Analysis of stratified flow mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soo, S.L.; Lyczkowski, R.W.
1985-01-01
The Creare 1/5-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high pressure injection (HPI) water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) having loop flow are analyzed and found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum controlled and gravity controlled (stratification). 18 refs., 9 figs
Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon
1985-01-01
Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)
Investigations on flow reversal in stratified horizontal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staebler, T.; Meyer, L.; Schulenberg, T.; Laurien, E.
2005-01-01
The phenomena of flow reversal in stratified flows are investigated in a horizontal channel with application to the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). In case of a Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA), coolant can be injected through a secondary pipe within the feeding line of the primary circuit, the so called hot leg, counter-currently to the steam flow. It is essential that the coolant reaches the reactor core to prevent overheating. Due to high temperatures in such accident scenarios, steam is generated in the core, which escapes from the reactor vessel through the hot leg. In case of sufficiently high steam flow rates, only a reduced amount of coolant or even no coolant will be delivered to the reactor core. The WENKA test facility at the Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET) at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is capable to investigate the fluid dynamics of two-phase flows in such scenarios. Water and air flow counter-currently in a horizontal channel made of clear acrylic glass to allow full optical access. Flow rates of water and air can be varied independently within a wide range. Once flow reversal sets in, a strong hysteresis effect must be taken into account. This was quantified during the present investigations. Local experimental data are needed to expand appropriate models on flow reversal in horizontal two-phase flow and to include them into numerical codes. Investigations are carried out by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain local flow velocities without disturbing the flow. Due to the wavy character of the flow, strong reflections at the interfacial area must be taken into account. Using fluorescent particles and an optical filter allows eliminating the reflections and recording only the signals of the particles. The challenges in conducting local investigations in stratified wavy flows by applying optical measurement techniques are discussed. Results are presented and discussed allowing
Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.
Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken
Sutherland, B. R.
2016-02-01
It is well established that two-dimensional internal plane waves and modes in uniformly stratified fluid efficiently transfer energy to smaller scale waves and ultimately turbulent mixing through parametric subharmonic instability (PSI). The numerical simulations of MacKinnon & Winters (GRL 2005) predicted PSI should act efficiently to disrupt the internal tide. However, while in situ observations showed the presence of PSI, it was not found to be appreciable. One reason for the discrepancy between simulations and observations is that the former examined an internal mode in uniformly stratified fluid whereas, in reality, the internal tide exists in non-uniform stratification and is manifest as sinusoidal oscillations of the thermocline. Through theory supported by numerical simulations, it is shown that internal modes in non-uniform stratification immediately excite superharmonics, not subharmonic disturbances. These have double the horizontal wavenumber and double the frequency of the parent mode and hence move with the same horizontal phase speed of the parent mode. As the disturbances grow in amplitude, however, they interact with the parent mode generating small-scale vertically propagating internal waves within the strongly stratified layer. The occurrence of PSI over very long times can occur, as in the simulations of Hazewinkel and Winters (JPO 2011). However, a comprehensive understanding of the energy cascade from the internal tide to small scales must consider the evolution of excited superharmonic disturbances.
Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.
2004-01-01
The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...
Stratified Coastal Trapped Waves and Mean Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Thompson, LuAnne
1998-01-01
Our long term goals are to identify the roles that rectified subinertial waves and mesoscale motions play in the mean-flow transport of fluid properties in the coastal ocean and to apply these ideas...
A Mechanism for Stratifying Lava Flows
Rice, A.
2005-12-01
Relict lava flows (e.g., komatiites) are often reported to be zoned in the vertical, each zone separated by a sharp contact. Such stratifications in igneous flows, both intrusive and extrusive, can be treated as analogues of suspended loads of sediments in rivers and streams, and hence amenable to quantitative treatment derived for the hydraulic environment as long as dynamic similitude is assured. Situations typically encountered in the hydraulic environment are streams carrying a bed load at the bottom of the stream, the bed load separated by a sharp horizon from a sediment load carried above it. This sediment load may be topped by others of decreasing density as one moves to the surface of the flow, with perhaps the uppermost layer clear of any suspended matter. Rules exist for estimating the thickness D of these loads: one of them is given by D ~ 4.4V3/rgcvs where V is the shear velocity or average velocity of the flow, r = (ρs - ρl)/ρl where ρs is the density of the suspended solid matter, ρl the density of the fluid, g the acceleration of gravity, c the concentration of the particulate content and vs the settling velocity. The settling velocity is secured through Stoke's Law and the velocity of the flow is given by V = R2/3S1/2/n where R is the hydraulic radius, S the gradient along which the fluid flows and n is the Manning Coefficient. In the igneous case, the bed load would be composed of primocrysts, i.e., of the first crystals to come out of solution as the flow cools along its run. This would leave the upper portions of the flow more evolved except perhaps for a quenched crust riding atop the flow. As the viscosity of the flow is dependent not only on temperature but on composition and crystal content, the mean velocity of each layer will be different from the layer above and below it. This requires shear at the interface of adjoining stratifications, which brings into play another mechanism: dispersive pressure (the Bagnold effect). Dispersive
The effect of surfactant on stratified and stratifying gas-liquid flows
Heiles, Baptiste; Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar
2013-11-01
We consider the dynamics of a stratified/stratifying gas-liquid flow in horizontal tubes. This flow regime is characterised by the thin liquid films that drain under gravity along the pipe interior, forming a pool at the bottom of the tube, and the formation of large-amplitude waves at the gas-liquid interface. This regime is also accompanied by the detachment of droplets from the interface and their entrainment into the gas phase. We carry out an experimental study involving axial- and radial-view photography of the flow, in the presence and absence of surfactant. We show that the effect of surfactant is to reduce significantly the average diameter of the entrained droplets, through a tip-streaming mechanism. We also highlight the influence of surfactant on the characteristics of the interfacial waves, and the pressure gradient that drives the flow. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.
Sutudy on exchange flow under the unstably stratified field
文沢, 元雄
2005-01-01
This paper deals with the exchange flow under the unstably stratified field. The author developed the effective measurement system as well as the numerical analysis program. The system and the program are applied to the helium-air exchange flow in a rectangular channel with inclination. Following main features of the exchange flow were discussed based on the calculated results.(1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state exchange flow.(2) The relationship between the inclination an...
Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow
Iida, Oaki
2018-04-01
Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent and stably-stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fallon, Benoit
1994-01-01
The unsteady turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is studied by mean of Large Eddy Simulations with structure function sub grid model, both in isothermal and stably-stratified configurations. Without stratification, the flow develops highly-distorted Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, undergoing to helical pairing, with A-shaped vortices shed downstream. We show that forcing injected by recirculation fluctuations governs this oblique mode instabilities development. The statistical results show good agreements with the experimental measurements. For stably-stratified configurations, the flow remains more bi-dimensional. We show with increasing stratification, how the shear layer growth is frozen by inhibition of pairing process then of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the development of gravity waves or stable density interfaces. Eddy structures of the flow present striking analogies with the stratified mixing layer. Additional computations show the development of secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on the vorticity layers between two primary structures. This important mechanism based on baroclinic effects (horizontal density gradients) constitutes an additional part of the turbulent mixing process. Finally, the feasibility of Large Eddy Simulation is demonstrated for industrial flows, by studying a complex stratified cavity. Temperature fluctuations are compared to experimental measurements. We also develop three-dimensional un-stationary animations, in order to understand and visualize turbulent interactions. (author) [fr
Mixing of stratified flow around bridge piers in steady current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2018-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the mixing of stratified flow around bridge pier structures. In this study, which was carried out in connection with the Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link environmental impact assessment, the mixing processes of two-layer stra......This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the mixing of stratified flow around bridge pier structures. In this study, which was carried out in connection with the Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link environmental impact assessment, the mixing processes of two......-layer stratification was studied in which the lower level had a higher salinity than the upper layer. The physical experiments investigated two different pier designs. A general study was made regarding forces on the piers in which the effect of the current angle relative to the structure was also included...
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Brechler J.; Fuka V.
2013-01-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brechler J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures
Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.
2013-04-01
We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.
Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow
Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-02-01
Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.
Direct contact condensation induced transition from stratified to slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, Luka; Ezsoel, Gyoergy; Tiselj, Iztok
2010-01-01
Selected condensation-induced water hammer experiments performed on PMK-2 device were numerically modelled with three-dimensional two-fluid models of computer codes NEPTUNE C FD and CFX. Experimental setup consists of the horizontal pipe filled with the hot steam that is being slowly flooded with cold water. In most of the experimental cases, slow flooding of the pipe was abruptly interrupted by a strong slugging and water hammer, while in the selected experimental runs performed at higher initial pressures and temperatures that are analysed in the present work, the transition from the stratified into the slug flow was not accompanied by the water hammer pressure peak. That makes these cases more suitable tests for evaluation of the various condensation models in the horizontally stratified flows and puts them in the range of the available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. The key models for successful simulation appear to be the condensation model of the hot vapour on the cold liquid and the interfacial momentum transfer model. The surface renewal types of condensation correlations, developed for condensation in the stratified flows, were used in the simulations and were applied also in the regions of the slug flow. The 'large interface' model for inter-phase momentum transfer model was compared to the bubble drag model. The CFD simulations quantitatively captured the main phenomena of the experiments, while the stochastic nature of the particular condensation-induced water hammer experiments did not allow detailed prediction of the time and position of the slug formation in the pipe. We have clearly shown that even the selected experiments without water hammer present a tough test for the applied CFD codes, while modelling of the water hammer pressure peaks in two-phase flow, being a strongly compressible flow phenomena, is beyond the capability of the current CFD codes.
Improvements to TRAC models of condensing stratified flow. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.; Leslie, D.C.
1991-12-01
Direct contact condensation in stratified flow is an important phenomenon in LOCA analyses. In this report, the TRAC interfacial heat transfer model for stratified condensing flow has been assessed against the Bankoff experiments. A rectangular channel option has been added to the code to represent the experimental geometry. In almost all cases the TRAC heat transfer coefficient (HTC) over-predicts the condensation rates and in some cases it is so high that the predicted steam is sucked in from the normal outlet in order to conserve mass. Based on their cocurrent and countercurrent condensing flow experiments, Bankoff and his students (Lim 1981, Kim 1985) developed HTC models from the two cases. The replacement of the TRAC HTC with either of Bankoff's models greatly improves the predictions of condensation rates in the experiment with cocurrent condensing flow. However, the Bankoff HTC for countercurrent flow is preferable because it is based only on the local quantities rather than on the quantities averaged from the inlet. (author)
A study of stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, George W.
2005-07-01
This work includes both theoretical modelling and experimental observations which are relevant to the design of gas condensate transport lines. Multicomponent hydrocarbon gas mixtures are transported in pipes over long distances and at various inclinations. Under certain circumstances, the heavier hydrocarbon components and/or water vapour condense to form one or more liquid phases. Near the desired capacity, the liquid condensate and water is efficiently transported in the form of a stratified flow with a droplet field. During operating conditions however, the flow rate may be reduced allowing liquid accumulation which can create serious operational problems due to large amounts of excess liquid being expelled into the receiving facilities during production ramp-up or even in steady production in severe cases. In particular, liquid tends to accumulate in upward inclined sections due to insufficient drag on the liquid from the gas. To optimize the transport of gas condensates, a pipe diameters should be carefully chosen to account for varying flow rates and pressure levels which are determined through the knowledge of the multiphase flow present. It is desirable to have a reliable numerical simulation tool to predict liquid accumulation for various flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure levels which is not presently accounted for by industrial flow codes. A critical feature of the simulation code would include the ability to predict the transition from small liquid accumulation at high flow rates to large liquid accumulation at low flow rates. A semi-intermittent flow regime of roll waves alternating with a partly backward flowing liquid film has been observed experimentally to occur for a range of gas flow rates. Most of the liquid is transported in the roll waves. The roll wave regime is not well understood and requires fundamental modelling and experimental research. The lack of reliable models for this regime leads to inaccurate prediction of the onset of
Seismic signal of near steady uniform flows
Mangeney, A.; Bachelet, V.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.
2017-12-01
The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity. A major challenge in this domain is to retrieve the dynamic properties of the flow from the emitted seismic signal. In this study, we propose laboratory experiments where the dynamic properties of the flow (velocity, granular temperature, density, etc.) are measured together with the generated seismic signal. We investigate near steady uniform flows made of glass beads of 2mm diameter, flowing throughout a thin rectangular channel of 10 cm width, with tunable tilt angle and height flow, thanks to an adjustable opening gate. The flow is monitored from the spine with a fast camera (5000 fps), and the emitted waves are recorded by accelerometers (10Hz - 54 kHz), stuck on the back side of the bottom of the channel. Among others, three seismic parameters are analyzed: the power radiated by the flow, the mean frequency of the signal, and the modulation of its amplitude. We show that they are linked to three dynamical properties: the mean kinetic energy of the flow, the speed of collisions between beads and the vertical oscillation of the beads, respectively.
Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R E
1987-09-01
The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of (0.01, 100). It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa (J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158) in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained.
Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R.E.
1987-01-01
The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of [0.01, 100]. It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa [J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158] in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained. (author)
Subcritical to supercritical flow transition in a horizontal stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asaka, H.; Kukita, Y.
1995-01-01
The conditions for a transition from hydraulically subcritical to supercritical flow in the hot legs of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) were studied using data obtained from a two-phase natural circulation experiment conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled simulator of a Westinghouse-type PWR. The conditions for the transition were compared with the theory of Gardner. While the model explains the trend in the experimental data, the quantitative agreement was not satisfactory. It was found that the conditions for the transition from the subcritical to supercritical flow were predicted well by introducing energy loss term into the theory. (author)
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe, E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.d [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)
2010-09-15
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 {sup o}C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar
2010-01-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 o C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at 1
Stratified flow model for convective condensation in an inclined tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lips, Stéphane; Meyer, Josua P.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Convective condensation in an inclined tube is modelled. ► The heat transfer coefficient is the highest for about 20° below the horizontal. ► Capillary forces have a strong effect on the liquid–vapour interface shape. ► A good agreement between the model and the experimental results was observed. - Abstract: Experimental data are reported for condensation of R134a in an 8.38 mm inner diameter smooth tube in inclined orientations with a mass flux of 200 kg/m 2 s. Under these conditions, the flow is stratified and there is an optimum inclination angle, which leads to the highest heat transfer coefficient. There is a need for a model to better understand and predict the flow behaviour. In this paper, the state of the art of existing models of stratified two-phase flows in inclined tubes is presented, whereafter a new mechanistic model is proposed. The liquid–vapour distribution in the tube is determined by taking into account the gravitational and the capillary forces. The comparison between the experimental data and the model prediction showed a good agreement in terms of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The effect of the interface curvature on the heat transfer coefficient has been quantified and has been found to be significant. The optimum inclination angle is due to a balance between an increase of the void fraction and an increase in the falling liquid film thickness when the tube is inclined downwards. The effect of the mass flux and the vapour quality on the optimum inclination angle has also been studied.
Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, Sean A
2007-01-01
Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation
Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.
Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian
2017-04-01
Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux
Mixing and entrainment in hydraulically driven stratified sill flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Pratt, Larry; Helfrich, Karl
2004-01-01
The investigation involves the hydraulic behaviour of a dense layer of fluid flowing over an obstacle and subject to entrainment of mass and momentum from a dynamically inactive (but possibly moving) overlying fluid. An approach based on the use of reduced gravity, shallow-water theory with a cross......-interface entrainment velocity is compared with numerical simulations based on a model with continuously varying stratification and velocity. The locations of critical flow (hydraulic control) in the continuous model are estimated by observing the direction of propagation of small-amplitude long-wave disturbances...... that the reduced gravity model systematically underestimates inertia and overestimates buoyancy. These differences are quantified by shape coefficients that measure the vertical non-uniformities of the density and horizontal velocity that arise, in part, by incomplete mixing of entrained mass and momentum over...
Local properties of countercurrent stratified steam-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.
1985-10-01
A study of steam condensation in countercurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water has been carried out in a rectangular channel/flat plate geometry over a wide range of inclination angles (4 0 -87 0 ) at several aspect ratios. Variables were inlet water and steam flow rates, and inlet water temperature. Local condensation rates and pressure gradients were measured, and local condensation heat transfer coefficients and interfacial shear stress were calculated. Contact probe traverses of the surface waves were made, which allowed a statistical analysis of the wave properties. The local condensation Nusselt number was correlated in terms of local water and steam Reynolds or Froude numbers, as well as the liquid Prandtl number. A turbulence-centered model developed by Theofanous, et al. principally for gas absorption in several geometries, was modified. A correlation for the interfacial shear stress and the pressure gradient agreed with measured values. Mean water layer thicknesses were calculated. Interfacial wave parameters, such as the mean water layer thickness, liquid fraction probability distribution, wave amplitude and wave frequency, are analyzed
Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows
Matulka, A.; Cano, D.
2009-04-01
Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.
Design and validation of a uniform flow microreactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Kyung Chun; Chang, Seung Cheol [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Min [Global HQ, Hankook Tire Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-01-15
We present a design method to characterize uniform flows in a microreactor for high performance surface plasmon resonance (SPR) a general-purpose biosensor chips. The shape of the microreactor is designed based on an approximate pressure drop model. The number of micro-pillars and the slopes of the inlet and outlet linear chambers are two dominant parameters used to minimize the velocity difference in the microreactor. The flow uniformity was examined quantitatively by numerical and experimental visualization methods. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis demonstrates that the designed microreactor has a fairly uniform velocity profile in the reaction zone for a wide range of flow rates. The velocity field in the fabricated microreactor was measured using the micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) method, and the flow uniformity was confirmed experimentally. The performance of the uniform flow microreactor was verified using the fluorescence antibody technique.
Mixing in thermally stratified nonlinear spin-up with uniform boundary fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baghdasarian, Meline; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo; Pacheco, J. Rafael; Verzicco, Roberto
2014-01-01
Studies of stratified spin-up experiments in enclosed cylinders have reported the presence of small pockets of well-mixed fluids but quantitative measurements of the mixedness of the fluid has been lacking. Previous numerical simulations have not addressed these measurements. Here we present numerical simulations that explain how the combined effect of spin-up and thermal boundary conditions enhances or hinders mixing of a fluid in a cylinder. The energy of the system is characterized by splitting the potential energy into diabatic and adiabatic components, and measurements of efficiency of mixing are based on both, the ratio of dissipation of available potential energy to forcing and variance of temperature. The numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations for the problem with different sets of thermal boundary conditions at the horizontal walls helped shed some light on the physical mechanisms of mixing, for which a clear explanation was absent
Mixing in thermally stratified nonlinear spin-up with uniform boundary fluxes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baghdasarian, Meline; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Pacheco, J. Rafael, E-mail: rpacheco@asu.edu [SAP Americas Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 (United States); School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratories, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, The University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States); Verzicco, Roberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Roma (Italy); PoF, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
2014-09-15
Studies of stratified spin-up experiments in enclosed cylinders have reported the presence of small pockets of well-mixed fluids but quantitative measurements of the mixedness of the fluid has been lacking. Previous numerical simulations have not addressed these measurements. Here we present numerical simulations that explain how the combined effect of spin-up and thermal boundary conditions enhances or hinders mixing of a fluid in a cylinder. The energy of the system is characterized by splitting the potential energy into diabatic and adiabatic components, and measurements of efficiency of mixing are based on both, the ratio of dissipation of available potential energy to forcing and variance of temperature. The numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations for the problem with different sets of thermal boundary conditions at the horizontal walls helped shed some light on the physical mechanisms of mixing, for which a clear explanation was absent.
Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow
Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the
Effects of Potential Lane-Changing Probability on Uniform Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Shang Huayan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we use the car-following model with the anticipation effect of the potential lane-changing probability (Acta Mech. Sin. 24 (2008) 399) to investigate the effects of the potential lane-changing probability on uniform flow. The analytical and numerical results show that the potential lane-changing probability can enhance the speed and flow of uniform flow and that their increments are related to the density.
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable
Hydromagnetic stability of rotating stratified compressible fluid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srinivasan, V; Kandaswamy, P [Dept. of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; Debnath, L [Dept. of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA
1984-09-01
The hydromagnetic stability of a radially stratified compressible fluid rotating between two coaxial cylinders is investigated. The stability with respect to axisymmetric disturbances is examined. The fluid system is found to be thoroughly stable to axisymmetric disturbances provided the fluid rotates very rapidly. The system is shown to be unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances, and the slow amplifying hydromagnetic wave modes propagate against the basic rotation. The lower and upper bounds of the azimuthal phase speeds of the amplifying waves are determined. A quadrant theorem on the slow waves characteristic of a rapidly rotating fluid is derived. Special attention is given to the effects of compressibility of the fluid. Some results concerning the stability of an incompressible fluid system are obtained as special cases of the present analysis.
Two-phase flow through small branches in a horizontal pipe with stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoglie, C.
1985-02-01
In the field of reactor safety the occurrence of a small break in a horizontal primary coolant pipe is of great importance. This report presents the description and results of experiments designed to determine the mass flow rate and quality through a small break at the bottom, the top or the side of a main pipe with stratified gas-liquid flow. If the interface level is far below (above) the branch, only single-phase gas (liquid) flow enters the branch. For smaller distances the interface is locally deformed because of the pressure decrease due to the fluid acceleration near the branch inlet (Bernoulli effect) and liquid (gas) can be entrained. This report contains photographs illustrating the flow phenomena as well as a general correlation to determine the beginning of entrainment. Results are presented on the branch mass flow rate and quality as a function of a normalized distance between the interface and the branch inlet. A model was developed which enables to predict the branch quality and mass flux. Results from air-water flow through horizontal branches, were extrapolated for steam water flow at high pressure with critical branch mass flux. (orig./HS) [de
Two-phase flow through small branches in a horizontal pipe with stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoglie, C.
1984-12-01
This report presents the description and results of experiments designed to determine the mass flow rate and quality through a small break at the bottom, the top or the side of a main pipe with stratified gas-liquid flow. If the interface level is far below (above) the branch, only single-phase gas (liquid) flow enters the branch. For smaller distances the interface is locally deformed because of the pressure decrease due to the fluid acceleration near the branch inlet (Bernoulli effect) and liquid (gas) can be entrained. This report contains photographs illustrating the flow phenomena as well as a general correlation to determine the beginning of entrainment. Results are presented on the branch mass flow rate and quality as a function of a normalized distance between the interface and the branch inlet. A model was developed which enables to predict the branch quality and mass flux. Results from air-water flow through horizontal branches, were extrapolated for steam water flow at high pressure with critical branch mass flux. (orig./HP) [de
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok
1995-01-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within ±8%
A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others
1995-09-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%.
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters
Stone stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.
2008-01-01
Despite the fact that many studies on the stability of stones in bed protections under flowing water have been conducted, our knowledge is still far from advanced and reliable. Issues like how to quantify the hydraulic loads exerted on the stones on a bed and the associated stability of the stones
Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles
Paisley, M. F.
1997-09-01
A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sung, Chang Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents a theoretical approach of the instability criterion from stratified to nonstratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions. The new theoretical instability criterion for the stratified and nonstratified flow transition in horizontal pipe has been developed by hyperbolic equations in two-phase flow. Critical flow condition criterion and onset of slugging at cocurrent flow condition correspond to zero and imaginary characteristics which occur when the hyperbolicity of a stratified two-phase flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present theory and the Kukita et al. [1] experimental data of pipes, it is shown that they are in good agreement with data. 4 refs., 2 figs. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sung, Chang Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
This paper presents a theoretical approach of the instability criterion from stratified to nonstratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions. The new theoretical instability criterion for the stratified and nonstratified flow transition in horizontal pipe has been developed by hyperbolic equations in two-phase flow. Critical flow condition criterion and onset of slugging at cocurrent flow condition correspond to zero and imaginary characteristics which occur when the hyperbolicity of a stratified two-phase flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present theory and the Kukita et al. [1] experimental data of pipes, it is shown that they are in good agreement with data. 4 refs., 2 figs. (Author)
Slip analysis of squeezing flow using doubly stratified fluid
Ahmad, S.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Anjum, Aisha
2018-06-01
The non-isothermal flow is modeled and explored for squeezed fluid. The influence of velocity, thermal and solutal slip effects on transport features of squeezed fluid are analyzed through Darcy porous channel when fluid is moving due to squeezing of upper plate towards the stretchable lower plate. Dual stratification effects are illustrated in transport equations. A similarity analysis is performed and reduced governing flow equations are solved using moderated and an efficient convergent approach i.e. Homotopic technique. The significant effects of physical emerging parameters on flow velocity, temperature and fluid concentration are reporting through various plots. Graphical explanations for drag force, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are stated and examined. The results reveal that minimum velocity field occurs near the plate, whereas it increases far away from the plate for strong velocity slip parameter. Furthermore, temperature and fluid concentration significantly decreases with increased slip effects. The current analysis is applicable in some advanced technological processes and industrial fluid mechanics.
Fully stratified particle-laden flow in horizontal circular pipe
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vlasák, Pavel; Kysela, Bohuš; Chára, Zdeněk
2014-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-185 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : coarse-grained slurry * flow structure * liquid local velocity * particle velocity * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014
Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott
2017-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.
Numerical simulation of stratified flows with different k-ε turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dagestad, S.
1991-01-01
The thesis comprises the numerical simulation of stratified flows with different k-ε models. When using the k-ε model, two equations are solved to describe the turbulence. The k-equation represents the turbulent kinetic energy of the turbulence and the ε-equation is the turbulent dissipation. Different k-ε models predict stratified flows differently. The standard k-ε model leads to higher turbulent mixing than the low-Reynolds model does. For lower Froude numbers, F 0 , this effect becomes enhanced. Buoyancy extension of the k-ε model also leads to less vertical mixing in cases with strong stratification. When the stratification increases, buoyancy-extension becomes larger influence. The turbulent Prandtl number effects have large impact on the transport of heat and the development of the flow. Two different formulae which express the turbulent Prandtl effects have been tested. For unstably stratified flows, the rapid mixing and three-dimensionality of the flow can in fact be computed using a k-ε model when buoyancy-extended is employed. The turbulent heat transfer and thus turbulent production in unstable stratified flows depends strongly upon the turbulent Prandtl number effect. The main conclusions are: Stable stratified flows should be computed with a buoyancy-extended low-Reynolds k-ε model; Unstable stratified flows should be computed with a buoyancy-extended standard k-ε model; The turbulent Prandtl number effects should be included in the computations; Buoyancy-extension has lead to more correct description of the physics for all of the investigated flows. 78 refs., 128 figs., 17 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung
1992-01-01
The physical benchmark problem on the direct-contact condensation under the horizontal cocurrent stratified flow was analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD2 and /MOD3 one-dimensional model. Analysis was performed for the Northwestern experiments, which involved condensing steam/water flow in a rectangular channel. The study showed that the RELAP5 interfacial heat transfer model, under the horizontal stratified flow regime, predicted the condensation rate well though the interfacial heat transfer area was underpredicted. However, some discrepancies in water layer thickness and local heat transfer coefficient with experimental results were found especially when there is a wavy interface, and those were satisfied only within the range. (Author)
Experimental investigation on isothermal stratified flow mixing in a horizontal T-junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isaev, Alexander; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)
2016-10-15
Turbulent and stratified flows can lead to thermal fatigue in piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). Such flows can be investigated in the University of Stuttgart Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) facility with a T-Junction at thermal conditions with temperature differences of up to 255 K and at pressures of maximum 75 bars.
An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow
Swinney, Harry
2015-11-01
In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.
Direct numerical simulation of stratified gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombardi, P.; De Angelis, V.; Banerjee, S.
1996-01-01
Interactions through an interface between two turbulent flows play an important role in many environmental and industrial problems, e.g. in determining the coupling fluxes of heat mass and momentum, between the ocean and atmosphere, and in the design of gas-liquid contractors for the chemical industry, as well as in determining interactions between phases in nuclear transients that are accompanied by system voiding e.g. LOCAs. Here, the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the interaction of two turbulent fluids through a flat interface has been simulated. The flow and the temperature fields are computed using a pseudospectral method. This study shows that shear stress at the interface correlates well with the heat flux. Extensive analysis of the near interface turbulence structure has been performed using quadrant analysis. From this it is clear that gas-side sweeps dominate over the high shear stress regions. This suggests that simple parameterizations based on sweep frequency may be adequate for predictions of scalar transport rates
Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Abbasi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Ferrière
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We review the basic approximations underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory, with special emphasis on the closure approximations, i.e. the approximations used in any fluid approach to close the hierarchy of moment equations. We then present the main closure models that have been constructed for collisionless plasmas in the large-scale regime, and we describe our own mixed MHD-kinetic model, which is designed to study low-frequency linear waves and instabilities in collisionless plasmas. We write down the full dispersion relation in a new, general form, which gathers all the specific features of our MHD-kinetic model into four polytropic indices, and which can be applied to standard adiabatic MHD and to double-adiabatic MHD through a simple change in the expressions of the polytropic indices. We study the mode solutions and the stability properties of the full dispersion relation in each of these three theories, first in the case of a uniform plasma, and then in the case of a stratified plasma. In both cases, we show how the results are affected by the collisionless nature of the plasma.
A review of recent developments on turbulent entrainment in stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotel, Aline J
2010-01-01
Stratified interfaces are present in many geophysical flow situations, and transport across such an interface is an essential factor for correctly evaluating the physical processes taking place at many spatial and temporal scales in such flows. In order to accurately evaluate vertical and lateral transport occurring when a turbulent flow impinges on a stratified interface, the turbulent entrainment and vorticity generation mechanisms near the interface must be understood and quantified. Laboratory experiments were performed for three flow configurations: a vertical thermal, a sloping gravity current and a vertical turbulent jet with various tilt angles and precession speeds. All three flows impinged on an interface separating a two-layer stably stratified environment. The entrainment rate is quantified for each flow using laser-induced fluorescence and compared to predictions of Cotel and Breidenthal (1997 Appl. Sci. Res. 57 349-66). The possible applications of transport across stratified interfaces include the contribution of hydrothermal plumes to the global ocean energy budget, turbidity currents on the ocean floor, the design of lake de-stratification systems, modeling gas leaks from storage reservoirs, weather forecasting and global climate change.
Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2004-08-01
The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)
RANS Modeling of Stably Stratified Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows in OpenFOAM®
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilson Jordan M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Quantifying mixing processes relating to the transport of heat, momentum, and scalar quantities of stably stratified turbulent geophysical flows remains a substantial task. In a stably stratified flow, such as the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, buoyancy forces have a significant impact on the flow characteristics. This study investigates constant and stability-dependent turbulent Prandtl number (Prt formulations linking the turbulent viscosity (νt and diffusivity (κt for modeling applications of boundary layer flows. Numerical simulations of plane Couette flow and pressure-driven channel flow are performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS framework with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Results are compared with DNS data to evaluate model efficacy for predicting mean velocity and density fields. In channel flow simulations, a Prandtl number formulation for wall-bounded flows is introduced to alleviate overmixing of the mean density field. This research reveals that appropriate specification of Prt can improve predictions of stably stratified turbulent boundary layer flows.
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. The analytical solutions are obtained for concentration, temperature and velocity fields using an asymptotic approximation, similar to that of Ayeni et al 2004. It is shown that the temperature ...
Mathematical modeling of turbulent stratified flows. Application of liquid metal fast breeders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villand, M; Grand, D [CEA-Service des Transferts Thermiques, Grenoble (France)
1983-07-01
Mathematical model of turbulent stratified flow was proposed under the following assumptions: Newtonian fluid; incompressible fluid; coupling between temperature and momentum fields according to Boussinesq approximation; two-dimensional invariance for translation or rotation; coordinates cartesian or curvilinear. Solutions obtained by the proposed method are presented.
Doubly stratified mixed convection flow of Maxwell nanofluid with heat generation/absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, B. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-15
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) doubly stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid in presence of mixed convection is analyzed in this article. Effects of thermophoresis, Brownian motion and heat generation/absorption are present. The flow is induced due to linear stretching of sheet. Mathematical formulation is made under boundary layer approach. Expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are developed. The obtained results are plotted and discussed to examine the variations in temperature and nanoparticles concentration due to different physical parameters. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Impact of sundry parameters on the flow quantities is analyzed graphically. - Highlights: • Double stratified flow of Maxwell nanofluid with mixed convection is modeled. • Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are encountered. • Computations are made to obtain the solution expressions. • Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined.
Stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge
Makarenko, Nikolay; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman; Demidova, Tatiana; Frey, Dmitri; Grigorenko, Klim
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema fracture zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. This fracture provides intense transportation of cold abyssal waters from the West Atlantic to the equatorial region of the East Atlantic [1]. The results of measurements [2,3] carried out in the cruises of RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov in 2014-2016 are presented. The structure of the near-bottom flow is studied experimentally on the basis of CTD- and LADCP profiling. Theoretical analysis involves mathematical formulation of stratified fluid flow which uses CTD-data obtained from field observation. Spectral properties and kinematic characteristics of internal waves are calculated and discussed. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 15-01-03942, 16-35-50158). References [1] Morozov E., Demidov A., Tarakanov R. and Zenk W. Abyssal Channels in the Atlantic Ocean: Water Structure and Flows, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010. [2] Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Makarenko N.I. Flows of Antarctic Bottom Water through fractures in the southern part of the North Mid Atlantic Ridge, Oceanology, 2015, 55, 796-800. [3] Grigorenko K.S., Makarenko N.I., Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Frey D.I. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Central West Atlantic, J. Physics: Conf. Series, 2016, 722, 012011.
Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.
