Sample records for stratified two-stage probability

  1. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer


    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  2. A two-stage approach in solving the state probabilities of the multi-queue M/G/1 model

    Chen, Mu-Song; Yen, Hao-Wei


    The M/G/1 model is the fundamental basis of the queueing system in many network systems. Usually, the study of the M/G/1 is limited by the assumption of single queue and infinite capacity. In practice, however, these postulations may not be valid, particularly when dealing with many real-world problems. In this paper, a two-stage state-space approach is devoted to solving the state probabilities for the multi-queue finite-capacity M/G/1 model, i.e. q-M/G/1/Ki with Ki buffers in the ith queue. The state probabilities at departure instants are determined by solving a set of state transition equations. Afterward, an embedded Markov chain analysis is applied to derive the state probabilities with another set of state balance equations at arbitrary time instants. The closed forms of the state probabilities are also presented with theorems for reference. Applications of Little's theorem further present the corresponding results for queue lengths and average waiting times. Simulation experiments have demonstrated the correctness of the proposed approaches.

  3. Efficient evaluation of small failure probability in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling via a two-stage Monte Carlo method: FAILURE PROBABILITY

    Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lin, Guang [Department of Mathematics and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA


    In decision-making for groundwater management and contamination remediation, it is important to accurately evaluate the probability of the occurrence of a failure event. For small failure probability analysis, a large number of model evaluations are needed in the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which is impractical for CPU-demanding models. One approach to alleviate the computational cost caused by the model evaluations is to construct a computationally inexpensive surrogate model instead. However, using a surrogate approximation can cause an extra error in the failure probability analysis. Moreover, constructing accurate surrogates is challenging for high-dimensional models, i.e., models containing many uncertain input parameters. To address these issues, we propose an efficient two-stage MC approach for small failure probability analysis in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling. In the first stage, a low-dimensional representation of the original high-dimensional model is sought with Karhunen–Loève expansion and sliced inverse regression jointly, which allows for the easy construction of a surrogate with polynomial chaos expansion. Then a surrogate-based MC simulation is implemented. In the second stage, the small number of samples that are close to the failure boundary are re-evaluated with the original model, which corrects the bias introduced by the surrogate approximation. The proposed approach is tested with a numerical case study and is shown to be 100 times faster than the traditional MC approach in achieving the same level of estimation accuracy.

  4. Estimation of infection prevalence and sensitivity in a stratified two-stage sampling design employing highly specific diagnostic tests when there is no gold standard.

    Miller, Ezer; Huppert, Amit; Novikov, Ilya; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Freedman, Laurence S


    In this work, we describe a two-stage sampling design to estimate the infection prevalence in a population. In the first stage, an imperfect diagnostic test was performed on a random sample of the population. In the second stage, a different imperfect test was performed in a stratified random sample of the first sample. To estimate infection prevalence, we assumed conditional independence between the diagnostic tests and develop method of moments estimators based on expectations of the proportions of people with positive and negative results on both tests that are functions of the tests' sensitivity, specificity, and the infection prevalence. A closed-form solution of the estimating equations was obtained assuming a specificity of 100% for both tests. We applied our method to estimate the infection prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis according to two quantitative polymerase chain reaction tests performed on blood samples taken from 4756 patients in northern Ethiopia. The sensitivities of the tests were also estimated, as well as the standard errors of all estimates, using a parametric bootstrap. We also examined the impact of departures from our assumptions of 100% specificity and conditional independence on the estimated prevalence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Design and simulation of stratified probability digital receiver with application to the multipath communication

    Deal, J. H.


    One approach to the problem of simplifying complex nonlinear filtering algorithms is through using stratified probability approximations where the continuous probability density functions of certain random variables are represented by discrete mass approximations. This technique is developed in this paper and used to simplify the filtering algorithms developed for the optimum receiver for signals corrupted by both additive and multiplicative noise.

  6. Gambling problems in the family – A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences

    Øren Anita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  7. probably


    【说词】1. He can probably tell us the truth.2. Will it rain this afternoong ? Probably【解语】作副词,意为“大概、或许”,表示可能性很大,通常指根据目前情况作出积极推测或判断;

  8. The construction of two-stage tests

    Adema, Jos J.


    Although two-stage testing is not the most efficient form of adaptive testing, it has some advantages. In this paper, linear programming models are given for the construction of two-stage tests. In these models, practical constraints with respect to, among other things, test composition, administrat

  9. Two-stage sampling for acceptance testing

    Atwood, C.L.; Bryan, M.F.


    Sometimes a regulatory requirement or a quality-assurance procedure sets an allowed maximum on a confidence limit for a mean. If the sample mean of the measurements is below the allowed maximum, but the confidence limit is above it, a very widespread practice is to increase the sample size and recalculate the confidence bound. The confidence level of this two-stage procedure is rarely found correctly, but instead is typically taken to be the nominal confidence level, found as if the final sample size had been specified in advance. In typical settings, the correct nominal [alpha] should be between the desired P(Type I error) and half that value. This note gives tables for the correct a to use, some plots of power curves, and an example of correct two-stage sampling.

  10. Two-stage sampling for acceptance testing

    Atwood, C.L.; Bryan, M.F.


