Les champs de saturation bidimensionnels sont mesurés tout au long de l'imbibition par absorption d'un rayonnement gamma. Les résultats expérimentaux, évolution de la fraction volumique moyenne par section en fonction du temps, sont comparés aux résultats d'une simulation numérique des équations de transport où les coefficients utilisés ont été déterminés par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle. Two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media is studied from a theoretical point of view (the large-scale averaging method and experimentally. In the first part, we present the methodology leading to the large-scale equations. The starting point of the study is the local equation, analogous to the generalized Darcy's law obtained by averaging the Stokes equation at the pore level. The large-scale averaging of these equations leads to a system where the equivalent transport coefficients are computed from the local data by solving a closure
杨春元; 朱天宇; 蔡一凡
2015-01-01
Using a numerical simulation of a nelliptical cavity absorber and vacuum absorber, heat transfer coefficient and thermal gradient of the stratified flow areas of both absorbers are ana-lyzed.The results show an increase of heat trans-fer coefficient in the cavity absorber,but the struc-ture still needs to be improved,because the ther-mal gradient remains high.%针对一种椭圆形腔体式集热管和真空集热管，通过数值模拟的方法，对该集热管在分层流区域的换热系数和温度梯度进行分析研究。结果表明该腔体式集热管能够提高分层流区域的换热系数，但是集热管壁面的温度梯度并没有得到有效的降低，结构有待进一步改进。
R. RAVINDRAN; N. SAMYUKTHA
2015-01-01
The article examines the unsteady mixed convection flow over a vertical stretching sheet in the presence of chemical reaction and heat generation or absorption with non-uniform mass transfer. The unsteadiness is caused by the time dependent free stream velocity varying arbitrarily with time. Non-similar solutions are obtained nu-merically by solving the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations using the quasi-linearization technique in combination with an implicit finite difference scheme. To reveal the tendency of the solutions, typical results for the local skin friction coeﬃcient and the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented for different values of parameters. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed here. The present numerical results are compared with the previously pub-lished work, and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.
Boyko, Evgeniy; Gat, Amir D
2016-01-01
We analyze flow of non-Newtonian fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell, subjected to spatially non-uniform electroosmotic slip. Motivated by their potential use for increasing the characteristic pressure fields, we specifically focus on power-law fluids with wall depletion properties. We derive a p-Poisson equation governing the pressure field, as well as a set of linearized equations representing its asymptotic approximation for weakly non-Newtonian behavior. To investigate the effect of non-Newtonian properties on the resulting fluidic pressure and velocity, we consider several configurations in one- and two-dimensions, and calculate both exact and approximate solutions. We show that the asymptotic approximation is in good agreement with exact solutions even for fluids with significant non-Newtonian behavior, allowing its use in the analysis and design of microfluidic systems involving electro-kinetic transport of such fluids.
LI Yucheng; ZHAO Yunpeng; GUI Fukun; TENG Bin; DONG Guohai
2006-01-01
A numerical model for determining fishing net configuration and load is developed, based on the lumped masses method. The model is used to analyze the influences on the net of gravity sea cage by different sinker weights in uniform flow. The net of gravity sea cage is simulated under different current velocities and sinker weights. In order to verify the validity of the numerical results,model test results made by Lader and Enerhaug are cited and compared with the numerical ones. The results of numerical simula tion agree well with the experimental ones and the agreement is within an error range of 13% under different velocities and sinker weights. The numerical results indicate that increasing the sinker weight can effectively reduce the net deformation, but the total drag force on the net will increase accordingly. Results will give references for better knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of gravity sea cage.
Moon, Sang Ki; Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Baek, Won Pil
2004-05-01
An experimental study of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) has been performed for a water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical 3x3 rod bundle under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. Since most of experimental studies on the low flow CHF have been performed under low pressure conditions, present study has investigated the effects of various parameters on the CHF under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. Especially, these experiments are focused on the CHF under Return-To-Power (RTP) conditions that are expected to occur in a main steam line break accident of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Using present CHF data, the applicability of conventional CHF correlations are investigated in a return-to-power condition. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.47 to 15.06 MPa, mass flux from 49.66 to 654.44 kg/m{sup 2}s, inlet subcooling from 67.90 to 722.70 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.36 to 1.29. In this study, the return-to-power conditions are defined as conditions with low mass flux less than 250 kg/m{sup 2}s, intermediated pressure between 6.0 MPa and 12.0 MPa, and high inlet subcooling greater than 200 kJ/kg. Total 299 CHF data including 93 CHF data in return-to-power conditions are obtained. The effects of various parameters on the CHF are consistent with previous understandings on the round tube CHF. Conventional CHF correlations predict the present return-to-power CHF data with reasonable accuracies. However, the prediction capabilities become worse in a very low mass flux below than about 100 kg/m{sup 2}s.
Sugihara-Seki, Masako; Sakamoto, Keisuke; Itano, Tomoaki; Seki, Junji
2016-11-01
In blood flow through microvessels, platelets are known to have enhanced concentrations near the vessel wall, which is the so-called "near-wall excess (NWE)". This phenomenon is considered to be caused by the interaction with red blood cells (RBCs); since RBCs have a tendency to approach the vessel centerline due to their highly deformability, they may push away less deformable platelets toward the near-wall region. In order to examine this proposition by in vitro experiments, we measured the distribution of platelet-sized particles mixed in intact RBC or hardened RBC suspensions flowing through microchannels of 50 μm x 50 μm cross-section. Hardened RBCs were prepared by immersing human RBCs in glutaraldehayde solution of 40 - 4000 ppm. Fluorescent observations were conducted with the use of a confocal laser scanning microscope system with a high-speed video camera. It was found that platelet-sized particles exhibited high concentrations near the channel wall, i.e., NWE, when they were mixed in intact RBC suspensions. By contrast, the particles mixed in hardened RBC suspensions showed weak NWE or uniform distribution over the channel cross-section, indicating that deformability of RBCs plays an essential role in the NWE phenomenon.
均匀颗粒间接触冲刷的颗粒流数值模拟%Particle flow simulation for contact erosion between uniform particles
常利营; 陈群; 叶发明
2016-01-01
Contact erosion easily occurs at the interface between two soil layers subjected to a groundwater flow. Particles of the fine soils are eroded by the flow and transported through the pores of the coarse layer, which may lead to failure of a hydraulic structure. To investigate the meso-mechanism of contact erosion, different layers consisting of uniform particles subjected to a flow parallel to the interface are simulated using the particle flow code. The results show that when the ratio of the effective diameter of the fine layer to the effective pore diameter of the coarse layer is larger than 0.50, the contact erosion does not occur. When the contact erosion happens between layers, the fine particles at the interface will move and be transported by the flows. With the increase in the loss quantity of the fine particles, the coarse particles will sink and the flow velocity will increase.%成层土在渗流作用下容易发生接触冲刷，细土层中的颗粒从粗土层孔隙中被水流带走，接触冲刷的持续发展会对水工建筑物产生严重的后果。为了从细观角度研究接触冲刷的发生机理，对五组由均匀颗粒组成的土层间的接触冲刷现象进行了颗粒流数值模拟。数值模拟结果表明，当细粒层的有效直径与粗粒层的有效孔隙直径之比大于0.50时，两土层间不会发生接触冲刷。当两土层发生接触冲刷时，接触面处的细颗粒会被水流带起从粗颗粒孔隙中冲出，随着细颗粒流失量的增加，上层粗颗粒逐渐下沉，渗透流速逐渐增加。
El Kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Die Moran, Andrés; Tassi, Pablo; Ata, Riadh; Hervouet, Jean-Michel
2016-07-01
Bank erosion can be an important form of morphological adjustment in rivers. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical models have become valuable tools for resolving many engineering problems dealing with sediment transport. The objective of this research work is to present a simple, new, bank-erosion operator that is integrated into a 2D Saint-Venant-Exner morphodynamic model. The numerical code is based on an unstructured grid of triangular elements and finite-element algorithms. The slope of each element in the grid is compared to the angle of repose of the bank material. Elements for which the slope is too steep are tilted to bring them to the angle of repose along a horizontal axis defined such that the volume loss above the axis is equal to the volume gain below, thus ensuring mass balance. The model performance is assessed using data from laboratory flume experiments and a scale model of the Old Rhine. For the flume experiment case with uniform bank material, relevant results are obtained for bank geometry changes. For the more challenging case (i.e. scale model of the Old Rhine with non-uniform bank material), the numerical model is capable of reproducing the main features of the bank failure, induced by the newly designed groynes, as well as the transport of the mobilized sediment material downstream. Some deviations between the computed results and measured data are, however, observed. They are ascribed to the effects of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures, pore pressure and cohesion, which are not considered in the present 2D model.
Helicity dynamics in stratified turbulence in the absence of forcing
Rorai, C; Pouquet, A; Mininni, P D
2012-01-01
A numerical study of decaying stably-stratified flows is performed. Relatively high stratification and moderate Reynolds numbers are considered, and a particular emphasis is placed on the role of helicity (velocity-vorticity correlations). The problem is tackled by integrating the Boussinesq equations in a periodic cubical domain using different initial conditions: a non-helical Taylor-Green (TG) flow, a fully helical Beltrami (ABC) flow, and random flows with a tunable helicity. We show that for stratified ABC flows helicity undergoes a substantially slower decay than for unstratified ABC flows. This fact is likely associated to the combined effect of stratification and large scale coherent structures. Indeed, when the latter are missing, as in random flows, helicity is rapidly destroyed by the onset of gravitational waves. A type of large-scale dissipative "cyclostrophic" balance can be invoked to explain this behavior. When helicity survives in the system it strongly affects the temporal energy decay and t...
Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.
2013-01-01
In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department and the Town of Dryden, New York, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County. The study provided geohydrologic data needed by the town and county to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. In this study area, three extensive confined sand and gravel aquifers (the upper, middle, and lower confined aquifers) compose the stratified-drift aquifer system. The Dryden Lake Valley is a glaciated valley oriented parallel to the direction of ice movement. Erosion by ice extensively widened and deepened the valley, truncated bedrock hillsides, and formed a nearly straight, U-shaped bedrock trough. The maximum thickness of the valley fill in the central part of the valley is about 400 feet (ft). The Virgil Creek Valley in the east part of the study area underwent less severe erosion by ice than the Dryden Lake Valley, and hence, it has a bedrock floor that is several hundred feet higher in altitude than that in the Dryden Lake Valley. The sources and amounts of recharge were difficult to identify in most areas because the confined aquifers are overlain by confining units. However, in the vicinity of the Virgil Creek Dam, the upper confined aquifer crops out at land surface in the floodplain of a gorge eroded by Virgil Creek, and this is where the aquifer receives large amounts of recharge from precipitation that directly falls over the aquifer and from seepage losses from Virgil Creek. The results of streamflow measurements made in Virgil Creek where it flows through the gorge indicated that the stream lost 1.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 0.78 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water in the reach extending from 220 ft downstream from the dam to 1,200 ft upstream from the dam. In the southern part of the study area, large amounts of recharge also replenish the
施卫东; 张光建; 张德胜; 吴苏青; 徐焰栋
2014-01-01
为研究入流条件对轴流泵的影响，建立了2种不同类型的非均匀速度入口分布，分别与均匀入流进行比较，得到非均匀入口边界条件对轴流泵影响的数值计算结果．将均匀入流下的数值模拟结果与试验值进行对比，验证了数值模型的可信性．在0.7Q～1.2Q工况范围内，对轴流泵的扬程、效率和径向力等曲线进行了对比分析，得出受入口速度非均匀性影响、轴流泵性能和径向载荷的变化结果．最后，在定常模拟的基础上，对设计工况下叶轮入口、叶轮出口和导叶出口处的压力脉动进行了监测，得到了2种非均匀入流条件对轴流泵3个典型位置处压力脉动的影响情况．结果表明，通过控制进口入流情况，可以使文中所研究的轴流泵的水动力性能好于轴向均匀入流时的水动力性能．%To study the effect of inflow conditions on an axial flow pump,two different types of non-u-niform inlet velocity distributions were established.By comparing with uniform inflow conditions,the effects of the non-uniform inflow conditions on pump performance,radial forces and pressure fluctua-tions were achieved by numerical simulations.Comparison of numerical simulation results and experi-mental values under uniform inflow verifies the accuracy of the numerical model.A comparative analy-sis of the effects on pump head,efficiency and radial force curves was performed under 0.7Q-1.2Q conditions.The variation of the axial flow pump performance and radial loads with the non-uniformity of the inlet velocity was obtained.Finally,based on the unsteady simulation,pressure fluctuations at impeller inlet,impeller outlet and guide vane exit at design condition were monitored,and the effects of two non-uniform inflows on pressure pulsations at three typical positions were achieved.The results show that by controlling the inflow situation,the hydrodynamic performance with non-uniform inflow is better
Electromagnetic waves in stratified media
Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne
Fazle Mabood
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a numerical analysis on the effects of Soret, variable thermal conductivity, viscous-Ohmic dissipation, non-uniform heat sources, on steady two-dimensional hydromagnetic mixed convective heat and mass transfer flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium with thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The governing differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations which are then solved numerically by using the fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Numerical solutions are obtained for the velocity, angular velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for various parametric values, and then results are presented graphically as well as skin-friction coefficient, and also local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number for different physical parameters are shown graphically and in tabular form. A critical analysis with earlier published papers was done, and the results were found to be in accordance with each other.