1982-01-01
This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)
Transition of Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow in Oil Transport Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Lakehal
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Large-Scale Simulation results of the transition of a gas-liquid stratified flow to slug flow regime in circular 3D oil transport pipes under turbulent flow conditions expressed. Free surface flow in the pipe is treated using the Level Set method. Turbulence is approached via the LES and VLES methodologies extended to interfacial two-phase flows. It is shown that only with the Level Set method the flow transition can be accurately predicted, better than with the two-fluid phase-average model. The transition from stratified to slug flow is found to be subsequent to the merging of the secondary wave modes created by the action of gas shear (short waves with the first wave mode (high amplitude long wave. The model is capable of predicting global flow features like the onset of slugging and slug speed. In the second test case, the model predicts different kinds of slugs, the so-called operating slugs formed upstream that fill entirely the pipe with water slugs of length scales of the order of 2-4 D, and lower size (1-1.5 D disturbance slugs, featuring lower hold-up (0.8-0.9. The model predicts well the frequency of slugs. The simulations revealed important parameter effects on the results, such as two-dimensionality, pipe length, and water holdup.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra
2003-01-01
This research thesis concerns the modelling and experimentation of biphasic liquid/gas flows (water/air) while using the two-fluid model, a six-equation model. The author first addresses the modelling of interfacial magnitudes for a known topology (problem of two-fluid model closure, closure relationships for some variables, equation for a given configuration). She reports the development of an equation system for interfacial magnitudes. The next parts deal with experiments and report the study of stratified flows in the THALC experiment, and more particularly the study of the interfacial area concentration and of the liquid velocities in such flows. Results are discussed, as well as their consistency
Effect of stratified inequality of blood flow on gas exchange in liquid-filled lungs.
West, J. B.; Maloney, J. E.; Castle, B. L.
1972-01-01
This investigation set out to answer two questions: (1) are the distal alveoli in the terminal lung units less well perfused than the proximal alveoli, i.e., is there stratification of blood flow; and (2) if so, does this enhance gas exchange in the presence of stratified inequality of ventilation. Excised dog lungs were ventilated with saline and perfused with blood. Following single inspirations of xenon 133 in saline and various periods of breath holding, the expired xenon concentration against volume was measured and it confirmed marked stratified inequality of ventilation under these conditions. By measuring the rate of depletion of xenon from alveoli during a period of blood flow, we showed that the alveoli which emptied at the end of expiration had 16% less blood flow than those exhaling earlier. However, by measuring the xenon concentration in pulmonary venous blood, we found that about 10% less tracer was transferred from the alveoli into the blood when the inspired xenon was stratified within the respiratory zone. Thus while stratification of blood flow was confirmed, it was shown to impair rather than enhance the efficiency of gas transfer.
Mixed Convection Flow along a Stretching Cylinder in a Thermally Stratified Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis for the axisymmetric laminar boundary layer mixed convection flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid towards a stretching cylinder immersed in a thermally stratified medium is presented in this paper. Similarity transformation is employed to convert the governing partial differential equations into highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by a shooting method. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface is lower for flow in a thermally stratified medium compared to that of an unstratified medium. Moreover, both the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are larger for a cylinder compared to that for a flat plate.
Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)
Analysis of natural convection heat transfer and flows in internally heated stratified liquid pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubaidullin, A.A. Jr.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.
1999-01-01
In this paper, natural convection flows and heat transfer in a liquid pool, with two superposed immiscible fluid layers, are analyzed. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of interfacial hydrodynamics and to develop a method which enables energy splitting to be evaluated in a stratified liquid pool. The thermal convection, with and without an internal heat source, in a rectangular cavity with different pairs of fluids was numerically simulated by a CFD code FLOW-3D. It was found that the code performs very well for prediction of heat transfer coefficients for different conditions. The hydrodynamic coupling between immiscible layers was found to have minor, if any, impact on the natural convection heat transfer for the conditions examined. Calculated results were used to develop, and validate, a new correlation for energy splitting and for heat transfer in stratified liquid pools
Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
1995-09-01
A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Chun-Ho [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Building and Real Estate; Leung, Dennis Y.C. [The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Mechanical Engineering
2006-11-15
This study employs a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique to study the flow, turbulence structure, and passive scalar plume transport behind line sources in an unstably stratified open channel flow. The scalar transport behaviors for five emission heights (z{sub s}=0, 0.25H, 0.5H, 0.75H, and H, where H is the channel height) at a Reynolds number of 3000, a Prandtl number and a Schmidt number of 0.72, and a Richardson number of -0.2 are investigated. The vertically meandering mean plume heights and dispersion coefficients calculated by the current DNS model agree well with laboratory results and field measurements in literature. It is found that the plume meandering is due to the movement of the positive and negative vertical turbulent scalar fluxes above and below the mean plume heights, respectively. These findings help explaining the plume meandering mechanism in the unstably stratified atmospheric boundary layer. (author)
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.
1995-01-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others
1995-09-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.
Experimental analysis of an oblique turbulent flame front propagating in a stratified flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galizzi, C.; Escudie, D. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, CETHIL, INSA-Lyon, UMR5008, F-69621 Cedex (France)
2010-12-15
This paper details the experimental study of a turbulent V-shaped flame expanding in a nonhomogeneous premixed flow. Its aim is to characterize the effects of stratification on turbulent flame characteristics. The setup consists of a stationary V-shaped flame stabilized on a rod and expanding freely in a lean premixed methane-air flow. One of the two oblique fronts interacts with a stratified slice, which has an equivalence ratio close to one and a thickness greater than that of the flame front. Several techniques such as PIV and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence are used to investigate the instantaneous fields, while laser Doppler anemometry and thermocouples are combined with a concentration probe to provide information on the mean fields. First, in order to provide a reference, the homogeneous turbulent case is studied. Next, the stratified turbulent premixed flame is investigated. Results show significant modifications of the whole flame and of the velocity field upstream of the flame front. The analysis of the geometric properties of the stratified flame indicates an increase in flame brush thickness, closely related to the local equivalence ratio. (author)
Tests of the TRAC code against known analytical solutions for stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, P.S.; Leslie, D.C.; Hewitt, G.F.
1987-01-01
The area averaged equations for gas-liquid flow are briefly summarized and related, for the specific case of stratified flow, to the shallow water equations commonly used in hydraulics. These equations are then compared to the equations used in TRAC-PF/MOD1 and are shown to differ in their treatment of the gravity head terms. A modification of the TRAC code is therefore necessary to bring it into line with established shallow water theory. The corrected form of the code was compared with a number of specific cases, each of which throws further light on the code behavior. The following areas are discussed in the paper: (1) the dam break problem; (2) Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; (3) counter-current flow; and (4) slug flow. It is concluded that detailed comparisons of the code with known analytic solutions and with a number of the more complex phenomenological experiments can give useful insights into its behavior
Experimental investigation and physical description of stratified flow in horizontal channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staebler, T.
2007-05-01
The interaction between a liquid film and turbulent gas flows plays an important role in many technical applications (e.g. in hydraulic engineering, process engineering and nuclear engineering). The local kinematic and turbulent time-averaged flow quantities for counter-current stratified flows (supercritical and subcritical flows with and without flow reversal) have been measured for the first time. Therefore, the method of Particle Image Velocimetry was applied. By using fluorescent particles in combination with an optical filter it was possible to determine the flow quantities of the liquid phase up to the free surface. Additionally, the gaseous phase was investigated by using the scattering of light of conventional particles. With a further measurement technique the void fraction distribution along the channel height has been determined. For this purpose, a single-tip conductivity probe was developed. Furthermore, water delivery rates and pressure losses along the test section were measured over a wide range of parameters. The measurements also revealed new details on the hysteresis effect after the occurrence of flow reversal. The experimental findings were used to develop and validate a statistical model in which the liquid phase is considered to be an agglomeration of interacting particles. The statistical consideration of the particle interactions delivers a differential equation which can be used to predict the local void fraction distribution with the local turbulent kinematic energies of the liquid phase. Beyond that, an additional statistical description is presented in which the probability density functions of the local void fraction are described by beta-functions. Both theoretical approaches can be used for numerical modelling whereas the statistical model can be used to describe the phase interactions and the statistical description to describe the turbulent fluctuations of the local void fraction. Thus, this work has made available all necessary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Chih-Hao; Liou, Meng-Sing
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to compute compressible multifluid equations. Firstly, a single-pressure compressible multifluid model based on the stratified flow model is proposed. The stratified flow model, which defines different fluids in separated regions, is shown to be amenable to the finite volume method. We can apply the conservation law to each subregion and obtain a set of balance equations. Secondly, the AUSM + scheme, which is originally designed for the compressible gas flow, is extended to solve compressible liquid flows. By introducing additional dissipation terms into the numerical flux, the new scheme, called AUSM + -up, can be applied to both liquid and gas flows. Thirdly, the contribution to the numerical flux due to interactions between different phases is taken into account and solved by the exact Riemann solver. We will show that the proposed approach yields an accurate and robust method for computing compressible multiphase flows involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Several one-dimensional test problems are used to demonstrate the capability of our method, including the Ransom's water faucet problem and the air-water shock tube problem. Finally, several two dimensional problems will show the capability to capture enormous details and complicated wave patterns in flows having large disparities in the fluid density and velocities, such as interactions between water shock wave and air bubble, between air shock wave and water column(s), and underwater explosion
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Hoehne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias
2008-01-01
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4 x 10 5 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω-based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Hohne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suhnel, Tobias
2007-01-01
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronized with the high-speed camera system. CFD post test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler- Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4.10 5 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow. (authors)
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.de; Hoehne, Thomas; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)
2008-03-15
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4 x 10{sup 5} control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-{omega}-based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare very well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow.
Investigation and mitigation of condensation induced water hammer by stratified flow experiments
Kadakia, Hiral J.
This research primarily focuses on the possibility of using stratified flow in preventing an occurrence of condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) in horizontal pipe involving steam and subcooled water. A two-phase flow loop simulating the passive safety systems of an advanced light water reactor was constructed and a series of stratified flow experiments were carried out involving a system of subcooled water, saturated water, and steam. Special instruments were designed to measure steam flow rate and subcooled liquid velocity. These experiments showed that when flow field conditions meet certain criteria CIWH does occur. Flow conditions used in experiments were typically observed in passive safety systems of an advanced light water cooled reactor. This research summarizes a) literature research and other experimental data that signify an occurrence of CIWH, b) experiments in an effort to show an occurrence of CIWH and the ability to prevent CIWH, c) qualitative and quantitative results to underline the mechanism of CIWH, d) experiments that show CIWH can be prevented under certain conditions, and e) guidelines for the safe operating conditions. Based on initial experiment results it was observed that Bernoulli's effect can play an important role in wave formation and instability. A separate effect table top experiment was constructed with plexi-glass. A series of entrance effect tests and stratified experiments were carried out with different fluids to study wave formation and wave bridging. Special test series experiments were carried out to investigate the presence of a saturated layer. The effect of subcooled water and steam flow on wedge length and depth were recorded. These experiments helped create a model which calculates wedge and depth of wedge for a given condition of steam and subcooled water. A very good comparison between the experiment results and the model was obtained. These experiments also showed that the presence of saturated layer can mitigate
Breeze Gravity Current in a Uniform Flow of Air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.V. Shokurov
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Breeze circulation is often observed nearby the water basin coasts and usually accompanied by a background synoptic wind. One of the basic dynamically important components of the breeze circulation is gravity current. In the present paper the latter is used as the breeze simplified model. The theory of interaction of gravity current and a uniform synoptic wind are developed. The gravity current in the domain of infinite height in a stationary environment and environment with background flow was considered. To solve this problem the law of conservation of mass and universal property of the Froude number was used, which is true in the steady state. It is shown that increase of a tail-wind is followed by growth of the gravity current velocity and decrease of its height. The opposite situation is observed at increase of a head wind: the current velocity reduces and its height increases. Using a Taylor series expansion for small values of the background flow velocity a linear dependence of gravity current velocity on background flow velocity can be obtained. The factor determining the slope of the velocity of gravity current propagation on the background wind speed, which is equal 2/3, is a universal constant. The theory explains the results of numerical simulation previously obtained by numerous authors. A physical interpretation of dependence of the height and velocity of the gravity current on the background flow velocity is presented.
A stratified percolation model for saturated and unsaturated flow through natural fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.
1990-01-01
The geometry of the asperities of contact between the two surfaces of a fracture and of the adjacent void spaces determines fluid flow through a fracture and the mechanical deformation across a fracture. Heuristically we have developed a stratified continuum percolation model to describe this geometry based on a fractal construction that includes scale invariance and correlation of void apertures. Deformation under stress is analyzed using conservation of rock volume to correct for asperity interpenetration. Single phase flow is analyzed using a critical path along which the principal resistance is a result of laminar flow across the critical neck in this path. Results show that flow decreases with apparent aperture raised to a variable power greater than cubic, as is observed in flow experiments on natural fractures. For two phases, flow of the non-wetting phase is likewise governed by the critical neck along the critical path of largest aperture but flow of the wetting phase is governed by tortuosity. 17 refs., 10 figs
Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter
2010-07-01
The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.
Unsteady natural convection flow past an accelerated vertical plate in a thermally stratified fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deka Rudra Kt.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An exact solution to one-dimensional unsteady natural convection flow past an infinite vertical accelerated plate, immersed in a viscous thermally stratified fluid is investigated. Pressure work term and the vertical temperature advection are considered in the thermodynamic energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by Laplace Transform techniques for the Prandtl number unity. The velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented graphically and discussed the effects of the Grashof number Gr, stratification parameter S at various times t.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan
2008-01-01
The mixed convection boundary layer flow through a stable stratified porous medium bounded by a vertical surface is investigated. The external velocity and the surface temperature are assumed to vary as x m , where x is measured from the leading edge of the vertical surface and m is a constant. Numerical solutions for the governing Darcy and energy equations are obtained. The results indicate that the thermal stratification significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the surface heat transfer, besides delays the boundary layer separation
Thermalhydraulic study of a stratified flow in a piping elbow (Application to the model Coufast)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peniguel, C.; Stephan, J.M.
1992-11-01
In PWR's, mechanical damages (cracks) have been detected at the internal faces of steam generator feedwater piping and also in dead legs, when thermal stratification occurs. To gain some understanding on these issues, experimental and numerical programs have been set up at EDF. This paper reports a thermalhydraulic study of an elbow geometry under operating conditions leading to the establishment of a stable stratified flow. Results obtained with ESTET (a three dimensional finite differences-finite volume code solving the averaged Navier-Stokes equations) and comparisons with experimental data obtained on COUFAST (an analytical mock up, scale 1 of a French 900-MW PWR steam generator pipe elbow) are shown
Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis
2015-11-01
We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').
Estimation of gas wall shear stress in horizontal stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newton, C.H.; Behnia, M.
1996-01-01
Two-phase pipe flows occur in many industrial applications, such as condensers and evaporators, chemical processing equipment, nuclear reactors, and oil pipelines. A variety of basic mechanistic flow models for predicting the pressure gradient and liquid loading characteristics of these types of flows to assist in design calculations has emerged over the past two decades, especially for the stratified and slug flow regimes. These models generally rely on a number of basic assumptions and empirical closure equations. Possibly the most notable of these relates to the evaluation of interfacial shear stresses. However, one of the most important yet least discussed assumptions used in most of these models is that the phase wall shear stresses can be accurately estimated from correlations developed for single-phase pipe flows. The object of this article is to present measurements of gas wall shear up to locations in close proximity to the gas-liquid interface for a variety of interface conditions in developed flow, and to determine the effects of the interface on average gas wall friction factors. In this context the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy
An experimental investigation of stratified two-phase pipe flow at small inclinations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espedal, Mikal
1998-12-31
The prediction of stratified flow is important for several industrial applications. Stratified flow experiments were carefully performed in order to investigate the performance of a typical model which uses wall friction factors based on single phase pipe flow as described above. The test facility has a 18.5 m long and 60 mm i.d. (L/D=300) acrylic test section which can be inclined between -10 {sup o} and +10 {sup o}. The liquid holdup was measured by using fast closing valves and the pressure gradients by using three differential pressure transducers. Interfacial waves were measured by thin wire conductance probes mounted in a plane perpendicular to the main flow. The experiments were performed using water and air at atmospheric pressure. The selected test section inclinations were between -3 {sup o} and +0.5 {sup o} to the horizontal plane. A large number of experiments were performed for different combinations of air and water flow rates and the rates were limited to avoid slug flow and stratified flow with liquid droplets. The pressure gradient and the liquid holdup were measured. In addition the wave probes were used to find the wave heights and the wave power spectra. The results show that the predicted pressure gradient using the standard models is approximately 30% lower than the measured value when large amplitude waves are present. When the flow is driven by the interfacial force the test section inclination has minor influence on the deviation between predicted and measured pressure gradients. Similar trends are apparent in data from the literature, although they seem to have gone unnoticed. For several data sets large spread in the predictions are observed when the model described above was used. Gas wall shear stress experiments indicate that the main cause of the deviation between measured and predicted pressure gradient and holdup resides in the modelling of the liquid wall friction term. Measurements of the liquid wall shear stress distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard
2015-01-01
A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV
Barranco, Joseph
2006-03-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (eg, the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier-Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to a finite one with a cotangent mapping, and using cosine and sine expansions in the mapped coordinate. The nonlinear advection terms are time integrated explicitly, whereas the Coriolis force, buoyancy terms, and pressure/enthalpy gradient are integrated semi- implicitly. We show that internal gravity waves can be damped by adding new terms to the Euler equations. The code exhibits excellent parallel performance with the Message Passing Interface (MPI). As a demonstration of the code, we simulate vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dusty midplanes of protoplanetary disks.
Subramanian, Balaji; Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo
2017-11-01
In stratified flows, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The conductivity probes typically used can resolve very fine spatial scales, but on the downside they are fragile, expensive, sensitive to environmental noise and have only single channel capability. Recently a low-cost, robust, arduino-based probe called Conduino was developed, which can be valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. This probe uses micro-USB connectors as actual conductivity sensors with a custom designed electronic board for simultaneous acquisition from multiple probes, with conductivity resolution comparable to commercially available PME conductivity probe. A detailed assessment of performance of this Conduino probe is described here. To establish time response and sensitivity as a function of electrode geometry, we build a variety of shapes for different kinds of applications, with tip spacing ranging from 0.5-2.5 mm, and with electrode length ranging from 2.3-6 mm. We set up a two-layer density profile and traverse it rapidly, yielding a time response comparable to PME. The Conduino's multi-channel capability is used to operate probe arrays, which helps to construct density fields in stratified flows.
LES of stratified-wavy flows using novel near-interface treatment
Karnik, Aditya; Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Matar, Omar K.
2017-11-01
The pressure drop in horizontal stratified wavy flows is influenced by interfacial shear stress. The near-interface behavior of the lighter phase is akin to that near a moving wall. We employ a front-tracking code, Blue, to simulate and capture the near-interface behaviour of both phases. Blue uses a modified Smagorinsky LES model incorporating a novel near-interface treatment for the sub-grid viscosity, which is influenced by damping due to the wall-like interface, and enhancement of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) due to the interfacial waves. Simulations are carried out for both air-water and oil-water stratified configurations to demonstrate the applicability of the present method. The mean velocities and tangential Reynolds stresses are compared with experiments for both configurations. At the higher Re, the waves penetrate well into the buffer region of the boundary layer above the interface thus altering its dynamics. Previous attempts to capture the secondary structures associated with such flows using RANS or standard LES methodologies have been unsuccessful. The ability of the present method to reproduce these structures is due to the correct estimation of the near-interface TKE governing energy transfer from the normal to tangential directions. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).
Mathematical modeling of two phase stratified flow in a microchannel with curved interface
Dandekar, Rajat; Picardo, Jason R.; Pushpavanam, S.
2017-11-01
Stratified or layered two-phase flows are encountered in several applications of microchannels, such as solvent extraction. Assuming steady, unidirectional creeping flow, it is possible to solve the Stokes equations by the method of eigenfunctions, provided the interface is flat and meets the wall with a 90 degree contact angle. However, in reality the contact angle depends on the pair of liquids and the material of the channel, and differs significantly from 90 degrees in many practical cases. For unidirectional flow, this implies that the interface is a circular arc (of constant curvature). We solve this problem within the framework of eigenfunctions, using the procedure developed by Shankar. We consider two distinct cases: (a) the interface meets the wall with the equilibrium contact angle; (b) the interface is pinned by surface treatment of the walls, so that the flow rates determine the apparent contact angle. We show that the contact angle appreciably affects the velocity profile and the volume fractions of the liquids, while limiting the range of flow rates that can be sustained without the interface touching the top/bottom walls. Non-intuitively, we find that the pressure drop is reduced when the more viscous liquid wets the wall.
Dynamic Transitions and Baroclinic Instability for 3D Continuously Stratified Boussinesq Flows
Şengül, Taylan; Wang, Shouhong
2018-02-01
The main objective of this article is to study the nonlinear stability and dynamic transitions of the basic (zonal) shear flows for the three-dimensional continuously stratified rotating Boussinesq model. The model equations are fundamental equations in geophysical fluid dynamics, and dynamics associated with their basic zonal shear flows play a crucial role in understanding many important geophysical fluid dynamical processes, such as the meridional overturning oceanic circulation and the geophysical baroclinic instability. In this paper, first we derive a threshold for the energy stability of the basic shear flow, and obtain a criterion for local nonlinear stability in terms of the critical horizontal wavenumbers and the system parameters such as the Froude number, the Rossby number, the Prandtl number and the strength of the shear flow. Next, we demonstrate that the system always undergoes a dynamic transition from the basic shear flow to either a spatiotemporal oscillatory pattern or circle of steady states, as the shear strength of the basic flow crosses a critical threshold. Also, we show that the dynamic transition can be either continuous or catastrophic, and is dictated by the sign of a transition number, fully characterizing the nonlinear interactions of different modes. Both the critical shear strength and the transition number are functions of the system parameters. A systematic numerical method is carried out to explore transition in different flow parameter regimes. In particular, our numerical investigations show the existence of a hypersurface which separates the parameter space into regions where the basic shear flow is stable and unstable. Numerical investigations also yield that the selection of horizontal wave indices is determined only by the aspect ratio of the box. We find that the system admits only critical eigenmodes with roll patterns aligned with the x-axis. Furthermore, numerically we encountered continuous transitions to multiple
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. J. Suarez-Dominguez
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Production of heavy crude oil in Mexico, and worldwide, is increasing which has led to the application of different methods to reduce viscosity or to enhance transport through stratified flow to continue using the existing infrastructures. In this context, injecting a viscosity improver that does not mix completely with the crude, establishes a liquid-liquid stratified flow. On the basis of a parallel plates model, comparing the increase of flow that occurs in the one-phase case which assumes a complete mixture between the crude and the viscosity improver against another stratified liquid-liquid (no mixing between the oil and compared improver; it was found that in both cases there is a flow increase for the same pressure drop with a maximum for the case in which the flow improver is between the plates and the crude.
The role of the complete Coriolis force in weakly stratified oceanic flows
Tort, M.; Winters, K. B.; Ribstein, B.; Zeitlin, V.
2016-02-01
Ocean dynamics is usually described using the primitive equations based on the so-called traditional approximation (TA), where the Coriolis force associated with the horizontal component of the planetary rotation is neglected (also called non-traditional (NT) part proportional to cosΦ, see Fig 1.). However, recent studies have shown that the NT part of the Coriolis force plays a non-negligible dynamical role in some particular oceanic flows (see Gerkema et al., 2008 for an extensive review of NT effects for geophysical and astrophysical flows). Here we explore the relevance of including the NT component of the Coriolis force in ocean models, by presenting particular results regarding two different mid-latitude flow configurations after relaxing the TA: Propagation of wind-induced near-inertial waves (NIWs). Under the TA, NIWs propagate toward the equator, the inertially poleward propagation being internally reflected at a depth-independent critical latitude. The combined effects of the NT Coriolis force and weak stratification in the deep ocean leads to the existence of waveguides for sub-inertial waves, which get trapped and propagate further poleward (Winters et al., 2011). Here we consider storm-induced NIWs and their evolution in a non-linear Boussinesq model on the β-plane in the NT approximation. Preliminary results are presented concerning the behavior of the waves in a weakly stratified mixed-layer, where NT effects are expected to be significant. Inertial instability. A detailed linear stability analysis of the Bickley jet at large Rossby numbers in the NT approximation on the f-plane is performed for long waves in a continuously stratified Boussinesq model. For a sufficiently weak stratification, both symmetric and asymmetric inertial instabilities have substantially higher growth rates than in the TA while no discernible differences between the two approximations are observed for strong enough stratifications (Tort et al., 2015).
Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.
1985-01-01
A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90 0 sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.
1985-01-01
A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.
Free convective flow of a stratified fluid through a porous medium bounded by a vertical plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. K. Mondal
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional free convection flow of a thermally stratified viscous fluid through a highly porous medium bounded by a vertical plane surface of varying temperature, is considered. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and the rate of heat transfer are obtained by perturbation method. Velocity distribution and rate of heat transfer for different values of parameters are shown in graphs. Velocity distribution is also obtained for certain values of the parameters by integrating the coupled differential equations by Runge-Kutta method and compared with the analytical solution. The chief concern of the paper is to study the effect of equilibrium temperature gradient on the velocity and the rate of heat transfer.
Upscaling of Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Stratified Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2011-01-01
A semi-analytical method for upscaling two-phase immiscible flows in heterogeneous porous media is described. This method is developed for stratified reservoirs with perfect communication between layers (the case of vertical equilibrium), in a viscous dominant regime, where the effects of capillary...... forces and gravity may be neglected. The method is discussed on the example of its basic application: waterflooding in petroleum reservoirs. We apply asymptotic analysis to a system of two-dimensional (2D) mass conservation equations for incompressible fluids. For high anisotropy ratios, the pressure...... and piston-like displacement, and it presumes non-zero exchange between layers. The method generalizes also the study of Yortsos (Transp Porous Media 18:107–129, 1995), taking into account in a more consistent way the interactions between the layers....
Alfven wave resonances and flow induced by nonlinear Alfven waves in a stratified atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stark, B. A.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.
1996-01-01
A nonlinear, time-dependent, ideal MHD code has been developed and used to compute the flow induced by nonlinear Alfven waves propagating in an isothermal, stratified, plane-parallel atmosphere. The code is based on characteristic equations solved in a Lagrangian frame. Results show that resonance behavior of Alfven waves exists in the presence of a continuous density gradient and that the waves with periods corresponding to resonant peaks exert considerably more force on the medium than off-resonance periods. If only off-peak periods are considered, the relationship between the wave period and induced longitudinal velocity shows that short period WKB waves push more on the background medium than longer period, non-WKB, waves. The results also show the development of the longitudinal waves induced by finite amplitude Alfven waves. Wave energy transferred to the longitudinal mode may provide a source of localized heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kap; Kim, Hho Jung
1986-01-01
Some studies on direct-contact condensation in cocurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water were reviewed. Several approaches have been performed to develop the condensation heat transfer coefficient relationship. The local Nusselt number is correlated in terms of the local water Reynolds and Prandtl numbers as well as the steam Froude number. In addition, a turbulence-centered model, developed principally for gas absorption in several geometries, is modified by using calculated interfacial parameters for the turbulent velocity and length scales. These approaches result in a fairly good agreement with the data, whereas, the turbulence-centered model is here recommended since it is based on the turbulent properties which may be closely related to the condensation phenomena. (Author)
A 3D spectral anelastic hydrodynamic code for shearing, stratified flows
Barranco, Joseph A.; Marcus, Philip S.
2006-11-01
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (e.g., the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to a finite one with a cotangent mapping, and using cosine and sine expansions in the mapped coordinate. The nonlinear advection terms are time-integrated explicitly, the pressure/enthalpy terms are integrated semi-implicitly, and the Coriolis force and buoyancy terms are treated semi-analytically. We show that internal gravity waves can be damped by adding new terms to the Euler equations. The code exhibits excellent parallel performance with the message passing interface (MPI). As a demonstration of the code, we simulate the merger of two 3D vortices in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk.
Large Eddy Simulation of Unstably Stratified Turbulent Flow over Urban-Like Building Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal instability induced by solar radiation is the most common condition of urban atmosphere in daytime. Compared to researches under neutral conditions, only a few numerical works studied the unstable urban boundary layer and the effect of buoyancy force is unclear. In this paper, unstably stratified turbulent boundary layer flow over three-dimensional urban-like building arrays with ground heating is simulated. Large eddy simulation is applied to capture main turbulence structures and the effect of buoyancy force on turbulence can be investigated. Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model is used for complex flow together with a wall function, taking into account the large pressure gradient near buildings. The numerical model and method are verified with the results measured in wind tunnel experiment. The simulated results satisfy well with the experiment in mean velocity and temperature, as well as turbulent intensities. Mean flow structure inside canopy layer varies with thermal instability, while no large secondary vortex is observed. Turbulent intensities are enhanced, as buoyancy force contributes to the production of turbulent kinetic energy.
UPTF-TRAM test A2. Formation of stratified flow in the hot leg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenckhoff; Brand, B.; Weiss, P.
1992-10-01
The separate effect UPTF TRAM Test A2 consisting of six runs was designed to investigate flow regimes in the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor under two-phase natural circulation conditions. In particular, the following phenomena were investigated: - Formation of different flow regimes, e.g. stratified and slug flow in the hot leg under different boundary conditions; -Correlation between flow regime and boundary conditions of the system (mass flows, water level etc.); - Mechanism of the transport of water into the steam generator. The test runs are divided into two groups: a) Test Runs 01a, 01b and 02b with steam injection through the core simulator: In these test runs the steam injection through the core simulator was increased stepwise. In each step the steam injection was kept constant for about 100 s in order to observe steady water distribution in the hot leg and SG-simulator of broken loop. b) Test Runs 03c, 04c and 04d with steam and water injection through the core simulator: These test runs were performed at a constant steam injection rate and the water injection rate was increased stepwise. In order to verify the consistency of scaling with the pressure, the test runs were carried out at different pressures as: a) Runs 01a and 01b at 15 bar, and Run 02b at 3 bar b) Runs 03c, 04c and 04d at 15, 3 and 5 bar respectively. A preliminary evaluation of the test is presented in the Quick Look Report. (orig.) [de
Prediction of stably stratified homogeneous shear flows with second-order turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, J C F; Rocha, J M P
2010-01-01
The present study investigated the role of pressure-correlation second-order turbulence modelling schemes on the predicted behaviour of stably stratified homogeneous vertical-sheared turbulence. The pressure-correlation terms were modelled with a nonlinear formulation (Craft 1991), which was compared with a linear pressure-strain model and the 'isotropization of production' model for the pressure-scalar correlation. Two additional modelling issues were investigated: the influence of the buoyancy term in the kinetic energy dissipation rate equation and the time scale in the thermal production term in the scalar variance dissipation equation. The predicted effects of increasing the Richardson number on turbulence characteristics were compared against a comprehensive set of direct numerical simulation databases. The linear models provide a broadly satisfactory description of the major effects of the Richardson number on stratified shear flow. The buoyancy term in the dissipation equation of the turbulent kinetic energy generates excessively low levels of dissipation. For moderate and large Richardson numbers, the term yields unrealistic linear oscillations in the shear and buoyancy production terms, and therefore should be dropped in this flow (or at least their coefficient c ε3 should be substantially reduced from its standard value). The mechanical dissipation time scale provides marginal improvements in comparison to the scalar time scale in the production. The observed inaccuracy of the linear model in predicting the magnitude of the effects on the velocity anisotropy was demonstrated to be attributed mainly to the defective behaviour of the pressure-correlation model, especially for stronger stratification. The turbulence closure embodying a nonlinear formulation for the pressure-correlations and specific versions of the dissipation equations failed to predict the tendency of the flow to anisotropy with increasing stratification. By isolating the effects of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, J.D.
1993-01-01
Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements, the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper presents the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discusses if any of those variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases
Benilov, E. S.
2018-05-01
This paper examines quasigeostrophic flows in an ocean that can be subdivided into an upper active layer (AL) and a lower passive layer (PL), with the flow and density stratification mainly confined to the former. Under this assumption, an asymptotic model is derived parameterizing the effect of the PL on the AL. The model depends only on the PL's depth, whereas its Väisälä-Brunt frequency turns out to be unimportant (as long as it is small). Under an additional assumption-that the potential vorticity field in the PL is well-diffused and, thus, uniform-the derived model reduces to a simple boundary condition. This condition is to be applied at the AL/PL interface, after which the PL can be excluded from consideration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byung Ryung
1997-02-01
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of interfacial friction factor, wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in a long horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow condition. A series of experiments have been conducted in adiabatic countercurrent stratified flow with the round pipe and rectangular duct test section to develop the interfacial friction factor and the criterion of onset of slugging in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow. An adiabatic semi-empirical correlation for interfacial friction factor has been developed based on the surface roughness concept. A comparison of the measured data in this study and of other investigators with the predictions of the present correlation shows that the agreement is within ±30% error, and that the present correlation is applicable to a broader range of water flow rate than the correlations of previous investigators. The theories which can calculate the wave height and criteria of onset of slug flow in a stratified wavy flow regime have been developed based on the concept of total energy conservation and also wave theory. This theoretical criteria agree better with the measured data than the other criteria available in the literature, but the criteria range about 92∼107% of the measured data. An empirical formula for the criterion has been also developed and compared with the formula in the literatures. Comparison between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory shows that the agreement is within ±8%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Byeong Geon; Yun, Byong Jo; Kim, Kyoung Du
2014-01-01
It was mainly due to the fact that droplet entrainment affects the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the nuclear fuel rod in the Postulated accident conditions of NPP. Recently, droplet entrainment in the horizontally arranged primary piping system for the NPP is of interest because it affects directly the steam binding phenomena in the steam generators. Pan and Hanratty correlation is the only applicable one for the droplet entrainment rate model for horizontal flow. Moreover, there are no efforts for the model development on the basis of the droplet entrainment principal and physics phenomena. More recently, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) proposed a new mechanistic droplet generation model applicable in the horizontal pipe for the SPACE code. However, constitutive relations in this new model require three model coefficients which have not yet been decided. The purpose of present work is determining three model coefficients by visualization experiment. For these model coefficients, the major physical parameters regarding the interfacial disturbance wave should be measured in this experiments. There are the wave slope, liquid fraction, wave hypotenuse length, wave velocity, wave frequency, and wavelength in the major physical parameters. The experiment was conducted at an air water horizontal rectangular channel with the PIV system. In this study, the experimental conditions were stratified-way flow during the droplet generation. Three coefficients were determined based on several data related to the interfacial wave. Additionally, we manufactured the parallel wire conductance probe to measure the fluctuating water level over time, and compared the wave height measured by the parallel wire conductance probe and image processing from images taken by high speed camera. Experimental investigation was performed for droplet entrainment from phase interface wave in an air-water stratified flow. In the experiments, we measured major physical parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraunie, P.; Berrella, S.; Chashechkin, Y.D.; Velasco, D.; Redondo, M.