    Sometimes a regulatory requirement or a quality-assurance procedure sets an allowed maximum on a confidence limit for a mean. If the sample mean of the measurements is below the allowed maximum, but the confidence limit is above it, a very widespread practice is to increase the sample size and recalculate the confidence bound. The confidence level of this two-stage procedure is rarely found correctly, but instead is typically taken to be the nominal confidence level, found as if the final sample size had been specified in advance. In typical settings, the correct nominal {alpha} should be between the desired P(Type I error) and half that value. This note gives tables for the correct a to use, some plots of power curves, and an example of correct two-stage sampling.

  11. Two Stage Gear Tooth Dynamics Program


    cordi - tions and associated iteration prooedure become more complex. This is due to both the increased number of components and to the time for a...solved for each stage in the two stage solution . There are (3 + ntrrber of planets) degrees of freedom fcr eacb stage plus two degrees of freedom...should be devised. It should be noted that this is not minor task. In general, each stage plus an input or output shaft will have 2 times (4 + number

  12. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus


    that the organic compounds and the inhibition effect are very low even before treatment with activated carbon. The moderate inhibition effect relates to a high content of ammonia in the condensate. The nitrifiers become tolerant to the condensate after a few weeks of exposure. The level of organic compounds......Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...

  13. Two Stage Sibling Cycle Compressor/Expander.


    vol. 5, p. 424. 11. L. Bauwens and M.P. Mitchell, " Regenerator Analysis: Validation of the MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code," Proc. XVIIIth International...PL-TR--94-1051 PL-TR-- 94-1051 TWO STAGE SIBLING CYCLE COMPRESSOR/EXPANDER Matthew P. Mitchell . Mitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc. No\\ 1995...ty. THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED PL-TR-94-1051 This final report was prepared byMitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc., Berkeley, CA under Contract

  14. Classification in two-stage screening.

    Longford, Nicholas T


    Decision theory is applied to the problem of setting thresholds in medical screening when it is organised in two stages. In the first stage that involves a less expensive procedure that can be applied on a mass scale, an individual is classified as a negative or a likely positive. In the second stage, the likely positives are subjected to another test that classifies them as (definite) positives or negatives. The second-stage test is more accurate, but also more expensive and more involved, and so there are incentives to restrict its application. Robustness of the method with respect to the parameters, some of which have to be set by elicitation, is assessed by sensitivity analysis.

  15. Two stage gear tooth dynamics program

    Boyd, Linda S.


    The epicyclic gear dynamics program was expanded to add the option of evaluating the tooth pair dynamics for two epicyclic gear stages with peripheral components. This was a practical extension to the program as multiple gear stages are often used for speed reduction, space, weight, and/or auxiliary units. The option was developed for either stage to be a basic planetary, star, single external-external mesh, or single external-internal mesh. The two stage system allows for modeling of the peripherals with an input mass and shaft, an output mass and shaft, and a connecting shaft. Execution of the initial test case indicated an instability in the solution with the tooth paid loads growing to excessive magnitudes. A procedure to trace the instability is recommended as well as a method of reducing the program's computation time by reducing the number of boundary condition iterations.

  16. Two-Stage Modelling Of Random Phenomena

    Barańska, Anna


    The main objective of this publication was to present a two-stage algorithm of modelling random phenomena, based on multidimensional function modelling, on the example of modelling the real estate market for the purpose of real estate valuation and estimation of model parameters of foundations vertical displacements. The first stage of the presented algorithm includes a selection of a suitable form of the function model. In the classical algorithms, based on function modelling, prediction of the dependent variable is its value obtained directly from the model. The better the model reflects a relationship between the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable, the more reliable is the model value. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed which comprises adjustment of the value obtained from the model with a random correction determined from the residuals of the model for these cases which, in a separate analysis, were considered to be the most similar to the object for which we want to model the dependent variable. The effect of applying the developed quantitative procedures for calculating the corrections and qualitative methods to assess the similarity on the final outcome of the prediction and its accuracy, was examined by statistical methods, mainly using appropriate parametric tests of significance. The idea of the presented algorithm has been designed so as to approximate the value of the dependent variable of the studied phenomenon to its value in reality and, at the same time, to have it "smoothed out" by a well fitted modelling function.

  17. On Two-stage Seamless Adaptive Design in Clinical Trials

    Shein-Chung Chow


    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in clinical research and development based on accrued data has become very popular because of its efficiency and flexibility in modifying trial and/or statistical procedures of ongoing clinical trials. One of the most commonly considered adaptive designs is probably a two-stage seamless adaptive trial design that combines two separate studies into one single study. In many cases, study endpoints considered in a two-stage seamless adaptive design may be similar but different (e.g. a biomarker versus a regular clinical endpoint or the same study endpoint with different treatment durations. In this case, it is important to determine how the data collected from both stages should be combined for the final analysis. It is also of interest to know how the sample size calculation/allocation should be done for achieving the study objectives originally set for the two stages (separate studies. In this article, formulas for sample size calculation/allocation are derived for cases in which the study endpoints are continuous, discrete (e.g. binary responses, and contain time-to-event data assuming that there is a well-established relationship between the study endpoints at different stages, and that the study objectives at different stages are the same. In cases in which the study objectives at different stages are different (e.g. dose finding at the first stage and efficacy confirmation at the second stage and when there is a shift in patient population caused by protocol amendments, the derived test statistics and formulas for sample size calculation and allocation are necessarily modified for controlling the overall type I error at the prespecified level.