Stratified medicine and reimbursement issues
Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten
2012-01-01
Stratified Medicine (SM) has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to
Clustering of floating particles in stratified turbulence
Boffetta, Guido; de Lillo, Filippo; Musacchio, Stefano; Sozza, Alessandro
2016-11-01
We study the dynamics of small floating particles transported by stratified turbulence in presence of a mean linear density profile as a simple model for the confinement and the accumulation of plankton in the ocean. By means of extensive direct numerical simulations we investigate the statistical distribution of floaters as a function of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem. We find that vertical confinement of particles is mainly ruled by the degree of stratification, with a weak dependency on the particle properties. Conversely, small scale fractal clustering, typical of non-neutral particles in turbulence, depends on the particle relaxation time and is only weakly dependent on the flow stratification. The implications of our findings for the formation of thin phytoplankton layers are discussed.
左曙光; 张珺; 吴旭东; 龙国; 相龙洋; 刘敬芳
2015-01-01
为探讨均匀切向流及消声器结构参数对汽车微穿孔管消声器声学性能的影响，综合考虑均匀流对微穿孔板声阻抗和消声器中心管道内声传播的影响，分别讨论了直通流与切向流对声波传播的影响机理。建立了切向流下微穿孔消声器的传递损失一维理论计算模型并加以验证，采用该模型计算的传递损失理论值与试验值更为接近，最大相对误差由27.3%降低到15%。并且基于该理论模型分析了均匀切向流下微穿孔消声器的声学性能及消声器结构参数对微穿孔消声器有流声学性能的影响。研究发现，微穿孔消声器主要外部尺寸参数对有流传递损失的影响与对无流情况大体相同，穿孔参数对无流声学性能影响很大，在常用范围内变化时最大浮动值多达18 dB，但在常用范围内变化基本不影响有流声学性能。该文研究为有流条件下微穿孔消声器的设计提供了参考。%Transmission loss is a key factor to evaluate the performance of micro-perforated mufflers. In actual application, the mufflers are always applied in the air flow circumstance which would change the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of micro-perforated mufflers. So it is necessary to study the effect on acoustic properties caused by the flow. In this article, the uniform flow is taken into account, which has influence on acoustic impedance of the micro-perforated panel and the sound propagation in the center tube.The theory that how normal incident flow and grazing flow affect the sound propagation is discussed. When it comes to the circular micro-perforated duct mufflers, the grazing flow plays a much more important role in the sound propagation than the normal incident flow. The reason is that only little normal incident flow could pass through the holes to flow into the expansion chamber. The authors establish the one-dimension transmission loss (TL) model of micro
Stratified Medicine and Reimbursement Issues
Hans-Joerg eFugel
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Stratified Medicine (SM has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to strengthen the value proposition to pricing and reimbursement (P&R authorities. However, the introduction of SM challenges current reimbursement schemes in many EU countries and the US as different P&R policies have been adopted for drugs and diagnostics. Also, there is a lack of a consistent process for value assessment of more complex diagnostics in these markets. New, innovative approaches and more flexible P&R systems are needed to reflect the added value of diagnostic tests and to stimulate investments in new technologies. Yet, the framework for access of diagnostic–based therapies still requires further development while setting the right incentives and appropriate align stakeholders interests when realizing long- term patient benefits. This article addresses the reimbursement challenges of SM approaches in several EU countries and the US outlining some options to overcome existing reimbursement barriers for stratified medicine.
Background Oriented Schlieren in a Density Stratified Fluid
Verso, Lilly
2015-01-01
Non-intrusive quantitative fluid density measurements methods are essential in stratified flow experiments. Digital imaging leads to synthetic Schlieren methods in which the variations of the index of refraction are reconstructed computationally. In this study, an important extension to one of these methods, called Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS), is proposed. The extension enables an accurate reconstruction of the density field in stratified liquid experiments. Typically, the experiments are performed by the light source, background pattern, and the camera positioned on the opposite sides of a transparent vessel. The multi-media imaging through air-glass-water-glass-air leads to an additional aberration that destroys the reconstruction. A two-step calibration and image remapping transform are the key components that correct the images through the stratified media and provide non-intrusive full-field density measurements of transparent liquids.
Background oriented schlieren in a density stratified fluid
Verso, Lilly; Liberzon, Alex
2015-10-01
Non-intrusive quantitative fluid density measurement methods are essential in the stratified flow experiments. Digital imaging leads to synthetic schlieren methods in which the variations of the index of refraction are reconstructed computationally. In this study, an extension to one of these methods, called background oriented schlieren, is proposed. The extension enables an accurate reconstruction of the density field in stratified liquid experiments. Typically, the experiments are performed by the light source, background pattern, and the camera positioned on the opposite sides of a transparent vessel. The multimedia imaging through air-glass-water-glass-air leads to an additional aberration that destroys the reconstruction. A two-step calibration and image remapping transform are the key components that correct the images through the stratified media and provide a non-intrusive full-field density measurements of transparent liquids.
Charoenphonphanich, C.; Niwa, H.; Ennoji, H.; Iijima, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
A numerical analysis of the flow and mixing of rich mixture and air inducted into the cylinder through each of the two intake ports of a stratified charge engine have been carried out. Numerical calculations were performed by finite volume method for three types of the intake port configurations: inverse V type, parallel type and V type and two types of valve timing; conventional and late closing (Miller cycle). Velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy and distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder were examined. 3 refs., 10 figs.
Optimal stratification of item pools in α-stratified computerized adaptive testing
Chang, Hua-Hua; Linden, van der Wim J.
2003-01-01
A method based on 0-1 linear programming (LP) is presented to stratify an item pool optimally for use in α-stratified adaptive testing. Because the 0-1 LP model belongs to the subclass of models with a network flow structure, efficient solutions are possible. The method is applied to a previous item
Stratified spin-up in a sliced, square cylinder
Munro, R. J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Foster, M. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2014-02-15
We previously reported experimental and theoretical results on the linear spin-up of a linearly stratified, rotating fluid in a uniform-depth square cylinder [M. R. Foster and R. J. Munro, “The linear spin-up of a stratified, rotating fluid in a square cylinder,” J. Fluid Mech. 712, 7–40 (2012)]. Here we extend that analysis to a “sliced” square cylinder, which has a base-plane inclined at a shallow angle α. Asymptotic results are derived that show the spin-up phase is achieved by a combination of the Ekman-layer eruptions (from the perimeter region of the cylinder's lid and base) and cross-slope-propagating stratified Rossby waves. The final, steady state limit for this spin-up phase is identical to that found previously for the uniform depth cylinder, but is reached somewhat more rapidly on a time scale of order E{sup −1/2}Ω{sup −1}/log (α/E{sup 1/2}) (compared to E{sup −1/2}Ω{sup −1} for the uniform-depth cylinder), where Ω is the rotation rate and E the Ekman number. Experiments were performed for Burger numbers, S, between 0.4 and 16, and showed that for S≳O(1), the Rossby modes are severely damped, and it is only at small S, and during the early stages, that the presence of these wave modes was evident. These observations are supported by the theory, which shows the damping factors increase with S and are numerically large for S≳O(1)
Characterization of Inlet Diffuser Performance for Stratified Thermal Storage
Cimbala, John M.; Bahnfleth, William; Song, Jing
1999-11-01
Storage of sensible heating or cooling capacity in stratified vessels has important applications in central heating and cooling plants, power production, and solar energy utilization, among others. In stratified thermal storage systems, diffusers at the top and bottom of a stratified tank introduce and withdraw fluid while maintaining a stable density gradient and causing as little mixing as possible. In chilled water storage applications, mixing during the formation of the thermocline near an inlet diffuser is the single greatest source of thermal losses. Most stratified chilled water storage tanks are cylindrical vessels with diffusers that are either circular disks that distribute flow radially outward or octagonal rings of perforated pipe that distribute flow both inward and outward radially. Both types produce gravity currents that are strongly influenced by the inlet Richardson number, but the significance of other parameters is not clear. The present investigation considers the dependence of the thermal performance of a perforated pipe diffuser on design parameters including inlet velocity, ambient and inlet fluid temperatures, and tank dimensions for a range of conditions representative of typical chilled water applications. Dimensional analysis is combined with a parametric study using results from computational fluid dynamics to obtain quantitative relationships between design parameters and expected thermal performance.
Stratified wake of an accelerating hydrofoil
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi
2015-01-01
Wakes of towed and self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids are significantly different from non-stratified wakes. Long time effects of stratification on the development of the wakes of bluff bodies moving at constant speed are well known. In this experimental study we demonstrate how buoyancy affects the initial growth of vortices developing in the wake of a hydrofoil accelerating from rest. Particle image velocimetry measurements were applied to characterize the wake evolution behind a NACA 0015 hydrofoil accelerating in water and for low Reynolds number and relatively strong and stably stratified fluid (Re=5,000, Fr~O(1)). The analysis of velocity and vorticity fields, following vortex identification and an estimate of the circulation, reveal that the vortices in the stratified fluid case are stretched along the streamwise direction in the near wake. The momentum thickness profiles show lower momentum thickness values for the stratified late wake compared to the non-stratified wake, implying that the dra...
Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.
2011-07-01
It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.
无
1996-01-01
The coupled heat and mass transfer problem of gas flow over a UHF flat plate with its wall coated with sublimable substance was been solved by local non-smimilarity method.Considerations have been given also to the effect of non-saturation of the sublimable substance in the oncoming flow and the normal injection velocity at the surface.Analytical results are given for local Noselt and Sherwood Numbers at the various locations.
Core science: Stratified by a sunken impactor
Nakajima, Miki
2016-10-01
There is potential evidence for a stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, but its origin is not well understood. Laboratory experiments suggest that the stratified layer could be a sunken remnant of the giant impact that formed the Moon.
Coghetto Roland
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.
A Fixpoint Semantics for Stratified Databases
沈一栋
1993-01-01
Przmusinski extended the notion of stratified logic programs,developed by Apt,Blair and Walker,and by van Gelder,to stratified databases that allow both negative premises and disjunctive consequents.However,he did not provide a fixpoint theory for such class of databases.On the other hand,although a fixpoint semantics has been developed by Minker and Rajasekar for non-Horn logic programs,it is tantamount to traditional minimal model semantics which is not sufficient to capture the intended meaning of negation in the premises of clauses in stratified databases.In this paper,a fixpoint approach to stratified databases is developed,which corresponds with the perfect model semantics.Moreover,algorithms are proposed for computing the set of perfect models of a stratified database.
White, Kerry A.
2000-01-01
In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)
Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin
2002-01-01
Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…
Gas slug ascent through rheologically stratified conduits
Capponi, Antonio; James, Mike R.; Lane, Steve J.
2016-04-01
Textural and petrological evidence has indicated the presence of viscous, degassed magma layers at the top of the conduit at Stromboli. This layer acts as a plug through which gas slugs burst and it is thought to have a role in controlling the eruptive dynamics. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments which detail the range of slug flow configurations that can develop in a rheologically stratified conduit. A gas slug can burst (1) after being fully accommodated within the plug volume, (2) whilst its base is still in the underlying low-viscosity liquid or (3) within a low-viscosity layer dynamically emplaced above the plug during the slug ascent. We illustrate the relevance of the same flow configurations at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results show that gas volume, plug thickness, plug viscosity and conduit radius control the transition between each configuration; in contrast, the configuration distribution seems insensitive to the viscosity of magma beneath the plug, which acts mainly to deliver the slug into the plug. Each identified flow configuration encompasses a variety of processes including dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, generation of instabilities along the falling liquid film, transient blockages of the slug path and slug break-up. All these complexities, in turn, lead to variations in the slug overpressure, mirrored by changes in infrasonic signatures which are also associated to different eruptive styles. Acoustic amplitudes are strongly dependent on the flow configuration in which the slugs burst, with both acoustic peak amplitudes and waveform shapes reflecting different burst dynamics. When compared to infrasonic signals from Stromboli, the similarity between real signals and laboratory waveforms suggests that the burst of a slug through a plug may represent a viable first-order mechanism for the generation of
Lin, D. N. C.; Faulkner, J.; Papaloizou, J.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the stability and evolution of some simple accretion disk models in which the viscosity is prescribed by an ad hoc, uniform-alpha model. Emphasis is placed on systems in which the mass input rate from the secondary to the disk around the primary is assumed to be constant, although initial calculations with variable mass input rates are also performed. Time-dependent visual magnitude light curves constructed for cataclysmic binaries with a range of disk size, primary mass and mass input rate, and viscosity magnitude, are compared with the observed properties of various cataclysmic variable subclasses. The results obtained indicate that the observational differences between novae and dwarf novae may be due to mass input rate differences. The present models can reproduce the gross observational features of U-Gem-type dwarf nova outbursts.