2008-01-01
A detailed analysis of the flow structure resulting from the combination of turbulence and internal waves is carried out and visualized by means of the Schlieren method on waves in a strongly stratified fluid at the Laboratory of the IPM in Moscow. The joint appearance of the more regular internal wave oscillations and the small-scale turbulence that is confined vertically to the Ozmidov length scale favours the use of a simple geometrical analysis to investigate their time-space span and evolution. This provides useful information on the collapse of internal wave breaking processes in the ocean and the atmosphere. The measurements were performed under a variety of linear stratifications and different grid forcing scales, combining the grid wake and velocity shear. A numerical simulation using LES on the passage of a single bar in a linearly stratified fluid medium has been compared with the experiments identifying the different influences of the environmental agents on the actual affective vertical diffusion of the wakes. The equation of state, which connects the density and salinity, is assumed to be linear, with the coefficient of the salt contraction being included into the definition of salinity or heat. The characteristic internal waves as well as the entire beam width are related to the diameter of the bar, the Richardson number and the peak-to-peak value of oscillations. The ultimate frequency of the infinitesimal periodic internal waves is limited by the maximum buoyancy frequency relating the decrease in the vertical scale with the anisotropy of the velocity turbulent r.m.s. velocity.
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Interfacial friction factors for air-water co-current stratified flow in inclined channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The interfacial shear stress is experimentally investigated for co-current air-water stratified flow in inclined rectangular channels having a length of 1854mm, width of 120 mm and height of 40mm at almost atmospheric pressure. Experiments are carried out in several inclinations from 0 deg up to 10 deg. The local film thickness and the wave height are measured at three locations, i.e., L/H = 8,23, and 40. According to the inclination angle, the experimental data are categorized into two groups; nearly horizontal data group (0 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 0.7 deg), and inclined channel data group (0.7 deg {<=} {theta} {<=} 10 deg ). Experimental observations for nearly horizontal data group show that the flow is not fully developed due to the water level gradient and the hydraulic jump within the channel. For the inclined channel data group, a dimensionless wave height, {Delta}h/h, is empirically correlated in terms of Re{sub G} and h/H. A modified root-mean-square wave height is proposed to consider the effects of the interfacial and wave propagation velocities. It is found that an equivalent roughness has a linear relationship with the modified root-mean-square wave height and its relationship is independent of the inclination. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Terzuoli
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.
CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzuoli, F.; Galassi, M.C.; Mazzini, D.; D'Auria, F.
2008-01-01
Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC) injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM) Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX), and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD). The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling
Heat and mass transfers between two stratified liquid phases in a bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapuerta, C.
2006-10-01
During an hypothetical major accident in a pressurized water reactor, the deterioration of the core can produce a stratified pool crossed by a bubbly flow. This latter strongly impacts the heat transfers, whose intensities are crucial in the progression of the accident. In this context, this work is devoted to the diffuse interface modelling for the study of an-isothermal incompressible flows, composed of three immiscible components, with no phase change. In the diffuse interface methods, the system evolution is driven by the minimization of a free energy. The originality of our approach, derived from the Cahn-Hilliard model, is based on the particular form of the energy we proposed, which enables to have an algebraically and dynamically consistent model, in the following sense: on the one hand, the triphasic free energy is equal to the diphasic one when only two phases are present; on the other, if a phase is not initially present then it will not appear during system evolution, this last property being stable with respect to numerical errors. The existence and the uniqueness of weak and strong solutions are proved in two and three dimensions as well as a stability result for metastable states. The modelling of an an-isothermal three phase flow is further accomplished by coupling the Cahn-Hilliard equations with the energy balance and Navier-Stokes equations where surface tensions are taken into account through volume capillary forces. These equations are discretized in time and space in order to preserve properties of continuous model (volume conservation, energy estimate). Different numerical results are given, from the validation case of the lens spreading between two phases, to the study of the heat and mass transfers through a liquid/liquid interface crossed by a single bubble or a series of bubbles. (author)
Heat and mass transfer in the stratified flow with ECCS injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, L.; Tiselj, I.
2007-01-01
One of the most important problems in the light-water nuclear thermal-hydraulics is behaviour of the cold emergency core cooling water injected from the top or from the bottom into the horizontal section of the cold leg near the reactor vessel during the loss of coolant accident. The stratified flows appear where cold water is injected in partially or fully uncovered horizontal cold leg. The hot steam condenses on cold water surface what is also called direct contact condensation. Direct contact condensation and condensation induced water-hammer in a horizontal pipe were experimentally investigated at PMK-2 test facility of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute KFKI. The cold water is injected through small pipe into lower horizontal part of the section, and then water fills the vertical pipeline and floods the horizontal test section of the pipeline of the PMK-2 integral test facility. As liquid water floods the horizontal part of the pipeline, the counter current horizontally stratified flow is being observed. During the flooding of the pipeline, the steam-liquid interface area increases and therefore the steam condensation rate and the steam velocity also increase and can lead to bubble entrapment. Water level at one cross-section and four local void fraction and temperature at the top of horizontal test pipeline was measured and compared with simulation. Condensed steam increases the water temperature that is why the local temperature measurements are the most important information, from which condensation rate can be estimated, since mass of condensed steam was not measured. Numerical simulation of the experiment with thermal phase change is presented. Surface renewal concept with small eddies is used for calculation of condensation heat transfer coefficient. Two simulations were performed: simulation of whole experimental domain (lower horizontal, vertical and test horizontal pipeline) and simplified simulation of only upper horizontal test section
Dynamic measurement of liquid film thickness in stratified flow by using ultrasonic echo technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serizawa, A.; Nagane, K.; Kamei, T.; Kawara, Z.; Ebisu, T.; Torikoshi, K.
2004-01-01
We developed a technique to measure time-dependent local film thickness in stratified air-water flow over a horizontal plate by using a time of flight of ultrasonic transmission. The ultrasonic echoes reflected at the liquid/air interfaces are detected by a conventional ultrasonic instrumentation, and the signals are analyzed by a personal computer after being digitalized by an A/D converter to give the time of flight for the ultrasonic waves to run over a distance of twice of the film thickness. A 3.8 mm diameter probe type ultrasonic transducer was used in the present work which transmits and receives 10 MHz frequency ultrasonic waves. The estimated spatial resolution with this arrangement is 0.075 mm in film thickness for water. The time resolution, which depends on both the A/D converter and the memory capacity was up to several tens Hz. We also discussed the sensitivity of the method to the inclination angle of the interfaces. (author)
Singh, Kanwar Nain; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Caulfield, C. P.; Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence (MUST) Team
2017-11-01
We present results from experiments conducted to study mixing in a two-layer stably-stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. It has previously been observed that there is a quasi-periodic mixing event located at the interface separating the layers. We observe, through conductivity probe measurements, that the power of the mixing event in the frequency spectrum of the density data at the interface is higher when measured near the inner cylinder than in the middle of the annular gap. This is consistent with Oglethorpe's (2014) hypothesis that the mixing structure is triggered near the inner cylinder, and then advects and decays or disperses radially. We also observe that at Ri =g/'Ro (RiΩi)2 7 , where Ri, Ro are the inner and outer cylinder radius, respectively, g ' the reduced gravity characterising the density jump between the layers and Ωi is the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, the power drops significantly at all radial locations, which is reminiscent of the onset of the enhanced flux regime as observed by Oglethorpe et al. (2013). We perform experiments to characterise the spatial extent and dynamics of this mixing structure using particle image velocimetry (PIV) giving further insights into this important mixing process. EPSRC programme Grant EP/K034529/1 & SGPC-CCT Scholarship.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, W.; Coste, P.; Bestion, D.; Boucker, M.
2003-01-01
In this paper, a local 3D two-fluid model for a turbulent stratified flow with/without condensation, which can be used to predict two-phase pressurized thermal shock, is presented. A modified turbulent K- model is proposed with turbulence production induced by interfacial friction. A model of interfacial friction based on a interfacial sublayer concept and three interfacial heat transfer models, namely, a model based on the small eddies controlled surface renewal concept (HDM, Hughes and Duffey, 1991), a model based on the asymptotic behavior of the Eddy Viscosity (EVM), and a model based on the Interfacial Sublayer concept (ISM) are implemented into a preliminary version of the NEPTUNE code based on the 3D module of the CATHARE code. As a first step to apply the above models to predict the two-phase thermal shock, the models are evaluated by comparison of calculated profiles with several experiments: a turbulent air-water stratified flow without interfacial heat transfer; a turbulent steam-water stratified flow with condensation; turbulence induced by the impact of a water jet in a water pool. The prediction results agree well with the experimental data. In addition, the comparison of three interfacial heat transfer models shows that EVM and ISM gave better prediction results while HDM highly overestimated the interfacial heat transfers compared to the experimental data of a steam water stratified flow
SOMAR-LES: A framework for multi-scale modeling of turbulent stratified oceanic flows
Chalamalla, Vamsi K.; Santilli, Edward; Scotti, Alberto; Jalali, Masoud; Sarkar, Sutanu
2017-12-01
A new multi-scale modeling technique, SOMAR-LES, is presented in this paper. Localized grid refinement gives SOMAR (the Stratified Ocean Model with Adaptive Resolution) access to small scales of the flow which are normally inaccessible to general circulation models (GCMs). SOMAR-LES drives a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) on SOMAR's finest grids, forced with large scale forcing from the coarser grids. Three-dimensional simulations of internal tide generation, propagation and scattering are performed to demonstrate this multi-scale modeling technique. In the case of internal tide generation at a two-dimensional bathymetry, SOMAR-LES is able to balance the baroclinic energy budget and accurately model turbulence losses at only 10% of the computational cost required by a non-adaptive solver running at SOMAR-LES's fine grid resolution. This relative cost is significantly reduced in situations with intermittent turbulence or where the location of the turbulence is not known a priori because SOMAR-LES does not require persistent, global, high resolution. To illustrate this point, we consider a three-dimensional bathymetry with grids adaptively refined along the tidally generated internal waves to capture remote mixing in regions of wave focusing. The computational cost in this case is found to be nearly 25 times smaller than that of a non-adaptive solver at comparable resolution. In the final test case, we consider the scattering of a mode-1 internal wave at an isolated two-dimensional and three-dimensional topography, and we compare the results with Legg (2014) numerical experiments. We find good agreement with theoretical estimates. SOMAR-LES is less dissipative than the closure scheme employed by Legg (2014) near the bathymetry. Depending on the flow configuration and resolution employed, a reduction of more than an order of magnitude in computational costs is expected, relative to traditional existing solvers.
Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...
The stably stratified internal boundary layer for steady and diurnally varying offshore flow
Garratt, J. R.
1987-03-01
A two-dimensional numerical mesoscale model is used to investigate the internal structure and growth of the stably stratified internal boundary layer (IBL) beneath warm, continental air flowing over a cooler sea. Two situations are studied — steady-state and diurnally varying offshore flow. In the steady-state case, vertical profiles of mean quantities and eddy diffusion coefficients ( K) within the IBL show small, but significant, changes with increasing distance from the coast. The top of the IBL is well defined, with large vertical gradients within the layer and a maximum in the coast-normal wind component near the top. Well away from the coast, turbulence, identified by non-zero K, decreases to insignificant levels near the top of the IBL; the IBL itself is characterised by a critical value of the layer-flux Richardson number equal to 0.18. The overall behaviour of the mean profiles is similar to that found in the horizontally homogeneous stable boundary layer over land. A simple physical model is used to relate the depth of the layer h to several relevant physical parameters viz., x, the distance from the coast and U, the large-scale wind (both normal to the coastline) and gδθ/θ, Δθ being the temperature difference between continental mixed-layer air and sea surface, θ is the mean potential temperature and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Excellent agreement with the numerical results is found, with h = 0.014 x 1/2 U ( gδθ/θ)-1/2. In the diurnally varying case, the mean profiles within the IBL show only small differences from the steady-state case, although diurnal variations, particularly in the wind maximum, are evident within a few hundred kilometres of the coast. A mesoscale circulation normal to the coast, and superimposed upon the mean offshore flow, develops seawards of the coastline with maximum vertical velocities about sunset, of depth about 2 km and horizontal scale ≈ 500 km. The circulation is related to the advection, and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho
2008-12-01
The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i
The structure of the stably stratified internal boundary layer in offshore flow over the sea
Garratt, J. R.; Ryan, B. F.
1989-04-01
Observations obtained mainly from a research aircraft are presented of the mean and turbulent structure of the stably stratified internal boundary layer (IBL) over the sea formed by warm air advection from land to sea. The potential temperature and humidity fields reveal the vertical extent of the IBL, for fetches out to several hundred of kilometres, geostrophic winds of 20 25 m s-1, and potential temperature differences between undisturbed continental air and the sea surface of 7 to 17 K. The dependence of IBL depth on these external parameters is discussed in the context of the numerical results of Garratt (1987), and some discrepancies are noted. Wind observations show the development of a low-level wind maximum (wind component normal to the coast) and rotation of the wind to smaller cross-isobar flow angles. Potential temperature (θ) profiles within the IBL reveal quite a different structure to that found in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) over land. Over the sea, θ profiles have large positive curvature with vertical gradients increasing monotonically with height; this reflects the dominance of turbulent cooling within the layer. The behaviour is consistent with known behaviour in the NBL over land where curvature becomes negative (vertical gradients of θ decreasing with height) as radiative cooling becomes dominant. Turbulent properties are discussed in terms of non-dimensional quantities, normalised by the surface friction velocity, as functions of normalised height using the IBL depth. Vertical profiles of these and the normalised wavelength of the spectral maximum agree well with known results for the stable boundary layer over land (Caughey et al., 1979).
Experimental investigation of stratified two-phase flows in the hot leg of a PWR for CFD validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Tomiyama, Akio [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Murase, Michio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)
2012-07-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated in two different models of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) in order to provide experimental data for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Therefore, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera. Moreover, one test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section to achieve optimum observation conditions. The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) was investigated, which may affect the reflux condenser cooling mode in some accident scenarios. (orig.)
Sealable stagnation flow geometries for the uniform deposition of materials and heat
McCarty, Kevin F.; Kee, Robert J.; Lutz, Andrew E.; Meeks, Ellen
2001-01-01
The present invention employs a constrained stagnation flow geometry apparatus to achieve the uniform deposition of materials or heat. The present invention maximizes uniform fluxes of reactant gases to flat surfaces while minimizing the use of reagents and finite dimension edge effects. This results, among other things, in large area continuous films that are uniform in thickness, composition and structure which is important in chemical vapor deposition processes such as would be used for the fabrication of semiconductors.
Non-uniform volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows
Staniç, M.; McFarland, J.; Stellingwerf, R.F.; Cassibry, J.T.; Ranjan, D.; Bonazza, R.; Greenough, J.A.; Abarzhi, S.I.
2013-01-01
We perform an integrated study of volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by moderate shocks. Experiments, theoretical analyses, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations, and ARES Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian simulations are employed to analyze RM evolution for fluids with
Flow control by combining radial pulsation and rotation of a cylinder in uniform flow
Oualli, H.; Hanchi, S.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.
2008-11-01
Flow visualizations and hot-wire measurements are carried out to study a circular cylinder undergoing simultaneous radial pulsation and rotation and placed in a uniform flow. The Reynolds number is in the range of 1,000--22,000, for which transition in the shear layers and near wake is expected. Our previous experimental and numerical investigations in this subcritical flow regime have established the existence of an important energy transfer mechanism from the mean flow to the fluctuations. Radial pulsations cause and enhance that energy transfer. Certain values of the amplitude and frequency of the pulsations lead to negative drag (i.e. thrust). The nonlinear interaction between the Magnus effect induced by the steady rotation of the cylinder and the near-wake modulated by the bluff body's pulsation leads to alteration of the omnipresent Kármán vortices and the possibility of optimizing the lift-to-drag ratio as well as the rates of heat and mass transfer. Other useful applications include the ability to enhance or suppress the turbulence intensity, and to avoid the potentially destructive lock-in phenomenon in the wake of bridges, electric cables and other structures.
A short remark on Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Hong-Yan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concludes that Stewart 1962 variational principle for laminar flow in a uniform duct is for a differential-difference. Some generalized variational principles are elucidated with or without Stewart’s discrete treatment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivana Stiperski
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we present an overview of the HyIV-CNRS-SecORo (Hydralab IV-CNRS-Secondary Orography and Rotors Experiments laboratory experiments carried out in the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques large stratified water flume. The experiments were designed to systematically study the influence of double obstacles on stably stratified flow. The experimental set-up consists of a two-layer flow in the water tank, with a lower neutral and an upper stable layer separated by a sharp density discontinuity. This type of layering over terrain is known to be conducive to a variety of possible responses in the atmosphere, from hydraulic jumps to lee waves and highly turbulent rotors. In each experiment, obstacles were towed through the tank at a constant speed. The towing speed and the size of the tank allowed high Reynolds-number flow similar to the atmosphere. Here, we present the experimental design, together with an overview of laboratory experiments conducted and their results. We develop a regime diagram for flow over single and double obstacles and examine the parameter space where the secondary obstacle has the largest influence on the flow. Trapped lee waves, rotors, hydraulic jumps, lee-wave interference and flushing of the valley atmosphere are successfully reproduced in the stratified water tank. Obstacle height and ridge separation distance are shown to control lee-wave interference. Results, however, differ partially from previous findings on the flow over double ridges reported in the literature due to the presence of nonlinearities and possible differences in the boundary layer structure. The secondary obstacle also influences the transition between different flow regimes and makes trapped lee waves possible for higher Froude numbers than expected for an isolated obstacle.
Prediction of incipient flow boiling from a uniformly heated surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, S.T.; Abdelmessih, A.H.
1977-01-01
This study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of liquid superheat during incipient boiling in a uniformly heated forced convection channel. Experimental data were obtained using Freon 11 as the test medium. Based on existing theories, an analytical method was developed for predicting the point of termination of nucleate boiling, observed during a decreasing heat flux process with a nucleation activated surface. The method may also be used to predict the point of boiling incipience, observed during an increasing heat flux process with a non-activated surface; this point does not appear to have been treated analytically in previous work. It can be shown that some of the existing models are special cases of the present formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roshani, G.H.; Nazemi, E.; Roshani, M.M.
2017-01-01
In this paper, a novel method is proposed for predicting the density of liquid phase in stratified regime of liquid-gas two phase flows by utilizing dual modality densitometry technique and artificial neural network (ANN) model of radial basis function (RBF). The detection system includes a 137 Cs radioactive source and two NaI(Tl) detectors for registering transmitted and scattered photons. At the first step, a Monte Carlo simulation model was utilized to obtain the optimum position for the scattering detector in dual modality densitometry configuration. At the next step, an experimental setup was designed based on obtained optimum position for detectors from simulation in order to generate the required data for training and testing the ANN. The results show that the proposed approach could be successfully applied for predicting the density of liquid phase in stratified regime of gas-liquid two phase flows with mean relative error (MRE) of less than 0.701. - Highlights: • Density of liquid phase in stratified regime of two phase flows was predicted. • Combination of dual modality densitometry technique and ANN was utilized. • Detection system includes a 137 Cs radioactive source and two NaI(Tl) detectors. • MCNP simulation was done to obtain the optimum position for the scattering detector. • An experimental setup was designed to generate the required data for training the ANN.
Horizontal stratified flow model for the 1-D module of WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2: modeling and validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, J.; Frepoli, C.; Ohkawa, K., E-mail: liaoj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, LOCA Integrated Services I, Cranberry Twp, Pennsylvania (United States)
2011-07-01
For a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe, the individual phases may separate by gravity. This horizontal stratification significantly impacts the interfacial drag, interfacial heat transfer and wall drag of the two phase flow. For a PWR small break LOCA, the horizontal stratification in cold legs is a highly important phenomenon during loop seal clearance, boiloff and recovery periods. The low interfacial drag in the stratified flow directly controls the time period for the loop clearance and the level of residual water in the loop seal. Horizontal stratification in hot legs also impacts the natural circulation stage of a small break LOCA. In addition, the offtake phenomenon and cold leg condensation phenomenon are also affected by the occurrence of horizontal stratification in the cold legs. In the 1-D module of the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 computer code, a horizontal stratification criterion was developed by combining the Taitel-Dukler model and the Wallis-Dobson model, which approximates the viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz neutral stability boundary. The objective of this paper is to present the horizontal stratification model implemented in the code and its assessment against relevant data. The adequacy of the horizontal stratification transition criterion is confirmed by examining the code-predicted flow regime in a horizontal pipe with the measured data in the flow regime map. The void fractions (or liquid level) for the horizontal stratified flow in cold leg or hot leg are predicted with a reasonable accuracy. (author)
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.
1979-08-01
A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis Eduardo; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Ramos, Robson; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir X.
2007-01-01
This work presents methodology based on the use of nuclear technique and artificial intelligence for attainment of volume fractions in stratified and annular multiphase flow regime, oil-water-gas, very frequent in the offshore industry petroliferous. Using the principles of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays and an adequate geometry scheme of detection with two detectors and two energies measurement are gotten and they vary as changes in the volume fractions of flow regime occur. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the data training for artificial neural network that matched such information with the respective actual volume fractions of each material. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis Eduardo; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Ramos, Robson [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br; brandao@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; robson@ien.gov.br; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Energia Nuclear (PEN)]. E-mails: ademir@con.ufrj.br; schirru@lmp.ufrj.br
2007-07-01
This work presents methodology based on the use of nuclear technique and artificial intelligence for attainment of volume fractions in stratified and annular multiphase flow regime, oil-water-gas, very frequent in the offshore industry petroliferous. Using the principles of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays and an adequate geometry scheme of detection with two detectors and two energies measurement are gotten and they vary as changes in the volume fractions of flow regime occur. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the data training for artificial neural network that matched such information with the respective actual volume fractions of each material. (author)
Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested
Nonlinear generation of zonal flows by ion-acoustic waves in a uniform magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2010-01-01
It is shown that large-scale zonal flows (ZFs) can be excited by Reynolds stress of nonlinearly interacting random phase ion-acoustic waves (EIAWs) in a uniform magnetoplasma. Since ZFs are associated with poloidal sheared flows, they can tear apart short scale EIAW turbulence eddies, and hence contribute to the reduction of the cross-field turbulent transport in a magnetized plasma.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2013-01-01
Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...
Zemlyanaya, N. V.; Gulyakin, A. V.
2017-11-01
The uniformity of flow distribution in perforated manifolds is a relevant task. The efficiency of water supply, sewerage and perflation systems is determined by hydraulics of the flow with a variable mass. The extensive study of versatile available information showed that achieving a uniform flow distribution through all of the outlets is almost impossible. The analysis of the studies conducted by other authors and our numerical experiments performed with the help of the software package ANSYS 16.1 were made in this work. The results allowed us to formulate the main causes of non-uniform flow distribution. We decided to suggest a hypothesis to explain the static pressure rise problem at the end of a perforated manifold.
Flow of two stratified fluids in an open channel with addition of fluids along the channel length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, G.C.
1980-01-01
It is shown that two stably stratified fluids flowing in an open channel have two critical flow conditions. The one at higher flowrates is equivalent to the choked flow condition of a single fluid over a broad-crested weir, when the Froude number is unity. The lower critical condition imposes restrictions, which define the system if fluids are added progressively along the channel length and the flowrates increase from low to high values. However, if the flowrate does not become sufficiently large to pass through the lower critical condition, this condition will then define a form of choking, which again determines the system. It is shown that an important special case, with the proportional flowrates of the two fluids kept constant, has an analytical solution in which the relative depths of the fluids is a constant along the channel. Other systems must be solved numerically. (orig.)
Experimental investigation of stratified two-phase flows in the hot leg of a PWR for CFD validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Tomiyama, Akio [Kobe Univ (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Murase, Michio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)
2012-12-15
Stratified 2-phase flows were investigated in 2 different models of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) in order to provide experimental data for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Therefore, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera. Moreover, one test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section to achieve optimal observation conditions. The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) was investigated, which may affect the reflux condenser cooling mode in some accident scenarios. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and saturated water at boundary conditions of up to 50 bar and 264 C. The measured CCFL characteristics were compared with similar experimental data and correlations available in the literature. This shows that the channel height is the characteristic length to be used in the Wallis parameter for channels with rectangular cross-sections. Furthermore, the experimental results confirm that the Wallis similarity is appropriate to scale CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR over a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions. Finally, an image processing algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. Subsequently, the interfacial structure along the hot leg was visualised by the representation of the probability distribution of the water level. (orig.)
Khan, M. Ijaz; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Imran
2017-11-01
The mixed convective flow of an Eyring-Powell nanomaterial in a doubly stratified medium is addressed in this paper. The stretching surface has varying thickness. The nanofluid model given by Buongiorno is utilized in the formulation of energy and concentration expressions. Heat generation is also retained. Ordinary differential systems are obtained by utilizing the transformations procedure. Homotopy series solutions containing exponentially functions are developed. Significant characteristics of influential variables for velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reported through graphs and tables. It is found that stratification phenomenon leads to a decay in temperature and nanoparticle concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, In Cheol; Yu, Seon Oh; Chun, Moon Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byong Sup; Kim, Yang Seok; Kim, In Hwan; Lee, Sang Won [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
An interfacial condensation heat transfer phenomenon in a steam/water countercurrent stratified flow in a nearly horizontal pipe has been experimentally investigated. The present study has been focused on the measurement of the temperature and velocity distributions within the water layer. In particular, the water layer thickness used in the present work is large enough so that the turbulent mixing is limited and the thermal stratification is established. As a result, the thermal resistance of the water layer to the condensation heat transfer is increased significantly. An empirical correlation of the interfacial condensation heat transfer has been developed. The present correlation agrees with the data within {+-} 15%. 5 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Bardakov, R. N.
2018-02-01
By the methods of schlieren visualization, the evolution of elements of the fine structure of transverse vortex loops formed in the circular vortex behind the edge of a disk rotating in a continuously stratified fluid is traced for the first time. An inhomogeneous distribution of the density of a table-salt solution in a basin was formed by the continuous-squeezing method. The development of periodic perturbations at the outer boundary of the circular vortex and their transformation at the vortex-loop vertex are traced. A slow change in the angular size of the structural elements in the supercritical-flow mode is noted.
Liquid-metal flow in a rectangular duct with a non-uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, J.S.
1986-04-01
This paper treats liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls. A transverse magnetic field changes from a uniform strength upstream to a weaker uniform strength downstream. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. If the magnetic field changes gradually over a long duct length, the velocity and pressure are nearly uniform in each cross section and the flow differs slightly from locally fully developed flow. If the magnetic field changes more abruptly over a shorter duct length, the velocity and pressure are much larger near the walls parallel to the magnetic field than in the central part of duct. Solutions for the pressure drops due to the magnetic field change are presented
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.
1995-01-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
Droplet rotation model apply in steam uniform flow and gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jinyi; Bo Hanliang; Sun Yuliang; Wang Dazhong
2012-01-01
The mechanism droplet movement behavior and the qualitative description of droplet trajectory in the steam uniform flow field in the gravitational field were researched with droplet rotation model. According to the mechanism of gravitational field and uniform flow fields, the effects on droplets movement were analyzed and the importance of lift forces was also discussed. Finally, a general trajectory and mechanism of the droplets movement was derived which lays the groundwork for the qualitative analysis of the single-drop model and could be general enough to be used in many applications. (authors)
Doubly stratified MHD tangent hyperbolic nanofluid flow due to permeable stretched cylinder
Nagendramma, V.; Leelarathnam, A.; Raju, C. S. K.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hussain, T.
2018-06-01
An investigation is exhibited to analyze the presence of heat source and sink in doubly stratified MHD incompressible tangent hyperbolic fluid due to stretching of cylinder embedded in porous space under nanoparticles. To develop the mathematical model of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid, movement of Brownian and thermophoretic are accounted. The established equations of continuity, momentum, thermal and solutal boundary layers are reassembled into sets of non-linear expressions. These assembled expressions are executed with the help of Runge-Kutta scheme with MATLAB. The impacts of sundry parameters are illustrated graphically and the engineering interest physical quantities like skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number are examined by computing numerical values. It is clear that the power-law index parameter and curvature parameter shows favorable effect on momentum boundary layer thickness whereas Weissennberg number reveals inimical influence.
Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K. S.; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon
2016-01-01
A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design. PMID:27384567
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lam Ghai Lim
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji
1988-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to understand two-phase flow discharged from a stratified two-phase region through a small break. This problem is important for an analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor (LWR). The present theoretical results show that a break quality is a function of h/h b , where h is the elevation difference between a bulk water level in the upstream region and break and b the suffix for entrainment initiation. This result is consistent with existing eperimental results in literature. An air-water experiment was also conducted changing a break orientation as an experimental parameter to develop and assess the model. Comparisons between the model and the experimental results show that the present model can satisfactorily predict the flow rate and the quality at the break without using any adjusting constant when liquid entrainment occurs in a stratified two-phase region. When gas entrainment occurs, the experimental data are correlated well by using a single empirical constant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kussmaul, K.; Mayinger, W.; Diem, H.; Katzenmeier, G.
1993-01-01
Startup at low reactor power may give rise to stratified flow conditions in pipes of boiling water and pressurized water reactors. Stratified flow regimes cause a steep temperature gradient between the cold and the hot fluid layer. This temperature gradient produces high axial stresses which, in the case of intermittent feeding of cold water and an appropriate number of repetitions, in principle may initiate cracking in the feedwater pipe and close to the feeding nozzle. Thermosleeves have been installed in a number of reactors to mitigate thermally induced stresses; they reduce the intensity of thermal transients by means of an insulating fluid annulus developing between the sleeve and the nozzle, in order to measure the temperature and stress gradients occurring in the region of the nozzle edge, the so-called TEMS experiments were carried out under realistic operating conditions, and with different cold water levels within the framework of German research activities in the field of reactor safety at the HDR test facility. The experiments served to simulate the physics phenomena by means of a FE-program and to verify the computational approach by comparisons of measurements and calculations
Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K S; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon
2016-07-04
A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
Jaravel, Thomas; Labahn, Jeffrey; Ihme, Matthias
2017-11-01
The reliable initiation of flame ignition by high-energy spark kernels is critical for the operability of aviation gas turbines. The evolution of a spark kernel ejected by an igniter into a turbulent stratified environment is investigated using detailed numerical simulations with complex chemistry. At early times post ejection, comparisons of simulation results with high-speed Schlieren data show that the initial trajectory of the kernel is well reproduced, with a significant amount of air entrainment from the surrounding flow that is induced by the kernel ejection. After transiting in a non-flammable mixture, the kernel reaches a second stream of flammable methane-air mixture, where the successful of the kernel ignition was found to depend on the local flow state and operating conditions. By performing parametric studies, the probability of kernel ignition was identified, and compared with experimental observations. The ignition behavior is characterized by analyzing the local chemical structure, and its stochastic variability is also investigated.
Three-Dimensional Adjustment of Stratified Flow Over a Sloping Bottom
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chapman, David
2002-01-01
This study focused on understanding how advection of density within the bottom boundary layer influence the three-dimensional structure, evolution, and dynamics of both the bottom boundary layer and the overlying (interior) flow...
Electrohydrodynamic stability of two stratified power law liquid in couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eldabe, N.T.
1988-01-01
Consideration is given to the stability of the flow of two power law liquids under the influence of normal electric field between two infinite parallel planes when one of the planes moves with constant velocity in its own plane. It is found that the electric fields have a dramatic effect and can be chosen to stabilize or destabilize the flow. The effects of the power law parameters on the problem are examinated
Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow
Ruppe, E. P.
1966-01-01
Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations
Transient well flow in layered aquifer systems: the uniform well-face drawdown solution
Hemker, C. J.
1999-11-01
Previously a hybrid analytical-numerical solution for the general problem of computing transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers was proposed by the author. The radial component of flow was treated analytically, while the finite-difference technique was used for the vertical flow component only. In the present work the hybrid solution has been modified by replacing the previously assumed uniform well-face gradient (UWG) boundary condition in such a way that the drawdown remains uniform along the well screen. The resulting uniform well-face drawdown (UWD) solution also includes the effects of a finite diameter well, wellbore storage and a thin skin, while partial penetration and vertical heterogeneity are accommodated by the one-dimensional discretization. Solutions are proposed for well flow caused by constant, variable and slug discharges. The model was verified by comparing wellbore drawdowns and well-face flux distributions with published numerical solutions. Differences between UWG and UWD well flow will occur in all situations with vertical flow components near the well, which is demonstrated by considering: (1) partially penetrating wells in confined aquifers, (2) fully penetrating wells in unconfined aquifers with delayed response and (3) layered aquifers and leaky multiaquifer systems. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for solving many well-hydraulic problems, including well tests, flowmeter tests, slug tests and pumping tests. A computer program for the analysis of pumping tests, based on the hybrid analytical-numerical technique and UWG or UWD conditions, is available from the author.
Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.
Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komori, S.
1996-01-01
A supercomputer is a nice tool for simulating environmental flows. The Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies purchased a supercomputer SX-3 of CGER about three years ago, and it has been used for various environmental simulations since. Although one of the main purposes for which the supercomputer was used was to simulate global warming with a general circulation model (GCM), our research organization used the supercomputer for more fundamental work to investigate heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows. Our motivations for this work was the fact that GCMs involve a number of uncertain submodels related to heat and mass transfer in turbulent atmospheric and oceanic flows. It may be easy to write research reports by running GCMs which were developed in western countries, but it is difficult for numerical scientists to do original work with such second-hand GCMs. In this sense, we thought that it would be more original to study the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows rather than to run a GCM. Therefore, we tried to numerically investigate turbulence structure and scalar transfer both at the air-sea interface and in thermally stratified flows, neither of which were well modeled by GCMs. We also employed laboratory experiments to clarify the turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanism, since numerical simulations are not sufficiently powerful to clarify all aspects of turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanisms. A numerical technique is a promising tool to complement measurements of processes that cannot be clarified by turbulence measurements in environmental flows. It should also be noted that most of the interesting phenomena in environmental flows can be elucidated by laboratory or field measurements but not by numerical simulations alone. Thus, it is of importance to combine laboratory or field measurements with numerical simulations
On singular limits arising in the scale analysis of stratified fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Klein, R.; Novotný, A.; Zatorska, E.
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 419-443 ISSN 0218-2025 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) MATHEF(320078) Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : isentropic fluid flow * strong stratification * singular limit * anelastic approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.860, year: 2016 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/10.1142/S021820251650007X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuel Martin, C.