  18. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford


    Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs......Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs...

  19. On the robustness of two-stage estimators

    Zhelonkin, Mikhail


    The aim of this note is to provide a general framework for the analysis of the robustness properties of a broad class of two-stage models. We derive the influence function, the change-of-variance function, and the asymptotic variance of a general two-stage M-estimator, and provide their interpretations. We illustrate our results in the case of the two-stage maximum likelihood estimator and the two-stage least squares estimator. © 2011.

  20. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process


    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.


    Yung-Chia CHANG; Chung-Yee LEE


    This paper studies the coordination effects between stages for scheduling problems where decision-making is a two-stage process. Two stages are considered as one system. The system can be a supply chain that links two stages, one stage representing a manufacturer; and the other, a distributor.It also can represent a single manufacturer, while each stage represents a different department responsible for a part of operations. A problem that jointly considers both stages in order to achieve ideal overall system performance is defined as a system problem. In practice, at times, it might not be feasible for the two stages to make coordinated decisions due to (i) the lack of channels that allow decision makers at the two stages to cooperate, and/or (ii) the optimal solution to the system problem is too difficult (or costly) to achieve.Two practical approaches are applied to solve a variant of two-stage logistic scheduling problems. The Forward Approach is defined as a solution procedure by which the first stage of the system problem is solved first, followed by the second stage. Similarly, the Backward Approach is defined as a solution procedure by which the second stage of the system problem is solved prior to solving the first stage. In each approach, two stages are solved sequentially and the solution generated is treated as a heuristic solution with respect to the corresponding system problem. When decision makers at two stages make decisions locally without considering consequences to the entire system,ineffectiveness may result - even when each stage optimally solves its own problem. The trade-off between the time complexity and the solution quality is the main concern. This paper provides the worst-case performance analysis for each approach.

  2. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James


    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  3. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models

    JIANG JianCheng; LI JianTao


    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models. A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives. Under very mild conditions, the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known. The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations: the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations. However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions, its implementation is time-consuming. To reduce the computational burden, one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed. The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same efficiency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators, which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice. The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers. In addition, the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details. Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation, and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  4. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models


    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models.A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives.Under very mild conditions,the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known.The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations:the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations.However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions,its implementation is time-consuming.To reduce the computational burden,one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed.The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same effciency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators,which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice.The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers.In addition,the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details.Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation,and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  5. Interval estimation of binomial proportion in clinical trials with a two-stage design.

    Tsai, Wei-Yann; Chi, Yunchan; Chen, Chia-Min


    Generally, a two-stage design is employed in Phase II clinical trials to avoid giving patients an ineffective drug. If the number of patients with significant improvement, which is a binomial response, is greater than a pre-specified value at the first stage, then another binomial response at the second stage is also observed. This paper considers interval estimation of the response probability when the second stage is allowed to continue. Two asymptotic interval estimators, Wald and score, as well as two exact interval estimators, Clopper-Pearson and Sterne, are constructed according to the two binomial responses from this two-stage design, where the binomial response at the first stage follows a truncated binomial distribution. The mean actual coverage probability and expected interval width are employed to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators. According to the comparison results, the score interval is recommended for both Simon's optimal and minimax designs.

  6. STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator

    M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser


    BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.

  7. Dynamic Modelling of the Two-stage Gasification Process

    Gøbel, Benny; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Houbak, Niels


    A two-stage gasification pilot plant was designed and built as a co-operative project between the Technical University of Denmark and the company REKA.A dynamic, mathematical model of the two-stage pilot plant was developed to serve as a tool for optimising the process and the operating conditions...... of the gasification plant.The model consists of modules corresponding to the different elements in the plant. The modules are coupled together through mass and heat conservation.Results from the model are compared with experimental data obtained during steady and unsteady operation of the pilot plant. A good...

  8. Two-Stage Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Transaction Costs

    Yanju Chen


    Full Text Available This paper studies a two-period portfolio selection problem. The problem is formulated as a two-stage fuzzy portfolio selection model with transaction costs, in which the future returns of risky security are characterized by possibility distributions. The objective of the proposed model is to achieve the maximum utility in terms of the expected value and variance of the final wealth. Given the first-stage decision vector and a realization of fuzzy return, the optimal value expression of the second-stage programming problem is derived. As a result, the proposed two-stage model is equivalent to a single-stage model, and the analytical optimal solution of the two-stage model is obtained, which helps us to discuss the properties of the optimal solution. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the new modeling idea and the effectiveness. The computational results provided by the proposed model show that the more risk-averse investor will invest more wealth in the risk-free security. They also show that the optimal invested amount in risky security increases as the risk-free return decreases and the optimal utility increases as the risk-free return increases, whereas the optimal utility increases as the transaction costs decrease. In most instances the utilities provided by the proposed two-stage model are larger than those provided by the single-stage model.

  9. Efficient Two-Stage Group Testing Algorithms for DNA Screening

    Huber, Michael


    Group testing algorithms are very useful tools for DNA library screening. Building on recent work by Levenshtein (2003) and Tonchev (2008), we construct in this paper new infinite classes of combinatorial structures, the existence of which are essential for attaining the minimum number of individual tests at the second stage of a two-stage disjunctive testing algorithm.