关晖; 苏晓冰; 田俊杰
2011-01-01
The internal waves exist in the density stratified sea water, and have important effects to the stability and hovering ability of the motion of submarines. Using the finite volume algorithm with adaptive semi-structure grids, the multi-grid method and the volume of fluid method to solve Navier-Stokes equations , a numerical internal solitary wave flume, based on the idea of pushing two plates in opposite directions in the tank, with the ability of wave generation was developed, and the validity for such a method was numerically confirmed. The results were compared well with the analytical solution of KdV equation. The evolution of internal solitary waves was carried out, which laid a solid foundation for the future study of the interactions between internal solitary waves and submarines.%海洋内波是发生在密度分层海水中的波动，对潜艇航行的稳定性和悬停性都有重要影响。本文采用有限体积自适应半结构多重网格法求解Navier-Stokes方程，并用VOF(Volume of Fluid)方法追踪两层流体界面，应用双推板造波法进行内孤立波数值造波，对两层流体中的内孤立波数值造波方法进行研究和探讨。数值模拟结果证实了该数值水槽数值造波的有效性和可靠性，并将潜艇放入数值水槽中，研究内孤立波流场演化的过程，为后续研究潜艇的水动力学特性打下了基础。
Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malvandi, Amir, E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.
Jing Yan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Here we report the application of monodisperse double emulsion droplets, produced in a single step within partially hydrophilic/partially hydrophobic microfluidic devices, as defined containers for quantitative flow cytometric analysis. Samples with varying fluorophore concentrations were generated, and a clear correlation between dye concentration and fluorescence signals was observed.
UNIFORMLY ACCURATE KFVS METHODS FOR MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW CALCULATIONS%一致高精度KFVS方法用于多分量流的计算
汤华中; 邬华谟
2001-01-01
This paper is to study extension of high resolution kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) methods.In this new method,two Maxwellians are first introduced to recover the Euler equations with an additional conservative equation.Next,based on the well-known connection between the Euler equations and Boltzmann equations,a class of high resolution KFVS methods are presented to solve numerically multicomponent flows.Our method does not solve any Riemann problems,and add any nonconservative corrections.The numerical results are also presented to show the accuracy and robustness of our methods.These include one-dimensional shock tube problem,and two-dimensional interface motion in compressible flows.The computed solutions are oscillation-free near material fronts,and produce correct shock speeds.
Emad W. Al-Shalabi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Oil recovery prediction and field pilot implements require basic understanding and estimation of displacement efficiency. Corefloods and glass micromodels are two of the commonly used experimental methods to achieve this. In this paper, waterflood recovery is investigated using layered etched glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs with large permeability contrasts. This study focuses mainly on the effect of permeability (heterogeneity in stratified porous media with no cross-flow. Three experimental setups were designed to represent uniformly stratified oil reservoir with vertical discontinuity in permeability. Waterflood recovery to residual oil saturation (Sor is measured through glass micromodel (to aid visual observation, linear coreflood, and forced drainage-imbibition processes by ultracentrifuge. Six oil samples of low-to-medium viscosity and porous media of widely different permeability (darcy and millidarcy ranges were chosen for the study. The results showed that waterflood displacement efficiencies are consistent in both permeability ranges, namely, glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs. Interestingly, the experimental results show that the low permeability zones resulted in higher ultimate oil recovery compared to high permeability zones. At Sor microheterogeneity and fingering are attributed for this phenomenon. In light of the findings, conformance control is discussed for better sweep efficiency. This paper may be of help to field operators to gain more insight into microheterogeneity and fingering phenomena and their impact on waterflood recovery estimation.
Turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly stratified turbulence: theory and experiments
Amir, G; Eidelman, A; Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I
2016-01-01
Turbulent thermal diffusion is a combined effect of the temperature stratified turbulence and inertia of small particles. It causes the appearance of a non-diffusive turbulent flux of particles in the direction of the turbulent heat flux. This non-diffusive turbulent flux of particles is proportional to the product of the mean particle number density and the effective velocity of inertial particles. The theory of this effect has been previously developed only for small temperature gradients and small Stokes numbers (Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 76}, 224, 1996). In this study a generalized theory of turbulent thermal diffusion for arbitrary temperature gradients and Stokes numbers has been developed. The laboratory experiments in the oscillating grid turbulence and in the multi-fan produced turbulence have been performed to validate the theory of turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly stratified turbulent flows. It has been shown that the ratio of the effective velocity of inertial particles to the characteristic ve...
Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid; Malvandi, Amir
2016-12-01
This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number.
El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Yahya, Aishah S.
2017-09-01
Simultaneous effects of thermal and concentration diffusions in unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow past a moving plate maintained at constant heat flux and embedded in a viscous fluid saturated porous medium is presented. The transport model employed includes the effects of thermal radiation, heat sink, Soret and chemical reaction. The fluid is considered as a gray absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation in the energy equations is used to describe the radiative heat flux for optically thick fluid. The dimensionless coupled linear partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace transform technique. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, concentration as well as the skin friction coefficient and the rates of heat and mass transfer are shown graphically for different values of physical parameters involved.
De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego
2011-01-01
The dynamics of GRB jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modelled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with $\\rho \\propto r^{-k}$ for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in 2D using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. The dynamics for stratified external media are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium. The jet half-opening angle start increasing logarithmically with time once the Lorentz factor drops below 1/theta_0. For larger k values the lateral expansion is faster at early times and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timesc...
Dysart, Joel E.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Kontis, Angelo L.
1999-01-01
The vertical hydraulic conductivity per unit thickness (streambed leakance) of unconsolidated sediment immediately beneath the channel of the Rockaway River near a municipal well field at Dover, N.J., is between 0.2 and 0.6 feet per day per foot and is probably near the low end of this range. This estimate is based on evaluation of three lines of evidence: (1) Streamflow measurements, which indicated that induced infiltration of river water near the well field averaged 0.67 cubic feet per second; (2) measurements of the rate of downward propagation of diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen and water temperature at three piezometers, which indicated vertical Darcian flow velocities of 0.6 and 1.5 feet per day, respectively; and (3) chemical mixing models based on stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, which indicated that 30 percent of the water reaching a well near the center of the well field was derived from the river. The estimated streambed-leakance values are compatible with other aquifer properties and with hydraulic stresses observed over a 2-year period, as demonstrated by a set of six alternative groundwater flow models of the Rockaway River valley. Simulated water levels rose 0.5 to 1.7 feet near the well field when simulated streambed leakance was changed from 0.2 to 0.6 feet per day per foot, or when a former reach of the Rockaway River valley that is now blocked by glacial drift was simulated as containing a continuous sand aquifer (rather than impermeable till). Model recalibration to observed water levels could accommodate either of these changes, however, by plausible adjustments in hydraulic conductivity of 35 percent or less.The ground-water flow models incorporate a new procedure for simulating areal recharge, in which water available for recharge in any time interval is accepted as recharge only where the water level in the uppermost model layer is below land surface. Water rejected as recharge on upland hillsides is allowed to recharge
Strongly Stratified Turbulence Wakes and Mixing Produced by Fractal Wakes
Dimitrieva, Natalia; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Chashechkin, Yuli; Fraunie, Philippe; Velascos, David
2017-04-01
This paper describes Shliering and Shadowgraph experiments of the wake induced mixing produced by tranversing a vertical or horizontal fractal grid through the interfase between two miscible fluids at low Atwood and Reynolds numbers. This is a configuration design to models the mixing across isopycnals in stably-stratified flows in many environmental relevant situations (either in the atmosphere or in the ocean. The initial unstable stratification is characterized by a reduced gravity: g' = gΔρ ρ where g is gravity, Δρ being the initial density step and ρ the reference density. Here the Atwood number is A = g' _ 2 g . The topology of the fractal wake within the strong stratification, and the internal wave field produces both a turbulent cascade and a wave cascade, with frecuen parametric resonances, the envelope of the mixing front is found to follow a complex non steady 3rd order polinomial function with a maximum at about 4-5 Brunt-Vaisalla non-dimensional time scales: t/N δ = c1(t/N) + c2g Δρ ρ (t/N)2 -c3(t/N)3. Conductivity probes and Shliering and Shadowgraph visual techniques, including CIV with (Laser induced fluorescence and digitization of the light attenuation across the tank) are used in order to investigate the density gradients and the three-dimensionality of the expanding and contracting wake. Fractal analysis is also used in order to estimate the fastest and slowest growing wavelengths. The large scale structures are observed to increase in wave-length as the mixing progresses, and the processes involved in this increase in scale are also examined.Measurements of the pointwise and horizontally averaged concentrations confirm the picture obtained from past flow visualization studies. They show that the fluid passes through the mixing region with relatively small amounts of molecular mixing,and the molecular effects only dominate on longer time scales when the small scales have penetrated through the large scale structures. The Non
School Uniforms. Research Brief
Walker, Karen
2007-01-01
Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…
Linda
2008-01-01
The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue
Uniform magnesium oxide adsorbents
Dash, J. G.; Ecke, R.; Stoltenberg, J.; Vilches, O. E.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.
1978-01-01
Kr adsorption on MgO is used to characterize the surface uniformity of MgO smoke and thermally decomposed Mg(OH)2. It is found that initially heterogeneous samples develop progressively sharper stepwise isotherms with increasingly-high-temperature heat treatment, apparently due to the removal of imperfections and high-energy facets, leaving surfaces of highly uniform (100) planes.
Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model
S. Masina
Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature.
This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.
Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets
Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves
Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel
2016-02-01
There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ∞ neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.
Inertial modes of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars
Prix, R; Andersson, N
2004-01-01
We present results concerning adiabatic inertial-mode oscillations of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian gravity, using the anelastic and slow-rotation approximations. We consider a simple two-fluid model of a superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons and the second fluid contains all the comoving constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be ``free'' in the sense that vortex-mediated forces like mutual friction or pinning are absent, but they can be coupled by the equation of state, in particular by entrainment. The stationary background consists of the two fluids rotating uniformly around the same axis with potentially different rotation rates. We study the special cases of co-rotating backgrounds, vanishing entrainment, and the purely toroidal r-modes, analytically. We calculate numerically the eigenfunctions and frequencies of inertial modes in the general case of non co-rotating backgrounds, and study their dependence on the relat...
Computation of mixing in large stably stratified enclosures
Zhao, Haihua
This dissertation presents a set of new numerical models for the mixing and heat transfer problems in large stably stratified enclosures. Basing on these models, a new computer code, BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++), was developed by Christensen (2001) and the author. Traditional lumped control volume methods and zone models cannot model the detailed information about the distributions of temperature, density, and pressure in enclosures and therefore can have significant errors. 2-D and 3-D CFD methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets, wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide due to computational expense. Peterson's scaling (1994) showed that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ code was developed to implement the above ideas. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical models or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. 1-D transient conduction model for the solid boundaries, pressure computation and opening models are also included to make the code more versatile. The BMIX++ code was implemented in C++ and the Object-Oriented-Programming (OOP) technique was intensively used. The BMIX++ code was successfully applied to different types of mixing problems such as stratification in a water tank due to a heater inside, water tank exchange flow experiment simulation, early stage building fire analysis, stratification produced by multiple plumes, and simulations for the UCB large enclosure experiments. Most of these simulations gave satisfying
Stably stratified magnetized stars in general relativity
Yoshida, Shijun; Shibata, Masaru
2012-01-01
We construct magnetized stars composed of a fluid stably stratified by entropy gradients in the framework of general relativity, assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics and employing a barotropic equation of state. We first revisit basic equations for describing stably-stratified stationary axisymmetric stars containing both poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. As sample models, the magnetized stars considered by Ioka and Sasaki (2004), inside which the magnetic fields are confined, are modified to the ones stably stratified. The magnetized stars newly constructed in this study are believed to be more stable than the existing relativistic models because they have both poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields with comparable strength, and magnetic buoyancy instabilities near the surface of the star, which can be stabilized by the stratification, are suppressed.
Thermals in stratified regions of the ISM
Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary
2013-01-01
We present a model of a "thermal" (i.e., a hot bubble) rising within an exponentially stratified region of the ISM. This model includes terms representing the ram pressure braking and the entrainment of environmental gas into the thermal. We then calibrate the free parameters associated with these two terms through a comparison with 3D numerical simulations of a rising bubble. Finally, we apply our "thermal" model to the case of a hot bubble produced by a SN within the stratified ISM of the Galactic disk.
On Stratified Vortex Motions under Gravity.
2014-09-26
AD-A156 930 ON STRATIFIED VORTEX MOTIONS UNDER GRAVITY (U) NAVAL i/i RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC Y T FUNG 20 JUN 85 NRL-MIR-5564 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 20/4...Under Gravity LCn * Y. T. Fung Fluid Dynamics Branch - Marine Technologyv Division June 20, 1985 SO Cyk. NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Washington, D.C...DN880-019 TITLE (Include Security Classification) On Stratified Vortex Motions Under Gravity 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Funa, Y.T. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b
THERMALS IN STRATIFIED REGIONS OF THE ISM
A. Rodríguez-González
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a model of a “thermal” (i.e., a hot bubble rising within an exponentially stratified region of the ISM. This model includes terms representing the ram pressure braking and the entrainment of environmental gas into the thermal. We then calibrate the free parameters associated with these two terms through a comparison with 3D numerical simulations of a rising bubble. Finally, we apply our “thermal” model to the case of a hot bubble produced by a SN within the stratified ISM of the Galactic disk.