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: An experimental apparatus was designed for the purpose of investigating the phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer in an ammonia refrigeration system. Water hammer was initiated by introducing warm ammonia gas over static subcooled ammonia liquid placed in a horizontal 146.3 mm diameter carbon steel pipe 6.0 m in length. By means of fast response piezoelectric pressure transducers and a high speed data acquisition system rapid dynamic pressures were recorded whenever a shock event occurred. Moreover, by means of top-mounted diaphragm pressure transducers the speed of liquid slugs propagating along the pipe was determined. The occurrence of condensation induced water hammer depended upon three major variables; namely, (1) initial liquid depth, (2) liquid temperature, and (3) mass flow rate of warm gas. For given liquid depth and temperature, once the warm gas threshold conditions were exceeded shocks occurred with greater magnitude as the mass flow rate of gas input was increased. With adequate subcooling condensation-induced water hammer occurred for initial liquid depths ranging from 25% to 95% of internal pipe diameter. The threshold mass flow rate of warm gas necessary to initiate water hammer was greater as the initial liquid depth was lowered. Based upon experimental results obtained from four pressure transducers located on the top of the test pipe conditions corresponding to bridging were ascertained. For various initial liquid depths the onset of instability from stratified flow to bridging was correlated with the Taitel-Dukler instability criterion. (author)
Design of a collector shape for uniform flow distribution in microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddique, Ayyaz; Agrawal, Amit; Saha, Sandip K; Medhi, Bhaskar J; Singh, Anugrah
2017-01-01
The focus of this study is the design of a collector with the objective of achieving uniform flow in multiple parallel microchannels. This objective is achieved by understanding the limitations of current designs and a novel design is proposed, which is further carefully optimized. The existing collector shape considered is U-type, which is investigated numerically. The creation of a stagnation zone, growth of a boundary layer along the collector wall and low/high velocity zones in the collector are identified as the prime causes of flow maldistribution. A novel design, a dumbbell shape collector, is proposed to overcome the limitations of the earlier designs. The dumbbell shape is evaluated quantitatively and is found to perform better than all existing shapes. This dumbbell shape collector provides a uniform flow distribution with less than 0.4% relative difference from the average flow rate in different channels, which is substantially better than existing collectors with 2.3% relative difference from the average flow rate for Re ch = 32. The uniformity is further confirmed using micro-particle image velocimetry measurements. The dumbbell shape collector is generalized and optimized to cater to heat sinks of different dimensions and to broaden its applicability in both micro and macro dimensions. (paper)
Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan
2005-01-01
are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ababou, R.
1991-08-01
This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs
Stratified charge rotary engine - Internal flow studies at the MSU engine research laboratory
Hamady, F.; Kosterman, J.; Chouinard, E.; Somerton, C.; Schock, H.; Chun, K.; Hicks, Y.
1989-01-01
High-speed visualization and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) systems consisting of a 40-watt copper vapor laser, mirrors, cylindrical lenses, a high speed camera, a synchronization timing system, and a particle generator were developed for the study of the fuel spray-air mixing flow characteristics within the combustion chamber of a motored rotary engine. The laser beam is focused down to a sheet approximately 1 mm thick, passing through the combustion chamber and illuminates smoke particles entrained in the intake air. The light scattered off the particles is recorded by a high speed rotating prism camera. Movies are made showing the air flow within the combustion chamber. The results of a movie showing the development of a high-speed (100 Hz) high-pressure (68.94 MPa, 10,000 psi) fuel jet are also discussed. The visualization system is synchronized so that a pulse generated by the camera triggers the laser's thyratron.
Suppression of stratified explosive interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics
1998-01-01
Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebihara, Ken-ichi
2005-03-01
paper, first, the validity and the usefulness of the lattice-gas model and the lattice Boltzmann method for the numerical analysis of two-phase flow are examined by applying the two-phase fluid model of these methods to the phenomena of the falling droplet and the rising bubble. Next, on the basis of the examination of its numerical results, the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, which is the fundamental and important flow and often observed in a practical situation, is simulated by use of the HCZ model that is the two-phase fluid model of the lattice Boltzmann method proposed by He, Chen, and Zhang. The HCZ model can simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instability which shows complex interfacial phenomena. It is verified that the simulated interfacial growth is subject to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability theory and can reproduce the curve concerning the interfacial growth of the theoretical flow regime map proposed by Taitel and Dukler (T-D map). Furthermore, it is found that the interfacial growth in the channel with the narrow width needs more superficial flow velocity than that given by the T-D map. In the simulation of the droplet generation in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, it is verified that the HCZ model can also reproduce the experimental correlation proposed by Ishii and Grolmes within the range of the distribution of experimental data. According to the results of this report, it is found that the HCZ model of the lattice Boltzmann method can simulate complex interfacial phenomena in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow and reproduce the theoretical flow regime map and the experimental correlation. Considering the application of this model to more practical two-phase flow, it is also seen that this model has some problems which have to be solved, such as practical density difference, thermal influence and so on. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Kyung Youn; Chung, Soon Il; Kim, Sin
2008-01-01
In this paper, we estimate a time-varying interfacial boundary in stratified flows of two immiscible liquids using electrical resistance tomography. The interfacial boundary is approximated with front points spaced discretely along the interface. The design variables to be estimated are the locations of the front points, which are varying with the moving interface. The inverse problem is treated as a stochastic nonlinear state estimation problem with the nonstationary phase boundary (state) being estimated with the aid of an unscented Kalman filter. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of an unscented Kalman filter. Specifically, a detailed analysis has been done on the effect of the number of front points and contrast ratio on the reconstruction performance. The reconstruction results show that an unscented Kalman filter is better suited for estimation in comparison to the conventional extended Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevens, G.F.; Elliott, D.F.; Wood, R.W.
1965-05-01
Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)
Large Eddy and Interface Simulation (LEIS) of liquid entrainment in turbulent stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, S.; Buongiorno, J.; Lakehal, D.
2011-01-01
Dryout of the liquid film on the fuel rods in BWR fuel assemblies leads to an abrupt decrease in heat transfer coefficient and can result in fuel failure. The process of mechanical mass transfer from the continuous liquid field into the continuous vapor field along the liquid-vapor interface is called entrainment and is the dominant depletion mechanism for the liquid film in annular flow. Using interface tracking methods combined with a Large Eddy Simulation approach, implemented in the Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) code TransAT®, we are studying entrainment phenomena in BWR fuel assemblies. In this paper we report on the CMFD simulation approaches and the current validation effort for the code. (author)
The Effect of Uniform Background Flow on Vortex Ring Formation and Pinch-off
Krueger, Paul S.; Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza
2002-11-01
Experimental investigations of vortex ring formation are extended to include the effects of a uniform background flow, in a manner relevant to the locomotion of aquatic animals utilizing jet propulsion. Gharib et. al. [J. Fluid Mech. 360, 121 (1998)] generated vortex rings using a piston/cylinder apparatus with relatively large discharge times to demonstrate that the vortex ring at the leading edge of the jet attains its maximum circulation at a piston stroke-to-diameter ratio L/D of 4. This "formation number" is robust over a range of piston motions and cylinder boundary conditions, and can be explained in terms of the Kelvin-Benjamin variational principle. To determine the effect of background flow on formation number and pinch-off of the leading vortex ring, uniform co-flow is established in a large annulus surrounding the vortex generator. The ratio of co-flow velocity to piston velocity is varied between 0 and 1. In addition, the co-flow is initiated at times both before and after the start of vortex ring formation. We present results for stroke ratios L/D = 2 and L/D = 8, in order to discern effects of the co-flow on the leading vortex ring in isolation and in the presence of a trailing jet.
CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.
1994-01-01
The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities
Flow rate of transport network controls uniform metabolite supply to tissue.
Meigel, Felix J; Alim, Karen
2018-05-01
Life and functioning of higher organisms depends on the continuous supply of metabolites to tissues and organs. What are the requirements on the transport network pervading a tissue to provide a uniform supply of nutrients, minerals or hormones? To theoretically answer this question, we present an analytical scaling argument and numerical simulations on how flow dynamics and network architecture control active spread and uniform supply of metabolites by studying the example of xylem vessels in plants. We identify the fluid inflow rate as the key factor for uniform supply. While at low inflow rates metabolites are already exhausted close to flow inlets, too high inflow flushes metabolites through the network and deprives tissue close to inlets of supply. In between these two regimes, there exists an optimal inflow rate that yields a uniform supply of metabolites. We determine this optimal inflow analytically in quantitative agreement with numerical results. Optimizing network architecture by reducing the supply variance over all network tubes, we identify patterns of tube dilation or contraction that compensate sub-optimal supply for the case of too low or too high inflow rate. © 2018 The Authors.
Research of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners for measuring flow rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Duanzhong; Zhong Dezhen; Cai Zhuti
1989-01-01
Standard throttling flowmeters are widely used in process flow rate measurement. Enough upstream and downstream straight pipe are necessary for it. If not, the error will be increased. Mounting straightener is an effective way for solving this problem. Advantages of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners studied by authors are good results for straighting, simple in Structure, convenient for mounting and low cost. So it can be popularized in many applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe
2012-01-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at different test facilities with horizontal test sections in order to provide an experimental database for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These channels were designed with rectangular cross-sections to enable optimal observation conditions for the application of optical measurement techniques. Consequently, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera, delivering data with highresolution in space and time as needed for CFD code validation. Generic investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two air/water channels made of acrylic glass. Divers preliminary experiments were conducted with various measuring systems in a test section mounted between two separators. The second test facility, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), is dedicated to co-current flow investigations. The hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was studied in this closed channel. Moreover, the instable wave growth leading to slug flow was investigated from the test section inlet. For quantitative analysis of the optical measurements, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames, allowing statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. The third test apparatus was installed in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility in order to be operated at reactor typical conditions under pressure equilibrium with the vessel atmosphere. The test section representing a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor (PWR) scaled at 1:3 is equipped with large glass side walls in the region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber to allow visual observations. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and water at
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe
2012-08-22
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at different test facilities with horizontal test sections in order to provide an experimental database for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These channels were designed with rectangular cross-sections to enable optimal observation conditions for the application of optical measurement techniques. Consequently, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera, delivering data with highresolution in space and time as needed for CFD code validation. Generic investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two air/water channels made of acrylic glass. Divers preliminary experiments were conducted with various measuring systems in a test section mounted between two separators. The second test facility, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), is dedicated to co-current flow investigations. The hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was studied in this closed channel. Moreover, the instable wave growth leading to slug flow was investigated from the test section inlet. For quantitative analysis of the optical measurements, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames, allowing statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. The third test apparatus was installed in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility in order to be operated at reactor typical conditions under pressure equilibrium with the vessel atmosphere. The test section representing a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor (PWR) scaled at 1:3 is equipped with large glass side walls in the region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber to allow visual observations. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and water at
Suas-David, Nicolas; Thawoos, Shameemah; Broderick, Bernadette M.; Suits, Arthur
2017-06-01
The current CPUF (Chirped Pulse Uniform Flow) and the new UF-CRDS (Uniform Flow Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy) setups relie mostly on the production of a good quality supersonic uniform flow. A supersonic uniform flow is produced by expanding a gas through a Laval nozzle - similar to the nozzles used in aeronautics - linked to a vacuum chamber. The expansion is characterized by an isentropic core where constant very low kinetic temperature (down to 20K) and constant density are observed. The relatively large diameter of the isentropic core associated with homogeneous thermodynamic conditions makes it a relevant tool for low temperature spectroscopy. On the other hand, the length along the axis of the flow of this core (could be longer than 50cm) allows kinetic studies which is one of the main interest of this setup (CRESU technique. The formation of a uniform flow requires an extreme accuracy in the design of the shape of the nozzle for a set of defined temperature/density. The design is based on a Matlab program which retrieves the shape of the isentropic core according to the method of characteristics prior to calculate the thickness of the boundary layer. Two different approaches are used to test the viability of a new nozzle derived from the program. First, a computational fluid dynamic software (OpenFOAM) models the distribution of the thermodynamic properties of the expansion. Then, fabricated nozzles using 3-D printing are tested based on Pitot measurements and spectroscopic analyses. I will present comparisons of simulation and measured performance for a range of nozzles. We will see how the high level of accuracy of numerical simulations provides a deeper knowledge of the experimental conditions. J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, J. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. Barrat Park, R. W. Filed and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202, (2014). I. Sims, J. L. Queffelec, A. Defrance, C. Rebrion-Rowe, D. Travers, P. Bocherel, B. Rowe, I. W. Smith
Prevention of Bridge Scour with Non-uniform Circular Piers Plane under Steady Flows
Chen, Hsing-Ting; Wang, Chuan-Yi
2017-04-01
River bed scour and deposit variation extremely severe because of most of rivers are steep and rapid flows, and river discharge extremely unstable and highly unsteady during different seasons in Taiwan. In addition to the obstruction of piers foundation, it causes local scour and threatens the safety of bridges. In the past, riprap, wire gabion or wrap pier works were adopted as the protections of piers foundation, but there were no effectual outcomes. The events of break off piers still happen sometimes. For example, typhoon Kalmaegi (2008) and Morakot (2009) caused heavy damages on Ho-Fon bridge in the Da-jia river and Shuang-Yuan bridge in the Kao-Ping river, respectively. Accordingly, to understand the piers scour system and propose an appropriate protection of piers foundation becomes an important topic for this study currently. This research improves the protection works of the existing uniform bridge pier (diameter D) to ensure the safety of the bridge. The non-uniform plane of circular piers (diameter D*) are placed on the top of a bridge pier foundation to reduce the down flow impacting energy and scour by its' surface roughness characteristics. This study utilize hydraulic models to simulate local scour depth and scour depth change with time for non-uniform pier diameter ratio D/D* of 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7 and 0.8, and different type pier and initial bed level (Y) relative under the foundation top elevation under steady flows of V/Vc=0.95,0.80 and 0.65. The research results show that the scour depth increases with an increase of flow intensity (V/Vc) under different types of steady flow hydrographs. The scour depth decreases with increase of initial bed level (Y=+0.2D*,0D*and -0.2D*) relative under the foundation top elevation of the different type pier. The maximum scour depth occurred in the front of the pier for all conditions. Because of the scouring retardation by the non-uniform plane of foundation, the scour depth is reduced for the un-exposed bridge
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šimkanin, Ján; Brestenský, J.; Ševčík, S.
2006-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 645-661 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/04/P182 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0212/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : non-uniform stratification of the Earth's core * linear magnetoconvection * diffusive hydromagnetic instabilities Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenjeres, Sasa
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery
Liu, Tianyang; Chan, Hiu Ning; Grimshaw, Roger; Chow, Kwok Wing
2017-11-01
The spatial structure of small disturbances in stratified flows without background shear, usually named the `Taylor-Goldstein equation', is studied by employing the Boussinesq approximation (variation in density ignored except in the buoyancy). Analytical solutions are derived for special wavenumbers when the Brunt-Väisälä frequency is quadratic in hyperbolic secant, by comparison with coupled systems of nonlinear Schrödinger equations intensively studied in the literature. Cases of coupled Schrödinger equations with four, five and six components are utilized as concrete examples. Dispersion curves for arbitrary wavenumbers are obtained numerically. The computations of the group velocity, second harmonic, induced mean flow, and the second derivative of the angular frequency can all be facilitated by these exact linear eigenfunctions of the Taylor-Goldstein equation in terms of hyperbolic function, leading to a cubic Schrödinger equation for the evolution of a wavepacket. The occurrence of internal rogue waves can be predicted if the dispersion and cubic nonlinearity terms of the Schrödinger equations are of the same sign. Partial financial support has been provided by the Research Grants Council contract HKU 17200815.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, P.; Mukhopadyay, D.; Lele, H.G.; Gupta, S.K.
2000-08-01
Whether in process industries or nuclear industries, we come across lot of horizontal components, where two-phase or two-component fluids exist in normal or abnormal working conditions. Situations which lead to separation of the phases sees vapour pull through or liquid entrainment phenomena occurring when fluid discharges from horizontal components to the off - take branches. In order to capture the phenomena and applying it to the Indian PHWR during LOCA, a program 'BFQ' has been developed using various models for different fluids and conditions. These models have been validated with various experimental data available in the literature. Smoglie's model has been found to comply with most of the experiments even though it has been developed for air-water system. A modification of the model also been successfully used for feeders located at 45 deg. The result has been well validated with Hassan (1997) experiment for the same configuration. For a typical case of LOCA, RELAP4/MOD6, a widely used Homogenous model for simulating systems, is found to over predict the off-take flow quality from Header under stratified flow condition. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad [Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Hosseini, Mohammad
2015-01-01
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Feng; Yang Jun; Ye Suisheng
2000-01-01
The filter house structure is designed using similarity laws showing that the filter house structure causes a non-uniform flow field. The flow field is also measured experimentally. The air flow field is analyzed for different conditions. The results show that: (1) The HEPA filters affect the dispersion of the air flow; (2) The appropriate angle for air input to the rectifier satisfies the requirements for uniform air flow for the test conditions; (3) The rectifier has little influence on the air flow for operating conditions
Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team
2016-11-01
We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.
Complete all-atom hydrodynamics of protein unfolding in uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Guan M; Sandberg, William C
2010-01-01
The unfolding dynamics of a protein, ubiquitin, pinned in several uniform flows, was studied at low and high flow rates in an all-atom style through a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach with explicit water molecules included. Atomic hydrodynamic force components on individual amino acids, as a function of time, due to the collisional interactions with the flowing water molecules were calculated explicitly. The protein conformational change in response to those time-varying forces was computed completely at the high flow rate up to nanosecond until the fully stretched state was reached. The end-to-end length of the single ubiquitin protein molecule at high flow rate is smoothly increasing. The step-like jumps between metastable states that describe the μm ms -1 scale force pulling experiments conducted on polyubiquitins at low flow rates, are not seen at the high flow speeds necessary to computationally probe the ns nm -1 scale regime. No unfolding was observed in the low flow rate atomic computations at nanosecond scale while partial and complete unfolding was observed in the coarse-grained low flow rate computations at microsecond scale. Examination of the all-atom computation of the time variation of the hydrodynamic forces on, and the velocity components of, the protein molecule unveiled to some extent the details of the complexity of the hydrodynamic friction variation in the nm ns -1 regime of high rate flow-driven protein unfolding. This demonstrates quantitatively that all-atom computations are more suitable than the Langevin equation or Brownian dynamics methods for probing the interaction dynamics and resulting conformational dynamics of protein unfolding in strong flows on nm ns -1 time/length scales while the reverse is true for investigation of slow, diffusively driven systems.
Fully developed liquid-metal flow in multiple rectangular ducts in a strong uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molokov, S.
1993-01-01
Fully developed liquid-metal flow in a straight rectangular duct with thin conducting walls is investigated. The duct is divided into a number of rectangular channels by electrically conducting dividing walls. A strong uniform magnetic field is applied parallel to the outer side walls and dividing walls and perpendicular to the top and the bottom walls. The analysis of the flow is performed by means of matched asymptotics at large values of the Hartmann number M. The asymptotic solution obtained is valid for arbitrary wall conductance ratio of the side walls and dividing walls, provided the top and bottom walls are much better conductors than the Hartmann layers. The influence of the Hartmann number, wall conductance ratio, number of channels and duct geometry on pressure losses and flow distribution is investigated. If the Hartmann number is high, the volume flux is carried by the core, occupying the bulk of the fluid and by thin layers with thickness of order M -1/2 . In some of the layers, however, the flow is reversed. As the number of channels increases the flow in the channels close to the centre approaches a Hartmann-type flow with no jets at the side walls. Estimation of pressure-drop increase in radial ducts of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket with respect to flow in a single duct with walls of the same wall conductance ratio gives an upper limit of 30%. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Three-dimensional numerical study of flow and heat transfer from a cube placed in a uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, A.K.
2006-01-01
The fluid flow and heat transfer from a stationary cube placed in a uniform flow is studied numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes and energy equations are solved using higher order temporal and spatial discretizations. Computations are carried out for a Reynolds number range of 50-400. At Re = 218, the symmetry seen at Re = 216 breaks down in one of the orthogonal planes while remains symmetric on the other thus showing a planar symmetry. The flow experiences a Hopf bifurcation at a Reynolds number between 265 and 270 and becomes unsteady. The thermal field also shows all the transitions same as those of flow transitions. The drag coefficient decreases while the heat transfer shows an increasing trend with Reynolds number. The transition from a steady to an unsteady flow does not show any significant increase in the heat transfer. Both the flow and thermal fields show multiple frequencies at high Reynolds number and the number of frequencies increases with the increase in Reynolds number. The instantaneous flow and temperature field are seen to deviate from planar symmetry at Re = 400
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-02-01
Ultrasonic flow meter with non-invasive no-moving-parts construction has good prospective application for space on-orbit fluid gauging. In traditional pulse transit time flow meter, inconsistency of ultrasonic transducers leads to measurement error and plane wave theory, bases of transit time flow meter, is valuable only for low-frequency wave propagation in inviscid fluid and will lose feasibility when fluid viscosity is considered. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamics of viscous fluid, wave propagation with uniform flow profile is mathematically formulated and a novel solution for viscous fluid using potential theory is firstly presented. Then a novel design methodology of continuous ultrasonic flow meter is proposed, where high measurement rangeability and accuracy are guaranteed individually by solving the integral ambiguity using multi-tone wide laning strategy and the fractional phase shift using phase lock loop tracking method. A comparison with transit time ultrasonic flow meter shows the advantage of proposed methodology. In the end, parametric analysis of viscosity on wave propagation and ultrasonic flow meter is compressively investigated. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf, E-mail: hadiyan.y.kuntoro@mail.ugm.ac.id; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Deendarlianto, E-mail: deendarlianto@ugm.ac.id [Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K-1A Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Hudaya, Akhmad Zidni; Dinaryanto, Okto [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)
2016-06-03
Due to the importance of the two-phase flow researches for the industrial safety analysis, many researchers developed various methods and techniques to study the two-phase flow phenomena on the industrial cases, such as in the chemical, petroleum and nuclear industries cases. One of the developing methods and techniques is image processing technique. This technique is widely used in the two-phase flow researches due to the non-intrusive capability to process a lot of visualization data which are contain many complexities. Moreover, this technique allows to capture direct-visual information data of the flow which are difficult to be captured by other methods and techniques. The main objective of this paper is to present an improved algorithm of image processing technique from the preceding algorithm for the stratified flow cases. The present algorithm can measure the film thickness (h{sub L}) of stratified flow as well as the geometrical properties of the interfacial waves with lower processing time and random-access memory (RAM) usage than the preceding algorithm. Also, the measurement results are aimed to develop a high quality database of stratified flow which is scanty. In the present work, the measurement results had a satisfactory agreement with the previous works.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ali Abbas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Cpuf: Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
Suits, Arthur; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Joalland, Baptiste; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian
2015-06-01
Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy has stimulated a resurgence of interest in rotational spectroscopy owing to the dramatic reduction in spectral acquisition time it enjoys when compared to cavity-based instruments. This suggests that it might be possible to adapt the method to study chemical reaction dynamics and even chemical kinetics using rotational spectroscopy. The great advantage of this would be clear, quantifiable spectroscopic signatures for polyatomic products as well as the possibility to identify and characterize new radical reaction products and transient intermediates. To achieve this, however, several conditions must be met: 1) products must be thermalized at low temperature to maximize the population difference needed to achieve adequate signal levels and to permit product quantification based on the rotational line strength; 2) a large density and volume of reaction products is also needed to achieve adequate signal levels; and 3) for kinetics studies, a uniform density and temperature is needed throughout the course of the reaction. These conditions are all happily met by the uniform supersonic flow produced from a Laval nozzle expansion. In collaboration with the Field group at MIT we have developed a new instrument we term a CPUF (Chirped-pulse/Uniform Flow) spectrometer in which we can study reaction dynamics, photochemistry and kinetics using broadband microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy as a product probe. We will illustrate the performance of the system with a few examples of photodissociation and reaction dynamics, and also discuss a number of challenges unique to the application of chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in the collisional environment of the flow. Future directions and opportunities for application of CPUF will also be explored.
Liquid metal flow in a large-radius elbow with a uniform magnetic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, T.J.; Walker, J.S.
1988-07-01
This paper treats the liquid-metal flow in an elbow between two straight, rectangular ducts. There is a uniform magnetic field in the plane of the elbow. The duct has thin, electrically conducting walls. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Solutions for the velocity at each cross section of the elbow and for the pressure drop due to three-dimensional effects are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs
Preparation and flow cytometry of uniform silica-fluorescent dye microspheres.
Bele, Marjan; Siiman, Olavi; Matijević, Egon
2002-10-15
Uniform fluorescent silica-dye microspheres have been prepared by coating preformed monodispersed silica particles with silica layers containing rhodamine 6G or acridine orange. The resulting dispersions exhibit intense fluorescent emission between 500 and 600 nm, over a broad excitation wavelength range of 460 to 550 nm, even with exceedingly small amounts of dyes incorporated into the silica particles (10-30 ppm, expressed as weight of dye relative to weight of dry particles). The fluorescent particles can be prepared in micrometer diameters suitable for analyses using flow cytometry with 488-nm laser excitation.
Compressor Performance Scaling in the Presence of Non-Uniform Flow
Hill, David Jarrod
Fuselage-embedded engines in future aircraft will see increased flow distortions due to the ingestion of airframe boundary layers. This reduces the required propulsive power compared to podded engines. Inlet flow distortions mean that localized regions of flow within the fan and first stage compressor are operating at off-design conditions. It is important to weigh the benefit of increased vehicle propulsive efficiency against the resultant reduction in engine efficiency. High computational cost has limited most past research to single distortion studies. The objective of this thesis is to extract scaling laws for transonic compressor performance in the presence of various distortion patterns and intensities. The machine studied is the NASA R67 transonic compressor. Volumetric source terms are used to model rotor and stator blade rows. The modelling approach is an innovative combination of existing flow turning and loss models, combined with a compressible flow correction. This approach allows for a steady calculation to capture distortion transfer; as a result, the computational cost is reduced by two orders of magnitude. At peak efficiency, the rotor work coefficient and isentropic efficiency are matched within 1.4% of previously published experimental results. A key finding of this thesis is that, in non-uniform flow, the state-of-the-art loss model employed is unable to capture the impact of variations in local flow coefficient, limiting the analysis of local entropy generation. New insight explains the mechanism governing the interaction between a total temperature distortion and a compressor rotor. A parametric study comprising 16 inlet distortions reveals that for total temperature distortions, upstream flow redistribution and rotor diffusion factor changes are shown to scale linearly with distortion severity. Linear diffusion factor scaling does not hold true for total pressure distortions. For combined total temperature and total pressure distortions, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hee Reyoung; Park, Jon Ho; Kim, Jong Man; Nam, Ho Yoon; Choi, Jong Hyun
2001-01-01
Magnetic field has many effects on the hydraulic pressure drop of fluids with high electrical conductivity. The theoretical solution about MHD pressure drop is sought for the uniform current density model with simplified physical geometry. Using the MHD equation in the rectangular duct of the sodium liquid flow under a transverse magnetic field, the electrical potential is sought in terms of the duct geometry and the electrical parameters of the liquid metal and duct material. By the product of the induced current inside the liquid metal and transverse magnetic field, the pressure gradients is found as a function of the duct size and the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal. The theoretically predicted pressure drop is compared with experimental results on the change of flow velocity and magnetic flux density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temperley, D.J.
1976-01-01
In this paper we consider fully developed, laminar, unidirectional flow of uniformly conducting, incompressible fluid through a rectangular duct of uniform cross-section. An externally applied magnetic field acts parallel to one pair of opposite walls and induced velocity and magnetic fields are generated in a direction parallel to the axis of the duct. The governing equations and boundary conditions for the latter fields are introduced and study is then concentrated on the special case of a duct having all walls non-conducting. For values of the Hartmann number M>>1, classical asymptotic analysis reveals the leading terms in the expansions of the induced fields in all key regions, with the exception of certain boundary layers near the corners of the duct. The order of magnitude of the affect of the latter layers on the flow-rate is discussed and closed-form solutions are obtained for the induced fields near the corners of the duct. Attempts were made to formulate a concise Principle of Minimum Singularity to enable the correct choice of eigen functions for the various field components in the boundary layers on the walls parallel to the applied field. It was found, however, that these components are best found by taking the outer expansion of the closed-form solution in those boundary-layers near the corners of the duct where classical asymptotic analysis is not applicable. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho
2011-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed
Modification of Turbulence Structures in a Channel Flow by Uniform Magnetic Fluxes
Lee, D.; Choi, H.; Kim, J.
1997-11-01
Effects of electromagnetic forcing on the near-wall turbulence are investigated by applying a uniform magnetic flux in a turbulent channel flow in the streamwise and spanwise directions, respectively. The base flow is a fully developed turbulent channel flow and the direct numerical simulation technique is used. The electromagnetic force induced from the magnetic fluxes reduces the intensity of the wall-layer structures and thus drag is significantly reduced. The wall-normal and spanwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stress decrease with the increased magnetic flux in both directions. The streamwise velocity fluctuations increase with the streamwise magnetic flux, whereas they decrease with the spanwise magnetic flux. It is also shown that the spanwise magnetic flux is much more effective than the streamwise magnetic flux in reducing the skin-friction drag. Instantaneous Lorentz force vectors show that the flow motions by the near-wall vortices are directly inhibited by the spanwise magnetic flux, while they are less effectively inhibited by the streamwise magnetic flux. Other turbulence statistics that reveal the effects of the applied magnetic forcing will be presented. ^* Supported by KOSEF Contract No. 965-1008-003-2 and ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-0352.
Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin
2014-01-01
The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z d /r p = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2017-04-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuyuki Nishi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hanczyc, Martin; Hoyland, James
2016-01-01
are analyzed in situ based on optical signal intensities. By controlling the hydrodynamic flow focusing, uniform droplets of sizes between 100 μm and 300 μm are created with precise size control. Cross-flow shearing allows one to divide these droplets into anything from 2 to 9 individual droplets, depending...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim
2009-12-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced
Stability of low aspect ratio inverted flags and rods in a uniform flow
Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Sader, John E.; Gharib, Morteza
2016-11-01
Cantilevered elastic plates and rods in an inverted configuration, where the leading edge is free to move and the trailing edge is clamped, undergo complex dynamics when subjected to a uniform flow. The stability of low aspect ratio inverted plates and rods is theoretically examined, showing that it is markedly different from that of their large aspect ratio counterpart. In the limit of zero aspect ratio, the undeflected equilibrium position is found to be stable for all wind speeds. A saddle-node bifurcation emerges at finite wind speed, giving rise to a strongly deflected stable and a weakly deflected unstable equilibria. This theory is compared to experimental measurements, where good agreement is found. This research was supported by a Grant of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Australian Research Council Grants scheme and a "la Caixa" Fellowship Grant for Post-Graduate Studies of "la Caixa" Banking Foundation.
Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress
Paterson, C.
2014-09-14
© 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.
Impacts of Traffic Tidal Flow on Pollutant Dispersion in a Non-Uniform Urban Street Canyon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tingzhen Ming
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional geometrical model was established based on a section of street canyons in the 2nd Ring Road of Wuhan, China, and a mathematical model describing the fluid flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon was developed. The effect of traffic tidal flow was investigated based on the measurement results of the passing vehicles as the pollution source of the CFD method and on the spatial distribution of pollutants under various ambient crosswinds. Numerical investigation results indicated that: (i in this three-dimensional asymmetrical shallow street canyon, if the pollution source followed a non-uniform distribution due to the traffic tidal flow and the wind flow was perpendicular to the street, a leeward side source intensity stronger than the windward side intensity would cause an expansion of the pollution space even if the total source in the street is equal. When the ambient wind speed is 3 m/s, the pollutant source intensity near the leeward side that is stronger than that near the windward side (R = 2, R = 3, and R = 5 leads to an increased average concentration of CO at pedestrian breathing height by 26%, 37%, and 41%, respectively. (R is the ratio parameter of the left side pollution source and the right side pollution source; (ii However, this feature will become less significant with increasing wind speeds and changes of wind direction; (iii the pollution source intensity exerted a decisive influence on the pollutant level in the street canyon. With the decrease of the pollution source intensity, the pollutant concentration decreased proportionally.
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)
2009-09-15
A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)
1994-10-10
support plant and animal life . The ocean is stably stratified, which acts to inhibit vertical mixing. Munk (1966) has show that a basin-averaged...fall int a range specified batwoexi L,., wid Lr.+Ad. For each individual profile which contains uiversions , rq.2 can be used to obtain the empirical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Farooq
Full Text Available This article studies MHD double stratified stagnation point flow of Carreau fluid towards a non linear stretchable surface with radiation. Features of heat and mass transfer are evaluated by using convective boundary conditions. Resulting nonlinear problems are solved and studied for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. Heat and mass transfer rates in addition to skin friction are discussed. Besides this for the verification of the present findings, the results of presented analysis have been compared with the available works in particular situations and reasonable agreement is noted. Keywords: Convective boundary condition, Thermal radiation, Double stratification, Stagnation point flow
Matveev, V. N.; Baturin, O. V.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Popov, G. M.
2017-01-01
Circumferential nonuniformity of gas flow is one of the main problems in the gas turbine engine. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity appears near the annular frame located in the flow passage of the engine. The presence of circumferential nonuniformity leads to the increased dynamic stresses in the blade rows and the blade damage. The goal of this research was to find the ways of the flow non-uniformity reduction, which would not require a fundamental changing of the engine design. A new method for reducing the circumferential nonuniformity of the gas flow was proposed that allows the prediction of the pressure peak values of the rotor blades without computationally expensive CFD calculations.