  10. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars. In the ......Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars....... In the two-stage gasification concept, the pyrolysis and the gasification processes are physical separated. The volatiles from the pyrolysis are partially oxidized, and the hot gases are used as gasification medium to gasify the char. Hot gases from the gasifier and a combustion unit can be used for drying...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...


    Zhong-jin Yue; Ling-jun Zuo; Jia-ji Wang; Gan-ping Zhong; Jian-ming Duan; Zhi-ping Wang; Da-shan Qin


    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of free graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty for hypospadias repair.Methods Fifty-eight cases with different types of hypospadias including 10 subcoronal, 36 penile shaft, 9 scrotal, and 3 perineal were treated with free full-thickness skin graft or (and) buccal mucosal graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty. Of 58 cases, 45 were new cases, 13 had history of previous failed surgeries. Operative procedure included two stages: the first stage is to correct penile curvature (chordee), prepare transplanting bed, harvest and prepare full-thickness skin graft, buccal mucosal graft, and perform graft transplantation. The second stage is to complete urethroplasty and glanuloplasty.Results After the first stage operation, 56 of 58 cases (96.6%) were successful with grafts healing well, another 2foreskin grafts got gangrened. After the second stage operation on 56 cases, 5 cases failed with newly formed urethras opened due to infection, 8 cases had fistulas, 43 (76.8%) cases healed well.Conclusions Free graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty for hypospadias repair is a kind of effective treatment with broad indication, comparatively high success rate, less complicationsand good cosmatic results, indicative of various types of hypospadias repair.

  12. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford


    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are d...

  13. A two-stage rank test using density estimation

    Albers, Willem/Wim


    For the one-sample problem, a two-stage rank test is derived which realizes a required power against a given local alternative, for all sufficiently smooth underlying distributions. This is achieved using asymptotic expansions resulting in a precision of orderm −1, wherem is the size of the first

  14. The construction of customized two-stage tests

    Adema, Jos J.


    In this paper mixed integer linear programming models for customizing two-stage tests are given. Model constraints are imposed with respect to test composition, administration time, inter-item dependencies, and other practical considerations. It is not difficult to modify the models to make them use

  15. A two-stage broadcast message propagation model in social networks

    Wang, Dan; Cheng, Shun-Jun


    Message propagation in social networks is becoming a popular topic in complex networks. One of the message types in social networks is called broadcast message. It refers to a type of message which has a unique and unknown destination for the publisher, such as 'lost and found'. Its propagation always has two stages. Due to this feature, rumor propagation model and epidemic propagation model have difficulty in describing this message's propagation accurately. In this paper, an improved two-stage susceptible-infected-removed model is proposed. We come up with the concept of the first forwarding probability and the second forwarding probability. Another part of our work is figuring out the influence to the successful message transmission chance in each level resulting from multiple reasons, including the topology of the network, the receiving probability, the first stage forwarding probability, the second stage forwarding probability as well as the length of the shortest path between the publisher and the relevant destination. The proposed model has been simulated on real networks and the results proved the model's effectiveness.

  16. Square Kilometre Array station configuration using two-stage beamforming

    Jiwani, Aziz; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Hall, Peter J; Padhi, Shantanu; de Vaate, Jan Geralt bij


    The lowest frequency band (70 - 450 MHz) of the Square Kilometre Array will consist of sparse aperture arrays grouped into geographically-localised patches, or stations. Signals from thousands of antennas in each station will be beamformed to produce station beams which form the inputs for the central correlator. Two-stage beamforming within stations can reduce SKA-low signal processing load and costs, but has not been previously explored for the irregular station layouts now favoured in radio astronomy arrays. This paper illustrates the effects of two-stage beamforming on sidelobes and effective area, for two representative station layouts (regular and irregular gridded tile on an irregular station). The performance is compared with a single-stage, irregular station. The inner sidelobe levels do not change significantly between layouts, but the more distant sidelobes are affected by the tile layouts; regular tile creates diffuse, but regular, grating lobes. With very sparse arrays, the station effective area...

  17. Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven


    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  18. Recursive algorithm for the two-stage EFOP estimation method

    LUO GuiMing; HUANG Jian


    A recursive algorithm for the two-stage empirical frequency-domain optimal param-eter (EFOP) estimation method Was proposed. The EFOP method was a novel sys-tem identificallon method for Black-box models that combines time-domain esti-mation and frequency-domain estimation. It has improved anti-disturbance perfor-mance, and could precisely identify models with fewer sample numbers. The two-stage EFOP method based on the boot-strap technique was generally suitable for Black-box models, but it was an iterative method and takes too much computation work so that it did not work well online. A recursive algorithm was proposed for dis-turbed stochastic systems. Some simulation examples are included to demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  19. Two-stage approach to full Chinese parsing

    Cao Hailong; Zhao Tiejun; Yang Muyun; Li Sheng


    Natural language parsing is a task of great importance and extreme difficulty. In this paper, we present a full Chinese parsing system based on a two-stage approach. Rather than identifying all phrases by a uniform model, we utilize a divide and conquer strategy. We propose an effective and fast method based on Markov model to identify the base phrases. Then we make the first attempt to extend one of the best English parsing models i.e. the head-driven model to recognize Chinese complex phrases. Our two-stage approach is superior to the uniform approach in two aspects. First, it creates synergy between the Markov model and the head-driven model. Second, it reduces the complexity of full Chinese parsing and makes the parsing system space and time efficient. We evaluate our approach in PARSEVAL measures on the open test set, the parsing system performances at 87.53% precision, 87.95% recall.