刘翔; 黄其柏; 廖道训; 温国珍
2005-01-01
The analytical expressions was deduced for the inviscid flow field induced by the double vortex filaments that move uniformly and rigidly without change of its form in a cylindrical tube, where the vortex filaments rotate around its axial with a constant angular velocity and translates along its axial with a constant transferal velocity. It is a key of solving problem to set up a moving cylindrical coordinate system together with the vortex filaments motion, in which the relative velocity field is presumed to be time-independent and with helical symmetry. The result shows that the absolute velocity field and pressure field are all time-periodic functions, and may degenerate into a time-independent field when the helical vortex filaments slip along the filaments themselves or is immobile. The calculation results at the location of pressure peaks and valleys on pipe wall are accordant with experimental results. When the cylindrical pipe radius tends to infinitely large quantity, it is also concluded that the double helical vortex filaments induce flow field in an unbound space.
Geometric structure of pseudo-plane quadratic flows
Sun, Che
2017-03-01
Quadratic flows have the unique property of uniform strain and are commonly used in turbulence modeling and hydrodynamic analysis. While previous applications focused on two-dimensional homogeneous fluid, this study examines the geometric structure of three-dimensional quadratic flows in stratified fluid by solving a steady-state pseudo-plane flow model. The complete set of exact solutions reveals that steady quadratic flows have an invariant conic type in the non-rotating frame and a non-rotatory vertical structure in the rotating frame. Three baroclinic solutions with vertically non-aligned formulation disprove an earlier conjecture. All elliptic and hyperbolic solutions, except for the inertial ones, exhibit vertical concentricity. The rich geometry of quadratic flows stands in contrast to the depleted geometry of high-degree polynomial flows. A paradox in the steady solutions of shallow-water reduced-gravity models is also explained.
Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems
Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas
2006-01-01
Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...
2014-05-26
parametric subharmonic instability. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stratified turbulent wakes, high Reynolds numbers, internal waves, nonlinear effects, harmonics, mean...beam and the potential for parametric subharmonic instability. In all these efforts, a uniform linear stratification was considered. A subset of our...found for all simulated waves. c) For sufficiently high-amplitude beams, a parametric subharmonic instability is observed after a long enough time
Intermittent Turbulence in Stratified Flow over a Canopy
Boing, S.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.
2010-01-01
During the night turbulence can often be very intermittent, occurring in sudden vigorous bursts after prolonged periods of low-intensity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain intermittency. The present study focuses on the role of porous surface elements, which influence the mean wind
Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Birvalski, M.
2015-01-01
The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and
A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows
2013-09-30
Berselli et al., 2011) and in ocean models ( Marques and Özgökmen, 2012). Our approach in Özgökmen et al. (2012) is perhaps the first truly multi-scale...Transport in Star Eddies: Star eddies have been observed from MODIS SST images in both the summer 2011 and winter 2012 LatMix cruises. I have...published, refereed]. Marques , G.M. and T.M. Özgökmen: On modeling the turbulent exchange in buoyancy-driven fronts. Ocean Modelling [submitted
Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Birvalski, M.
2015-01-01
The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and
Uniformly Convex Metric Spaces
Kell Martin
2014-01-01
In this paper the theory of uniformly convex metric spaces is developed. These spaces exhibit a generalized convexity of the metric from a fixed point. Using a (nearly) uniform convexity property a simple proof of reflexivity is presented and a weak topology of such spaces is analyzed. This topology called co-convex topology agrees with the usualy weak topology in Banach spaces. An example of a $CAT(0)$-spaces with weak topology which is not Hausdorff is given. This answers questions raised b...
龚金海; 梁法春; 刘德绪; 燕慧
2012-01-01
Traditional invasive liquid film measurement method such as conductance probe technique is not suitable for the gas-liquid two-phase flow system with high pressure, flammable,combustible and corrosity medium. A novel method was proposed based on infrared imaging for gas-liquid two phase stratified flow liquid film height measurement. In order to improve the measurement accuracy, a heating belt was applied to improve the temperature difference between the gas and liquid,the film height was obtained using infrared imaging to distinguish gas-liquid interface. A VOF multiphase flow model was used to simulate the temperature distribution of the pipe section under constant heat flux,based on this,the experiments were carried out at an air-water two-phase flow loop and the infrared image were obtained using an infrared camera. The gas-liquid interface position was determined according to the temperature gradient characteristics. The measurement results were compared with capacitance probe method. It showed during the experimental range,the maximum measurement error was 8. 2% .%对于输送高压、易燃易爆、强腐蚀性介质的气液两相流管道,电导探针等传统的介入式液膜厚度测量方法不适用.针对这种情况,提出了通过红外热像测量气液两相分层流液膜厚度的新方法:在管道外壁敷设加热带,通过施加恒定热流密度来增加气液相温差,通过采集红外图像识别气液界面获得液膜高度.在建立VOF多相流模型模拟恒定热流密度条件下管截面上温度分布特征基础上,实验在气液两相流环道上进行,采用热像仪采集管壁红外图像,真实液膜厚度由介入式电容探针测量,在试验范围内红外方法液膜厚度测量最大误差8.2％.
Effect of turbulent fluctuations on the behaviour of fountains in stratified environments
Freire, D.; Cabeza, C.; Pauletti, S.; Sarasúa, G.; Bove, I.; Usera, G.; Martí, A. C.
2010-09-01
The interaction between a turbulent fountain and its stratified environment was studied. A heavy fluid, cold water, was injected vertically upwards into a linearly stratified medium. The round heavy-fluid jet reaches a maximum height before it begins to fall due to the effect of gravity. Because of the effects of friction and mixing, the vertical momentum and density of the jet fluid decrease as it submerges to an intermediate height of zero buoyancy. At this point, the jet fluid spreads as a horizontal front, intruding into the stratified environment. The degree of fluctuation in the proximity of the injection point was studied under both unrestricted- and restricted-flow configurations at the injection, using two differently sized stainless-steel woven-wire screens at the injection port as flow-restricting means. Using visualization and velocimetry techniques, both maximum and spreading heights were found to decrease with increasing turbulence at the point of injection.
Uniform random number generators
Farr, W. R.
1971-01-01
Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.
Multi Dimensional CTL and Stratified Datalog
Theodore Andronikos
2010-02-01
Full Text Available In this work we define Multi Dimensional CTL (MD-CTL in short by extending CTL which is thedominant temporal specification language in practice. The need for Multi Dimensional CTL is mainlydue to the advent of semi-structured data. The common path nature of CTL and XPath which provides asuitable model for semi-structured data, has caused the emergence of work on specifying a relation amongthem aiming at exploiting the nice properties of CTL. Although the advantages of such an approach havealready been noticed [36, 26, 5], no formal definition of MD-CTL has been given. The goal of this workis twofold; a we define MD-CTL and prove that the “nice” properties of CTL (linear model checking andbounded model property transfer also to MD-CTL, b we establish new results on stratified Datalog. Inparticular, we define a fragment of stratified Datalog called Multi Branching Temporal (MBT in shortprograms that has the same expressive power as MD-CTL. We prove that by devising a linear translationbetween MBT and MD-CTL. We actually give the exact translation rules for both directions. We furtherbuild on this relation to prove that query evaluation is linear and checking satisfiability, containment andequivalence are EXPTIME–complete for MBT programs. The class MBT is the largest fragment of stratifiedDatalog for which such results exist in the literature.
Thermal mixing in a stratified environment
Kraemer, Damian; Cotel, Aline
1999-11-01
Laboratory experiments of a thermal impinging on a stratified interface have been performed. The thermal was released from a cylindrical reservoir located at the bottom of a Lucite tank. The stratified interface was created by filling the tank with two different saline solutions. The density of the lower layer is greater than that of the upper layer and the thermal fluid, thereby creating a stable stratification. A pH indicator, phenolphthalein, is used to visualize and quantify the amount of mixing produced by the impingement of the thermal at the interface. The upper layer contains a mixture of water, salt and sodium hydroxide. The thermal fluid is composed of water, sulfuric acid and phenolphthalein. When the thermal entrains and mixes fluid from the upper layer, a chemical reaction takes place, and the resulting mixed fluid is now visible. The ratio of base to acid, called the equivalence ratio, was varied throughout the experiments, as well as the Richardson number. The Richardson number is the ratio of potential to kinetic energy, and is based on the thermal quantities at the interface. Results indicate that the amount of mixing produced is proportional to the Richardson number raised to the -3/2 power. Previous experiments (Zhang and Cotel 1999) revealed that the entrainment rate of a thermal in a stratified environment follows the same power law.
黄富来; 黄护林
2009-01-01
Seven-species air model was used and electrical conductivity was calculated by species formula to investigate the effects of the intensity of uniform magnetic field on three dimensional chemical nonequilibrium hypersonic flows around a blunt body by solving the viscous MHD (magneto-hydro-dynamics) equations. The results show that the shock standoff distance is increased and total drag coefficient and wall temperature are reduced with increasing external magnetic field. At B_y - 0.03 T, the shock standoff distance is increased by about 7%, total drag coefficient and local wall temperature in nonequilibrium flow are decreased by about 5% and 74%, respectively. However, in frozen flow under the same conditions, the shock standoff distance is increased by about 43%, total drag coefficient and local wall temperature are decreased by about 6. 9% and 18%, respectively, as compared with that without magnetic field.%采用7组元化学模型并应用组分公式计算电导率,通过求解黏性MHD(magneto-hydro-dy-namics)方程组,研究了不同强度均匀磁场对三维钝头体高超声速绕流化学非平衡流动的影响.结果表明,随着磁场的增强,激波脱体距离逐渐增加;总阻力系数和壁面温度逐渐减小.在B_y=0.03T磁场作用下,与无磁场的结果相比,化学非平衡流中的激波脱体距离增加约7%,总阻力系数减小约5%,局部肇面温度最大降低74%;而冻结流中的激波脱体距离增加约43%,总阻力系数减小约6.9%,局部壁面温度最大降低18%.
冯春; 李世海; 赵颖; 刘晓宇
2014-01-01
扭王字块是一种重要的港口防波堤护面块体，其断裂失稳过程与所受水流冲击力密切相关。文章以基于连续介质力学的离散元方法（CDEM ）为基础，通过引入FVM 算法及半弹簧-半棱联合接触模型，分别实现了大位移下单元变形的准确计算及单元接触的快速更新。基于改进后的CDEM 方法，通过在扭王字块表面施加按流速方向逐渐增加的动态面力，对均匀水流冲击下单扭王字块的断裂过程及扭王字块群的失稳滑移过程进行了数值分析。通过分析，不同方向水流冲击下单扭王字块的主要断裂模式为沿着根部的折断，其断裂流速约为21～25 m/s；不同吨位下扭王字块群的失稳模式为扭王字块单体从群体中跳出，其失稳流速约为4～11 m/s。%Accropode is considered as an important breakwater armour block ,and the failure process is closely related to impact force of flow .Based on Continuum-based Discrete Element Method (CDEM ) , and by introducing FVM algorithm and semi-spring & semi-edge combined contact model ,the precise calculation of element deformation and quick update of element contact under large displacement are real-ized .According to modified CDEM above mentioned ,and by applying gradually increased dynamic face force on accropode surface with the direction of flow ,the numerical simulations are taken .The crack process of single accropode and instability process of accropodes group under impact load of uniform flow are studied .Numerical results show that ,the main crack mode of single accropode is root fracture ,with the crack velocity 20~24 m/s in different impact direction ;and the main instability mode of accropodes group is single accropode jumping out of group ,with the instability velocity 4~12 m/s in different ton-nage .
唐柳青; 余桂英; 唐玮; 王雪娇
2015-01-01
Coupled heat transfer theory and EFD software are used to simulate the temperature field, flow field and pressure field of LED luminaire. According to the simulation result, the edge curve of heat flow field is extracted by image processing. After that, a model of new heat sink with curve shaped fins and the same weight is build based on the equation of the edge curve. This kind of structure could achieve uniform distribution of heat flow field, and make full use of ambient air to take away the heat faster. Simulation results show that, when ambient temperature is 20℃, the structure with curve shaped fins reduces highest temperature by 12℃, and highest relative pressure by 0.95 Pa. At the same time, flow velocity become more well-distributed, with much more fluid at higher flow rate. To further simplify the model, the curve shaped fins are optimized to inclined fins gradually tilting from the center to the sides. After the optimization, highest temperature drop by 7.1℃, compared with the former one. At last, contrast experiment is done to prove that the heat sink with inclined fins presents better cooling efficiency, and at the same time, has lower requirement for production and processing technology.%本文首先运用耦合传热理论与EFD软件，对一种LED灯具的温度场、流场、压强场进行仿真，再对仿真结果图进行图像处理，提取热流场分布的边缘曲线，并以此曲线方程为依据，在总重量不变的情况下，设计了一种曲线型散热结构，可以使热流场分布均匀化，并且更有效地利用周围空气进行散热。结果表明，在20℃环境中，曲线型散热结构可使最高温升降低12℃，最大相对压强减小0.95 Pa，流场流速分布更均匀，且居于较大流速的流体比例有明显提高。为进一步简化模型，又将曲线形状的翅片优化为逐渐向两边外侧倾斜的角度型翅片，使优化后的最高温度较曲线型又下降了7.1℃。最
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts
2011-01-01
@@ Introduction The Uniform requirements are instructions to authors on how to prepare manuscripts.If authors prepare their manuscripts in the style specified in these requirements, editors of the participating journals will not return the manuscripts for changes in style before considering them for publication.In the publishing process, however, the journals may alter accepted manuscripts to conform with details of their publication styles.