Feng Sheng Qin; LianShouLiu
2002-01-01
The non-uniform longitudinal flow model (NUFM) proposed recently is extended to include also the transverse flow. The resulting longitudinally non-uniform collective expansion model (NUCEM) is applied to the calculation of rapidity distribution of kaons, lambdas and protons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at CERN-SPS energies. The model results are compared with the 200 A GeV/c S-S and 158 A GeV/c Pb-Pb collision data. The central dips observed in experiments are reproduced in a natural way. It is found that the depth of the central dip depends on the magnitude of the parameter e and the mass of produced particles, i.e. the non-uniformity of the longitudinal flow which is described by the parameter e determines the depth of the central dip for produced particles. Comparing with one-dimensional non-uniform longitudinal flow model, the rapidity distribution of lighter strange particle kaon also shows a dip due to the effect of transverse flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingwei; Zhou, Linglan; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Hong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We developed a model based on homogeneous flow model to analyze two-phase flow instability in parallel channels. • The influence of axial non-uniform heating on the system stability has been investigated. • Influences of various factors on system instability under cosine heat flux have been studied. • The system under top-peaked heat flux is the most stable system. - Abstract: Two-phase flow instability in parallel channels heated by axial non-uniform heat flux has been theoretically studied in this paper. The system control equations of parallel channels were established based on the homogeneous flow model in two-phase region. Semi-implicit finite-difference scheme and staggered mesh method were used to discretize the equations, and the difference equations were solved by chasing method. Cosine, bottom-peaked and top-peaked heat fluxes were used to study the influence of non-uniform heating on two-phase flow instability of the parallel channels system. The marginal stability boundaries (MSB) of parallel channels and three-dimensional instability spaces (or instability reefs) under different heat flux conditions have been obtained. Compared with axial uniform heating, axial non-uniform heating will affect the system stability. Cosine and bottom-peaked heat fluxes can destabilize the system stability in high inlet subcooling region, while the opposite effect can be found in low inlet subcooling region. However, top-peaked heat flux can enhance the system stability in the whole region. In addition, for cosine heat flux, increasing the system pressure or inlet resistance coefficient can strengthen the system stability, and increasing the heating power will destabilize the system stability. The influence of inlet subcooling number on the system stability is multi-valued under cosine heat flux
Rainfall simulators - innovations seeking rainfall uniformity and automatic flow rate measurements
Bauer, Miroslav; Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef
2016-04-01
Field rainfall simulators are used worldwide for many experimental purposes, such as runoff generation and soil erosion research. At CTU in Prague a laboratory simulator with swinging nozzles VeeJet has been operated since 2001. Since 2012 an additional terrain simulator is being used with 4 fixed FullJet 40WSQ nozzles with 2,4 m spacing and operating over two simultaneously sprinkled experimental plots sizing 8x2 and 1x1 m. In parallel to other research projects a specific problem was solved: improving rainfall spatial uniformity and overall intensity and surface runoff measurements. These fundamental variables significantly affect investigated processes as well as resulting water balance of the plot, therefore they need to be determined as accurately as possible. Although the original nozzles setting produced (commonly used) Christiansen uniformity index CU over 80 %, detailed measurements proved this index insufficient and showed many unrequired rainfall extremes within the plot. Moreover the number of rainfall intensity scenarios was limited and some of them required problematic multi-pressure operation of the water distribution system. Therefore the simulator was subjected to many substantial changes in 2015. Innovations ranged from pump intensification to control unit upgrade. As essential change was considered increase in number of nozzles to 9 in total and reducing their spacing to 1,2 m. However new uniformity measurements did not bring any significant improvement. Tested scenarios showed equal standard deviations of interpolated intensity rasters and equal or slightly lower CU index. Imperfections of sprinkling nozzles were found to be the limiting factor. Still many other benefits were brought with the new setup. Whole experimental plot 10x2 m is better covered with the rainfall while the water consumption is retained. Nozzles are triggered in triplets, which enables more rainfall intensity scenarios. Water distribution system is more stable due to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.B.; Sanitjai, S.; Ghosh, K.; Goldstein, R.J.
2012-01-01
Flow characteristics, around a short uniform-diameter circular cylinder in crossflow, are investigated experimentally. Extensive flow visualization using oil-lampblack and smoke-wire methods have been performed. Near-wake velocity measurements have been performed using a hotwire anemometer. Complex secondary flows are observed on and around the cylinder in crossflow. Multiple vortices are observed in the horseshoe vortex system near the cylinder–endwall junction. Based on this flow visualization and local mass transfer measurement results, a six-vortex secondary flow model has been proposed. - Highlights: ► Flow visualizations and velocity measurements for a short circular cylinder. ► Six vortices in the horseshoe vortex system upstream of the base of the cylinder. ► Cross-stream turbulence intensity profiles show a similarity in their shape.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or
Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress
Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.
2014-01-01
large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.
2001-01-01
An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mantovani
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of symmetric circulations of a rotating baroclinic flow, forced by a steady thermal wind and dissipated by Laplacian friction. The analysis is performed with numerical time-integration. Symmetric flows, vertically bound by horizontal walls and subject to either periodic or vertical wall lateral boundary conditions, are investigated in the region of parameter-space where unstable small amplitude modes evolve into stable stationary nonlinear solutions. The distribution of solutions in parameter-space is analysed up to the threshold of chaotic behaviour and the physical nature of the nonlinear interaction operating on the finite amplitude unstable modes is investigated. In particular, analysis of time-dependent energy-conversions allows understanding of the physical mechanisms operating from the initial phase of linear instability to the finite amplitude stable state. Vertical shear of the basic flow is shown to play a direct role in injecting energy into symmetric flow since the stage of linear growth. Dissipation proves essential not only in limiting the energy of linearly unstable modes, but also in selecting their dominant space-scales in the finite amplitude stage.
Fan, Yifan; Hunt, Julian; Yin, Shi; Li, Yuguo
2018-03-01
The mean and random components of the velocity field at very low wind speeds in a convective boundary layer (CBL) over a wide urban area are dominated by large eddy structures—either turbulent plumes or puffs. In the mixed layer at either side of the edges of urban areas, local mean recirculating flows are generated by sharp horizontal temperature gradients. These recirculation regions also control the mean shear profile and the bent-over plumes across the mixed layer, extending from the edge to the center of the urban area. A simplified physical model was proposed to calculate the mean flow speed at the edges of urban areas. Water tank experiments were carried out to study the mean recirculating flow and turbulent plume structures. The mean speed at urban edges was measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the plume structures were visualized by the thermalchromic liquid crystal (TLC) sheets. The horizontal velocity calculated by the physical model at the urban edge agrees well with that measured in the water tank experiments, with a root mean square of 0.03. The experiments also show that the pattern of the mean flow over the urban area changes significantly if the shape of the heated area changes or if the form of the heated urban area becomes sub-divided, for example by the creation of nearby but separated "satellite cities." The convective flow over the square urban area is characterized as the diagonal inflow at the lower level and the side outflow at the upper level. The outflow of the small city can be drawn into the inflow region of the large city in the "satellite city" case. A conceptual analysis shows how these changes significantly affect the patterns of dispersion of pollutants in different types of urban areas.
Liquid-metal flow through a thin-walled elbow in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, J.S.
1986-04-01
This paper presents analytical solutions for the liquid-metal flow through two straight pipes connected by a smooth elbow with the same inside radius. The pipes and the elbow lie in a plane which is perpendicular to a uniform, applied magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is assumed to be sufficiently strong that inertial and viscous effects are negligible. This assumption is appropriate for the liquid-lithium flow in the blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor, such as a tokamak. The pipes and the elbow have thin metal walls
Dokumaci, E.
1995-05-01
The theory of Zwikker and Kosten for axisymmetric wave propagation in circular pipes has been extended to include the effect of uniform mean flow. This formulation can be used in acoustical modelling of both the honeycomb pipes in monolithic catalytic converters and the standard pipes in internal combustion engine exhaust lines. The effects of mean flow on the propagation constants are shown. Two-port elements for acoustic modelling of the honeycomb structure of monolithic catalytic converters are developed and applied to the prediction of the transmission loss characteristics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyoshi, Koji, E-mail: miyoshi.koj@inss.co.jp; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Taisuke; Sugimoto, Katsumi
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Thermal hydraulics phenomena were discussed in a spray pipe of pressurizer. • Temperature fluctuation was investigated in a stratified steam-water two-phase. • Remarkable liquid temperature fluctuations were observed in the liquid layer. • The observed temperature fluctuations were caused by the internal gravity wave. • The temperature fluctuations decreased with increasing dissolved oxygen. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuation phenomena in a stratified steam-water two-phase flow in a horizontal rectangular duct, which simulate a pressurizer spray pipe of a pressurized water reactor, were studied experimentally. Vertical distributions of the temperature and the liquid velocity were measured with water of various dissolved oxygen concentrations. Large liquid temperature fluctuations were observed when the water was deaerated well and dissolved oxygen concentration was around 10 ppb. The large temperature fluctuations were not observed when the oxygen concentration was higher. It was shown that the observed temperature fluctuations were caused by the internal gravity wave since the Richardson numbers were larger than 0.25 and the temperature fluctuation frequencies were around the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies in the present experimental conditions. The temperature fluctuations decreased by the non-condensable gas since the non-condensable gas suppressed the condensation and the temperature difference in the liquid layer was small.
Study of the motion and deposition of micro particles in a vertical tube containing uniform gas flow
Abolpour, Bahador; Afsahi, M. Mehdi; Soltani Goharrizi, Ataallah; Azizkarimi, Mehdi
2017-12-01
In this study, effects of a gaseous jet, formed in a vertical tube containing a uniform gas flow, on the injected micro particles have been investigated. A CFD model has been developed to simulate the particle motion in the tube. This simulation is very close to the experimental data. The results show that, increasing the flow rate of carrier gas or decreasing the flow rate of surrounding gas increases the effect of gaseous jet and also increases trapping rate of the particles by the tube wall. The minimum and maximum residence times of particles approach together with increasing the size of solid particles. Particles larger than 60 μm have a certain and fixed residence time at different flow rates of the carrier or surrounding gas. About 40 μm particle size has minimal trapping by the tube wall at various experimental conditions.
Transient well flow in layered aquifer systems: the uniform well-face drawdown solution.
Hemker, C.J.
1999-01-01
Previously a hybrid analytical-numerical solution for the general problem of computing transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers was proposed by the author. The radial component of flow was treated analytically, while the finite-difference technique was used for the vertical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cutrim, J.H.; Kizivat, V.
1984-01-01
A simplified method to calculate the stresses in straight pipes due to laminar flow of a stratified medium with two different temperatures is presented. It is based on the equilibrium equations and conservative assumptions as usual in practice. Numerical results are obtained for the 'banana' and 'pera' modes of deformation due to thermal stratification; the former case appears to be most important. In order to be able to perform such a fatigue damage analysis in practice under several complex load conditions, an existing program for fatigue damage analysis was provided with more substantial details. All the assumptions crucial for the use of ASME code were retained. The inclusion of stresses due to stratifications in the fatigue damage analysis is completed through extension of ASME NB 3650. (Author) [pt
Seadawy, Aly R.
2017-12-01
In this study, we presented the problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface. The nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement is generated. We derived the coefficients of the nonlinear higher-order extended KdV equation in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The wave amplitude potential and the fluid pressure of the extended KdV equation in the form of solitary-wave solutions are deduced. We discussed and analyzed the stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making graphs of the exact solutions.
Effect of a uniform magnetic field on dielectric two-phase bubbly flows using the level set method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, M.R.; Hadidi, A.; Nimvari, M.E.
2012-01-01
In this study, the behavior of a single bubble in a dielectric viscous fluid under a uniform magnetic field has been simulated numerically using the Level Set method in two-phase bubbly flow. The two-phase bubbly flow was considered to be laminar and homogeneous. Deformation of the bubble was considered to be due to buoyancy and magnetic forces induced from the external applied magnetic field. A computer code was developed to solve the problem using the flow field, the interface of two phases, and the magnetic field. The Finite Volume method was applied using the SIMPLE algorithm to discretize the governing equations. Using this algorithm enables us to calculate the pressure parameter, which has been eliminated by previous researchers because of the complexity of the two-phase flow. The finite difference method was used to solve the magnetic field equation. The results outlined in the present study agree well with the existing experimental data and numerical results. These results show that the magnetic field affects and controls the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble. - Highlights: ►A bubble behavior was simulated numerically. ► A single bubble behavior was considered in a dielectric viscous fluid. ► A uniform magnetic field is used to study a bubble behavior. ► Deformation of the bubble was considered using the Level Set method. ► The magnetic field affects the shape, size, velocity, and location of the bubble.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Revathi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.
Haikarainen, Jussi; Rytilä, Paula; Roos, Sirkku; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Happonen, Anita
2017-01-01
Budesonide Easyhaler® multidose dry powder inhaler is approved for the treatment of asthma. Objectives were to determine the delivered dose (DD) uniformity of budesonide Easyhaler® in simulated real-world conditions and with different inspiration flow rates (IFRs). Three dose delivery studies were performed using 100, 200, and 400 µg/dose strengths of budesonide. Dose uniformity was assessed during in-use periods of 4-6 months after exposure to high temperature (30°C) and humidity (60% relative humidity) and after dropping and vibration testing. The influence of various IFRs (31, 43, and 54 L/min) on the DD was also investigated. Acceptable dose uniformity was declared when mean DD were within 80-120% of expected dose; all data reported descriptively. DD was constant (range: 93-109% of expected dose) at all in-use periods and after exposure to high temperature and humidity for a duration of up to 6 months. DD post-dropping and -vibration were unaffected (range 98-105% of expected dose). Similarly, DD was constant and within 10% of expected dose across all IFRs. Results indicate that budesonide Easyhaler® delivers consistently accurate doses in various real-life conditions. Budesonide Easyhaler® can be expected to consistently deliver a uniform dose and improve asthma control regardless of high temperature and humidity or varying IFR.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Sung-Deok; Chun, Se-Young; Yang, Sun-Kyu; Chung, Moon-Ki; Lashgari, Farbod
2000-01-01
A phenomenological model is proposed to predict dryout in uniformly heated vertical tubes. The major point of the study was refining the initial conditions at the onset of annular flow location that starts the liquid film dryout process. The void fraction at the onset of the annular flow location has been derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to-annular flow criterion with the help of the void-quality relationship. The thermodynamic equilibrium quality calculated through the iteration of flow quality using the profile-fit model to find the accurate starting point of the annular-flow in a tube. The present method was validated by worldwide data covering wide parametric ranges, a diameter of 5.1-37.5, exit quality over 10%, a flow rate of 183-5261 kg/m 2 -s and a system pressure of 0.5-17.7 MPa. The churn-to-annular flow transition criterion of Taitel et al.'s shows better prediction results than the other transition criteria. The present model improved the CHF prediction capability as a mean of 0.97 and root mean square error of 11% for the 3883 experimental data and extended the applicable range to the relatively low quality region. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nemati Hasan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chakraborty S.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid on a continuous moving flat plate in presence of uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. The flat plate which is continuously moving in its own plane with a constant speed is considered to be isothermally heated. Assuming the fluid viscosity as an inverse linear function of temperature, the nature of fluid velocity and temperature in presence of uniform magnetic field are shown for changing viscosity parameter at different layers of the medium. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting method. The coefficient of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are calculated at different viscosity parameter and Prandt l number. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya Krishnendu
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied. The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types: direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations, and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method. The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution. Moreover, the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafarmadar, S.; Taghavifar, Hadi; Taghavifar, Hamid; Navid, A.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Swirl ratio and uniformity index was assessed for six different engine designs. • Lower bowl-depth and higher bowl radius create higher squish and swirl. • The best design for power boost and emission control strategies were identified. • The flow dynamics are considered based on TKE and also the flow field vectors. - Abstract: Geometrical features of combustion chamber are important factors in subsequent engine’s combustion and emissions. Location and configuration of bowl in diesel engine has been the dynamic field of research especially for optimization procedure. This study considers six different engine patterns with outlined parameters. It follows that different designs are characterized with different swirl motions and tumble flows within the combustion chamber. It was determined that maximum and minimum peak swirl number pertains to “Design5” and “Design1” with 1.59 and 1.1 values, respectively. By using “Design5” case instead of “Design1” (baseline case), uniformity index increased by 25.83% whereby peak soot concentration was reduced over 46.7%. The bigger bowl radius (R1) makes higher swirl ratio and this eventually leads to lower soot emission. Lower bowl depth (T), however, gives way to stronger squish pressure and engine-out power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.
2002-01-01
We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data
Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.C.
1979-08-15
The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.
Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, S.C.
1979-01-01
The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Potsane
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Jens; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
The uniform flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1e5 is simulated in a three dimensional domain by means of the newly developed Self-induced angular Moment Method, SMoM, turbulence model. The global force coefficients, Strouhal number, pressure distributions and wall shear stress...... distributions are compared to experimental findings reported in literature. The SMoM turbulence model is found to provide maximum, minimum and time-mean pressure coefficient distributions in very good agreement with experimental findings....
Flow of a Newtonian fluid in a non-uniform wavy and permeable tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tesfahun Berhane
2017-10-01
equations of motion are linearized by perturbation method by assuming ? (ratio of inlet width to wavelength as a small parameter and the resulting equations are solved by numerical methods. The effects of permeability parameter (?, slope parameter (k, slip coefficient (? and Reynolds number (Re on the velocity profiles, pressure and ?ow rate are presented graphically. Results concerning the velocity, pressure and flow rate, indicate that the slip and permeability parameters influence the flow field significantly. Discussions are made from physiological point of view.
Azhar, Waqas Ali; Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Constantin
2017-08-01
Free convection flow of some water based fractional nanofluids over a moving infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source is analytically and graphically studied. Exact solutions for dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, Nusselt numbers, and skin friction coefficients are established in integral form in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to the similar solutions for ordinary nanofluids when the fractional parameters tend to one. Furthermore, they reduce to the known solutions from the literature when the plate is fixed and the heat source is absent. The influence of fractional parameters on heat transfer and fluid motion is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in such flows is higher for fractional nanofluids in comparison with ordinary nanofluids. Moreover, the use of fractional models allows us to choose the fractional parameters in order to get a very good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, A.M.; Paul, S.; Singh, S.; Panday, V.
2015-01-01
In this paper the two-phase flow instability analysis of multiple heated channels with various inclinations is studied. In addition, the bifurcation analysis is also carried out to capture the nonlinear dynamics of the system and to identify the regions in parameter space for which subcritical and supercritical bifurcations exist. In order to carry out the analysis, the system is mathematically represented by nonlinear Partial Differential Equation (PDE) for mass, momentum and energy in single as well as two-phase region. Then converted into Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) using weighted residual method. Also, coupling equation is being used under the assumption that pressure drop in each channel is the same and the total mass flow rate is equal to sum of the individual mass flow rates. The homogeneous equilibrium model is used for the analysis. Stability Map is obtained in terms of phase change number (Npch) and Subcooling Number (Nsb) by solving a set of nonlinear, coupled algebraic equations obtained at equilibrium using Newton Raphson Method. MATLAB Code is verified by comparing it with results obtained by Matcont (Open source software) under same parametric values. Numerical simulations of the time-dependent, nonlinear ODEs are carried out for selected points in the operating parameter space to obtain the actual damped and growing oscillations in the channel inlet flow velocity which confirms the stability region across the stability map. Generalized Hopf (GH) points are observed for different inclinations, they are also points for subcritical and supercritical bifurcations. (authors)
Non-uniform overland flow-infiltration model for roadside swales
García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.
2017-09-01
There is a need to quantify the hydrologic performance of vegetated roadside swales (drainage ditches) as stormwater control measures (SCMs). To quantify their infiltration performance in both the side slope and the channel of the swale, a model has been developed for coupling a Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML) infiltration submodel with kinematic wave submodels for both overland flow down the side slope and open channel flow for flow in the ditch. The coupled GAML submodel and overland flow submodel has been validated using data collected in twelve simulated runoff tests in three different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN. The percentage of the total water infiltrated into the side slope is considerably greater than into the channel. Thus, the side slope of a roadside swale is the main component contributing to the loss of runoff by infiltration and the channel primarily conveys the water that runs off the side slope, for the typical design found in highways. Finally, as demonstrated in field observations and the model, the fraction of the runoff/rainfall infiltrated (Vi∗) into the roadside swale appears to increase with a dimensionless saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks∗), which is a function of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and dimensions of the swale and contributing road surface. For design purposes, the relationship between Vi∗ and Ks∗ can provide a rough estimate of the fraction of runoff/rainfall infiltrated with the few essential parameters that appear to dominate the results.
Predicting critical heat flux in slug flow regime of uniformly heated ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Numerical computation code (PWR-DNBP) has been developed to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of forced convective flow of water in a vertical heated channel. The code was based on the liquid sub-layer model, with the assumption that CHF occurred when the liquid film thickness between the heated surface and vapour ...
Developing Semi-Analytical solutions for Saint-Venant Equations in the Uniform Flow Region
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M.M. Heidari
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Unsteady flow in irrigation systems is the result of operations in response to changes in water demand that affect the hydraulic performance networks. The increased hydraulic performance needed to recognize unsteady flow and quantify the factors affecting it. Unsteady flow in open channels is governed by the fully dynamic Saint Venant equation, which express the principles of conservation of mass and momentum. Unsteady flow in open channels can be classified into two types: routing and operation-type problems. In the routing problems, The Saint Venant equations are solved to get the discharge and water level in the time series. Also, they are used in the operation problem to compute the inflow at the upstream section of the channel according to the prescribed downstream flow hydrographs. The Saint Venant equation has no analytical solution and in the majority cases of such methods use numerical integration of continuity and momentum equations, and are characterized by complicated numerical procedures that are not always convenient for carrying out practical engineering calculations. Therefore, approximate methods deserve attention since they would allow the solution of dynamic problems in analytical form with enough exactness. There are effective methods for automatic controller synthesis in control theory that provide the required performance optimization. It is therefore important to get simplified models of irrigation canals for control design. It would be even more interesting to have linear models that explicitly depend on physical parameters. Such models would allow one to, handle the dynamics of the system with fewer parameters, understand the impact of physical parameters on the dynamics, and facilitate the development a systematic design method. Many analytical models have been proposed in the literature, Most of them have been obtained in the frequency domain by applying Laplace transform to linearized Saint
Active Control of Vortex Induced Vibrations of a Tethered Sphere in a Uniform Air Flow
van Hout, Rene; Greenblatt, David; Zvi Katz, Amit
2011-11-01
VIV of two heavy tethered spheres (D = 40 mm, m* = msphere/ ρfVsphere = 21 and 67, L* = L / D = 2.50) were studied in a wind tunnel under uniform free stream velocities up to U* = U /fn D = 15.9, with and without acoustic control. Control was achieved using two speakers mounted on either side of the spheres and driven in-phase at f= 35Hz (f* = 22.3). In the non-controlled case, the bifurcation map of transverse sphere oscillation amplitude, Ay, showed stationary motion as well as periodic and non-stationary oscillations with increasing U*. For m* = 21, Aymax was about twice as large as for m* = 67. Acoustic control dampened Aymax in the periodic region (m* = 67) and increased Aymax in the non-stationary region for both spheres. Sphere boundary layer dynamics in the three different bifurcation regions were studied using time resolved PIV with a horizontal laser sheet positioned at the center of the sphere. The field of view was 55 × 55 mm2 containing one quarter of the sphere. Results will be presented on the vortex dynamics near the sphere's surface with and without acoustic control.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kweon, H.; Park, K. C.
2001-01-01
An analogy for evaporative heat transfer with mass transfer was derived. From von-Karman analogy which has been applied between heat and momentum transfer in single phase turbulent flow, a modified Karman analogy was suggested at present paper. Nusselt number from this analogy showed good agreement with experimental results. Such a result shows that the analogy for a complex heat transfer mode between heat transfer and momentum transfer accompanying evaporation or condensation on the interface can be established
Kozaka, Orçun E.; Özkan, Gökhan; Özdemir, Bedii I.
2004-01-01
Turbulent structure of flow behind a model car is investigated with local velocity measurements with emphasis on large structures and their relevance to aerodynamic forces. Results show that two counter-rotating helical vortices, which are formed within the inner wake region, play a key role in determining the flux of kinetic energy. The turbulence is generated within the outermost shear layers due to the instabilities, which also seem to be the basic drive for these relatively organized structures. The measured terms of the turbulent kinetic energy production, which are only part of the full expression, indicate that vortex centres act similar to the manifolds draining the energy in the streamwise direction. As the approach velocity increases, the streamwise convection becomes the dominant means of turbulent transport and, thus, the acquisition of turbulence by relatively non-turbulent flow around the wake region is suppressed.
Optimization of the uniformity of a metal flow during continuous extrusion by the Conform method
Lyubanova, A. Sh.; Gorokhov, Yu. V.; Solopko, I. V.; Ziborov, A. Yu.
2010-03-01
The scheme of plastic deformation of a billet in a container is considered as part of continuous extrusion by the Conform method. A mathematical model of the motion of a viscoplastic Bingham liquid is used to determine the metal velocity distribution in the plastic-deformation zone. As a result, the optimum angle between the longitudinal axes of the die and container is estimated. This angle is found to be one of the main factors affecting the nonuniformity of deformation when a metal flows into the die. The calculated results are compared to experimental data.
Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2015-01-01
LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting...... speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared...... with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasquier-Guilbert, N
2004-12-15
Simultaneous knowledge of local velocity and equivalence ratio is very important in numerous combustion applications and especially for direct injection engines where the flame propagates through a heterogeneous concentration distribution of fuel-air mixture. This study reproduce heterogeneities of equivalence ratio with propane and air in a constant volume combustion vessel. The local influence of velocity and equivalence ratio on the propagation of a spark-ignited flame is studied. To create a stratification, a rich axisymmetric pulsed jet is injected in a leaner chamber and the mixing is ignited. Two optical diagnostics are used simultaneously, PIV for velocity and FARLIF for equivalence ratio, with or without combustion. All properties and range of applications of PIV and FARLIF have been verified. These methods were then used to study the characteristics of stratified combustion. (author)
Abdullah, M.; Butt, Asma Rashid; Raza, Nauman; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alzahrani, A. K.
2018-01-01
The magneto hydrodynamic blood flow in the presence of magnetic particles through a circular cylinder is investigated. To calculate the impact of externally applied uniform magnetic field, the blood is electrically charged. Initially the fluid and circular cylinder is at rest but at time t =0+ , the cylinder starts to oscillate along its axis with velocity fsin (Ωt) . To obtain the mathematical model of blood flow with fractional derivatives Caputo fractional operator is employed. The solutions for the velocities of blood and magnetic particles are procured semi analytically by using Laplace transformation method. The inverse Laplace transform has been calculated numerically by using MATHCAD computer software. The obtained results of velocities are presented in Laplace domain in terms of modified Bessel function I0 (·) . The obtained results satisfied all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The hybrid technique that is employed here less computational effort and time cost as compared to other techniques used in literature. As the limiting cases of our results the solutions of the flow model with ordinary derivatives has been procured. Finally, the impact of Reynolds number Re, fractional parameter α and Hartmann number Ha is analyzed and portrayed through graphs. It is worthy to pointing out that fractional derivatives brings remarkable differences as compared to ordinary derivatives. It also has been observed that velocity of blood and magnetic particles is weaker under the effect of transverse magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Sulochana
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of unsteady MHD flow of a dusty nanofluid over a vertical stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles with non uniform heat source/sink. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Ag-water and Cu-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed in to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles for fluid and dust phases are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately in tabular form. Results indicate that an increase in the volume fraction of dust particles enhances the heat transfer in Cu-water nanofluid compared with Ag-water nanofluid and a raise in the volume fraction of nano particles shows uniform heat transfer in both Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids.
Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model
Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Sørensen, J. N.
2015-06-01
LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5 with a constant of the lift coefficient along the span, CL= 0.8. The wake development has been studied in the range of tip speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes.
A Review on Empirical Correlations for Jet/Spray Trajectory of Liquid Jet in Uniform Cross Flow
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Soo-Young No
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The empirical correlations for the prediction of jet/spray penetration of liquid jet in subsonic uniform crossflow are reviewed in this study. Considerable number of empirical correlations had been proposed by many investigators. It has generally known that the jet/spray trajectory of a liquid jet in a cross-flow is a function of the liquid to air momentum flux ratio and the normalized distance in the airstream direction from the injector. However, several researchers incorporated the Weber number, liquid-to-water or air viscosity ratio, pressure ratio or Reynolds number, temperature ratio in the empirical correlations. Two different classification methods of correlations, i.e. classification based on mathematic functional form and classification based on flow regime, are introduced in this study. The one classification of existing correlations based on functional form includes correlations in a power-law, logarithmic, and exponential forms, respectively. The other classification of previous correlations based on flow regime includes one, two and three regime, correlations. Correlations in a power-law functional form can be further divided into three groups such as momentum flux ratio, Weber number and other parameters forms. Correlations in logarithmic functional form can be also grouped as momentum flux ratio and Weber number forms. Most of the evaluation studies reported the significant discrepancies of predicted values by the existing correlations. The possible reasons for discrepancies will be summarized as measurement technique, assumptions made in defining terms in the liquid to air momentum flux ratio, difficulties in defining the boundaries of the liquid jets, turbulence level in the core and boundary layer of incoming jet and gas flows, nozzle/injector geometry and its position in the crossflow. However, it can be found from the several evaluation studies that the power-law functional form with momentum flux ratio and two regimes
Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2011-09-01
This paper demonstrates the use of magnetically controlled microfluidic devices to produce monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions. By applying a uniform magnetic field on flow-focusing and T-junction configurations, the size of the ferrofluid emulsions can be actively controlled. The influences of the flow rates, the orientation, and the polarity of the magnetic field on the size of ferrofluid emulsions produced in both flow-focusing and T-junction configurations are compared and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of viscous incompressible MHD unsteady flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with uniform heat and mass flux is analyzed. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, space craft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering .The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat transfer in the limit of the optically thin fluid. The non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. Velocity, temperature and concentration of the flow have been presented for various parameters such as thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter. The local and average skin friction, Nusslet number and Sherwood number are also presented graphically. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finn, John M.
2015-01-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
Hu, Jun; Hadid, Hamda Ben; Henry, Daniel; Mojtabi, Abdelkader
Temporal and spatio-temporal instabilities of binary liquid films flowing down an inclined uniformly heated plate with Soret effect are investigated by using the Chebyshev collocation method to solve the full system of linear stability equations. Seven dimensionless parameters, i.e. the Kapitza, Galileo, Prandtl, Lewis, Soret, Marangoni, and Biot numbers (Ka, G, Pr, L, ) are used to control the flow system. In the case of pure spanwise perturbations, thermocapillary S- and P-modes are obtained. It is found that the most dangerous modes are stationary for positive Soret numbers (0), and oscillatory for =0 remains so for >0 and even merges with the long-wave S-mode. In the case of streamwise perturbations, a long-wave surface mode (H-mode) is also obtained. From the neutral curves, it is found that larger Soret numbers make the film flow more unstable as do larger Marangoni numbers. The increase of these parameters leads to the merging of the long-wave H- and S-modes, making the situation long-wave unstable for any Galileo number. It also strongly influences the short-wave P-mode which becomes the most critical for large enough Galileo numbers. Furthermore, from the boundary curves between absolute and convective instabilities (AI/CI) calculated for both the long-wave instability (S- and H-modes) and the short-wave instability (P-mode), it is shown that for small Galileo numbers the AI/CI boundary curves are determined by the long-wave instability, while for large Galileo numbers they are determined by the short-wave instability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herve, Patrick
1975-01-01
This is a theoretical study of an electrically viscous fluid flowing in a straight rectangular cross section channel, a wall of which, infinitely conducting, is placed perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic induction field. The three other walls of the channel being electrically insulating, remain motionless. Formulas giving velocity distribution law in the straight section of the flow in relation to the Hartmann's number, curves illustrating the accelerating effect produced across the whole section, by the application of the magnetic induction field, and example for the distribution of the electric current lines in case of a square section are given [fr
Peacock, Tom; Blanchette, Francois; Bush, John W. M.
2005-04-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the flows generated by monodisperse particles settling at low Reynolds number in a stably stratified ambient with an inclined sidewall. In this configuration, upwelling beneath the inclined wall associated with the Boycott effect is opposed by the ambient density stratification. The evolution of the system is determined by the relative magnitudes of the container depth, h, and the neutral buoyancy height, hn = c0(ρp-ρf)/|dρ/dz|, where c0 is the particle concentration, ρp the particle density, ρf the mean fluid density and dρ/dz Boycott layer transports dense fluid from the bottom to the top of the system; subsequently, the upper clear layer of dense saline fluid is mixed by convection. For sufficiently strong stratification, h > hn, layering occurs. The lowermost layer is created by clear fluid transported from the base to its neutral buoyancy height, and has a vertical extent hn; subsequently, smaller overlying layers develop. Within each layer, convection erodes the initially linear density gradient, generating a step-like density profile throughout the system that persists after all the particles have settled. Particles are transported across the discrete density jumps between layers by plumes of particle-laden fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nawal H. Al – Raheimy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the approximate method of Raleigh method can be used to study the effect of additional boundary conditions (clamped – free & clamped – clamped on the free transverse vibrations of uniform pipes which have length, L (1m , inner radius, "Ri" (1cm & thickness, "t" (1mm made from composite materials, where the resin of unsaturated polyester represented the matrix material reinforced by aligned (E-fibers glass in the first case and used aligned fiber (Kevlar-49 in the second case. The length of fibers is in the two types, the first type is long fibers (continuous and the second is short fibers (discontinuous for different length all at volume fraction of fibers, "f" (0.15 & 0.25. At any construction of the pipe in composite material the natural frequency decreased when the velocity of flow increased from zero to critical velocity also can be observed the pipe at clamped – clamped boundary conditions predicts natural frequency & critical velocity greater than that pipe at clamped – free. The natural frequency and critical velocity increase with increasing volume fraction and length of discontinuous fiber. The value of natural frequency for pipes which have continuous fibers is constant at certain velocity of flow while are variable in pipes which have discontinuous fibers according to ratio between length of short fiber to critical length of discontinuous fiber whereas the natural frequency increase with increasing this ratio. Finally the pipes with Kevlar fiber have high critical velocity and natural frequency compare with pipes for fiber glass.
Lee, Man; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Zohar, Yitshak
2012-01-01
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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Seraphy Y. Shen
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.
Lee, Man
2012-02-22
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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Mirkov Nikola S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036
Talmon, A.M.
1985-01-01
Wake effects will cause power loss when wínd turbínes are grouped in so called wind turbine parks. Wind tunnel measurements of the wake of a wind turbíne model are conducted in order to refine calculatíons of wake effects. Wake effects caused by tower and nacelle are studied in uniform flow. Wake
A. Sinha; J.C. Misra; G.C. Shit
2016-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disor...