  20. Income and Poverty across SMSAs: A Two-Stage Analysis


    Two popular explanations of urban poverty are the "welfare-disincentive" and "urban-deindustrialization" theories. Using cross-sectional Census data, we develop a two-stage model to predict an SMSAs median family income and poverty rate. The model allows the city's welfare level and industrial structure to affect its median family income and poverty rate directly. It also allows welfare and industrial structure to affect income and poverty indirectly, through their effects on family structure...

  1. A Two-stage Polynomial Method for Spectrum Emissivity Modeling

    Qiu, Qirong; Liu, Shi; Teng, Jing; Yan, Yong


    Spectral emissivity is a key in the temperature measurement by radiation methods, but not easy to determine in a combustion environment, due to the interrelated influence of temperature and wave length of the radiation. In multi-wavelength radiation thermometry, knowing the spectral emissivity of the material is a prerequisite. However in many circumstances such a property is a complex function of temperature and wavelength and reliable models are yet to be sought. In this study, a two stages...

  2. Measuring the Learning from Two-Stage Collaborative Group Exams

    Ives, Joss


    A two-stage collaborative exam is one in which students first complete the exam individually, and then complete the same or similar exam in collaborative groups immediately afterward. To quantify the learning effect from the group component of these two-stage exams in an introductory Physics course, a randomized crossover design was used where each student participated in both the treatment and control groups. For each of the two two-stage collaborative group midterm exams, questions were designed to form matched near-transfer pairs with questions on an end-of-term diagnostic which was used as a learning test. For learning test questions paired with questions from the first midterm, which took place six to seven weeks before the learning test, an analysis using a mixed-effects logistic regression found no significant differences in learning-test performance between the control and treatment group. For learning test questions paired with questions from the second midterm, which took place one to two weeks prio...

  3. Forty-five-degree two-stage venous cannula: advantages over standard two-stage venous cannulation.

    Lawrence, D R; Desai, J B


    We present a 45-degree two-stage venous cannula that confers advantage to the surgeon using cardiopulmonary bypass. This cannula exits the mediastinum under the transverse bar of the sternal retractor, leaving the rostral end of the sternal incision free of apparatus. It allows for lifting of the heart with minimal effect on venous return and does not interfere with the radially laid out sutures of an aortic valve replacement using an interrupted suture technique.

  4. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Yadavalli, Rajasri; Heggers, Goutham Rao Venkata Naga


    Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer.

  5. Two-stage series array SQUID amplifier for space applications

    Tuttle, J. G.; DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.; Welty, R. P.; Radparvar, M.

    We present test results for a two-stage integrated SQUID amplifier which uses a series array of d.c. SQUIDS to amplify the signal from a single input SQUID. The device was developed by Welty and Martinis at NIST and recent versions have been manufactured by HYPRES, Inc. Shielding and filtering techniques were employed during the testing to minimize the external noise. Energy resolution of 300 h was demonstrated using a d.c. excitation at frequencies above 1 kHz, and better than 500 h resolution was typical down to 300 Hz.

  6. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, Latesh


    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight line for shirorekha and spine. This approach has been tested for 50000 samples and we got 89.12% success

  7. Two-Stage Aggregate Formation via Streams in Myxobacteria

    Alber, Mark; Kiskowski, Maria; Jiang, Yi


    In response to adverse conditions, myxobacteria form aggregates which develop into fruiting bodies. We model myxobacteria aggregation with a lattice cell model based entirely on short range (non-chemotactic) cell-cell interactions. Local rules result in a two-stage process of aggregation mediated by transient streams. Aggregates resemble those observed in experiment and are stable against even very large perturbations. Noise in individual cell behavior increases the effects of streams and result in larger, more stable aggregates. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93: 068301 (2004).

  8. Straw Gasification in a Two-Stage Gasifier

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    Additive-prepared straw pellets were gasified in the 100 kW two-stage gasifier at The Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The fixed bed temperature range was 800-1000°C. In order to avoid bed sintering, as observed earlier with straw gasification...... residues were examined after the test. No agglomeration or sintering was observed in the ash residues. The tar content was measured both by solid phase amino adsorption (SPA) method and cold trapping (Petersen method). Both showed low tar contents (~42 mg/Nm3 without gas cleaning). The particle content...

  9. Two-Stage Fan I: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    Messenger, H. E.; Kennedy, E. E.


    A two-stage, highly-loaded fan was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 with an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent. At the first rotor inlet, design flow per unit annulus area is 42 lbm/sec/sq ft (205 kg/sec/sq m), hub/tip ratio is 0.4 with a tip diameter of 31 inches (0.787 m), and design tip speed is 1450 ft/sec (441.96 m/sec). Other features include use of multiple-circular-arc airfoils, resettable stators, and split casings over the rotor tip sections for casing treatment tests.