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [TASC, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: fabio@ucolick.org [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2012-05-20
The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with {rho}{sub ext}{proportional_to}r{sup -k} for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle {theta}{sub 0} = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor {Gamma} drops below {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when {Gamma} > {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for {theta}{sub obs} {<=} {theta}{sub 0}) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 {<=} k {<=} 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego
2012-05-01
The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρextvpropr -k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ-1 0. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ-1 0) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θobs <= θ0) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 <= k <= 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet decelerates more
Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;
2009-01-01
This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting
2015-01-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue is assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description for tissue dynamics at long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insight for the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface could enhance small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multi-layered tissues, it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology and developing pattern.
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Direct simulation of the stably stratified turbulent Ekman layer
Coleman, G. N.; Ferziger, J. H.; Spalart, P. R.
1992-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations and the Boussinesq approximation were used to compute a 3D time-dependent turbulent flow in the stably stratified Ekman layer over a smooth surface. The simulation data are found to be in very good agreement with atmospheric measurements when nondimensionalized according to Nieuwstadt's local scaling scheme. Results suggest that, when Reynolds number effects are taken into account, the 'constant Froud number' stable layer model (Brost and Wyngaard, 1978) and the 'shearing length' stable layer model (Hunt, 1985) for the dissipitation rate of turbulent kinetic energy are both valid. It is concluded that there is good agreement between the direct numerical simulation results and large-eddy simulation results obtained by Mason and Derbyshire (1990).
Second order closure for stratified convection: bulk region and overshooting
Biferale, L; Sbragaglia, M; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F; Tripiccione, R
2011-01-01
The parameterization of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in convective systems and in the presence of strong stratification is a key issue for many applied problems in oceanography, atmospheric science and planetology. In the presence of stratification, one needs to cope with bulk turbulent fluctuations and with inversion regions, where temperature, density -or both- develop highly non-linear mean profiles due to the interactions between the turbulent boundary layer and the unmixed -stable- flow above/below it. We present a second order closure able to cope simultaneously with both bulk and boundary layer regions, and we test it against high-resolution state-of-the-art 2D numerical simulations in a convective and stratified belt for values of the Rayleigh number, up to Ra = 10^9. Data are taken from a Rayleigh-Taylor system confined by the existence of an adiabatic gradient.
The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem
Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek
2017-01-01
The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or
Inverse scattering of dispersive stratified structures
Skaar, Johannes
2012-01-01
We consider the inverse scattering problem of retrieving the structural parameters of a stratified medium consisting of dispersive materials, given knowledge of the complex reflection coefficient in a finite frequency range. It is shown that the inverse scattering problem does not have a unique solution in general. When the dispersion is sufficiently small, such that the time-domain Fresnel reflections have durations less than the round-trip time in the layers, the solution is unique and can be found by layer peeling. Numerical examples with dispersive and lossy media are given, demonstrating the usefulness of the method for e.g. THz technology.
Nonlinear gravity-wave interactions in stratified turbulence
Remmel, Mark; Sukhatme, Jai; Smith, Leslie M.
2014-04-01
To investigate the dynamics of gravity waves in stratified Boussinesq flows, a model is derived that consists of all three-gravity-wave-mode interactions (the GGG model), excluding interactions involving the vortical mode. The GGG model is a natural extension of weak turbulence theory that accounts for exact three-gravity-wave resonances. The model is examined numerically by means of random, large-scale, high-frequency forcing. An immediate observation is a robust growth of the so-called vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF). In addition, there is a forward transfer of energy and equilibration of the nonzero-frequency (sometimes called "fast") gravity-wave modes. These results show that gravity-wave-mode interactions by themselves are capable of systematic interscale energy transfer in a stratified fluid. Comparing numerical simulations of the GGG model and the full Boussinesq system, for the range of Froude numbers ( Fr) considered (0.05 ≤ Fr ≤ 1), in both systems the VSHF is hardest to resolve. When adequately resolved, VSHF growth is more vigorous in the GGG model. Furthermore, a VSHF is observed to form in milder stratification scenarios in the GGG model than the full Boussinesq system. Finally, fully three-dimensional nonzero-frequency gravity-wave modes equilibrate in both systems and their scaling with vertical wavenumber follows similar power-laws. The slopes of the power-laws obtained depend on Fr and approach -2 (from above) at Fr = 0.05, which is the strongest stratification that can be properly resolved with our computational resources.
童芳丽; 林东强; 刘川; 贠军贤; 姚善泾
2013-01-01
为了满足层析介质对粒径单分散的要求,利用十字型微通道的聚焦效应,形成粒径均一的纤维素微液滴,经固化成纤维素微球,再偶联配基制成了纤维素层析介质.以离子液体1-乙基-3-甲基咪唑甲基磷酸直接溶解微晶纤维素为水相,葵花籽油为油相,考察了微通道内微液滴的形成条件,优化了纤维素浓度、分散剂浓度、油水两相流速等因素,得到粒径约100 μm的纤维素微液滴,CV值小于0.2.微液滴固化再生,得到球形度良好的纤维素微球,湿真密度1.019 g.ml-1,孔度94.6％,体均粒径105.5 μm；进一步偶联DEAE配基,制得了离子交换层析介质,离子交换容量为123.3 μmol·g-1,牛血清白蛋白的饱和吸附容量Qm达到220 mg·g-1,有效扩散系数De为1.8×10-11m2·s-1,体现出较好的蛋白质吸附性能.%To prepare the cellulose-based chromatography matrix with uniform size, a cross-flow microchannel chip was used to control the droplet size of cellulose solution and then the microdroplets were solidified to obtain the monodisperse cellulose beads. In the present work, ionic liquid, [EMIM] MP, was used to dissolve the microcrystalline cellulose as water phase and sunflower oil was used as oil phase. The effects of cellulose concentration, surfactant addition, flow rates of oil phase and water phase were investigated. The optimized preparation condition was 2% cellulose solution as water phase, flow rate of water phase of 6 μl · min-1 and flow rate of oil phase of 200 μl · min-1. The microdroplets of cellulose solution thus obtained could be about 100 μm with the variation coefficient less than 0. 2. After solidification and regeneration, cellulose beads were obtained with good sphericity. Wet density of beads was 1. 019 g · ml-1 , porosity was 94. 6%, and mean size was about 105.5 μm. The cellulose beads were coupled with DEAE ligand and used as weak anion-exchange resin. The ion exchange capacity was 123. 3 μmol
Dynamics of Vorticity Defects in Stratified Shear
2010-10-19
Salmon). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report. [16] A. E. Gill, A mechanism for instability of plane Couette flow and of Poiseuille flow ...airfoil, Gill[16] modelled the base-state to be a Couette flow with slight distortions. This severely simplified the linear stability calculations and...provided integral dispersion relationships. Next Lerner and Knobloch[24] performed long-wavelength stability studies on a distorted Couette flow . The
DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.
Amore, Paolo; Saenz, Ricardo A; Salvo, Koen [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340 Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-Conicet), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: rasaenz@ucol.mx, E-mail: koen.salvo@gmail.com
2009-03-20
In this paper we derive four sets of sinc-like functions, defined on a finite interval and obeying different boundary conditions. The functions in each set are orthogonal and their nodes are uniformly distributed on the interval. We have applied each set to solve a large class of eigenvalue equations, with different boundary conditions, both on finite intervals and on the real line, showing that precise numerical results can be obtained efficiently and rapidly. A comparison with results available in the literature is also performed.
Hanna Karaszewska
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.
Loos, Pierre-François
2016-01-01
The uniform electron gas or UEG (also known as jellium) is one of the most fundamental models in condensed-matter physics and the cornerstone of the most popular approximation --- the local-density approximation --- within density-functional theory. In this article, we provide a detailed review on the energetics of the UEG at high, intermediate and low densities, and in one, two and three dimensions. We also report the best quantum Monte Carlo and symmetry-broken Hartree-Fock calculations available in the literature for the UEG and discuss the phase diagrams of jellium.
Massimo Giovannini
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Uniform distribution of sequences
Kuipers, L
2006-01-01
The theory of uniform distribution began with Hermann Weyl's celebrated paper of 1916. In later decades, the theory moved beyond its roots in diophantine approximations to provide common ground for topics as diverse as number theory, probability theory, functional analysis, and topological algebra. This book summarizes the theory's development from its beginnings to the mid-1970s, with comprehensive coverage of both methods and their underlying principles.A practical introduction for students of number theory and analysis as well as a reference for researchers in the field, this book covers un
Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2015-06-30
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method
Waluyo, Joko
2016-06-01
Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be
Uniform Exponential Growth in Algebras /
Briggs, Christopher Alan
2013-01-01
We consider uniform exponential growth in algebras. We give conditions for the uniform exponential growth of descending-filtered algebras and prove that an N-graded algebra has uniform exponential growth if it has exponential growth. We use this to prove that Golod- Shafarevich algebras and group algebras of Golod- Shafarevich groups have uniform exponential growth. We prove that the twisted Laurent extension of a free commutative polynomial algebra with respect to an endomorphism with some e...
Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms
Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.;
2004-01-01
In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... carried an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible gfpmut2 gene encoding a stable GFP. The second construct carried a GFP derivative, gfp-AGA, encoding an unstable GFP under the control of the growth-rate-dependent rrnBp(1) promoter. Both GFP reporters indicated that active protein...... of oxygen limitation in the biofilm. Oxygen microelectrode measurements showed that oxygen only penetrated approximately 50 mum into the biofilm. P. aeruginosa was incapable of anaerobic growth in the medium used for this investigation. These results show that while mature P. aeruginosa biofilms contain...
Bayesian Stratified Sampling to Assess Corpus Utility
Hochberg, J; Thomas, T; Hall, S; Hochberg, Judith; Scovel, Clint; Thomas, Timothy; Hall, Sam
1998-01-01
This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. We exemplify the method by addressing the question, "What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?" We estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Stratified sampling is used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3100 documents to fewer than 1000. The stratification is based on observed characteristics of real documents, while the sampling procedure incorporates a Bayesian version of Neyman allocation. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.
On turbulence in a stratified environment
Sarkar, Sutanu
2015-11-01
John Lumley, motivated by atmospheric observations, made seminal contributions to the statistical theory (Lumley and Panofsky 1964, Lumley 1964) and second-order modeling (Zeman and Lumley 1976) of turbulence in the environment. Turbulent processes in the ocean share many features with the atmosphere, e.g., shear, stratification, rotation and rough topography. Results from direct and large eddy simulations of two model problems will be used to illustrate some of the features of turbulence in a stratified environment. The first problem concerns a shear layer in nonuniform stratification, a situation typical of both the atmosphere and the ocean. The second problem, considered to be responsible for much of the turbulent mixing that occurs in the ocean interior, concerns topographically generated internal gravity waves. Connections will be made to data taken during observational campaigns in the ocean.
Stratified scaffold design for engineering composite tissues.
Mosher, Christopher Z; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Lu, Helen H
2015-08-01
A significant challenge to orthopaedic soft tissue repair is the biological fixation of autologous or allogeneic grafts with bone, whereby the lack of functional integration between such grafts and host bone has limited the clinical success of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and other common soft tissue-based reconstructive grafts. The inability of current surgical reconstruction to restore the native fibrocartilaginous insertion between the ACL and the femur or tibia, which minimizes stress concentration and facilitates load transfer between the soft and hard tissues, compromises the long-term clinical functionality of these grafts. To enable integration, a stratified scaffold design that mimics the multiple tissue regions of the ACL interface (ligament-fibrocartilage-bone) represents a promising strategy for composite tissue formation. Moreover, distinct cellular organization and phase-specific matrix heterogeneity achieved through co- or tri-culture within the scaffold system can promote biomimetic multi-tissue regeneration. Here, we describe the methods for fabricating a tri-phasic scaffold intended for ligament-bone integration, as well as the tri-culture of fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts on the stratified scaffold for the formation of structurally contiguous and compositionally distinct regions of ligament, fibrocartilage and bone. The primary advantage of the tri-phasic scaffold is the recapitulation of the multi-tissue organization across the native interface through the layered design. Moreover, in addition to ease of fabrication, each scaffold phase is similar in polymer composition and therefore can be joined together by sintering, enabling the seamless integration of each region and avoiding delamination between scaffold layers.