Molokov, S. Y.; Allen, J. E.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of viscous incompressible fluid in strong magnetic fields parallel to a free surface of fluid are investigated. The problem of flow in an open channel due to a moving side wall in uniform magnetic field is considered, and treated by means of matched asymptotic expansions method. The flow region is divided into various subregions and leading terms of asymptotic expansions as M tends towards infinity (M is the Hartmann number) of solutions of correspondent problems in each subregion are obtained. An exact analytic solution of equations governing the free-surface layer of thickness of order M to the minus 1/2 power is obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Worth Longest, P. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kleinstreuer, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
2004-10-01
Individual and interacting effects of uniform flow, plane shear, and near-wall proximity on spherical droplet heat and mass transfer have been assessed for low Reynolds number conditions beyond the creeping flow regime. Validated resolved volume simulations were used to compute heat and mass transfer surface gradients of two-dimensional axisymmetric droplets and three-dimensional spherical droplets near planar wall boundaries for conditions consistent with inhalable aerosols (5 {<=} d {<=} 300 {mu}m) in the upper respiratory tract. Results indicate that planar shear significantly impacts droplet heat and mass transfer for shear-based Reynolds numbers greater than 1, which occur for near-wall respiratory aerosols with diameters in excess of 50 {mu}m. Wall proximity is shown to significantly enhance heat and mass transfer due to conduction and diffusion at separation distances less than five particle diameters and for small Reynolds numbers. For the Reynolds number conditions of interest, significant non-linear effects arise due to the concurrent interaction of uniform flow and shear such that linear superposition of Sherwood or Nusselt number terms is not allowable. Based on the validated numeric simulations, multivariable Sherwood and Nusselt number correlations are provided to account for individual flow characteristics and concurrent non-linear interactions of uniform flow, planar shear, and near-wall proximity. These heat and mass transfer correlations can be applied to effectively compute condensation and evaporation rates of potentially toxic or therapeutic aerosols in the upper respiratory tract, where non-uniform flow and wall proximity are expected to significantly affect droplet transport, deposition, and vapor formation. (author)
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ju, Yiguang
2013-04-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a stratified flow in a homogeneous compression charge ignition (HCCI) engine are performed to investigate the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and temperature/mixture stratification effects on the autoignition of synthetic dimethyl ether (DME) in the negative temperature combustion region. Detailed chemistry for a DME/air mixture is employed and solved by a hybrid multi-time scale (HMTS) algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The effect of ? to mimic the EGR effect on autoignition are studied. The results show that adding ? enhances autoignition by rapid OH radical pool formation (34-46% reduction in ignition delay time) and changes the ignition heat release rates at different ignition stages. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the important reactions pathways affecting the autoignition are specified. The DNS results show that the scales introduced by thermal and mixture stratifications have a strong effect after the low temperature chemistry (LTC) ignition especially at the locations of high scalar dissipation rates. Compared to homogenous ignition, stratified ignitions show similar first autoignition delay times, but 18% reduction in the second and third ignition delay times. The results also show that molecular transport plays an important role in stratified low temperature ignition, and that the scalar mixing time scale is strongly affected by local ignition in the stratified flow. Two ignition-kernel propagation modes are observed: a wave-like, low-speed, deflagrative mode and a spontaneous, high-speed, ignition mode. Three criteria are introduced to distinguish these modes by different characteristic time scales and Damkhöler numbers using a progress variable conditioned by an ignition kernel indicator. The low scalar dissipation rate flame front is characterized by high displacement speeds and high mixing Damkhöler number. The proposed criteria are applied successfully at the different ignition stages and
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Gangfeng Wu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The use of multiple-level non-uniform rectangular mesh in coupled flow and sediment transport modeling is preferred to achieve high accuracy in important region without increasing computational cost greatly. Here, a robust coupled hydrodynamic and non-equilibrium sediment transport model is developed on non-uniform rectangular mesh to simulate dam break flow over movable beds. The enhanced shallow water and sediment transport equations are adopted to consider the mass and momentum exchange between the flow phase and sediment phase. The flux at the interface is calculated by the positivity preserving central upwind scheme, which belongs to Godunov-type Riemann-problem-solver-free central schemes and is less expensive than other popular Riemann solvers while still capable of tracking wet/dry fronts accurately. The nonnegative water depth reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The model was first verified against two laboratory experiments of dam break flow over irregular fixed bed. Then the quantitative performance of the model was further investigated by comparing the computational results with measurement data of dam break flow over movable bed. The good agreements between the measurements and the numerical simulations are found for the flow depth, velocity and bed changes.
Adeniyan, A.,
2013-01-01
The numerical investigation of a stagnation point boundary layer flow , mass and heat transfer of a steady two dimensional , incompressible , viscous electrically conducting, chemically reacting laminar fluid over a vertical convectively heated , electrically neutral flat plate exposed to a transverse uniform magnetic field has been carried out to examine the influence of the simultaneous presence of the effects of a convective boundary condition, chemical reaction, heat transfer and suctio...
White dwarf stars with chemically stratified atmospheres
Muchmore, D.
1982-01-01
Recent observations and theory suggest that some white dwarfs may have chemically stratified atmospheres - thin layers of hydrogen lying above helium-rich envelopes. Models of such atmospheres show that a discontinuous temperature inversion can occur at the boundary between the layers. Model spectra for layered atmospheres at 30,000 K and 50,000 K tend to have smaller decrements at 912 A, 504 A, and 228 A than uniform atmospheres would have. On the basis of their continuous extreme ultraviolet spectra, it is possible to distinguish observationally between uniform and layered atmospheres for hot white dwarfs.
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Asterios Pantokratoras
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.
Probabilistic uniformities of uniform spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Lopez, J.; Romaguera, S.; Sanchis, M.
2017-07-01
The theory of metric spaces in the fuzzy context has shown to be an interesting area of study not only from a theoretical point of view but also for its applications. Nevertheless, it is usual to consider these spaces as classical topological or uniform spaces and there are not too many results about constructing fuzzy topological structures starting from a fuzzy metric. Maybe, H/{sup o}hle was the first to show how to construct a probabilistic uniformity and a Lowen uniformity from a probabilistic pseudometric /cite{Hohle78,Hohle82a}. His method can be directly translated to the context of fuzzy metrics and allows to characterize the categories of probabilistic uniform spaces or Lowen uniform spaces by means of certain families of fuzzy pseudometrics /cite{RL}. On the other hand, other different fuzzy uniformities can be constructed in a fuzzy metric space: a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity /cite{GGPV06}; a fuzzifiying uniformity /cite{YueShi10}, etc. The paper /cite{GGRLRo} gives a study of several methods of endowing a fuzzy pseudometric space with a probabilistic uniformity and a Hutton $[0,1]$-quasi-uniformity. In 2010, J. Guti/'errez Garc/'{/i}a, S. Romaguera and M. Sanchis /cite{GGRoSanchis10} proved that the category of uniform spaces is isomorphic to a category formed by sets endowed with a fuzzy uniform structure, i. e. a family of fuzzy pseudometrics satisfying certain conditions. We will show here that, by means of this isomorphism, we can obtain several methods to endow a uniform space with a probabilistic uniformity. Furthermore, these constructions allow to obtain a factorization of some functors introduced in /cite{GGRoSanchis10}. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utsuno, Hideaki; Kaminaga, Fumito
1998-01-01
A method was developed based on the conservation lows to predict critical heat flux (CHF) causing liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube under BWR conditions. The applicable range of the method is within the pressure of 3-9 MPa, mass flux of 500-2,000 kg/m 2 ·s, heat flux of 0.33-2.0 MW/m 2 and boiling length-to-tube diameter ratio of 200-800. The two-phase annular-mist flow was modeled with the three-fluid streams with liquid film, entrained droplets and gas flow. Governing equations of the method are mass continuity and energy conservation on the three-fluid streams. Constitutive equations on the mass transfer which consist of the entrainment fraction at equilibrium and the mass transfer coefficient were newly proposed in this study. Confirmation of the present method were performed in comparison with the available film flow measurements and various CHF data from experiments in uniformly heated narrow tubes under high pressure steam-water conditions. In the heat flux range (q'' 2 ) practical for a BWR, agreement of the present method with CHF data was obtained as, (Averaged ratio) ± (Standard deviation) = 0.984 ± 0.077, which was shown to be the same or better agreement than the widely-used CHF correlations. (author)
Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Bibi, M.
The current analysis reports the untapped characteristics of magneto-hydrodynamic dual convection boundary layer stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by way of cylindrical surface. Flow exploration is carried out with the combined effects of thermal and solutal stratification. The strength of temperature and concentration adjacent to the cylindrical surface is assumed to be greater than the ambient fluid. Flow conducting mathematically modelled equations are fairly transformed into system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. The computations are made against these resultant coupled equations through shooting technique by the support of fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect logs of various pertinent flow controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration flow regime. The achieved outcomes are validated by developing comparison with existing published literature. In addition, numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically for two different geometries namely, plate and cylinder.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)
2016-12-01
Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, F.-C., E-mail: lifch@hit.edu.cn; Sutevski, D.; Smolentsev, S.; Abdou, M.
2013-11-15
Highlights: • An indirect DP measurement approach for high-temperature LM MHD flow is developed. • Experiments and numerical simulations of PbLi MHD flow are performed. • Characteristics of DP in LM MHD flow under fringing magnetic field are studied. • Pressure distributions in LM MHD flow at entry and exit of magnet are different. -- Abstract: Experiments and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations are performed to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) characteristics of liquid metal (LM) flows of molten lead-lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy in an electrically conducting circular duct subjected to a transverse non-uniform (fringing) magnetic field. An indirect measurement approach for differential pressure in high temperature LM PbLi is first developed, and then detailed data on pressure drop in this PbLi MHD flow are measured. The obtained experimental results for the pressure distribution are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Using the numerical simulation results, the 3D effects caused by fringing magnetic field on the LM flow are illustrated via distributions for the axial pressure gradients and transverse pressure differences. It has been verified that a simple approach for estimation of pressure drop in LM MHD flow in a fringing magnetic field proposed by Miyazaki et al. [22] i.e., a simple integral of pressure gradient along the fringing field zone using a quasi-fully-developed flow assumption, is also applicable to the conditions of the present experiment providing the magnetic interaction parameter is large enough. Furthermore, for two different sections of the LM flow at the entry to and at the exit from the magnet, it is found that the pressure distributions in the duct cross sections in these two regions are different.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasegawa, E; Horiguchi, Y; Kitazawa, K [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology
1997-08-25
A steady flow in an non-deformable porous layer subjected to a fluid stream is studied analytically and numerically. One side of the layer of sponge is bounded by a solid wall and the other by a layer of fluid. The fluid is injected uniformly from a plane, through which the fluid can pass, set up parallel to the sponge layer. The flow in the sponge layer is assumed to be governed by Darcy`s law. The problem considered is solved in terms of a similarity solution. The equations governing the fluid flows in both the porous layer and the fluid layer are reduced to a system of the ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved analytically for three cases ideal fluid flow, low Reynolds number flow and high Reynolds number flow. On the other hand, these equations are solved numerically for the general case by using the finite difference method. The distributions of the velocity and the pressure in both layers are found for various parameters. In particular, the speed which the fluid intrudes into the sponge layer due to the injection of the stream from the plane is found to be a function of dimensionless parameters. To find this speed is essential to the understanding of porous material. 15 refs., 9 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Baek, Won Pil
2003-11-01
KAERI has performed an experimental study of water Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under zero flow conditions with a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. Experimental conditions are in the range of a system pressure from 0.5 to 15.0 MPa and inlet water subcooling enthalpies from 67.5 to 351.5 kJ/kg. The test section used in the present experiments consisted of a vertical flow channel, upper and lower plenums, and a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. The experimental results show that the CHFs in low-pressure conditions are somewhat scattered within a narrow range. As the system pressure increases, however, the CHFs show a consistent parametric trend. The CHFs occur in the upper region of the heated section, but the vertical distances of the detected CHFs from the bottom of the heated section are reduced as the system pressure increases. Even though the effects of the inlet water subcooling enthalpies and system pressure in the flooding CHF are relatively smaller than those of the flow boiling CHF, the CHF increases by increasing the inlet water subcooling enthalpies. Several existing correlations for the countercurrent flooding CHF based on Wallis's flooding correlation and Kutateladze's criterion for the onset of flooding are compared with the CHF data obtained in the present experiments to examine the applicability of the correlations.
Kleeorin, N.
2018-06-01
We discuss a mean-field theory of the generation of large-scale vorticity in a rotating density stratified developed turbulence with inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. We show that the large-scale non-uniform flow is produced due to either a combined action of a density stratified rotating turbulence and uniform kinetic helicity or a combined effect of a rotating incompressible turbulence and inhomogeneous kinetic helicity. These effects result in the formation of a large-scale shear, and in turn its interaction with the small-scale turbulence causes an excitation of the large-scale instability (known as a vorticity dynamo) due to a combined effect of the large-scale shear and Reynolds stress-induced generation of the mean vorticity. The latter is due to the effect of large-scale shear on the Reynolds stress. A fast rotation suppresses this large-scale instability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of non-uniform heat source/sink, mass transfer and chemical reaction on an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of a magneto-micropolar fluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and suction/injection. The governing equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and then solved numerically using Shooting technique with Matlab Package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented with the help of their graphical representations. Also, friction factor, heat and mass transfer rates have been computed and presented through tables. Under some special conditions, present results are compared with the existed results to check the accuracy and validity of the present study. An excellent agreement is observed with the existed results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axisa, F.; Villard, B.; Antunes, J.
1989-01-01
During the last decade several researchers, investigated fluidelastic instability in tube arrays by restricting the problem to a single degree of freedom system. This is a very attractive idea because of obvious theoretical and experimental simplifications. Nevertheless, it has still to be clarified how far such results can be applied to fully flexible arrays. This paper is presenting a few experimental data obtained on a rigid normal square array subjected to uniform air-water cross flows, at various homogeneous void fractions α H from O to 1. Fluidelastic instability was clearly observed in air and in water. However instability was progressively vanishing in two-phase flow, when α H was increased. Such a result is contrasting with those obtained on fully flexible arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.
2011-01-01
It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.
The Influence of Uniform Suction/Injection on Heat Transfer of MHD Hiemenz Flow in Porous Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghsemi, E; Soleimani, S; Barari, Amin
2012-01-01
The steady two-dimensional laminar forced magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) Hiemenz flow against a flat plate with variable wall temperature in a porous medium is analyzed. The transformed nonlinear boundary-layer equations are solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Results for the veloc...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David
2011-01-01
A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast polyd...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buehler, L.
1993-02-01
Inductionless magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows at high Hartmann numbers are calculated by splitting the whole flow region into an inviscid core and into very thin boundary layers near channel walls. The momentum equations are linearized for high interaction parameters by neglecting inertial terms. These assumptions allow considerable simplifications of the governing equations in all subregions. In the core the general 3D equations are reduced to 2D equations by an analytical integration. The boundary conditions at channel walls are satisfied by the solution of boundary layer equations, leading to 2D equations for charge conservation in the layer. The interior of every arbitrary shaped channel is mapped by a coordinate transformation to a standard volume. The coupled 2D equations are solved numerically on the surface of this standard volume. (orig.)
Ludewig, M.; Omori, S.; Rao, G. L.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the experimental pressure drop and velocity data for water flowing through woven screens. The types of materials used are dutch twill and square weave fabrics. Pressure drop measures were made at four locations in a rectangular channel. The data are presented as change in pressure compared with the average entry velocity and the numerical relationship is determined by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the screen area open to flow. The equations of continuity and momentum are presented. A computer program listing an extension of a theoretical model and data from that computer program are included.
A model for predicting the dry-out position for annular flow in a uniformly heated vertical tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shanawany, M.; El-Shirbini, A.A.; Murgatroyd, W.
1978-01-01
A method is introduced by which the length of the annular flow regime in a straight vertical-tube steam generator can be evaluated. The heated length is divided into a large number of segments and the outlet conditions at one segment are used as the initial conditions for the following segment. A computer program has been designed for this step-by-step calculation. A comparison between the results of the present work and different available experimental data demonstrates the adequacy of the presented method. (author)
Thermal instability in a stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermanns, D.F.M.; Priest, E.R.
1989-01-01
The thermal instability mechansism has been studied in connection to observed coronal features, like, e.g. prominences or cool cores in loops. Although these features show a lot of structure, most studies concern the thermal instability in an uniform medium. In this paper, we investigate the thermal instability and the interaction between thermal modes and the slow magneto-acoustic subspectrum for a stratified plasma slab. We fomulate the relevant system of equations and give some straightforward properties of the linear spectrum of a non-uniform plasma slab, i.e. the existence of continuous parts in the spectrum. We present a numerical scheme with which we can investigate the linear spectrum for equilibrium states with stratification. The slow and thermal subspectra of a crude coronal model are given as a preliminary result. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig
Haddout, Y.; Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.
2018-06-01
Thermally developing laminar slip flow through a micropipe and a parallel plate microchannel, with axial heat conduction and uniform wall heat flux, is studied analytically by using a powerful method of self-adjoint formalism. This method results from a decomposition of the elliptic energy equation into a system of two first-order partial differential equations. The advantage of this method over other methods, resides in the fact that the decomposition procedure leads to a selfadjoint problem although the initial problem is apparently not a self-adjoint one. The solution is an extension of prior studies and considers a first order slip model boundary conditions at the fluid-wall interface. The analytical expressions for the developing temperature and local Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region are obtained in the general case. Therefore, the solution obtained could be extended easily to any hydrodynamically developed flow and arbitrary heat flux distribution. The analytical results obtained are compared for select simplified cases with available numerical calculations and they both agree. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of flow in the thermal entrance region are strongly influenced by the axial heat conduction and rarefaction effects which are respectively characterized by Péclet and Knudsen numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sinha
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disorders accompanied by accelerated circulation. The problem is treated mathematically by reducing it to a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, which have been solved by using similarity transformation and boundary layer approximation. The resulting nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme. Computational results are obtained for the velocity, temperature, the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in the vessel. The estimated results are compared with another analytical study reported earlier in scientific literatures. The present study reveals that the heat transfer rate is enhanced as the value of the unsteadiness parameter increases, but it reduces as the space-dependence parameter for heat source/sink increases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswal, S.; Pattnaik, B.K.
1996-01-01
Commencement of the Couette flow in Oldroyd liquid has been studied in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field with heat sources/sinks. Constitutive equations of motion and energy have been formulated and solved with the aid of Galerkin technique. Expressions for velocity, temperature, skin frictions and rates of heat transfer are obtained. With Fortran language, the values of velocity, temperature, shear-stresses at the lower and upper plates and the rates of heat transfer at the plates have been evaluated after necessary computations. The results have been shown by graphs and tables for different values of various parameters like R, R c , P m , t, n, P r , E and S. Velocity and temperature distribution are shown by graphs while the values of shear-stresses and Nusselts numbers at the plates are entered in tables. It is observed that the flow is sensitive to the interactions of heat source/sink, elasticity of the fluid and the imposed magnetic field strength. The amount of heat energy propagated during this process of non-Newtonian flow varies appreciably with R, S and P r . The heat absorbing sink or the heat generating source influences the temperature field to a great extent. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapuerta, C
2006-10-15
During an hypothetical major accident in a pressurized water reactor, the deterioration of the core can produce a stratified pool crossed by a bubbly flow. This latter strongly impacts the heat transfers, whose intensities are crucial in the progression of the accident. In this context, this work is devoted to the diffuse interface modelling for the study of an-isothermal incompressible flows, composed of three immiscible components, with no phase change. In the diffuse interface methods, the system evolution is driven by the minimization of a free energy. The originality of our approach, derived from the Cahn-Hilliard model, is based on the particular form of the energy we proposed, which enables to have an algebraically and dynamically consistent model, in the following sense: on the one hand, the triphasic free energy is equal to the diphasic one when only two phases are present; on the other, if a phase is not initially present then it will not appear during system evolution, this last property being stable with respect to numerical errors. The existence and the uniqueness of weak and strong solutions are proved in two and three dimensions as well as a stability result for metastable states. The modelling of an an-isothermal three phase flow is further accomplished by coupling the Cahn-Hilliard equations with the energy balance and Navier-Stokes equations where surface tensions are taken into account through volume capillary forces. These equations are discretized in time and space in order to preserve properties of continuous model (volume conservation, energy estimate). Different numerical results are given, from the validation case of the lens spreading between two phases, to the study of the heat and mass transfers through a liquid/liquid interface crossed by a single bubble or a series of bubbles. (author)
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Asghar, Saleem
2017-01-01
This study investigates the mixed convection flow of Jeffrey liquid by an impermeable inclined stretching cylinder. Thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink are considered. The convective boundary conditions at surface are imposed. Nonlinear expressions of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into dimensionless systems. Convergent homotopic solutions of the governing systems are worked out by employing homotopic procedure. Impact of physical variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations for skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are carried out. It is concluded that velocity field enhances for Deborah number while reverse situation is observed regarding ratio of relaxation to retardation times. Temperature and heat transfer rate are enhanced via larger thermal Biot number. Effect of Schmidt number on the concentration and local Sherwood number is quite reverse.
Kleczek, M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Paci, A.; Calmer, R.; Belleudy, A.; Canonici, J.C.; Murguet, F.; Valette, V.
2014-01-01
This paper reports on a laboratory experiment in the CNRM-GAME (Toulouse) stratified water flume of a stably stratified boundary layer, in order to quantify the momentum transfer due to orographically induced gravity waves by gently undulating hills in a boundary layer flow. In a stratified fluid, a
Gas mass transfer for stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.
1995-01-01
We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh t = (2/√π)Sc 1/2 , where Sh t is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bertin H.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Nous abordons l'étude des écoulements polyphasiques en milieu poreux hétérogène d'un point de vue théorique (méthodologie de la prise de moyenne à grande échelle et expérimental. Dans une première partie nous présentons la méthodologie permettant d'obtenir les équations à grande échelle. Le point de départ de l'étude est les équations locales, analogues aux équations de Darcy généralisées obtenues par prise de moyenne des équations de Stokes à l'échelle du pore. La prise de moyenne à grande échelle de ces équations permet d'écrire un système d'équations où les coefficients de transport équivalents sont calculés à partir des données locales, par la résolution d'un problème de fermeture explicité dans le cas quasi-statique (effets capillaires dominants. La seconde partie de notre travail concerne l'étude expérimentale d'un écoulement eau-huile dans un milieu poreux stratifié constitué de deux régions de caractéristiques physiques différentes. Les champs de saturation bidimensionnels sont mesurés tout au long de l'imbibition par absorption d'un rayonnement gamma. Les résultats expérimentaux, évolution de la fraction volumique moyenne par section en fonction du temps, sont comparés aux résultats d'une simulation numérique des équations de transport où les coefficients utilisés ont été déterminés par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle. Two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media is studied from a theoretical point of view (the large-scale averaging method and experimentally. In the first part, we present the methodology leading to the large-scale equations. The starting point of the study is the local equation, analogous to the generalized Darcy's law obtained by averaging the Stokes equation at the pore level. The large-scale averaging of these equations leads to a system where the equivalent transport coefficients are computed from the local data by solving a closure
MC3D modelling of stratified explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G.
1999-01-01
It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)
MC3D modelling of stratified explosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G. [DTP/SMTH/LM2, CEA, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1999-07-01
It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)
Sudalaimuthu, Vignesh; Liu, Xiaofeng
2017-11-01
A series of wind tunnel aerodynamic force measurements have been conducted on a 2D hollow cylinder with perforated holes uniformly-distributed on its surface to evaluate the efficacy of perforation as a means of passive flow control in reducing unsteady aerodynamic forces. Both smooth and perforated cylinders were tested for comparison at Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 corresponding to free stream velocities varying from 5 to 20 m/s (at an increment of 5 m/s) and a cylinder diameter of 0.152 m. The aerodynamic forces acting on the testing model were measured using a 6-component load cell. For each tunnel speed, the test has been repeated for 10 runs at a sampling rate of 10 kHz for 60 seconds each, with a total of 6,000,000 samples acquired for each test. Both mean and r.m.s. values of the lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Power spectral density distributions of the unsteady aerodynamic force loading was analyzed to investigate the effect of the perforation on the frequency composition. Comparisons indicate that the perforated cylinder with a 8% porosity and a hole diameter of about 2% of that of the cylinder gives both substantially less unsteady drag and lift than those of the smooth cylinder for the entire Reynolds number range tested, with the r.m.s. force reduction from 8% to 82% for the drag and 64% to 85% for the lift, confirming a corresponding beneficial reduction in flow-induced cylinder vibration as observed during the experiments. Sponsor: San Diego State University.
Broderick, Bernadette M; Suas-David, Nicolas; Dias, Nureshan; Suits, Arthur G
2018-02-21
Isomer-specific detection and product branching fractions in the UV photodissociation of the propargyl radical is achieved through the use of chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-wave spectroscopy in a pulsed quasi-uniform flow (CPUF). Propargyl radicals are produced in the 193 nm photodissociation of 1,2-butadiene. Absorption of a second photon leads to H atom elimination giving three possible C 3 H 2 isomers: singlets cyclopropenylidene (c-C 3 H 2 ) and propadienylidene (l-C 3 H 2 ), and triplet propargylene ( 3 HCCCH). The singlet products and their appearance kinetics in the flow are directly determined by rotational spectroscopy, but due to the negligible dipole moment of propargylene, it is not directly monitored. However, we exploit the time-dependent kinetics of H-atom catalyzed isomerization to infer the branching to propargylene as well. We obtain the overall branching among H loss channels to be 2.9% (+1.1/-0.5) l-C 3 H 2 + H, 16.8% (+3.2/-1.3) c-C 3 H 2 + H, and 80.2 (+1.8/-4.2) 3 HCCCH + H. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with earlier RRKM calculations in that the major channel in the photodissociation of the propargyl radical at 193 nm is to 3 HCCCH + H; however, a greater contribution to the energetically most favorable isomer, c-C 3 H 2 + H is observed in this work. We do not detect the predicted HCCC + H 2 channel, but place an upper bound on its yield of 1%.
Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.
2013-01-01
In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department and the Town of Dryden, New York, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County. The study provided geohydrologic data needed by the town and county to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. In this study area, three extensive confined sand and gravel aquifers (the upper, middle, and lower confined aquifers) compose the stratified-drift aquifer system. The Dryden Lake Valley is a glaciated valley oriented parallel to the direction of ice movement. Erosion by ice extensively widened and deepened the valley, truncated bedrock hillsides, and formed a nearly straight, U-shaped bedrock trough. The maximum thickness of the valley fill in the central part of the valley is about 400 feet (ft). The Virgil Creek Valley in the east part of the study area underwent less severe erosion by ice than the Dryden Lake Valley, and hence, it has a bedrock floor that is several hundred feet higher in altitude than that in the Dryden Lake Valley. The sources and amounts of recharge were difficult to identify in most areas because the confined aquifers are overlain by confining units. However, in the vicinity of the Virgil Creek Dam, the upper confined aquifer crops out at land surface in the floodplain of a gorge eroded by Virgil Creek, and this is where the aquifer receives large amounts of recharge from precipitation that directly falls over the aquifer and from seepage losses from Virgil Creek. The results of streamflow measurements made in Virgil Creek where it flows through the gorge indicated that the stream lost 1.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 0.78 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water in the reach extending from 220 ft downstream from the dam to 1,200 ft upstream from the dam. In the southern part of the study area, large amounts of recharge also replenish the
Electromagnetic waves in stratified media
Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne
Stratified medicine and reimbursement issues
Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten
2012-01-01
Stratified Medicine (SM) has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to
Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies
Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.
1989-07-01
Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.
The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.
Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori
2016-12-01
Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.
RADIAL STABILITY IN STRATIFIED STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Jonas P.; Rueda, Jorge A.
2015-01-01
We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting any two phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, H.
2004-01-01
The aim of this study is to reveal the temporal and spatial heat transfer performance of an isothermally heated sphere placed in a uniform, downwardly directed flow using a micro-foil heat flow sensor (HFS). A HFS, whose response time is about 0.02 s, was pasted on the surface of a heated copper sphere. Experiments were carried out using air with a Grashof number of 3.3 x 10 5 and with several Reynolds numbers (Re) up to 1800. Three flow patterns appeared: a chaotic flow at Re<240; a two-dimensional steady separated flow at 240 ≤ Re<500, and a three-dimensional unsteady separated flow at Re ≥ 500. In addition, the instantaneous and time-averaged heat transfer performance around the sphere in each of the three regions was clarified. Next, enhancement of the latent heat storage rate of a solid phase change material (PCM) in a spherical capsule was performed. The flow around the spherical capsule, in which the solid PCM was filled and placed in a heated, upwardly directed flow, is the approximate adverse flow phenomenon around the heated sphere which was placed in a downwardly directed flow. In other words, the buoyant flow and the forced flow are in the opposite directions in these two cases. Tests of latent heat storage were run for two Reynolds numbers which represented different flow characteristics in the heat transfer experiments, Re=150 and 1800. Furthermore, copper plates were inserted into the solid PCM, of which thermal conductivity was considerably low, to enhance the latent heat storage rate for the two Reynolds number flows
The effect of existing turbulence on stratified shear instability
Kaminski, Alexis; Smyth, William
2017-11-01
Ocean turbulence is an essential process governing, for example, heat uptake by the ocean. In the stably-stratified ocean interior, this turbulence occurs in discrete events driven by vertical variations of the horizontal velocity. Typically, these events have been modelled by assuming an initially laminar stratified shear flow which develops wavelike instabilities, becomes fully turbulent, and then relaminarizes into a stable state. However, in the real ocean there is always some level of turbulence left over from previous events, and it is not yet understood how this turbulence impacts the evolution of future mixing events. Here, we perform a series of direct numerical simulations of turbulent events developing in stratified shear flows that are already at least weakly turbulent. We do so by varying the amplitude of the initial perturbations, and examine the subsequent development of the instability and the impact on the resulting turbulent fluxes. This work is supported by NSF Grant OCE1537173.
Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.
2000-09-11
This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.
Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.
2004-01-01
In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped...... by treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...
Free Falling in Stratified Fluids
Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva
2017-11-01
Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.
Stratified Medicine and Reimbursement Issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans-Joerg eFugel
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Stratified Medicine (SM has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to strengthen the value proposition to pricing and reimbursement (P&R authorities. However, the introduction of SM challenges current reimbursement schemes in many EU countries and the US as different P&R policies have been adopted for drugs and diagnostics. Also, there is a lack of a consistent process for value assessment of more complex diagnostics in these markets. New, innovative approaches and more flexible P&R systems are needed to reflect the added value of diagnostic tests and to stimulate investments in new technologies. Yet, the framework for access of diagnostic–based therapies still requires further development while setting the right incentives and appropriate align stakeholders interests when realizing long- term patient benefits. This article addresses the reimbursement challenges of SM approaches in several EU countries and the US outlining some options to overcome existing reimbursement barriers for stratified medicine.
Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler
Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong
2018-04-01
This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charoenphonphanich, C; Niwa, H; Ennoji, H; Iijima, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
A numerical analysis of the flow and mixing of rich mixture and air inducted into the cylinder through each of the two intake ports of a stratified charge engine have been carried out. Numerical calculations were performed by finite volume method for three types of the intake port configurations: inverse V type, parallel type and V type and two types of valve timing; conventional and late closing (Miller cycle). Velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy and distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder were examined. 3 refs., 10 figs.
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong
2005-01-01
in electromagnetic and microwave applications once the Maxwell's equations are appropriately modeled. Originality/value - The method validates its values and properties through extensive studies on regular and defective 1D PBG structures in stratified medium, and it can be further extended to solving more......Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...... in solving the Maxwell's equations numerically. It expands the temporal derivatives using the finite differences, while it adopts the Fourier transform (FT) properties to expand the spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. In addition, the method makes use of the chain-rule property in calculus together...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.
2011-07-01
It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.
Turbulence Statistics of a Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Environment
McCleney, Amy Brooke
Using non-intrusive optical diagnostics, turbulence statistics for a round, incompressible, buoyant, and vertical jet discharging freely into a stably linear stratified environment is studied and compared to a reference case of a neutrally buoyant jet in a uniform environment. This is part of a validation campaign for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Buoyancy forces are known to significantly affect the jet evolution in a stratified environment. Despite their ubiquity in numerous natural and man-made flows, available data in these jets are limited, which constrain our understanding of the underlying physical processes. In particular, there is a dearth of velocity field data, which makes it challenging to validate numerical codes, currently used for modeling these important flows. Herein, jet near- and far-field behaviors are obtained with a combination of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and multi-scale time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) for Reynolds number up to 20,000. Deploying non-intrusive optical diagnostics in a variable density environment is challenging in liquids. The refractive index is strongly affected by the density, which introduces optical aberrations and occlusions that prevent the resolution of the flow. One solution consists of using index matched fluids with different densities. Here a pair of water solutions - isopropanol and NaCl - are identified that satisfy these requirements. In fact, they provide a density difference up to 5%, which is the largest reported for such fluid pairs. Additionally, by design, the kinematic viscosities of the solutions are identical. This greatly simplifies the analysis and subsequent simulations of the data. The spectral and temperature dependence of the solutions are fully characterized. In the near-field, shear layer roll-up is analyzed and characterized as a function of initial velocity profile. In the far-field, turbulence statistics are reported for two different scales, one
PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji
2013-01-01
We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E p -L p relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.
Coghetto Roland
2016-01-01
In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barois, Guy
1969-01-01
This research thesis aims at being a contribution to a better knowledge of the expansion process in a flow, by studying the formation of vapour in an upward adiabatic vertical flow. This self-evaporation occurs in a duct with a large cross section (10 x 10 cm) in order to make neglectable pressure losses due to friction on the wall with respect to other pressure losses. After a presentation of the characteristics of the experimental installation, the author describes the flow, outlines the influence of dissolved air on vapour bubble nucleation. He describes the method used to measure the difference between the liquid temperature and that it would have had in thermal equilibrium under a vapour pressure equal to the cross section static pressure. Different theoretical analytical studies proposed by other authors are presented, and the author proposes a model for the calculation of pressure loss associated with this self-evaporation [fr
Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin
2002-01-01
Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…
White, Kerry A.