  10. Two-Stage Eagle Strategy with Differential Evolution

    Yang, Xin-She


    Efficiency of an optimization process is largely determined by the search algorithm and its fundamental characteristics. In a given optimization, a single type of algorithm is used in most applications. In this paper, we will investigate the Eagle Strategy recently developed for global optimization, which uses a two-stage strategy by combing two different algorithms to improve the overall search efficiency. We will discuss this strategy with differential evolution and then evaluate their performance by solving real-world optimization problems such as pressure vessel and speed reducer design. Results suggest that we can reduce the computing effort by a factor of up to 10 in many applications.

  11. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang


    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  12. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul


    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  13. Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm for Aircraft Recovery Problem

    Cheng Zhang


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the aircraft recovery problem (ARP. In real-life operations, disruptions always cause schedule failures and make airlines suffer from great loss. Therefore, the main objective of the aircraft recovery problem is to minimize the total recovery cost and solve the problem within reasonable runtimes. An aircraft recovery model (ARM is proposed herein to formulate the ARP and use feasible line of flights as the basic variables in the model. We define the feasible line of flights (LOFs as a sequence of flights flown by an aircraft within one day. The number of LOFs exponentially grows with the number of flights. Hence, a two-stage heuristic is proposed to reduce the problem scale. The algorithm integrates a heuristic scoring procedure with an aggregated aircraft recovery model (AARM to preselect LOFs. The approach is tested on five real-life test scenarios. The computational results show that the proposed model provides a good formulation of the problem and can be solved within reasonable runtimes with the proposed methodology. The two-stage heuristic significantly reduces the number of LOFs after each stage and finally reduces the number of variables and constraints in the aircraft recovery model.

  14. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.


    Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This work presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two stages classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the DaimlerDB dataset and then validated through part-based HOG...... of several metrics, such as detection rate, false positives per hour, and frame rate. The novelty of this system rely in the combination of HOG part-based approach, tracking based on specific optimized feature and porting on a real prototype....

  15. A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering

    Ito, Kazufumi


    We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer support, and one resolution enhancing step with nonsmooth mixed regularization. The first step is strictly direct and of sampling type, and it faithfully detects the scatterer support. The second step is an innovative application of nonsmooth mixed regularization, and it accurately resolves the scatterer size as well as intensities. The nonsmooth model can be efficiently solved by a semi-smooth Newton-type method. Numerical results for two- and three-dimensional examples indicate that the new approach is accurate, computationally efficient, and robust with respect to data noise. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladdertorsion


    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommonentity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constantfactor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobilegall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies.GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females.We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who wasoriginally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation butwas eventually found with a two staged torsion of thegall bladder with twisting of the Riedel's lobe (partof tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). Thistogether, has not been reported in literature, to thebest of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopiccholecystectomy and she had an uneventful postoperativeperiod. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemmain the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosisand intervention is necessary, with extra care whileoperating as the anatomy is generally distorted. Thefundus first approach can be useful due to alteredanatomy in the region of Calot's triangle. Laparoscopiccholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery.

  17. Lightweight Concrete Produced Using a Two-Stage Casting Process

    Jin Young Yoon


    Full Text Available The type of lightweight aggregate and its volume fraction in a mix determine the density of lightweight concrete. Minimizing the density obviously requires a higher volume fraction, but this usually causes aggregates segregation in a conventional mixing process. This paper proposes a two-stage casting process to produce a lightweight concrete. This process involves placing lightweight aggregates in a frame and then filling in the remaining interstitial voids with cementitious grout. The casting process results in the lowest density of lightweight concrete, which consequently has low compressive strength. The irregularly shaped aggregates compensate for the weak point in terms of strength while the round-shape aggregates provide a strength of 20 MPa. Therefore, the proposed casting process can be applied for manufacturing non-structural elements and structural composites requiring a very low density and a strength of at most 20 MPa.


    WANG Huaming; ZHU Jianying


    A two-stage object recognition algorithm with the presence of occlusion is presented for microassembly. Coarse localization determines whether template is in image or not and approximately where it is, and fine localization gives its accurate position. In coarse localization, local feature, which is invariant to translation, rotation and occlusion, is used to form signatures. By comparing signature of template with that of image, approximate transformation parameter from template to image is obtained, which is used as initial parameter value for fine localization. An objective function, which is a function of transformation parameter, is constructed in fine localization and minimized to realize sub-pixel localization accuracy. The occluded pixels are not taken into account in objective function, so the localization accuracy will not be influenced by the occlusion.

  19. Two-stage designs for cross-over bioequivalence trials.

    Kieser, Meinhard; Rauch, Geraldine


    The topic of applying two-stage designs in the field of bioequivalence studies has recently gained attention in the literature and in regulatory guidelines. While there exists some methodological research on the application of group sequential designs in bioequivalence studies, implementation of adaptive approaches has focused up to now on superiority and non-inferiority trials. Especially, no comparison of the features and performance characteristics of these designs has been performed, and therefore, the question of which design to employ in this setting remains open. In this paper, we discuss and compare 'classical' group sequential designs and three types of adaptive designs that offer the option of mid-course sample size recalculation. A comprehensive simulation study demonstrates that group sequential designs can be identified, which show power characteristics that are similar to those of the adaptive designs but require a lower average sample size. The methods are illustrated with a real bioequivalence study example.