Stratified sampling design based on data mining.
Kim, Yeonkook J; Oh, Yoonhwan; Park, Sunghoon; Cho, Sungzoon; Park, Hayoung
2013-09-01
To explore classification rules based on data mining methodologies which are to be used in defining strata in stratified sampling of healthcare providers with improved sampling efficiency. We performed k-means clustering to group providers with similar characteristics, then, constructed decision trees on cluster labels to generate stratification rules. We assessed the variance explained by the stratification proposed in this study and by conventional stratification to evaluate the performance of the sampling design. We constructed a study database from health insurance claims data and providers' profile data made available to this study by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea, and population data from Statistics Korea. From our database, we used the data for single specialty clinics or hospitals in two specialties, general surgery and ophthalmology, for the year 2011 in this study. Data mining resulted in five strata in general surgery with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and population density of provider location, and five strata in ophthalmology with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and number of beds. The percentages of variance in annual changes in the productivity of specialists explained by the stratification in general surgery and ophthalmology were 22% and 8%, respectively, whereas conventional stratification by the type of provider location and number of beds explained 2% and 0.2% of variance, respectively. This study demonstrated that data mining methods can be used in designing efficient stratified sampling with variables readily available to the insurer and government; it offers an alternative to the existing stratification method that is widely used in healthcare provider surveys in South Korea.
Information content of household-stratified epidemics
T.M. Kinyanjui
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.
Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?
Journal of School Health, 2001
2001-01-01
This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…
Bonnivard, Matthieu; Bucur, Dorin
2012-06-01
Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and "almost Lipschitz" boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.
Uniform quantized electron gas
Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique
2016-10-01
In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T = 0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.
Uniformly rotating neutron stars
Boshkayev, Kuantay
2016-01-01
In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...
Large eddy simulation of unsteady lean stratified premixed combustion
Duwig, C. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Fureby, C. [Division of Weapons and Protection, Warheads and Propulsion, The Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, SE 147 25 Tumba (Sweden)
2007-10-15
Premixed turbulent flame-based technologies are rapidly growing in importance, with applications to modern clean combustion devices for both power generation and aeropropulsion. However, the gain in decreasing harmful emissions might be canceled by rising combustion instabilities. Unwanted unsteady flame phenomena that might even destroy the whole device have been widely reported and are subject to intensive studies. In the present paper, we use unsteady numerical tools for simulating an unsteady and well-documented flame. Computations were performed for nonreacting, perfectly premixed and stratified premixed cases using two different numerical codes and different large-eddy-simulation-based flamelet models. Nonreacting simulations are shown to agree well with experimental data, with the LES results capturing the mean features (symmetry breaking) as well as the fluctuation level of the turbulent flow. For reacting cases, the uncertainty induced by the time-averaging technique limited the comparisons. Given an estimate of the uncertainty, the numerical results were found to reproduce well the experimental data in terms both of mean flow field and of fluctuation levels. In addition, it was found that despite relying on different assumptions/simplifications, both numerical tools lead to similar predictions, giving confidence in the results. Moreover, we studied the flame dynamics and particularly the response to a periodic pulsation. We found that above a certain excitation level, the flame dynamic changes and becomes rather insensitive to the excitation/instability amplitude. Conclusions regarding the self-growth of thermoacoustic waves were drawn. (author)
Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments
2008-01-01
Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.
Stability characteristics of jets in linearly-stratified, rotating fluids
Chen, Rui-Rong; Boyer, Don L.; Tao, Lijun
A series of laboratory experiments are conducted concerning an azimuthal jet of a linearly stratified rotating fluid in a cylindrical geometry. The jet is characterized by vertical and horizontal shear and the question of the stability of the flow is considered experimentally. The jet is driven by a source-sink method characterized by a volume flow rate of strength Q. BecauseQ has no direct geophysical significance a combined external set of dimensionless parameters is introduced. These include the Rossby, Richardson and Ekman numbers, the jet aspect ratio and two geometrical parameters. A RossbyRo against RichardsonRi number flow regime diagram is presented which shows that the wave mode of the instability generally decreases with increasingRo andRi, for fixedRi andRo, respectively. In accordance with Killworth's (1980) linear stability analysis, the wave mode for smallRi (Ri ⪉ 15) depends principally onRi with the instability being largely a baroclinic one. For largerRi(Ri ⪉ 100), again as predicted by Killworth's theory, the wave mode depends primarily onRo, the instability being a barotropic one. The regime diagram can be used to estimate the wave-length of jet instabilities in the atmosphere and oceans. These estimates suggest that the wave-lengths decrease with increasing jet velocity, decreasing jet width (equivalent to increasing horizontal shear) and increasing vertical shear, other parameters being fixed. An azimuthal topography aligned along the jet has the tendency to stabilize the jet in the sense that the amplitude of the instability is shown to be dramatically smaller in the presence of the topography, other parameters being fixed. The topography also tends to increase the wave-length of the instability. A scaling analysis is advanced, and supporting experimental data presented, relating the external and internal parameters utilized.
Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H
2008-01-21
We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.
Magnetoacoustic Waves in Stratified Atmospheres with a Magnetic Null Point
Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James E.
2016-05-01
Magnetic fields strongly modify the propagation of MHD waves from the photosphere to the low corona, as can be shown exactly for the most simple case of a uniform magnetic field and isothermally stratrified atmosphere. For slightly more realistic scenarios, where both the atmospheric parameters and the magnetic field vary spatially, the linear MHD equations typically cannot be solved analytically. We use the Lagrangian Remap code--a nonlinear, shock-capturing MHD code--to study the propagation of initially acoustic wavepackets through a model 2D atmosphere that includes a gravitationally stratified chromosphere, transition region, and low corona. The magnetic field is formed by three photospheric concentrations and includes a single magnetic null point, resulting in an inhomogeneous system with a magnetic dome topology. A portion of an introduced wavepacket will refract toward the null due to the varying Alfven speed. Waves incident on the equipartition contour surrounding the null, where the sound and Alfven speeds coincide, partially transmit, reflect, and mode convert between branches of the local dispersion relation. Outward propagating slow modes generated during conversion become strongly concentrated along the set of field lines passing near the null. Acoustic energy is beamed back downwards towards each photospheric foot point, and upwards along one separatrix that exits the top of the numerical domain. Changes in the dominant restoring force for the wavepacket, between the Lorentz and pressure gradient forces, lead to a buildup of current density along topologically important features of the system (the null point and its four separatrices) and can drive reconnection at the null point itself. Ohmic dissipation of the currents locally heats the plasma. We find that the amount of current accumulation depends on where the centroid of a wavepacket initial crosses the photosphere, but does not simply coincide with regions of open versus closed magnetic field or
The Near Wake of Bluff Bodies in Stratified Fluids and the Emergence of Late Wake Characteristics
2010-10-29
Kundu and Ira Cohen. Fluid Mechanics , Third Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2004. [27] S. Lee. A numerical study of the unsteady wake behind a sphere in a...found in the stratified fluid flows is the existence of the standing lee wave, which is a laminar mechanism . Above a Reynolds number of 2000, it is...computational cost to both model the proper fluid mechanics on the sphere and reproduce the far-wake is prohibitively expensive with current
Numerical modeling of mixing in large stably stratified enclosures using TRACMIX++
Christensen, Jakob
This PhD dissertation focuses on the numerical modeling of stably stratified large enclosures. In stably stratified volumes, the distribution of temperature, species concentration etc become essentially 1-D throughout most of the enclosure. When the fluid in an enclosure is stratified, wall boundary buoyant jets, forced buoyant jets (injection of fluid) and natural convection plumes become the primary sources of mixing. The time constants for the buoyant jets may be considered as much smaller than the time constant for the mixing of the stratified ambient fluid, provided the combined volume occupied by the buoyant jets is small compared to the volume of the enclosure. Therefore, fluid transport by the buoyant jets may be considered as occurring instantaneously. For this reason this work focuses on deriving a numerical method which is able to solve the 1-D vertical fluid conservation equations, as given in Peterson (1994). Starting with the Eulerian fluid conservation equations given in Peterson (1994), a set of Lagrangian fluid conservation equations were derived. Combining the Lagrangian approach with operator splitting such that the convective step and the diffusive step is separated renders a very efficient, accurate, and stable numerical method as it is shown in this text. Since the stratified flow field frequently exhibits very strong gradients or so-called fronts, the generation of these fronts has to be accurately detected and tracked by the numerical method. Flow in stably stratified large enclosure has typically been modeled in the past using 1- or 2-zone models. The present model is new in that it belongs to the K-zone models where the number of zones is arbitrarily large and depends on the complexity of the solution and the accuracy requirement set by the user. Because fronts are present in the flow field, a Lagrangian type numerical method is used. A Lagrangian method facilitates front tracking and prevents numerical diffusion from altering the shape of
Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors
Nalim, M. Razi
1997-01-01
A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.
Stratified spaces constitute a Fra\\"iss\\'e category
Mijares, José Gregorio
2010-01-01
We prove that stratified spaces and stratified pseudomanifolds satisfy categorical Fra\\"{\\i}ss\\'e properties. This result was presented for the First Meeting of Logic and Algebra in Bogot\\'a, on Sept. 2010. This article has been submitted to the Revista Colombiana de Matem\\'aticas.
STUDIES OF TWO-PHASE PLUMES IN STRATIFIED ENVIRONMENTS
Scott A. Socolofsky; Brian C. Crounse; E. Eric Adams
1998-11-18
Two-phase plumes play an important role in the more practical scenarios for ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}--i.e. dispersing CO{sub 2} as a buoyant liquid from either a bottom-mounted or ship-towed pipeline. Despite much research on related applications, such as for reservoir destratification using bubble plumes, our understanding of these flows is incomplete, especially concerning the phenomenon of plume peeling in a stratified ambient. To address this deficiency, we have built a laboratory facility in which we can make fundamental measurements of plume behavior. Although we are using air, oil and sediments as our sources of buoyancy (rather than CO{sub 2}), by using models, our results can be directly applied to field scale CO{sub 2} releases to help us design better CO{sub 2} injection systems, as well as plan and interpret the results of our up-coming international field experiment. The experimental facility designed to study two-phase plume behavior similar to that of an ocean CO{sub 2} release includes the following components: 1.22 x 1.22 x 2.44 m tall glass walled tank; Tanks and piping for the two-tank stratification method for producing step- and linearly-stratified ambient conditions; Density profiling system using a conductivity and temperature probe mounted to an automated depth profiler; Lighting systems, including a virtual point source light for shadowgraphs and a 6 W argon-ion laser for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging; Imaging system, including a digital, progressive scanning CCD camera, computerized framegrabber, and image acquisition and analysis software; Buoyancy source diffusers having four different air diffusers, two oil diffusers, and a planned sediment diffuser; Dye injection method using a Mariotte bottle and a collar diffuser; and Systems integration software using the Labview graphical programming language and Windows NT. In comparison with previously reported experiments, this system allows us to extend the parameter range of
School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.
Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.
1998-01-01
The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…
The nonlinear evolution of modes on unstable stratified shear layers
Blackaby, Nicholas; Dando, Andrew; Hall, Philip
1993-06-01
The nonlinear development of disturbances in stratified shear flows (having a local Richardson number of value less than one quarter) is considered. Such modes are initially fast growing but, like related studies, we assume that the viscous, non-parallel spreading of the shear layer results in them evolving in a linear fashion until they reach a position where their amplitudes are large enough and their growth rates have diminished sufficiently so that amplitude equations can be derived using weakly nonlinear and non-equilibrium critical-layer theories. Four different basic integro-differential amplitude equations are possible, including one due to a novel mechanism; the relevant choice of amplitude equation, at a particular instance, being dependent on the relative sizes of the disturbance amplitude, the growth rate of the disturbance, its wavenumber, and the viscosity of the fluid. This richness of choice of possible nonlinearities arises mathematically from the indicial Frobenius roots of the governing linear inviscid equation (the Taylor-Goldstein equation) not, in general, differing by an integer. The initial nonlinear evolution of a mode will be governed by an integro-differential amplitude equations with a cubic nonlinearity but the resulting significant increase in the size of the disturbance's amplitude leads on to the next stage of the evolution process where the evolution of the mode is governed by an integro-differential amplitude equations with a quintic nonlinearity. Continued growth of the disturbance amplitude is expected during this stage, resulting in the effects of nonlinearity spreading to outside the critical level, by which time the flow has become fully nonlinear.
Assessing iron dynamics in the release from a stratified reservoir
Ashby, S.L.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gambrell, R.P.; Smith, B.A.