2000-01-01
In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)
Cohn, Carl A.
1996-01-01
Shortly after implementing a mandatory school uniform policy, the Long Beach (California) Public Schools can boast 99% compliance and a substantial reduction in school crime. The uniforms can't be confused with gang colors, save parents money, and help identify outsiders. A sidebar lists ingredients for a mandatory uniform policy. (MLH)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karimipour, Arash; Taghipour, Abdolmajid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malvandi, Amir, E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Yan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Here we report the application of monodisperse double emulsion droplets, produced in a single step within partially hydrophilic/partially hydrophobic microfluidic devices, as defined containers for quantitative flow cytometric analysis. Samples with varying fluorophore concentrations were generated, and a clear correlation between dye concentration and fluorescence signals was observed.
Forestier, M.; Haldenwang, P.
We consider free convection driven by a heated vertical plate immersed in a nonlinearly stratified medium. The plate supplies a uniform horizontal heat flux to a fluid, the bulk of which has a stable stratification, characterized by a non-uniform vertical temperature gradient. This gradient is assumed to have a typical length scale of variation, denoted Z0, while 0, and the physical properties of the medium.We then apply the new theory to the natural convection affecting the vapour phase in a liquefied pure gas tank (e.g. the cryogenic storage of hydrogen). It is assumed that the cylindrical storage tank is subject to a constant uniform heat flux on its lateral and top walls. We are interested in the vapour motion above a residual layer of liquid in equilibrium with the vapour. High-precision axisymmetric numerical computations show that the flow remains steady for a large range of parameters, and that a bulk stratification characterized by a quadratic temperature profile is undoubtedly present. The application of the theory permits a comparison of the numerical and analytic results, showing that the theory satisfactorily predicts the primary dynamical and thermal properties of the storage tank.
Immanuel, Y.; Pullepu, Bapuji; Sambath, P.
2018-04-01
A two dimensional mathematical model is formulated for the transitive laminar free convective, incompressible viscous fluid flow over vertical cone with variable surface heat flux combined with the effects of heat generation and absorption is considered . using a powerful computational method based on thermoelectric analogy called Network Simulation Method (NSM0, the solutions of governing nondimensionl coupled, unsteady and nonlinear partial differential conservation equations of the flow that are obtained. The numerical technique is always stable and convergent which establish high efficiency and accuracy by employing network simulator computer code Pspice. The effects of velocity and temperature profiles have been analyzed for various factors, namely Prandtl number Pr, heat flux power law exponent n and heat generation/absorption parameter Δ are analyzed graphically.
Measuring mixing efficiency in experiments of strongly stratified turbulence
Augier, P.; Campagne, A.; Valran, T.; Calpe Linares, M.; Mohanan, A. V.; Micard, D.; Viboud, S.; Segalini, A.; Mordant, N.; Sommeria, J.; Lindborg, E.
2017-12-01
Oceanic and atmospheric models need better parameterization of the mixing efficiency. Therefore, we need to measure this quantity for flows representative of geophysical flows, both in terms of types of flows (with vortices and/or waves) and of dynamical regimes. In order to reach sufficiently large Reynolds number for strongly stratified flows, experiments for which salt is used to produce the stratification have to be carried out in a large rotating platform of at least 10-meter diameter.We present new experiments done in summer 2017 to study experimentally strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform. The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of large vertical or horizontal cylinders. The velocity field is measured by 3D-2C scanned horizontal particles image velocimetry (PIV) and 2D vertical PIV. Six density-temperature probes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.We will show how we rely heavily on open-science methods for this study. Our new results on the mixing efficiency will be presented and discussed in terms of mixing parameterization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia, R.
2004-01-01
The search of the patterns of control bars (PBCs) in a power reactor of boiling water, requires to investigate a very wide space of solutions, in principle they are had of the order of 3 x 10 152 possible configurations to establish the PBC in a point given before reaching the end of the cycle. This situation suggests to define those restrictions and conditions initial appropriately so that the search converges toward the desirable results. Presently work the results of the search of patterns of bars based on different flow scenarios through the nucleus are presented. The Cycle 10 is analysed (C10) of the Unit One of the Nuclear Power station Laguna Verde (CNLV), which presents an interesting mixture of diverse designs of control bars used in operation to power. The search of the patterns of bars of objective control is carried out applying the GACRP program which is based on the calculation technique known as genetic algorithms. (Author)
Srivastava, Ashna; Tiwari, Naveen
2018-05-07
The stability analysis of a gravity-driven thin liquid film with an insoluble surfactant flowing over a surface with embedded, regularly spaced heaters is investigated. At the leading edge of a heater, the presence of a temperature gradient induces an opposing Marangoni stress at the interface leading to the formation of a capillary ridge. This ridge has been shown to be susceptible to thermocapillary (oscillating in the flow direction) and rivulet (spanwise periodic pattern) instabilities. The presence of an insoluble surfactant is shown to have a stabilizing effect on this system. The governing equations for the evolution of the film thickness and surfactant concentration are obtained within the lubrication approximation. The coupled two-dimensional base solutions for the film thickness and surfactant concentration show that there is no significant change in the height of the capillary ridge at the subsequent heaters downstream. The height of the capillary ridge is reduced by the presence of the surfactant. For very small Peclet number, the presence of multiple heaters has almost no significant effect on the film stability as compared to a single heater and similar trends are observed between the two configurations in the presence of the surfactant as for the case of a clean interface. However, for large Peclet number, the effect was observed on both types of instabilities for certain heater configurations. The Biot number is shown to have a strong effect on the stability results wherein the dominant mode of instability is altered (from rivulet to thermocapillary instability) for a passive or no surfactant case with increase in the Biot number. For an active surfactant thermocapillary instability is found to remain the dominant mode of instability for all the values of the Biot number. It is shown that increasing the number of heaters beyond a couple does not further affect the stability results.
School Uniforms. Research Brief
Walker, Karen
2007-01-01
Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Linda
2008-01-01
The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue
Dysart, Joel E.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Kontis, Angelo L.
1999-01-01
The vertical hydraulic conductivity per unit thickness (streambed leakance) of unconsolidated sediment immediately beneath the channel of the Rockaway River near a municipal well field at Dover, N.J., is between 0.2 and 0.6 feet per day per foot and is probably near the low end of this range. This estimate is based on evaluation of three lines of evidence: (1) Streamflow measurements, which indicated that induced infiltration of river water near the well field averaged 0.67 cubic feet per second; (2) measurements of the rate of downward propagation of diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen and water temperature at three piezometers, which indicated vertical Darcian flow velocities of 0.6 and 1.5 feet per day, respectively; and (3) chemical mixing models based on stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, which indicated that 30 percent of the water reaching a well near the center of the well field was derived from the river. The estimated streambed-leakance values are compatible with other aquifer properties and with hydraulic stresses observed over a 2-year period, as demonstrated by a set of six alternative groundwater flow models of the Rockaway River valley. Simulated water levels rose 0.5 to 1.7 feet near the well field when simulated streambed leakance was changed from 0.2 to 0.6 feet per day per foot, or when a former reach of the Rockaway River valley that is now blocked by glacial drift was simulated as containing a continuous sand aquifer (rather than impermeable till). Model recalibration to observed water levels could accommodate either of these changes, however, by plausible adjustments in hydraulic conductivity of 35 percent or less.The ground-water flow models incorporate a new procedure for simulating areal recharge, in which water available for recharge in any time interval is accepted as recharge only where the water level in the uppermost model layer is below land surface. Water rejected as recharge on upland hillsides is allowed to recharge
Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto
1990-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)
Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Masina
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature. This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets
Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Masina
Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature.
This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.
Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets
Ethanol dehydration to ethylene in a stratified autothermal millisecond reactor.
Skinner, Michael J; Michor, Edward L; Fan, Wei; Tsapatsis, Michael; Bhan, Aditya; Schmidt, Lanny D
2011-08-22
The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.
Development of a natural gas stratified charge rotary engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierens, R.; Verdonck, W.
1985-01-01
A water model has been used to determine the positions of separate inlet ports for a natural gas, stratified charge rotary engine. The flow inside the combustion chamber (mainly during the induction period) has been registered by a film camera. From these tests the best locations of the inlet ports have been obtained, a prototype of this engine has been built by Audi NSU and tested in the laboratories of the university of Gent. The results of these tests, for different stratification configurations, are given. These results are comparable with the best results obtained by Audi NSU for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine.
Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation
Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.
1986-01-01
A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.
Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements
Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro
1998-12-01
Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.
Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, N. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, A.
2006-01-01
Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...
Spinning phenomena and energetics of spherically pulsating patterns in stratified fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Ranis N; Dameron, Michael
2011-01-01
The nonlinear solutions of the two-dimensional Boussinesq equations describing internal waves in rotating stratified fluids were obtained as group invariant solutions. The latter nonlinear solutions correspond to the rotation transformation preserving the form of the original nonlinear equations of motion. It is shown that the obtained class of exact solutions can be associated with the spherically pulsating patterns observed in uniformly stratified fluids. It is also shown that the obtained rotationally symmetric solutions are bounded functions that can be visualized as spinning patterns in stratified fluids. It is also shown that the rotational transformation provides the energy conservation law together with other conservation laws for which the spinning phenomena is observed. The effects of nonlinearity and the Earth's rotation on such a phenomenon are also discussed.
Experiments in stratified gas-liquid pipe flow
Birvalski, M.
2015-01-01
The growing demand for energy in the future will necessitate the production of natural gas from fields which are located farther offshore, in deep water and in very cold environments. This will confront us with difficulties in ensuring continuous production of the fluids (natural gas, condensate and
Uniform random number generators
Farr, W. R.
1971-01-01
Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.
Restricting uniformly open surjections
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kania, Tomasz; Rmoutil, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 355, č. 9 (2017), s. 925-928 ISSN 1631-073X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * uniform spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.396, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631073X17302261?via%3Dihub
Uniformly irradiated polymer film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, S.L.
1979-01-01
Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manera, Annalisa; Bardet, Philippe; Petrov, Victor
2018-03-29
scales, which leads to anisotropy. This important physical phenomenon is highly three dimensional and is challenging to capture even with high-fidelity CFD simulations, due in part to lack of sufficiently resolved validation data. Furthermore, the experimental data available in the open literature do not feature the level of fidelity needed for an extensive validation of turbulence models in lower order CFD. To shed new lights into the crucial phenomena object of the present research project, it was proposed to conduct coordinated experiments and simulations at the University of Michigan and the George Washington University. The project has resulted in an experimental database of high-resolution time-resolved measurements of jets in uniform and stratified environments. The novel experimental data will be used to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, including both Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) methodologies. In the Experimental and Multiphase flow (ECMF) laboratory at Univerisity of Michigan, we built two experimental facilities to investigate also the effect of scaling. The first facility, DESTROJER (DEnsity Stratified Turbulent ROund free Jet ExpeRiment), featuring a contoured jet nozzle with a diameter of D=12.7mm and a 1m×1m×1m cubic tank, which is made of acrylic glass for optical access. The ratio between the tank width and the nozzle diameter is equal to 78, which ensures that there is no direct interaction between the jet and the side walls. A second, modular experimental facility, features three different tank sizes of size 10×10×30, 20×20×30, 30×30×30 cm3 respectively (all tanks have the same height of 30 cm), and a jet diameter of 2mm. For the modular facility, tank-to-nozzle ratio of 50, 100, and 150 are obtained respectively. Experiments with different-density jet impactions and sharp interface with a density difference of 3.16% In the Laboratory at George Washington University
Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała
2012-01-01
The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...
Equipment for extracting and conveying stratified minerals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenthal, G.; Kunzer, H.; Plaga, K.
1991-08-14
This invention relates to equipment for extracting stratified minerals and conveying the said minerals along the working face, comprising a trough shaped conveyor run assembled from lengths, a troughed extraction run in lengths matching the lengths of conveyor troughing, which is linked to the top edge of the working face side of the conveyor troughing with freedom to swivel vertically, and a positively guided chain carrying extraction tools and scrapers along the conveyor and extraction runs.
Inviscid incompressible limits of strongly stratified fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, 3-4 (2014), s. 307-329 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * anelastic approximation * stratified fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2014 http://iospress.metapress.com/content/d71255745tl50125/?p=969b60ae82634854ab8bd25505ce1f71&pi=3
Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas
2006-01-01
Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...... performing dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium have given new dimensions to the understanding of nitrogen cycling in nature, and the occurrence of these organisms and processes in stratified microbial communities will be described in detail.......Abstract New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about...... nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium, and about the microorganisms performing the processes, has been produced by use of these techniques. During the last decade the discovery of anammmox bacteria and migrating, nitrate accumulating bacteria...
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao
2011-01-01
Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions.
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions
Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer
Taylor, John R.
Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory
E25 stratified torch ignition engine emissions and combustion analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Antonio; Baêta, José Guilherme Coelho; Teixeira, Alysson Fernandes; Valle, Ramón Molina; Fonseca de Souza, José Leôncio
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built and tested. • The STI engines was tested in a wide range of load and speed. • Significant reduction on emissions was achieved by means of the STI system. • Low cyclic variability characterized the lean combustion process of the torch ignition engine. • HC emission is the main drawback of the stratified torch ignition engine. - Abstract: Vehicular emissions significantly increase atmospheric air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHG). This fact associated with fast global vehicle fleet growth calls for prompt scientific community technological solutions in order to promote a significant reduction in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, especially of fossil fuels to comply with future legislation. To meet this goal, a prototype stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built from a commercial existing baseline engine. In this system, combustion starts in a pre-combustion chamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main chamber. These combustion jet flames are endowed with high thermal and kinetic energy, being able to generate a stable lean combustion process. The high kinetic and thermal energy of the combustion jet flame results from the load stratification. This is carried out through direct fuel injection in the pre-combustion chamber by means of a prototype gasoline direct injector (GDI) developed for a very low fuel flow rate. In this work the engine out-emissions of CO, NOx, HC and CO_2 of the STI engine are presented and a detailed analysis supported by the combustion parameters is conducted. The results obtained in this work show a significant decrease in the specific emissions of CO, NOx and CO_2 of the STI engine in comparison with the baseline engine. On the other hand, HC specific emission increased due to wall wetting from the fuel hitting in the pre-combustion chamber wall.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanna Karaszewska
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Second law characterization of stratified thermal storage tanks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraidenraich, N [Departamento de Energia Nuclear-UFPE (Brazil)
2000-07-01
It is well known that fluid stratification in thermal storage tanks improves the overall performance of solar thermal systems, when compared with systems operating with uniform fluid temperature. From the point of view of the first law of thermodynamics, no difference exists between storage tanks with the same mass and average temperature, even if they have different stratified thermal structures. Nevertheless, the useful thermal energy that can be obtained from them might differ significantly. In this work, we derive an expression able to characterize the stratified configuration of thermal fluid. Using results obtained by thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the procedure adopted consists in calculating the maximum work available from the tank's thermal layer is able to develop. We arrive, then, at a dimensionless expression, the stratification parameter (SP), which depends on the mass fraction and absolute temperature of each thermal layer as well as the thermal fluid average temperature. Numerical examples for different types of tank stratification are given and it is verified that the expression obtained is sensitive to small differences in the reservoir thermal configuration. For example a thermal storage with temperatures equal to 74 Celsius degrees, 64 Celsius degrees and 54 Celsius degrees, with its mass equally distributed along the tank yields, for the parameter SP, a figure equal to 0.000294. On the other hand a storage tank with the same average temperature but with different layer's temperatures 76 Celsius degrees, 64 and 52 Celsius degrees, also with uniform mass distribution, yields for SP a value equal to quantitative evaluation of the stratification structure of thermal reservoirs. [Spanish] Es bien conocido que la estratificacion fluida en tanques de almacenamiento termico mejora el rendimiento total de los sistemas termicos solares en comparacion con sistemas que operan con temperatura uniforme del fluido. Desde el punto de vista
[Causes of emergency dizziness stratified by etiology].
Qiao, Wenying; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Yugeng; Jia, Weihua; Wang, Honghong; Liu, Bo; Tan, Jing; Li, Changqing
2014-06-03
To explore the causes of emergency dizziness stratified to improve the diagnostic efficiency. A total of 1 857 cases of dizziness at our emergency department were collected and their etiologies stratified by age and gender. The top three diagnoses were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 31.7%), hypertension (24.0%) and posterior circulation ischemia (PCI, 20.5%). Stratified by age, the main causes of dizziness included BPPV (n = 6), migraine-associated vertigo (n = 2), unknown cause (n = 1) for the group of vertigo (14.5%) and neurosis (7.3%) for 18-44 years; BPPV (36.8%), hypertension (22.4%) and migraine-associated vertigo (11.2%) for 45-59 years; hypertension (30.8%), PCI (29.8%) and BPPV (22.9%) for 60-74 years; PCI (30.7%), hypertension (28.6%) and BPPV (25.5%) for 75-92 years. BPPV, migraine and neurosis were more common in females while hypertension and PCI predominated in males (all P hypertension, neurosis and migraine showed the following significant demographic features: BPPV, PCI, hypertension, neurosis and migraine may be the main causes of dizziness. BPPV should be considered initially when vertigo was triggered repeatedly by positional change, especially for young and middle-aged women. And the other common causes of dizziness were migraine-associated vertigo, neurosis and Meniere's disease.Hypertension should be screened firstly in middle-aged and elderly patients presenting mainly with head heaviness and stretching. In elders with dizziness, BPPV is second in constituent ratio to PCI and hypertension.In middle-aged and elderly patients with dizziness, psychological factors should be considered and diagnosis and treatment should be offered timely.
Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.
1998-12-01
This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.
Stratified B-trees and versioning dictionaries
Twigg, Andy; Byde, Andrew; Milos, Grzegorz; Moreton, Tim; Wilkes, John; Wilkie, Tom
2011-01-01
A classic versioned data structure in storage and computer science is the copy-on-write (CoW) B-tree -- it underlies many of today's file systems and databases, including WAFL, ZFS, Btrfs and more. Unfortunately, it doesn't inherit the B-tree's optimality properties; it has poor space utilization, cannot offer fast updates, and relies on random IO to scale. Yet, nothing better has been developed since. We describe the `stratified B-tree', which beats all known semi-external memory versioned B...
Microstructure of Turbulence in the Stably Stratified Boundary Layer
Sorbjan, Zbigniew; Balsley, Ben B.
2008-11-01
The microstructure of a stably stratified boundary layer, with a significant low-level nocturnal jet, is investigated based on observations from the CASES-99 campaign in Kansas, U.S.A. The reported, high-resolution vertical profiles of the temperature, wind speed, wind direction, pressure, and the turbulent dissipation rate, were collected under nocturnal conditions on October 14, 1999, using the CIRES Tethered Lifting System. Two methods for evaluating instantaneous (1-sec) background profiles are applied to the raw data. The background potential temperature is calculated using the “bubble sort” algorithm to produce a monotonically increasing potential temperature with increasing height. Other scalar quantities are smoothed using a running vertical average. The behaviour of background flow, buoyant overturns, turbulent fluctuations, and their respective histograms are presented. Ratios of the considered length scales and the Ozmidov scale are nearly constant with height, a fact that can be applied in practice for estimating instantaneous profiles of the dissipation rate.
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego
2012-01-01
The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρ ext ∝r –k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ 0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ –1 0 . For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ –1 0 ) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θ obs ≤ θ 0 ) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 ≤ k ≤ 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego
2012-05-01
The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρextvpropr -k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ-1 0. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ-1 0) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θobs <= θ0) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 <= k <= 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet decelerates more
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [TASC, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2012-05-20
The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with {rho}{sub ext}{proportional_to}r{sup -k} for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle {theta}{sub 0} = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor {Gamma} drops below {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when {Gamma} > {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for {theta}{sub obs} {<=} {theta}{sub 0}) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 {<=} k {<=} 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal
2009-01-01
This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....
Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.
Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J
2000-02-01
Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.
Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones
Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.
2016-01-01
Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963
Stratified Simulations of Collisionless Accretion Disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: hirabayashi-k@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)
2017-06-10
This paper presents a series of stratified-shearing-box simulations of collisionless accretion disks in the recently developed framework of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which can handle finite non-gyrotropy of a pressure tensor. Although a fully kinetic simulation predicted a more efficient angular-momentum transport in collisionless disks than in the standard MHD regime, the enhanced transport has not been observed in past kinetic-MHD approaches to gyrotropic pressure anisotropy. For the purpose of investigating this missing link between the fully kinetic and MHD treatments, this paper explores the role of non-gyrotropic pressure and makes the first attempt to incorporate certain collisionless effects into disk-scale, stratified disk simulations. When the timescale of gyrotropization was longer than, or comparable to, the disk-rotation frequency of the orbit, we found that the finite non-gyrotropy selectively remaining in the vicinity of current sheets contributes to suppressing magnetic reconnection in the shearing-box system. This leads to increases both in the saturated amplitude of the MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instabilities and in the resultant efficiency of angular-momentum transport. Our results seem to favor the fast advection of magnetic fields toward the rotation axis of a central object, which is required to launch an ultra-relativistic jet from a black hole accretion system in, for example, a magnetically arrested disk state.
Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?
Journal of School Health, 2001
2001-01-01
This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…
Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.
1989-01-01
Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)
Monte Carlo stratified source-sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.
1997-01-01
In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo open-quotes eigenvalue of the worldclose quotes problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. The original test-problem was treated by a special code designed specifically for that purpose. Recently ANL started work on a method for dealing with more realistic eigenvalue of the world configurations, and has been incorporating this method into VIM. The original method has been modified to take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem. This paper constitutes a status report on work still in progress
Ecosystem metabolism in a stratified lake
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stæhr, Peter Anton; Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard; Batt, Ryan D.
2012-01-01
, differences were not significant. During stratification, daily variability in epilimnetic DO was dominated by metabolism (46%) and air-water gas exchange (44%). Fluxes related to mixed-layer deepening dominated in meta- and hypolimnic waters (49% and 64%), while eddy diffusion (1% and 14%) was less important....... Although air-water gas exchange rates differed among the three formulations of gas-transfer velocity, this had no significant effect on metabolic rates....... that integrates rates across the entire depth profile and includes DO exchange between depth layers driven by mixed-layer deepening and eddy diffusivity. During full mixing, NEP was close to zero throughout the water column, and GPP and R were reduced 2-10 times compared to stratified periods. When present...
Information content of household-stratified epidemics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.M. Kinyanjui
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.
Information content of household-stratified epidemics.
Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T
2016-09-01
Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stratified sampling design based on data mining.
Kim, Yeonkook J; Oh, Yoonhwan; Park, Sunghoon; Cho, Sungzoon; Park, Hayoung
2013-09-01
To explore classification rules based on data mining methodologies which are to be used in defining strata in stratified sampling of healthcare providers with improved sampling efficiency. We performed k-means clustering to group providers with similar characteristics, then, constructed decision trees on cluster labels to generate stratification rules. We assessed the variance explained by the stratification proposed in this study and by conventional stratification to evaluate the performance of the sampling design. We constructed a study database from health insurance claims data and providers' profile data made available to this study by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea, and population data from Statistics Korea. From our database, we used the data for single specialty clinics or hospitals in two specialties, general surgery and ophthalmology, for the year 2011 in this study. Data mining resulted in five strata in general surgery with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and population density of provider location, and five strata in ophthalmology with two stratification variables, the number of inpatients per specialist and number of beds. The percentages of variance in annual changes in the productivity of specialists explained by the stratification in general surgery and ophthalmology were 22% and 8%, respectively, whereas conventional stratification by the type of provider location and number of beds explained 2% and 0.2% of variance, respectively. This study demonstrated that data mining methods can be used in designing efficient stratified sampling with variables readily available to the insurer and government; it offers an alternative to the existing stratification method that is widely used in healthcare provider surveys in South Korea.
Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method
Waluyo, Joko
2016-06-01
Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be
The effect of sediments on turbulent plume dynamics in a stratified fluid
Stenberg, Erik; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Brandt, Luca
2017-11-01
We report large eddy simulation results of sediment-loaded turbulent plumes in a stratified fluid. The configuration, where the plume is discharged from a round source, provides an idealized model of subglacial discharge from a submarine tidewater glacier and is a starting point for understanding the effect of sediments on the dynamics of the rising plume. The transport of sediments is modeled by means of an advection-diffusion equation where sediment settling velocity is taken into account. We initially follow the experimental setup of Sutherland (Phys. Rev. Fluids, 2016), considering uniformly stratified ambients and further extend the work to pycnocline-type stratifications typical of Greenland fjords. Apart from examining the rise height, radial spread and intrusion of the rising plume, we gain further insights of the plume dynamics by extracting turbulent characteristics and the distribution of the sediments inside the plume.
Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.
Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.
Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan
2014-11-01
Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.
Quijano, Jessica Kim
2009-07-01
The stability and uniformity of the low-frequency flat fields {L-flat} of the UVIS detector will be assessed by using multiple-pointing observations of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae {NGC104} and Omega Centauri {NGC5139}, thus imaging moderately dense stellar fields. By placing the same star over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine local variations in the response of the UVIS detector. Based on previous experience with STIS and ACS, it is deemed that a total of 9 different pointings will suffice to provide adequate characterization of the flat field stability in any given band. For each filter to be tested, the baseline consists of 9 pointings in a 3X3 box pattern with dither steps of about 25% of the FOV, or 40.5", in either the x or y direction {useful also for CTE measurements, if needed in the future}. During SMOV, the complement of filters to be tested is limited to the following 6 filters: F225W, F275W, F336W, for Omega Cen, and F438W, F606W, and F814W for 47 Tuc. Three long exposures for each target are arranged such that the initial dither position is observed with the appropriate filters for that target within one orbit at a single pointing, so that filter-to-filter differences in the observed star positions can be checked. In addition to the 9 baseline exposures, two sets of short exposures will be taken:a} one short exposure will be taken of OmegaCen with each of the visible filters {F438W, F606W and F814W} in order to check the geometric distortion solution to be obtained with the data from proposal 11444;b} for each target, a single short exposure will be taken with each filter to facilitate the study of the PSF as a function of position on the detector by providing unsaturated images of sparsely-spaced bright stars.This proposal corresponds to Activity Description ID WF39. It should execute only after the following proposal has executed:WF21 - 11434
Improved patient selection by stratified surgical intervention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Miao; Bünger, Cody E; Li, Haisheng
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Choosing the best surgical treatment for patients with spinal metastases remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. There is currently no gold standard for surgical treatments. The Aarhus Spinal Metastases Algorithm (ASMA) was established to help surgeons choose...... the most appropriate surgical intervention for patients with spinal metastases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of stratified surgical interventions based on the ASMA, which combines life expectancy and the anatomical classification of patients with spinal metastases...... survival times in the five surgical groups determined by the ASMA were 2.1 (TS 0-4, TC 1-7), 5.1 (TS 5-8, TC 1-7), 12.1 (TS 9-11, TC 1-7 or TS 12-15, TC 7), 26.0 (TS 12-15, TC 4-6), and 36.0 (TS 12-15, TC 1-3) months. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.5%. Postoperative neurological function was maintained...
Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.
2001-01-01
In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km 3 ) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)
Turbulent fluxes in stably stratified boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii
2008-01-01
We present here an extended version of an invited talk we gave at the international conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond'. The dynamical and statistical description of stably stratified turbulent boundary layers with the important example of the stable atmospheric boundary layer in mind is addressed. Traditional approaches to this problem, based on the profiles of mean quantities, velocity second-order correlations and dimensional estimates of the turbulent thermal flux, run into a well-known difficulty, predicting the suppression of turbulence at a small critical value of the Richardson number, in contradiction to observations. Phenomenological attempts to overcome this problem suffer from various theoretical inconsistencies. Here, we present an approach taking into full account all the second-order statistics, which allows us to respect the conservation of total mechanical energy. The analysis culminates in an analytic solution of the profiles of all mean quantities and all second-order correlations, removing the unphysical predictions of previous theories. We propose that the approach taken here is sufficient to describe the lower parts of the atmospheric boundary layer, as long as the Richardson number does not exceed an order of unity. For much higher Richardson numbers, the physics may change qualitatively, requiring careful consideration of the potential Kelvin-Helmoholtz waves and their interaction with the vortical turbulence.
Non-uniform versus uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPET of healthy volunteers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Koole, M.
2001-01-01
Although non-uniform attenuation correction (NUAC) can supply more accurate absolute quantification, it is not entirely clear whether NUAC provides clear-cut benefits in the routine clinical practice of brain SPET imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NUAC versus uniform attenuation correction (UAC) on volume of interest (VOI)-based semi-quantification of a large age- and gender-stratified brain perfusion normal database. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers (46 females and 43 males, aged 20-81 years) underwent standardised high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with 925 MBq 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) on a Toshiba GCA-9300A camera with 153 Gd or 99m Tc transmission CT scanning. Emission images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection and scatter corrected using the triple-energy window correction method. Both non-uniform Chang attenuation correction (one iteration) and uniform Sorenson correction (attenuation coefficient 0.09 cm -1 ) were applied. Images were automatically re-oriented to a stereotactic template on which 35 predefined VOIs were defined for semi-quantification (normalisation on total VOI counts). Small but significant differences between relative VOI uptake values for NUAC versus UAC in the infratentorial region were found. VOI standard deviations were significantly smaller for UAC, 4.5% (range 2.6-7.5), than for NUAC, 5.0% (2.3-9.0) (P 99m Tc-ECD uptake values in healthy volunteers to those obtained with NUAC, although values for the infratentorial region are slightly lower. NUAC produces a slight increase in inter-subject variability. Further study is necessary in various patient populations to establish the full clinical impact of NUAC in brain perfusion SPET. (orig.)
Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in Simplified Stratified Charge Conditions
Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Morikawa, Hideaki; Komatsu, Eiji
The stratified charge combustion system has been widely studied due to the significant potentials for low fuel consumption rate and low exhaust gas emissions. The fuel-air mixture formation process in a direct-injection stratified charge engine is influenced by various parameters, such as atomization, evaporation, and in-cylinder gas motion at high temperature and high pressure conditions. It is difficult to observe the in-cylinder phenomena in such conditions and also challenging to analyze the following stratified charge combustion. Therefore, the combustion phenomena in simplified stratified charge conditions aiming to analyze the fundamental stratified charge combustion are examined. That is, an experimental apparatus which can control the mixture distribution and the gas motion at ignition timing was developed, and the effects of turbulence intensity, mixture concentration distribution, and mixture composition on stratified charge combustion were examined. As a result, the effects of fuel, charge stratification, and turbulence on combustion characteristics were clarified.
School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.
Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.
1998-01-01
The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…
Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Broumi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.
Comments on Beckmann's Uniform Reducts
Cook, Stephen
2006-01-01
Arnold Beckmann defined the uniform reduct of a propositional proof system f to be the set of those bounded arithmetical formulas whose propositional translations have polynomial size f-proofs. We prove that the uniform reduct of f + Extended Frege consists of all true bounded arithmetical formulas iff f + Extended Frege simulates every proof system.
Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H
2008-01-21
We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.
Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?
Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David
To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities.
Modelling of vapour explosion in stratified geometrie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picchi, St.
1999-01-01
When a hot liquid comes into contact with a colder volatile liquid, one can obtain in some conditions an explosive vaporization, told vapour explosion, whose consequences can be important on neighbouring structures. This explosion needs the intimate mixing and the fine fragmentation between the two liquids. In a stratified vapour explosion, these two liquids are initially superposed and separated by a vapor film. A triggering of the explosion can induce a propagation of this along the film. A study of experimental results and existent models has allowed to retain the following main points: - the explosion propagation is due to a pressure wave propagating through the medium; - the mixing is due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by the shear velocity between the two liquids behind the pressure wave. The presence of the vapour in the volatile liquid explains experimental propagation velocity and the velocity difference between the two fluids at the pressure wave crossing. A first model has been proposed by Brayer in 1994 in order to describe the fragmentation and the mixing of the two fluids. Results of the author do not show explosion propagation. We have therefore built a new mixing-fragmentation model based on the atomization phenomenon that develops itself during the pressure wave crossing. We have also taken into account the transient aspect of the heat transfer between fuel drops and the volatile liquid, and elaborated a model of transient heat transfer. These two models have been introduced in a multi-components, thermal, hydraulic code, MC3D. Results of calculation show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results and confirm basic options of the model. (author)
Aligning the Economic Value of Companion Diagnostics and Stratified Medicines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward D. Blair
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The twin forces of payors seeking fair pricing and the rising costs of developing new medicines has driven a closer relationship between pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics companies, because stratified medicines, guided by companion diagnostics, offer better commercial, as well as clinical, outcomes. Stratified medicines have created clinical success and provided rapid product approvals, particularly in oncology, and indeed have changed the dynamic between drug and diagnostic developers. The commercial payback for such partnerships offered by stratified medicines has been less well articulated, but this has shifted as the benefits in risk management, pricing and value creation for all stakeholders become clearer. In this larger healthcare setting, stratified medicine provides both physicians and patients with greater insight on the disease and provides rationale for providers to understand cost-effectiveness of treatment. This article considers how the economic value of stratified medicine relationships can be recognized and translated into better outcomes for all healthcare stakeholders.
Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.
Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve
2006-12-30
Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This
Modeling the Conducting Stably-Stratified Layer of the Earth's Core
Petitdemange, L.; Philidet, J.; Gissinger, C.
2017-12-01
Observations of the Earth magnetic field as well as recent theoretical works tend to show that the Earth's outer liquid core is mostly comprised of a convective zone in which the Earth's magnetic field is generated - likely by dynamo action -, but also features a thin, stably stratified layer at the top of the core.We carry out direct numerical simulations by modeling this thin layer as an axisymmetric spherical Couette flow for a stably stratified fluid embedded in a dipolar magnetic field. The dynamo region is modeled by a conducting inner core rotating slightly faster than the insulating mantle due to magnetic torques acting on it, such that a weak differential rotation (low Rossby limit) can develop in the stably stratified layer.In the case of a non-stratified fluid, the combined action of the differential rotation and the magnetic field leads to the well known regime of `super-rotation', in which the fluid rotates faster than the inner core. Whereas in the classical case, this super-rotation is known to vanish in the magnetostrophic limit, we show here that the fluid stratification significantly extends the magnitude of the super-rotation, keeping this phenomenon relevant for the Earth core. Finally, we study how the shear layers generated by this new state might give birth to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or waves impacting the secular variations or jerks of the Earth's magnetic field.