  20. The hybrid two stage anticlockwise cycle for ecological energy conversion

    Cyklis Piotr


    Full Text Available The anticlockwise cycle is commonly used for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps applications. The application of refrigerant in the compression cycle is within the temperature limits of the triple point and the critical point. New refrigerants such as 1234yf or 1234ze have many disadvantages, therefore natural refrigerants application is favourable. The carbon dioxide and water can be applied only in the hybrid two stages cycle. The possibilities of this solutions are shown for refrigerating applications, as well some experimental results of the adsorption-compression double stages cycle, powered with solar collectors are shown. As a high temperature cycle the adsorption system is applied. The low temperature cycle is the compression stage with carbon dioxide as a working fluid. This allows to achieve relatively high COP for low temperature cycle and for the whole system.

  1. Two Stage Assessment of Thermal Hazard in An Underground Mine

    Drenda, Jan; Sułkowski, Józef; Pach, Grzegorz; Różański, Zenon; Wrona, Paweł


    The results of research into the application of selected thermal indices of men's work and climate indices in a two stage assessment of climatic work conditions in underground mines have been presented in this article. The difference between these two kinds of indices was pointed out during the project entitled "The recruiting requirements for miners working in hot underground mine environments". The project was coordinated by The Institute of Mining Technologies at Silesian University of Technology. It was a part of a Polish strategic project: "Improvement of safety in mines" being financed by the National Centre of Research and Development. Climate indices are based only on physical parameters of air and their measurements. Thermal indices include additional factors which are strictly connected with work, e.g. thermal resistance of clothing, kind of work etc. Special emphasis has been put on the following indices - substitute Silesian temperature (TS) which is considered as the climatic index, and the thermal discomfort index (δ) which belongs to the thermal indices group. The possibility of the two stage application of these indices has been taken into consideration (preliminary and detailed estimation). Based on the examples it was proved that by the application of thermal hazard (detailed estimation) it is possible to avoid the use of additional technical solutions which would be necessary to reduce thermal hazard in particular work places according to the climate index. The threshold limit value for TS has been set, based on these results. It was shown that below TS = 24°C it is not necessary to perform detailed estimation.

  2. [Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in soda lake stratified sediments].

    Tourova, T P; Grechnikova, M A; Kuznetsov, V V; Sorokin, D Yu


    Various previously developed techniques for DNA extraction from the samples with complex physicochemical structure (soils, silts, and sediments) and modifications of these techniques developed in the present work were tested. Their usability for DNA extraction from the sediments of the Kulunda Steppe hypersaline soda lakes was assessed, and the most efficient procedure for indirect (two-stage) DNA extraction was proposed. Almost complete separation of the cell fraction was shown, as well as the inefficiency of nested PCR for analysis of the clone libraries obtained from washed sediments by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Analysis of the clone library obtained from the cell fractions of stratified sediments (upper, medium, and lower layers) revealed that in the sediments of Lake Gorchina-3 most eubacterial phylotypes belonged to the class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes. They were probably specific for this habitatand formed a new, presently unknown high-rank taxon. The data obtained revealed no pronounced stratification of the spe- cies diversity of the eubacterial component of the microbial community inhabiting the sediments (0-20 cm) in the inshore zone of Lake Gorchina-3.

  3. Effect of Silica Fume on two-stage Concrete Strength

    Abdelgader, H. S.; El-Baden, A. S.


    Two-stage concrete (TSC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. TSC is a simple concept; it is made using the same basic constituents as traditional concrete: cement, coarse aggregate, sand and water as well as mineral and chemical admixtures. As its name suggests, it is produced through a two-stage process. Firstly washed coarse aggregate is placed into the formwork in-situ. Later a specifically designed self compacting grout is introduced into the form from the lowest point under gravity pressure to fill the voids, cementing the aggregate into a monolith. The hardened concrete is dense, homogeneous and has in general improved engineering properties and durability. This paper presents the results from a research work attempt to study the effect of silica fume (SF) and superplasticizers admixtures (SP) on compressive and tensile strength of TSC using various combinations of water to cement ratio (w/c) and cement to sand ratio (c/s). Thirty six concrete mixes with different grout constituents were tested. From each mix twenty four standard cylinder samples of size (150mm×300mm) of concrete containing crushed aggregate were produced. The tested samples were made from combinations of w/c equal to: 0.45, 0.55 and 0.85, and three c/s of values: 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Silica fume was added at a dosage of 6% of weight of cement, while superplasticizer was added at a dosage of 2% of cement weight. Results indicated that both tensile and compressive strength of TSC can be statistically derived as a function of w/c and c/s with good correlation coefficients. The basic principle of traditional concrete, which says that an increase in water/cement ratio will lead to a reduction in compressive strength, was shown to hold true for TSC specimens tested. Using a combination of both silica fume and superplasticisers caused a significant increase in strength relative to control mixes.

  4. Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine

    Adel Ghenaiet


    Full Text Available This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic performances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or separately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while downstream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevailing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.

  5. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  6. Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine

    Adel Ghenaiet; Kaddour Touil


    This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic perfor-mances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or sepa-rately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while down-stream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevail-ing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.