2004-01-01
Field and laboratory studies were conducted to describe the fate of total, dissolved, and ferrous (Fe2.) iron in the release from a stratified reservoir with an anoxic hypolimnion. Concentrations of total iron in the tail water indicated a first order removal process during a low flow release (0.6 m3sec1), yet negligible loss was observed during a period of increased discharge (2.8 m 3 sec-1). Dissolved and ferrous iron concentrations in the tailwater were highly variable during both release regimes and did not follow responses based on theoretical predictions. Ferrous iron concentrations in unfiltered samples were consistently greater than concentrations observed in samples filtered separately through 0.4, 0.2, and 0.1 ??m filters. Total iron removal in laboratory studies followed first order kinetics, but was twice that rate (0.077 mg.L-1 .hr 1) observed during low flow discharge in the tailwater (0.036 mg. L1 .hr1). Dissolved and ferrous iron losses in laboratory studies were rapid (???75% in the first 15 minutes and 95% within 1 hour), followed theoretical predictions, and were much faster than observations in the tailwater (???30% within the first hour). The presence of particulate forms of ferrous iron in the field and differences in removal rates observed in field and laboratory studies indicate a need for improved field assessment techniques and consideration of complexation reactions when assessing the dynamics of iron in reservoir releases and downstream impacts as a result of operation regimes. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2004.
Statistical Test for Bivariate Uniformity
Zhenmin Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the multidimension uniformity test is to check whether the underlying probability distribution of a multidimensional population differs from the multidimensional uniform distribution. The multidimensional uniformity test has applications in various fields such as biology, astronomy, and computer science. Such a test, however, has received less attention in the literature compared with the univariate case. A new test statistic for checking multidimensional uniformity is proposed in this paper. Some important properties of the proposed test statistic are discussed. As a special case, the bivariate statistic test is discussed in detail in this paper. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare the power of the newly proposed test with the distance-to-boundary test, which is a recently published statistical test for multidimensional uniformity. It has been shown that the test proposed in this paper is more powerful than the distance-to-boundary test in some cases.
Methane metabolism in a stratified boreal lake
Nykänen, Hannu; Peura, Sari; Kankaala, Paula; Jones, Roger
2013-04-01
Stratified lakes, typical of the boreal zone, are naturally anoxic from their bottoms. In these lakes methanogenesis can account for up to half of organic matter degradation. However, a major part of the methane (CH4) is oxidized in the water column before reaching the atmosphere. Since methanotrophs use CH4 as their sole carbon and energy source, much CH4-derived carbon is incorporated into their biomass. Microbially produced CH4 has strongly negative δ13C compared to other carbon forms in ecosystems, making it possible to follow its route in food webs. However, only a few studies have estimated the amount of this microbial biomass or its carbon stable isotopic composition due to difficulties in separating it from other biomass or from other carbon forms in the water column. We estimated methanotrophic biomass from measured CH4 oxidation, and δ13C of the biomass from measured δ13C values of CH4, DIC, POM and DOC. An estimate of the fraction of methanotrophs in total microbial biomass is derived from bacterial community composition measurements. The study was made in, Alinen Mustajärvi, a small (area 0.75 ha, maximum depth 6.5 m, mean depth 4.2 m,), oligotrophic, mesohumic headwater lake located in boreal coniferous forest in southern Finland. CH4 and DIC concentrations and their δ13C were measured over the deepest point of the lake at 1 m intervals. 13C of DOM and POM were analyzed from composite samples from epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. Evasion of CH4 and carbon dioxide from the lake surface to the atmosphere was estimated with boundary layer diffusion equations. CH4oxidation was estimated by comparing differences between observed concentrations and CH4potentially transported by turbulent diffusion between different vertical layers in the lake and also by actual methanotrophy measurements and from vertical differences in δ13C-CH4. The estimate of CH4 production was based on the sum of oxidized and released CH4. Molecular microbiology methods were used to
Stratlets: Low Reynolds Number Point-Force Solutions in a Stratified Fluid
Ardekani, A. M.; Stocker, R.
2010-08-01
We present fundamental solutions of low Reynolds number flows in a stratified fluid, including the case of a point force (Stokeslet) and a doublet. Stratification dramatically alters the flow by creating toroidal eddies, and velocity decays much faster than in a homogeneous fluid. The fundamental length scale is set by the competition of buoyancy, diffusion and viscosity, and is O(100μm-1mm) in aquatic environments. Stratification can therefore affect the swimming of small organisms and the sinking of marine snow particles, and diminish the effectiveness of mechanosensing in the ocean.
"Explosively growing" vortices of unstably stratified atmosphere
Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Fedun, V.
2016-10-01
A new type of "explosively growing" vortex structure is investigated theoretically in the framework of ideal fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that vortex structures may arise in convectively unstable atmospheric layers containing background vorticity. From an exact analytical vortex solution the vertical vorticity structure and toroidal speed are derived and analyzed. The assumption that vorticity is constant with height leads to a solution that grows explosively when the flow is inviscid. The results shown are in agreement with observations and laboratory experiments
Modeling the Uniformity of Manifold with Various Configurations
Jafar M. Hassan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The flow distribution in manifolds is highly dependent on inlet pressure, configuration, and total inlet flow to the manifold. The flow from a manifold has many applications and in various fields of engineering such as civil, mechanical, and chemical engineering. In this study, physical and numerical models were employed to study the uniformity of the flow distribution from manifold with various configurations. The physical model consists of main manifold with uniform longitudinal section having diameter of 10.16 cm (4 in, five laterals with diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in, and spacing of 22 cm. Different inlet flows were tested and the values of these flows are 500, 750, and 1000 L/min. A manifold with tapered longitudinal section having inlet diameters of 10.16 cm (4 in and dead end diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in with the same above later specifications and flow rates was tested for its uniformity too. The percentage of absolute mean deviation for manifold with uniform diameter was found to be 34% while its value for the manifold with nonuniform diameter was found to be 14%. This result confirms the efficiency of the nonuniform distribution of fluids.
Uniform Acceleration in General Relativity
Friedman, Yaakov
2016-01-01
We extend de la Fuente and Romero's defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.
Chemical vapor deposition reactor. [providing uniform film thickness
Chern, S. S.; Maserjian, J. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
An improved chemical vapor deposition reactor is characterized by a vapor deposition chamber configured to substantially eliminate non-uniformities in films deposited on substrates by control of gas flow and removing gas phase reaction materials from the chamber. Uniformity in the thickness of films is produced by having reactive gases injected through multiple jets which are placed at uniformally distributed locations. Gas phase reaction materials are removed through an exhaust chimney which is positioned above the centrally located, heated pad or platform on which substrates are placed. A baffle is situated above the heated platform below the mouth of the chimney to prevent downdraft dispersion and scattering of gas phase reactant materials.
Reconstruction of stratified steady water waves from pressure readings on the ocean bed
Chen, Robin Ming
2015-01-01
Consider a two-dimensional stratified solitary wave propagating through a body of water that is bounded below by an impermeable ocean bed. In this work, we study how such a wave can be reconstructed from data consisting of the wave speed, upstream and downstream density profile, and the trace of the pressure on the bed. First, we prove that this data uniquely determines the wave, both in the (real) analytic and Sobolev regimes. Second, for waves that consist of multiple layers of constant density immiscible fluids, we provide an exact formula describing each of the interfaces in terms of the data. Finally, for continuously stratified fluids, we detail a reconstruction scheme based on approximation by layer-wise constant density flows.
Sckool Dress Rule, Uniform Policies
潘志强
2005-01-01
Our schools believe that a uniform policy will provide a better environment, promote positive selfesteem, encourage an atmosphere for greater discipline, and increase learning opportunities for students by removing many of the distractions associated with various types of clothing.
Uniform polyhedra: old and new
Melikhov, Sergey A
2011-01-01
We develop a theory of metric polyhedra, including locally infinite dimensional ones. Motivated by algebraic topology, we focus on their uniform properties (i.e., those preserved by homeomorphisms that are uniformly continuous in both directions) but in doing so we also study their metric and Lipschitz properties. On the combinatorial side, (the face posets of) simplicial or cubical complexes do not suffice for this, and we have to rework some basic PL topology into a purely combinatorial machinery (with all homeomorphisms eliminated in favor of combinatorial isomorphisms) based on posets and their canonical subdivision (which is just the poset of all order intervals of the given poset, ordered by inclusion). Antecedents of this approach to PL topology are found in van Kampen's 1929 dissertation and in modern Topological Combinatorics. Our main results establish, in particular, close but troubled relations between uniform polyhedra and uniform ANRs, and appear to provide a satisfactory solution to an open-end...
Landing the uniformly accelerating observers
Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan; Gruber, Ronald P.
2006-01-01
Observers of the uniformly accelerating observers or the observers who make up the system of uniformly accelerating observers reach the same velocity V at different times ti which depends on V and on theirs acceleration gi. Considering a platform that moves with constant velocity V, the observers can land smoothly on it. Their ages and locations in the inertial reference frame attached to the platform are reckoned and compared.
Anisotropic turbulence in weakly stratified rotating magnetoconvection
Giesecke, A
2010-01-01
Numerical simulations of the 3D MHD-equations that describe rotating magnetoconvection in a Cartesian box have been performed using the code NIRVANA. The characteristics of averaged quantities like the turbulence intensity and the turbulent heat flux that are caused by the combined action of the small-scale fluctuations are computed. The correlation length of the turbulence significantly depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the anisotropic behavior of the turbulence intensity induced by Coriolis and Lorentz force is considerably more pronounced for faster rotation. The development of isotropic behavior on the small scales -- as it is observed in pure rotating convection -- vanishes even for a weak magnetic field which results in a turbulent flow that is dominated by the vertical component. In the presence of a horizontal magnetic field the vertical turbulent heat flux slightly increases with increasing field strength, so that cooling of the rotating system is facilitated. Horizont...
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
无
2010-01-01
Stable stratification turbulence, as a common phenomenon in atmospheric and oceanic flows, is an important mechanism for numerical prediction of such flows. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating stable stratification turbulence numerically. The paper is expected to provide correct statistical results in agreement with those measured in the atmosphere or ocean. The fully developed turbulence is obtained in the stable stratification fluid by large eddy simulation with different initial velocity field and characteristic parameters, i.e. Reynolds number Re and Froude number Fr. The evolution of turbulent kinetic energy, characteristic length scales and parameters is analyzed for investigating the development of turbulence in stable stratification fluid. The three-dimensional energy spectra, horizontal and vertical energy spectrum, are compared between numerical simulation and real observation in the atmosphere and ocean in order to test the reliability of the numerical simulation. The results of numerical cases show that the large eddy simulation is capable of predicting the properties of stable stratification turbulence in consistence with real measurements at less computational cost. It has been found in this paper that the turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominant in the developed stable stratification turbulence. It is also found that the characteristic parameters must satisfy certain conditions in order to have correct statistical property of stable stratification turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean. The Reynolds number and Froude number are unnecessarily equal to those in atmosphere or ocean, but the Reynolds number must be large enough, say, greater than 10 2 , and Froude number must be less than 0.1. The most important parameter is ReFr 2 which must be greater than 10.
Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1995-12-31
The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).
Tangling clustering instability for small particles in temperature stratified turbulence
Elperin, Tov; Liberman, Michael; Rogachevskii, Igor
2013-01-01
We study particle clustering in a temperature stratified turbulence with small finite correlation time. It is shown that the temperature stratified turbulence strongly increases the degree of compressibility of particle velocity field. This results in the strong decrease of the threshold for the excitation of the tangling clustering instability even for small particles. The tangling clustering instability in the temperature stratified turbulence is essentially different from the inertial clustering instability that occurs in non-stratified isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. While the inertial clustering instability is caused by the centrifugal effect of the turbulent eddies, the mechanism of the tangling clustering instability is related to the temperature fluctuations generated by the tangling of the mean temperature gradient by the velocity fluctuations. Temperature fluctuations produce pressure fluctuations and cause particle clustering in regions with increased pressure fluctuations. It is shown that t...
Effects of rotation on turbulent buoyant plumes in stratified environments
Fabregat Tomàs, Alexandre; Poje, Andrew C; Özgökmen, Tamay M; Dewar, William K
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate the effects of rotation on the turbulent dynamics of thermally driven buoyant plumes in stratified environments at the large Rossby numbers characteristic of deep oceanic releases...
Hunt, Julian C. R.; Moustaoui, Mohamed; Mahalov, Alex
2015-09-01
High resolution three-dimensional simulations are presented of the interactions between turbulent shear flows moving with mean relative velocity ΔU below a stably stratified region with buoyancy frequency (N+). An artificial forcing in the simulation, with a similar effect as a small negative eddy viscosity, leads to a steady state flow which models thin interfaces. Characteristic eddies of the turbulence have length scale L. If the bulk Richardson number Rib=(LN+/ΔU)2 lies between lower and upper critical values denoted as Ri∗(temperature. Comparisons are made with shear turbulent interfaces with no stratification. When Rib>R~i, vertical propagating waves are generated, with shear stresses carrying significant momentum flux and progressively less as Rib increases. Simulations for a jet and a turbulent mixing layer show similar results. A perturbation analysis, using inhomogeneous Rapid Distortion Theory, models the transition zone between shear eddies below the interface and the fluctuations in the stratified region, consistent with the simulations. It demonstrates how the wave-momentum-flux has a maximum when Rib˜2 and then decreases as Rib increases. This coupling mechanism between eddies and waves, which is neglected in eddy viscosity models for shear layers, can drive flows in the stratosphere and the deeper ocean, with significant consequences for short- and long-term flow phenomena. The "detached layer" is a mechanism that contributes to the formation of stratus clouds and polluted layers above the atmospheric boundary layer.