Uniformity: The key to better inventory management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boshears, G.
1993-01-01
The objective of this paper is to show how uniformity in describing parts and materials can be the key ingredient to more effective inventory management. Although most nuclear utilities have some type of computer system for maintenance management as well as materials tracking, few have a system to provide the various users with complete information about parts and material in stock. One of the industry's most perplexing problems is How do you know, and find, the item you need to repair a particular piece of equipment or component? In many instances it is easier to order a new one from the manufacturer rather than try to find it on-site, which can result in inaccurate usage records, over-stocking, frustration, and strain on cash flow. What is needed is a higher degree of uniformity within a station, and a utility, of catalog descriptions for parts and material that will satisfy all users-planners, craftsmen, warehouse personnel, and buyers. The results of attaining this uniformity are improved performance through searchability, duplicate stock avoidance, interchangeability, substitutability, and more accurate bills of material; economic benefits will also be noted
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konno, J [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)
1997-09-25
In a flow system for vapor/solid catalytic reactions, there is a concentration distribution along the external catalyst surface, observed in the vicinity of the surface. Change in the reaction rate constant is followed for the case where the concentration distribution varies by flow. A 2-dimensional numerical model in which flow field and property conditions are simplified is used to analyze the change on the assumption that high-activity and low-activity sites are regularly distributed over the external catalyst surface. The transport equations for the reactants are numerically solved for given flow fields. It is found that the concentration distribution shape and equivalent reaction rate constant are almost the same as those in a stationary system at Pecret number of around 10 or lower, the concentration distribution gradually becomes uniform whereas equivalent rate constant increases as flow rate increases at Pecret number in a range from around 10 to 10{sup 6}, and they are almost constant at Pecret number beyond around 10{sup 6}. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marichev, F N; Chernobay, L A; Teterina, O P; Yarmizin, V G
1980-01-01
Problems with oil industry equipment and pipeline corrosion have recently highlighted the problems of increased water content in oil and the presence of biogenic hydrogen sulphide in petroleum matter. These findings underscore the importance of taking these problems into consideration when formulating long-term production plans. A study of pipeline corrosion and its causes, as well as other factors, has permitted researchers to correlate hydrodynamic parameters for gas-fluid transportability and structural contour flows. The water phase simultaneously carries corrosion-active ions of dissolved hydrogen sulphide and material which interact to corrode metal in the lower sections of pipelines. In order to determine the susceptibility of pipelines to corrosion, it is necessary to establish the presence of stratified fluids in oil and water as well as the gas-fluid flow. Analysis has shown that those sections with stratified emulsion could be identified and that it is necessary to disclose the pipeline's ability to withstand such conditions. The proper selection of transport parameters permits the technological protection of the oil collection pipelines. Partially as a result of the increased flow speed guaranteeing an emulsion flow regime for the gas-water-oil flow, it was found that the operational service-life of pipelines could be prolonged by a reduction of corrosion in oil collection pipelines.
The stratified H-index makes scientific impact transparent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Würtz, Morten; Schmidt, Morten
2017-01-01
The H-index is widely used to quantify and standardize researchers' scientific impact. However, the H-index does not account for the fact that co-authors rarely contribute equally to a paper. Accordingly, we propose the use of a stratified H-index to measure scientific impact. The stratified H......-index supplements the conventional H-index with three separate H-indices: one for first authorships, one for second authorships and one for last authorships. The stratified H-index takes scientific output, quality and individual author contribution into account....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1995-12-31
The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx
2004-07-01
The search of the patterns of control bars (PBCs) in a power reactor of boiling water, requires to investigate a very wide space of solutions, in principle they are had of the order of 3 x 10{sup 152} possible configurations to establish the PBC in a point given before reaching the end of the cycle. This situation suggests to define those restrictions and conditions initial appropriately so that the search converges toward the desirable results. Presently work the results of the search of patterns of bars based on different flow scenarios through the nucleus are presented. The Cycle 10 is analysed (C10) of the Unit One of the Nuclear Power station Laguna Verde (CNLV), which presents an interesting mixture of diverse designs of control bars used in operation to power. The search of the patterns of bars of objective control is carried out applying the GACRP program which is based on the calculation technique known as genetic algorithms. (Author)
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2010-01-01
We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steen Mørup
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.
Uniformity calibration for ICT image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Gang; Liu Li; Que Jiemin; Zhang Yingping; Yin Yin; Wang Yanfang; Yu Zhongqiang; Yan Yonglian
2004-01-01
The uniformity of ICT image is impaired by beam hardening and the inconsistency of detector units responses. The beam hardening and the nonlinearity of the detector's output have been analyzed. The correction factors are determined experimentally by the detector's responses with different absorption length. The artifacts in the CT image of a symmetrical aluminium cylinder have been eliminated after calibration. (author)
School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.
Essex, Nathan L.
2001-01-01
Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…
Uniform peanut performance test 2017
The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurício C. Goldfarb
2004-12-01
Full Text Available A partir da equação de von Karman Prandtl para tubos pressurizados, Kazemipour & Apelt (1980 desenvolveram uma metodologia para cálculo do escoamento em canais circulares lisos, denominada método de Kazemipour o qual, apesar de apresentar resultados de bastante eficiência necessita, no entanto, de recursos gráficos na sua aplicação, o que impossibilita a solução através de métodos computacionais e, também, a comparação deste com outras metodologias existentes. Neste trabalho, mostram-se os resultados da investigação analítica que resulta na validação do método de Kazemipour, como também o ajuste, de acordo com o procedimento proposto por Silva & Figueiredo (1993, de maneira a tornar o procedimento completamente equacionável sem a necessidade de recursos gráficos. O resultado encontrado é satisfatório e sua aplicação é apresentada num exemplo de aplicação prática.Considering the von Karman Prandtl equation for pressurized tubes, Kazemipour & Apelt (1980 developed a methodology for flow calculation in smooth circular channels, denominated as method of Kazemipour. Inspite of good results, the Kazemipour method needs graphic tools in its application, which makes its solution through computational methods and comparison to other existing methodologies difficult. In this research, the results of the analytic investigation that provides the validation of the Kazemipour method are shown, as well as the adjustments according to procedure proposed by Silva & Figueiredo (1993, performed in such a way to make the procedure independent of graphic tools. The result obtained is satisfactory and its use is presented in an example of practical application.
46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.
2010-10-01
... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping MARITIME...
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, T. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-01-10
In recent years, the construction of long-span bridges is on the increase. Prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges are dynamically very efficient structures of relatively low cost that blend in well with the landscape. Maintenance is also easy. Consequently, the adoption of edge box girders for cable-stayed bridges is increasing worldwide, but problems related to the aerodynamic stability of the structure have emerged. The aerodynamic stability of edge box girders for a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was investigated under uniform flow conditions by conducting several wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the section of the bridge deck was optimized to prevent torsional flutter within an angle of attack varying from -5 to +5 degrees. It is therefore possible to guarantee the aerodynamic stability of long-span prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. (author)
An experimental study on quenching of a radially stratified heated porous bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayak, Arun K.; Sehgal, Bal Raj; Stepanyan, Armen V.
2006-01-01
The quenching characteristics of a volumetrically-heated particulate bed composed of radially stratified sand layers were investigated experimentally in the POMECO facility. The sand bed simulates the corium particulate debris bed which is formed when the molten corium released from the vessel fragments in water and deposits on the cavity floor during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). The electrically-heated bed was quenched by water from a water column established over top of it, and later also with water coming from its bottom, which was circulating from the water overlayer through downcomers. A series of experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of the size of downcomers, and their locations in the bed, on the quenching characteristics of the radially stratified debris beds. The downcomers were found to significantly increase the bed quenching rate. To simulate the non-condensable gases generated during the MCCI, air and argon were injected from the bottom of the bed at different flow rates. The effects of gas flow rate and its properties on the quenching behaviour were observed. The results indicate that the non-condensable gas flows reduce the quenching rate significantly. The gas properties also affect the quenching characteristics
Transversals in 4-uniform hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A; Yeo, Anders
2016-01-01
with maximum degree ∆(H) ≤ 3, then τ (H) ≤ n/4 + m/6, which proves a known conjecture. We show that an easy corollary of our main result is that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph with n vertices and n edges, then τ (H) ≤3/7 n, which was the main result of the Thomassé-Yeo paper [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473...
ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays
Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.
1989-11-01
Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)
1997-04-01
The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.
Dynamic thermoelectricity in uniform bipolar semiconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volovichev, I.N., E-mail: vin@ire.kharkov.ua
2016-07-01
The theory of the dynamic thermoelectric effect has been developed. The effect lies in an electric current flowing in a closed circuit that consists of a uniform bipolar semiconductor, in which a non-uniform temperature distribution in the form of the traveling wave is created. The calculations are performed for the one-dimensional model in the quasi-neutrality approximation. It was shown that the direct thermoelectric current prevails, despite the periodicity of the thermal excitation, the circuit homogeneity and the lack of rectifier properties of the semiconductor system. Several physical reasons underlining the dynamic thermoelectric effect are found. One of them is similar to the Dember photoelectric effect, its contribution to the current flowing is determined by the difference in the electron and hole mobilities, and is completely independent of the carrier Seebeck coefficients. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current magnitude on the semiconductor parameters, as well as on the temperature wave amplitude, length and velocity is studied. It is shown that the magnitude of the thermoelectric current is proportional to the square of the temperature wave amplitude. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current on the temperature wave length and velocity is the nonmonotonic function. The optimum values for the temperature wave length and velocity, at which the dynamic thermoelectric effect is the greatest, have been deduced. It is found that the thermoelectric short circuit current changes its direction with decreasing the temperature wave length under certain conditions. The prospects for the possible applications of the dynamic thermoelectric effect are also discussed.
Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Doubly Stratified Porous Medium with Soret-Dufour Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Srinivasacharya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonsimilarity solutions for mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi-infinite vertical plate embedded in a doubly stratified fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. The flow in the porous medium is described by employing the Darcy-Forchheimer based model. The nonlinear governing equations and their associated boundary conditions are initially cast into dimensionless forms and then solved numerically. The influence of pertinent parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, heat, and mass transfer in terms of the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is discussed and presented graphically.
Performance and combustion characteristics of direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engines
Nguyen, Hung Lee
1987-01-01
Computer simulations of the direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) Wankel engine have been used to calculate heat release rates and performance and efficiency characteristics of the 1007R engine. Engine pressure data have been used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine performance data are compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the Wankel engine with faster combustion, reduced leakage, higher compression ratio, and turbocharging is presented.
Temperature uniformity in the CERN CLOUD chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Dias
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research investigates the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions and their activation into cloud droplets. A key feature of the CLOUD experiment is precise control of the experimental parameters. Temperature uniformity and stability in the chamber are important since many of the processes under study are sensitive to temperature and also to contaminants that can be released from the stainless steel walls by upward temperature fluctuations. The air enclosed within the 26 m3 CLOUD chamber is equipped with several arrays (strings of high precision, fast-response thermometers to measure its temperature. Here we present a study of the air temperature uniformity inside the CLOUD chamber under various experimental conditions. Measurements were performed under calibration conditions and run conditions, which are distinguished by the flow rate of fresh air and trace gases entering the chamber at 20 and up to 210 L min−1, respectively. During steady-state calibration runs between −70 and +20 °C, the air temperature uniformity is better than ±0.06 °C in the radial direction and ±0.1 °C in the vertical direction. Larger non-uniformities are present during experimental runs, depending on the temperature control of the make-up air and trace gases (since some trace gases require elevated temperatures until injection into the chamber. The temperature stability is ±0.04 °C over periods of several hours during either calibration or steady-state run conditions. During rapid adiabatic expansions to activate cloud droplets and ice particles, the chamber walls are up to 10 °C warmer than the enclosed air. This results in temperature differences of ±1.5 °C in the vertical direction and ±1 °C in the horizontal direction, while the air returns to its equilibrium temperature with a time constant of about 200 s.
Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible
Blanchard , Nicolas
2016-01-01
International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...
Brachytherapy dose-volume histogram computations using optimized stratified sampling methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karouzakis, K.; Lahanas, M.; Milickovic, N.; Giannouli, S.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N.
2002-01-01
A stratified sampling method for the efficient repeated computation of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in brachytherapy is presented as used for anatomy based brachytherapy optimization methods. The aim of the method is to reduce the number of sampling points required for the calculation of DVHs for the body and the PTV. From the DVHs are derived the quantities such as Conformity Index COIN and COIN integrals. This is achieved by using partial uniform distributed sampling points with a density in each region obtained from a survey of the gradients or the variance of the dose distribution in these regions. The shape of the sampling regions is adapted to the patient anatomy and the shape and size of the implant. For the application of this method a single preprocessing step is necessary which requires only a few seconds. Ten clinical implants were used to study the appropriate number of sampling points, given a required accuracy for quantities such as cumulative DVHs, COIN indices and COIN integrals. We found that DVHs of very large tissue volumes surrounding the PTV, and also COIN distributions, can be obtained using a factor of 5-10 times smaller the number of sampling points in comparison with uniform distributed points
Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten
Bloem, J.
1989-01-01
The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.
Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by
The dynamics of small inertial particles in weakly stratified turbulence
van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.
We present an overview of a numerical study on the small-scale dynamics and the large-scale dispersion of small inertial particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles are examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles (with particle-to-fluid density ratio 1Ͽp/Ͽf25) and
Dispersion of (light) inertial particles in stratified turbulence
van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, Vincenzo; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Fröhlich, Jochen
2010-01-01
We present a brief overview of a numerical study of the dispersion of particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles arc examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f = \\mathcal{O}(1)$) and heavy inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f \\gg 1$). Stratification
On Internal Waves in a Density-Stratified Estuary
Kranenburg, C.
1991-01-01
In this article some field observations, made in recent years, of internal wave motions in a density-stratified estuary are presented, In order to facilitate the appreciation of the results, and to make some quantitative comparisons, the relevant theory is also summarized. Furthermore, the origins
FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.
Olkkonen, Juuso
2010-03-01
We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.
Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine
Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.
1996-01-01
Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.
Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 4: Stratified medicine research
A. Hingorani (Aroon); D.A.W.M. van der Windt (Daniëlle); R.D. Riley (Richard); D. Abrams; K.G.M. Moons (Karel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); S. Schroter (Sara); W. Sauerbrei (Willi); D.G. Altman (Douglas); H. Hemingway; A. Briggs (Andrew); N. Brunner; P. Croft (Peter); J. Hayden (Jill); P.A. Kyzas (Panayiotis); N. Malats (Núria); G. Peat; P. Perel (Pablo); I. Roberts (Ian); A. Timmis (Adam)
2013-01-01
textabstractIn patients with a particular disease or health condition, stratified medicine seeks to identify thosewho will have the most clinical benefit or least harm from a specific treatment. In this article, thefourth in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss why prognosis research should form
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.
Measurements of density profile evolution during the stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarawneh, Constantine M.; Homan, K.O.
2008-01-01
The stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure produces an interfacial gradient layer which is transported through the enclosure with the bulk flow. The evolution of this interfacial layer is strongly time-dependent and is driven by the nature of the interaction between the internal gravity waves and the inlet-driven interfacial shear. Measurements of density profile evolution have been completed for a rectangular enclosure with a single corner inlet and density variation produced by saline concentration. This system serves as a mass transfer analog to large-scale, thermally-stratified energy storage devices, preserving dynamic similitude in a laboratory-scale system. The experiments covered jet Reynolds numbers of 200-2200 and Froude numbers of 0.06-0.6 in an enclosure with a width 23 times the jet inlet height. The density profiles are seen to be strongly asymmetric and exhibit growth rates significantly different than due to simple one-dimensional molecular diffusion. In addition, shadowgraph and hydrogen bubble visualizations of the density and velocity fields in the gradient layer show the persistence of complex multi-dimensional flow structure even at relatively late stages of the filling process when the gradient layer has been transported well away from the enclosure inlet. The evolution of the vertical density profile has been compared quantitatively to a quasi one-dimensional model based upon empirical diffusivity coefficients
Controls on Turbulent Mixing in a Strongly Stratified and Sheared Tidal River Plume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurisa, Joseph T.; Nash, Jonathan D.; Moum, James N.; Kilcher, Levi F.
2016-08-01
Considerable effort has been made to parameterize turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate ..epsilon.. and mixing in buoyant plumes and stratified shear flows. Here, a parameterization based on Kunze et al. is examined, which estimates ..epsilon.. as the amount of energy contained in an unstable shear layer (Ri < Ric) that must be dissipated to increase the Richardson number Ri = N2/S2 to a critical value Ric within a turbulent decay time scale. Observations from the tidal Columbia River plume are used to quantitatively assess the relevant parameters controlling ..epsilon.. over a range of tidal and river discharge forcings. Observed ..epsilon.. is found to be characterized by Kunze et al.'s form within a factor of 2, while exhibiting slightly decreased skill near Ri = Ric. Observed dissipation rates are compared to estimates from a constant interfacial drag formulation that neglects the direct effects of stratification. This is found to be appropriate in energetic regimes when the bulk-averaged Richardson number Rib is less than Ric/4. However, when Rib > Ric/4, the effects of stratification must be included. Similarly, ..epsilon.. scaled by the bulk velocity and density differences over the plume displays a clear dependence on Rib, decreasing as Rib approaches Ric. The Kunze et al. ..epsilon.. parameterization is modified to form an expression for the nondimensional dissipation rate that is solely a function of Rib, displaying good agreement with the observations. It is suggested that this formulation is broadly applicable for unstable to marginally unstable stratified shear flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Hirofumi; Kono, Amane; Houra, Tomoya
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We study various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of DNS. • The detailed turbulent statistics and structures in various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having APG are discussed. • It is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification. • In the case of strong stable stratification with or without APG, the flow separation is observed in the downstream region. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate and observe turbulent heat transfer structures and statistics in thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers subjected to a non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). DNSs are carried out under conditions of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stratifications with a non-equilibrium APG, in which DNS results reveal heat transfer characteristics of thermally-stratified non-equilibrium APG turbulent boundary layers. In cases of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers affected by APG, heat transfer performances increase in comparison with a turbulent boundary layer with neutral thermal stratification and zero pressure gradient (ZPG). Especially, it is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification (WSBL). Thus, the analysis for both the friction coefficient and Stanton number in the case of WSBL with/without APG is conducted using the FIK identity in order to investigate contributions from the transport equations, in which it is found that both Reynolds-shear-stress and the mean convection terms
Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fansler, Todd D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reuss, D. L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sick, V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dahms, R. N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-02-02
Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NO_{x} and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.
Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing
Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K.; Sukhatme, Jai
2017-01-01
In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.
Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing
Kumar, Abhishek
2017-01-11
In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.
Decidability of uniform recurrence of morphic sequences
Durand , Fabien
2012-01-01
We prove that the uniform recurrence of morphic sequences is decidable. For this we show that the number of derived sequences of uniformly recurrent morphic sequences is bounded. As a corollary we obtain that uniformly recurrent morphic sequences are primitive substitutive sequences.
Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yavuz Altin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.
Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl
2005-01-01
We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...
Effect of sprinkler structure on water distribution uniformity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, M; Li, H; Chen, C; Tu, Q; Liu, J P
2012-01-01
Structures of sprinklers play important roles in the uniformity of water distribution. The advances and achievements to improve the distribution uniformity through the innovation in the sprinkler structures at home and abroad were presented in details. Analyses showed that three types of structure can ameliorate the water distribution efficiently. First, novel nozzle structures were applied, including the application of non-circle nozzle and special spread nozzles. Second, new structures of flow channel were used. Third, assistant device was added so as to improve the uneven water distribution, such as an assistant stream interrupter, pressure or flow rate regulator and so on. Compared to domestic sprinklers, sprinklers produced abroad have novel and special structures with better hydraulic performance. Basic theoretical researches should be strengthened and new materials, new manufacturing processes and new technique should be applied. Then new kinds of sprinkler will be produced and the hydraulic performance of sprinklers will be promoted to a higher level.
Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu
2010-01-01
In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-12-01
In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.
Depreciation Accounting in the Uniform Chart of Accounts.
1982-12-01
footage of building occupied. Reason( s ) for Compute full cost of Rate setting, cash accounting for patient care flow generation and fund- depreciation ing... Horngren , Charles T., Cost Accounting ; A Managerial Emphasis, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972. 32. Sawyer, Lawrence B., The Practice of Modern Internal Auditing...Awd ubtlft) S . TYPE or RE PORT a PE*IoO CovIERWO Master’s Thesis; Depreciation Accounting in the Uniform Dembr18 Chart of Accounts .PSOiwON.EORlumm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. D. Chashechkin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.
Spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi
2013-01-01
We use the generalized Fermi–Walker transport to construct a one-parameter family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the weak hypothesis of locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K′ to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. (paper)
Identification of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in stratified freshwater lake.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hisaya Kojima
Full Text Available Planktonic sulfur oxidizers are important constituents of ecosystems in stratified water bodies, and contribute to sulfide detoxification. In contrast to marine environments, taxonomic identities of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in freshwater lakes still remain largely unknown. Bacterioplankton community structure was analyzed in a stratified freshwater lake, Lake Mizugaki in Japan. In the clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene, clones very closely related to a sulfur oxidizer isolated from this lake, Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans, were detected in deep anoxic water, and occupied up to 12.5% in each library of different water depth. Assemblages of planktonic sulfur oxidizers were specifically analyzed by constructing clone libraries of genes involved in sulfur oxidation, aprA, dsrA, soxB and sqr. In the libraries, clones related to betaproteobacteria were detected with high frequencies, including the close relatives of Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans.
Study of MRI in stratified viscous plasma configuration
Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Renzi, Fabrizio
2017-02-01
We analyze the morphology of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) for a stratified viscous plasma disk configuration in differential rotation, taking into account the so-called corotation theorem for the background profile. In order to select the intrinsic Alfvénic nature of MRI, we deal with an incompressible plasma and we adopt a formulation of the local perturbation analysis based on the use of the magnetic flux function as a dynamical variable. Our study outlines, as consequence of the corotation condition, a marked asymmetry of the MRI with respect to the equatorial plane, particularly evident in a complete damping of the instability over a positive critical height on the equatorial plane. We also emphasize how such a feature is already present (although less pronounced) even in the ideal case, restoring a dependence of the MRI on the stratified morphology of the gravitational field.
Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program
Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.
1985-01-01
The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da
2009-01-01
Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a 241 Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: robson@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Dept.
2009-07-01
Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a {sup 241}Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)
A Science and Risk-Based Pragmatic Methodology for Blend and Content Uniformity Assessment.
Sayeed-Desta, Naheed; Pazhayattil, Ajay Babu; Collins, Jordan; Doshi, Chetan
2018-04-01
This paper describes a pragmatic approach that can be applied in assessing powder blend and unit dosage uniformity of solid dose products at Process Design, Process Performance Qualification, and Continued/Ongoing Process Verification stages of the Process Validation lifecycle. The statistically based sampling, testing, and assessment plan was developed due to the withdrawal of the FDA draft guidance for industry "Powder Blends and Finished Dosage Units-Stratified In-Process Dosage Unit Sampling and Assessment." This paper compares the proposed Grouped Area Variance Estimate (GAVE) method with an alternate approach outlining the practicality and statistical rationalization using traditional sampling and analytical methods. The approach is designed to fit solid dose processes assuring high statistical confidence in both powder blend uniformity and dosage unit uniformity during all three stages of the lifecycle complying with ASTM standards as recommended by the US FDA.
Community genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeLong, Edward F; Preston, Christina M; Mincer, Tracy
2006-01-01
Microbial life predominates in the ocean, yet little is known about its genomic variability, especially along the depth continuum. We report here genomic analyses of planktonic microbial communities in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, from the ocean's surface to near-sea floor depths. Sequence......, and host-viral interactions. Comparative genomic analyses of stratified microbial communities have the potential to provide significant insight into higher-order community organization and dynamics....
Propagation of acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere, 1
Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
1994-01-01
This work is motivated by the chromospheric 3 minute oscillations observed in the K(sub 2v) bright points. We study acoustic gravity waves in a one-dimensional, gravitationally stratified, isothermal atmosphere. The oscillations are excited either by a velocity pulse imparted to a layer in an atmosphere of infinite vertical extent, or by a piston forming the lower boundary of a semi-infinite medium. We consider both linear and non-linear waves.
A statistical mechanics approach to mixing in stratified fluids
Venaille , Antoine; Gostiaux , Louis; Sommeria , Joël
2016-01-01
Accepted for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics; Predicting how much mixing occurs when a given amount of energy is injected into a Boussinesq fluid is a longstanding problem in stratified turbulence. The huge number of degrees of freedom involved in these processes renders extremely difficult a deterministic approach to the problem. Here we present a statistical mechanics approach yielding a prediction for a cumulative, global mixing efficiency as a function of a global Richard-son number and th...
Marangoni flows induced by non-uniform surfactant distributions
Hanyak, M.
2012-01-01
The spreading dynamics of surfactants is of crucial importance for numerous technological applications ranging from printing and coating processes, pulmonary drug delivery to crude oil recovery. In the area of inkjet printing surfactants are necessary for lowering surface tension of water-based ink
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastor, G.; Dominguez, C.; Lora-Tamayo, E.; Dominguez, E.
1987-01-01
The present work is a study about the uniformity of the silicon deposition in the LPCVD system starting out from the pure silane. It is concluded that it is necessary to take account of all the parameters involved (pressure, temperature, gas flow, number, position and spacing between wafers). From the point of view of the uniformity, three kinds of depositions are observed: poly uniform zone, poly non-uniform zone and amorphous precipitates zone. In the non-uniform zone the increase of the non-uniformity obeys an exponential low when only one of the parameters of the system changes. However, in the amorphous precipitates zone the non-uniformity tends to a constant value. By drawing the values of pressure (P) and gas flow (C), for a fixed temperature, that separates both the uniform/non-uniform and amorphous/policrystalline zones, the equation P n C m #alpha # K(T) are fulfilled where K is a function of temperature. 10 refs
Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data.
Richardson, David B; Langholz, Bryan
2012-03-01
Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models.
Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamed, A.
1998-01-01
In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results
Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, David B.; Langholz, Bryan
2012-01-01
Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models. (orig.)
Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, Aneeqa Ashfaq; Tahir, M.; Malik, M. Y.
2018-03-01
The current pagination summarized the influence of bio-convection Schmidt number, bio-convection Peclet number and micro-organisms concentration difference parameter on the density of motile gyrotactic micro-organisms when they have interaction with the thermally stratified magneto-nanofluid flow past a vertical stretching surface. It is observed that the density of motile microorganisms is the decreasing function of the bio-convection Schmidt and Peclet numbers. It is trusted that the outcomes of present analysis will serve as a helping source for the upcoming developments regarding individualities of motile gyrotactic micro-organisms subject to boundary layer flows induced by stretching surfaces.
Experimental study of stratified jet by simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields
Xu, Duo; Chen, Jun
2012-07-01
Stratified flows with small density difference commonly exist in geophysical and engineering applications, which often involve interaction of turbulence and buoyancy effect. A combined particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system is developed to measure the velocity and density fields in a dense jet discharged horizontally into a tank filled with light fluid. The illumination of PIV particles and excitation of PLIF dye are achieved by a dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser and two CCD cameras with a set of optical filters. The procedure for matching refractive indexes of two fluids and calibration of the combined system are presented, as well as a quantitative analysis of the measurement uncertainties. The flow structures and mixing dynamics within the central vertical plane are studied by examining the averaged parameters, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and modeling of momentum flux and buoyancy flux. At downstream, profiles of velocity and density display strong asymmetry with respect to its center. This is attributed to the fact that stable stratification reduces mixing and unstable stratification enhances mixing. In stable stratification region, most of turbulence production is consumed by mean-flow convection, whereas in unstable stratification region, turbulence production is nearly balanced by viscous dissipation. Experimental data also indicate that at downstream locations, mixing length model performs better in mixing zone of stable stratification regions, whereas in other regions, eddy viscosity/diffusivity models with static model coefficients represent effectively momentum and buoyancy flux terms. The measured turbulent Prandtl number displays strong spatial variation in the stratified jet.
Data splitting for artificial neural networks using SOM-based stratified sampling.
May, R J; Maier, H R; Dandy, G C
2010-03-01
Data splitting is an important consideration during artificial neural network (ANN) development where hold-out cross-validation is commonly employed to ensure generalization. Even for a moderate sample size, the sampling methodology used for data splitting can have a significant effect on the quality of the subsets used for training, testing and validating an ANN. Poor data splitting can result in inaccurate and highly variable model performance; however, the choice of sampling methodology is rarely given due consideration by ANN modellers. Increased confidence in the sampling is of paramount importance, since the hold-out sampling is generally performed only once during ANN development. This paper considers the variability in the quality of subsets that are obtained using different data splitting approaches. A novel approach to stratified sampling, based on Neyman sampling of the self-organizing map (SOM), is developed, with several guidelines identified for setting the SOM size and sample allocation in order to minimize the bias and variance in the datasets. Using an example ANN function approximation task, the SOM-based approach is evaluated in comparison to random sampling, DUPLEX, systematic stratified sampling, and trial-and-error sampling to minimize the statistical differences between data sets. Of these approaches, DUPLEX is found to provide benchmark performance with good model performance, with no variability. The results show that the SOM-based approach also reliably generates high-quality samples and can therefore be used with greater confidence than other approaches, especially in the case of non-uniform datasets, with the benefit of scalability to perform data splitting on large datasets. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.
Flow visualization of two-phase flows using photochromic dye activation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, M.; Ahmad, W.; DeJesus, J.M.; Sutharshan, B.; Lorencez, C.; Ojha, M.
1993-01-01
A non-intrusive flow visualization technique based on light activation of photochromic dye material has been used to obtain velocity profiles in gas-liquid flows including annular, slug and stratified flows. The preliminary results revealed several important two-phase flow mechanisms that have not been clearly seen previously. (orig.)
Multi-Instrument Observations of Prolonged Stratified Wind Layers at Iqaluit, Nunavut
Mariani, Zen; Dehghan, Armin; Gascon, Gabrielle; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David; Strawbridge, Kevin; Corriveau, Julien
2018-02-01
Data collected between October 2015 and May 2016 at Environment and Climate Change Canada's Iqaluit research site (64°N, 69°W) have revealed a high frequency (40% of all days for which observations were available) of stratified wind layer events that occur from near the surface up to about 7.2 km above sea level. These stratified wind layers are clearly visible as wind shifts (90 to 180°) with height in range-height indicator scans from the Doppler lidar and Ka-band radar and in wind direction profiles from the Doppler lidar and radiosonde. During these events, the vertical structure of the flow appears to be a stack of 4 to 10 layers ranging in vertical width from 0.1 to 4.4 km. The stratification events that were observed occurred predominantly (81%) during light precipitation and lasted up to 27.5 h. The integrated measurement platforms at Iqaluit permitted continuous observations of the evolution of stratification events in different meteorological conditions.
School uniforms: tradition, benefit or predicament?
Van Aardt, Annette Marie; Wilken, Ilani
2012-01-01
This article focuses on the controversies surrounding school uniforms. Roleplayers in this debate in South Africa are parents, learners and educators, and arguments centre on aspects such as identity, economy and the equalising effect of school uniforms, which are considered in the literature to be benefits. Opposing viewpoints highlight the fact that compulsory uniforms infringe on learners’ constitutional rights to self-expression. The aim of this research was to determine the perspectives ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matyushin, Pavel; Gushchin, Valentin
2011-01-01
The 3D separated, density stratified viscous fluid flows around a sphere are investigated by means of the direct numerical simulation (DNS) on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation on the supercomputers at the wide range of internal Froude (Fr) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. For DNS the Splitting on physical factors Method for Incompressible Fluid flows (SMIF) with the hybrid explicit finite difference scheme (second-order accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, monotonous) has been used. At Fr > 10 with increasing of Re we observed the flow regimes of the homogeneous viscous fluid (including the laminar-turbulent transition in the boundary layer on the sphere). With decreasing of Fr at Re < 500 the strong transformation of vortex structures in the sphere wake is demonstrated by means of the β – visualization. Thus the refined classification of the flow regimes around a sphere moving in the viscous stratified fluid is presented.
Technetium reduction and removal in a stratified fjord
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keith-Roach, M.; Roos, P.
2002-01-01
The distribution of Tc in the water columns of a stratified fjord has been measured to investigate the behaviour and fate of Tc on reaching reducing waters. Slow mixing in the water column of the fjord results in vertical transport of the dissolved Tc to the oxic/anoxic interface. Tc is reduced just below the interface and at 21 m 60% is sorbed to particulate and colloidal material. Tc is carried to the sediments sorbed to the particulate material, where there is a current inventory of approximately 3 Bq m -2 . (LN)
Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine
2017-01-01
In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...
Technetium reduction and removal in a stratified fjord
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keith-Roach, M.; Roos, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
2002-04-01
The distribution of Tc in the water columns of a stratified fjord has been measured to investigate the behaviour and fate of Tc on reaching reducing waters. Slow mixing in the water column of the fjord results in vertical transport of the dissolved Tc to the oxic/anoxic interface. Tc is reduced just below the interface and at 21 m 60% is sorbed to particulate and colloidal material. Tc is carried to the sediments sorbed to the particulate material, where there is a current inventory of approximately 3 Bq m{sup -2}. (LN)
Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Spurgin
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.
Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine
Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.
1989-01-01
A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.
Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We addressed an issue of distributing a flow to a number of flow channels uniformly. ► The flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels. ► Some key parameters to the flow distribution uniformity have been identified. ► Flow uniformity was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs. ► A novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was provided. -- Abstract: This study addresses a fundamental issue of distributing a single-phase fluid flow into a number of flow channels uniformly. A basic mechanism of flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels that symmetrically split one flow channel into two downstream channels. Applying the basic mechanism, cascades flow distributions are designed to split one flow into a large number of downstream flows uniformly. Some key parameters decisive to the flow distribution uniformity in such a system have been identified, and the flow distribution uniformity of air was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs using CFD analysis. The effect of the key parameters of the flow channel designs to the flow distribution uniformity was investigated. As an example of industrial application, a novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was proposed and some CFD analysis results for the device were provided. The optimized flow distributor makes a very good uniform flow distribution which will significantly improve the efficiency of fluid packaging. The technology is expected to be of great significance to many industrial devices that require high uniformity of flow distribution