Numerical Study on Saltwater Instrusion in a Heterogeneous Stratified Aquifer
2000-01-01
In a costal aquifer, saltwater intrusion is frequently observed due to an excess exploitation. There are many researches focused on the saltwater intrusion. However, there are few researches, which take into consideration the mixing processes in a stratified heterogeneous aquifer. In the present study, a laboratory experiment and numerical simulation are made in order to understand the phenomena in a stratified heterogeneous aquifer. The result of the numerical analysis agrees well with the m...
Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kanagawa (Japan); Moriyoshi, Y. [Chiba Univ., Dept. of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Chiba (Japan)
2000-11-01
In a stratified charge engine, a glow plug pilot flame ignition system has been compared with a spark-ignition system for a model stratified charge Wankel combustion chamber. A motored two-stroke diesel engine was operated as a rapid compression and expansion machine with the cylinder head replaced by a model Wankel combustion chamber designed to simulate the temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber of an actual engine. It was found that the pilot flame ignition system had better ignitability and improved combustion characteristics, especially in the lean mixture range, relative to the spark-ignition system. (Author)
Nakano, S.; Ikegawa, M. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1990-07-25
Flow field in which two supersonic turbulent flows with different species gases mix, was analyzed with a two-equation turbulence model and the mixing characteristics of 2 supersonic parallel flows were investigated by making the inlet flow condition of high speed gas constant and by ststematically changing the inlet flow condition of low speed gas. When mixing is carried out so that high speed gas is taken in the low speed gas, high spreading rate of the mixing layer is obtained and this tendency is emphasized markedly as the ratio such as velocity, density and pressure between low and high speed gases become small. The spreading of low mass ratio layer of low speed gas and that of low mass ratio layer of high speed gas are assymmetric and the spreading of the former is suppressed at the coindition where the latter expands. The tendency of developing rate of mixing layer to the correlating parameter in this calculation agreed well with results of visualized experiment. 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.
Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx
2004-07-01
The search of the patterns of control bars (PBCs) in a power reactor of boiling water, requires to investigate a very wide space of solutions, in principle they are had of the order of 3 x 10{sup 152} possible configurations to establish the PBC in a point given before reaching the end of the cycle. This situation suggests to define those restrictions and conditions initial appropriately so that the search converges toward the desirable results. Presently work the results of the search of patterns of bars based on different flow scenarios through the nucleus are presented. The Cycle 10 is analysed (C10) of the Unit One of the Nuclear Power station Laguna Verde (CNLV), which presents an interesting mixture of diverse designs of control bars used in operation to power. The search of the patterns of bars of objective control is carried out applying the GACRP program which is based on the calculation technique known as genetic algorithms. (Author)
On topological spaces possessing uniformly distributed sequences
Bogachev, V I
2007-01-01
Two classes of topological spaces are introduced on which every probability Radon measure possesses a uniformly distributed sequence or a uniformly tight uniformly distributed sequence. It is shown that these classes are stable under multiplication by completely regular Souslin spaces
Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets
Aubert, Clément
2012-01-01
Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2010-01-01
We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2010-01-01
We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Quasi-geostrophic modes in the Earth's fluid core with an outer stably stratified layer
Vidal, Jérémie
2015-01-01
Seismic waves sensitive to the outermost part of the Earth's liquid core seem to be affected by a stably stratified layer at the core-mantle boundary. Such a layer could have an observable signature in both long-term and short-term variations of the magnetic field of the Earth, which are used to probe the flow at the top of the core. Indeed, with the recent SWARM mission, it seems reasonable to be able to identify waves propagating in the core with period of several months, which may play an important role in the large-scale dynamics. In this paper, we characterize the influence of a stratified layer at the top of the core on deep quasi-geostrophic (Rossby) waves. We compute numerically the quasi-geostrophic eigenmodes of a rapidly rotating spherical shell, with a stably stratified layer near the outer boundary. Two simple models of stratification are taken into account, which are scaled with commonly accepted values of the Brunt-V{\\"a}is{\\"a}l{\\"a} frequency in the Earth's core. In the absence of magnetic fi...
Diamessis, P.; Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.
2008-11-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from the 3-D DNS of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x10^3 and Fr=4. Slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) at 231 times during the interval Nt[12,35]. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields, as previously demonstrated for turbulent boundary layers. In the Oxz planes, at the wake centerline, the higher most energetic modes reveal a structure similar of the structure of late-time stratified wakes. Off-set from centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient over a broad range of angles. Further insight is provided through the relative energy spectra distribution of the vorticity eigenmodes. POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wakes.
On a new non-Boussinesq instability in stratified lakes and oceans
Shete, Mihir H
2016-01-01
Lakes and many other geophysical flows are shallow, density stratified, and contain a free-surface. Conventional studies on stratified shear instabilities make Boussinesq approximation. Free-surface arising due to large density variations between air and water cannot be taken into consideration under this approximation. Hence the free-surface is usually replaced by a rigid-lid, and therefore has little effect on the stability of the fluid below it. In this paper we have performed non-Boussinesq linear stability analyses of a double circulation velocity profile prevalent in two-layered density stratified lakes. One of our analyses is performed by considering the presence of wind, while the other one considers quiescent air. Both analyses have shown similar growth rates and stability boundaries. We have compared our non-Boussinesq study with a corresponding Boussinesq one. The maximum non-Boussinesq growth rate is found to be an order of magnitude greater than the maximum Boussinesq growth rate. Furthermore, th...
Kim, Seulong
2016-01-01
Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...
Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing
Kumar, Abhishek; Sukhatmae, Jai
2016-01-01
In this paper we characterize the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) co-exists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate $k^{-3}$ scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a $k^{-3}$ power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow $k^{-11/5}$ form at large scales, to a steeper approximate $k^{-3}$ scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interesti...
M Mehryan, S A; Moradi Kashkooli, Farshad; Soltani, M; Raahemifar, Kaamran
2016-01-01
The behavior of a water-based nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms passing an isothermal nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations including continuity, momentums, energy, concentration of the nanoparticles, and density of motile micro-organisms are converted into a system of the ordinary differential equations via a set of similarity transformations. New set of equations are discretized using the finite difference method and have been linearized by employing the Newton's linearization technique. The tri-diagonal system of algebraic equations from discretization is solved using the well-known Thomas algorithm. The numerical results for profiles of velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration and density of motile micro-organisms as well as the local skin friction coefficient Cfx, the local Nusselt number Nux, the local Sherwood number Shx and the local density number of the motile microorganism Nnx are expressed graphically and described in detail. This investigation shows the density number of the motile micro-organisms enhances with rise of M, Gr/Re2, Pe and Ω but it decreases with augment of Rb and n. Also, Sherwood number augments with an increase of M and Gr/Re2, while decreases with n, Rb, Nb and Nr. To show the validity of the current results, a comparison between the present results and the existing literature has been carried out.
M. Mehryan, S. A.; Moradi Kashkooli, Farshad; Soltani, M.; Raahemifar, Kaamran
2016-01-01
The behavior of a water-based nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms passing an isothermal nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations including continuity, momentums, energy, concentration of the nanoparticles, and density of motile micro-organisms are converted into a system of the ordinary differential equations via a set of similarity transformations. New set of equations are discretized using the finite difference method and have been linearized by employing the Newton’s linearization technique. The tri-diagonal system of algebraic equations from discretization is solved using the well-known Thomas algorithm. The numerical results for profiles of velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration and density of motile micro-organisms as well as the local skin friction coefficient Cfx, the local Nusselt number Nux, the local Sherwood number Shx and the local density number of the motile microorganism Nnx are expressed graphically and described in detail. This investigation shows the density number of the motile micro-organisms enhances with rise of M, Gr/Re2, Pe and Ω but it decreases with augment of Rb and n. Also, Sherwood number augments with an increase of M and Gr/Re2, while decreases with n, Rb, Nb and Nr. To show the validity of the current results, a comparison between the present results and the existing literature has been carried out. PMID:27322536
Asymptotic behavior of a stratified perturbation in a three dimensional expanding Universe
Fanelli, D
2002-01-01
The non-linear evolution of a stratified perturbation in a three dimensional expanding Universe is considered. A general Lagrangian scheme (Q model) is introduced and numerical investigations are performed. The asymptotic contraction of the core of the agglomeration is studied. A power-law scaling is detected and an heuristic interpretation of the numerical findings is provided. An asymptotic equation for the multi-stream velocity flow is derived and it is shown to agree quantitatively with the dynamics of the Q model. The relation to the adhesion model is discussed.
School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.
Essex, Nathan L.
2001-01-01
Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…
Leilund, Helle
Afhandlingen , Uniformer på arbejde - nutidige praksisser omkring ensartet arbejdstøj , har afsæt i det kulturhistoriske museums arbejde med ’ dragt ’ . På trods af at ensart et eller uniformt arbejdstøj er et velkendt dagligdags fænomen, som bruges af medarbejdere på mange nutidige arbejdspladser...
Uniform approximation by (quantum) polynomials
Drucker, A.; de Wolf, R.
2011-01-01
We show that quantum algorithms can be used to re-prove a classical theorem in approximation theory, Jackson's Theorem, which gives a nearly-optimal quantitative version of Weierstrass's Theorem on uniform approximation of continuous functions by polynomials. We provide two proofs, based respectivel
Uniform Slavic Transliteration Alphabet (USTA).
Dekleva, Borut
The Uniform Slavic Transliteration Alphabet (USTA) was designed primarily with the following objectives: to aid librarians (catalogers and bibliographers), information scientists, transliterators, and editors of bibliographic works of the many Slavic tongues; and to serve as original research for the further development of a machine-readable…
SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks
Sakowski, Barbara
2014-01-01
A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height
Fuel Burning Rate Model for Stratified Charge Engine
SONG Jin'ou; JIANG Zejun; YAO Chunde; WANG Hongfu
2006-01-01
A zero-dimensional single-zone double-curve model is presented to predict fuel burning rate in stratified charge engines, and it is integrated with GT-Power to predict the overall performance of the stratified charge engines.The model consists of two exponential functions for calculating the fuel burning rate in different charge zones.The model factors are determined by a non-linear curve fitting technique, based on the experimental data obtained from 30 cases in middle and low loads.The results show good agreement between the measured and calculated cylinder pressures,and the deviation between calculated and measured cylinder pressures is less than 5%.The zerodimensional single-zone double-curve model is successful in the combustion modeling for stratified charge engines.
Maurício C. Goldfarb
2004-12-01
Full Text Available A partir da equação de von Karman Prandtl para tubos pressurizados, Kazemipour & Apelt (1980 desenvolveram uma metodologia para cálculo do escoamento em canais circulares lisos, denominada método de Kazemipour o qual, apesar de apresentar resultados de bastante eficiência necessita, no entanto, de recursos gráficos na sua aplicação, o que impossibilita a solução através de métodos computacionais e, também, a comparação deste com outras metodologias existentes. Neste trabalho, mostram-se os resultados da investigação analítica que resulta na validação do método de Kazemipour, como também o ajuste, de acordo com o procedimento proposto por Silva & Figueiredo (1993, de maneira a tornar o procedimento completamente equacionável sem a necessidade de recursos gráficos. O resultado encontrado é satisfatório e sua aplicação é apresentada num exemplo de aplicação prática.Considering the von Karman Prandtl equation for pressurized tubes, Kazemipour & Apelt (1980 developed a methodology for flow calculation in smooth circular channels, denominated as method of Kazemipour. Inspite of good results, the Kazemipour method needs graphic tools in its application, which makes its solution through computational methods and comparison to other existing methodologies difficult. In this research, the results of the analytic investigation that provides the validation of the Kazemipour method are shown, as well as the adjustments according to procedure proposed by Silva & Figueiredo (1993, performed in such a way to make the procedure independent of graphic tools. The result obtained is satisfactory and its use is presented in an example of practical application.
Bases of Schur algebras associated to cellularly stratified diagram algebras
Bowman, C
2011-01-01
We examine homomorphisms between induced modules for a certain class of cellularly stratified diagram algebras, including the BMW algebra, Temperley-Lieb algebra, Brauer algebra, and (quantum) walled Brauer algebra. We define the `permutation' modules for these algebras, these are one-sided ideals which allow us to study the diagrammatic Schur algebras of Hartmann, Henke, Koenig and Paget. We construct bases of these Schur algebras in terms of modified tableaux. On the way we prove that the (quantum) walled Brauer algebra and the Temperley-Lieb algebra are both cellularly stratified and therefore have well-defined Specht filtrations.
Uniformity Analysis for Index of Retail Price
潘竞红; 曾庆洪; 刘梅英
2002-01-01
Using the Hodges-Ajne testing method, the uniformity of China retail price index was tested. The result, that population is submitting to uniform dist ribution, was obtained. The uniformity of CRPI indicates that the general price level is stable in the Ninth Five-Year Plan. Finally, the reasons causing the uniformity was analyzed.