  7. Two stages kinetics of municipal solid waste inoculation composting processes

    XI Bei-dou1; HUANG Guo-he; QIN Xiao-sheng; LIU Hong-liang


    In order to understand the key mechanisms of the composting processes, the municipal solid waste(MSW) composting processes were divided into two stages, and the characteristics of typical experimental scenarios from the viewpoint of microbial kinetics was analyzed. Through experimentation with advanced composting reactor under controlled composting conditions, several equations were worked out to simulate the degradation rate of the substrate. The equations showed that the degradation rate was controlled by concentration of microbes in the first stage. The degradation rates of substrates of inoculation Run A, B, C and Control composting systems were 13.61 g/(kg·h), 13.08 g/(kg·h), 15.671 g/(kg·h), and 10.5 g/(kg·h), respectively. The value of Run C is around 1.5 times higher than that of Control system. The decomposition rate of the second stage is controlled by concentration of substrate. Although the organic matter decomposition rates were similar to all Runs, inoculation could reduce the values of the half velocity coefficient and could be more efficient to make the composting stable. Particularly. For Run C, the decomposition rate is high in the first stage, and is low in the second stage. The results indicated that the inoculation was efficient for the composting processes.

  8. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John


    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521


    BAIJU. V


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the performance of a two stage solar adsorption refrigeration system with activated carbon-methanol pair investigated experimentally. Such a system was fabricated and tested under the conditions of National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India. The system consists of a parabolic solar concentrator,two water tanks, two adsorbent beds, condenser, expansion device, evaporator and accumulator. In this particular system the second water tank is act as a sensible heat storage device so that the system can be used during night time also. The system has been designed for heating 50 litres of water from 25oC to 90oC as well ascooling 10 litres of water from 30oC to 10oC within one hour. The performance parameters such as specific cooling power (SCP, coefficient of performance, solar COP and exergetic efficiency are studied. The dependency between the exergetic efficiency and cycle COP with the driving heat source temperature is also studied. The optimum heat source temperature for this system is determined as 72.4oC. The results show that the system has better performance during night time as compared to the day time. The system has a mean cycle COP of 0.196 during day time and 0.335 for night time. The mean SCP values during day time and night time are 47.83 and 68.2, respectively. The experimental results also demonstrate that the refrigerator has cooling capacity of 47 to 78 W during day time and 57.6 W to 104.4W during night time.

  10. Multiobjective Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Problems with Interval Discrete Random Variables

    S. K. Barik


    Full Text Available Most of the real-life decision-making problems have more than one conflicting and incommensurable objective functions. In this paper, we present a multiobjective two-stage stochastic linear programming problem considering some parameters of the linear constraints as interval type discrete random variables with known probability distribution. Randomness of the discrete intervals are considered for the model parameters. Further, the concepts of best optimum and worst optimum solution are analyzed in two-stage stochastic programming. To solve the stated problem, first we remove the randomness of the problem and formulate an equivalent deterministic linear programming model with multiobjective interval coefficients. Then the deterministic multiobjective model is solved using weighting method, where we apply the solution procedure of interval linear programming technique. We obtain the upper and lower bound of the objective function as the best and the worst value, respectively. It highlights the possible risk involved in the decision-making tool. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed solution procedure.


    Tor Jarl Trondsen


    Full Text Available The study attempts to identify factors for growing SMBs. An evolutionary phase approach has been used. The study also aims to find out if there are common and different denominators for newer and older firms that can affect their profitability. The study selects a sampling frame that isolates two groups of firms in two industries at two stages of development. A variety of organizational and structural data was collected and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions that may be drawn from the study are that it is not easy to find a common definition of success, it is important to stratify SMBs when studying them, an evolutionary stage approach helps to compare firms with roughly the same external and internal dynamics and each industry has its own set of success variables.The study has identified three success variables for older firms that reflect contemporary strategic thinking such as crafting a good strategy and changing it only incrementally, building core competencies and outsourcing the rest, and keeping up with innovation and honing competitive skills.

  12. Precision and cost considerations for two-stage sampling in a panelized forest inventory design.

    Westfall, James A; Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T


    Due to the relatively high cost of measuring sample plots in forest inventories, considerable attention is given to sampling and plot designs during the forest inventory planning phase. A two-stage design can be efficient from a field work perspective as spatially proximate plots are grouped into work zones. A comparison between subsampling with units of unequal size (SUUS) and a simple random sample (SRS) design in a panelized framework assessed the statistical and economic implications of using the SUUS design for a case study in the Northeastern USA. The sampling errors for estimates of forest land area and biomass were approximately 1.5-2.2 times larger with SUUS prior to completion of the inventory cycle. Considerable sampling error reductions were realized by using the zones within a post-stratified sampling paradigm; however, post-stratification of plots in the SRS design always provided smaller sampling errors in comparison. Cost differences between the two designs indicated the SUUS design could reduce the field work expense by 2-7 %. The results also suggest the SUUS design may provide substantial economic advantage for tropical forest inventories, where remote areas, poor access, and lower wages are typically encountered.

  13. Dumbbell-Shaped Rhabdomyosarcoma: Two-Stage Surgical Resection

    ElFiky, Mahmoud


    Female neonate admitted to our hospital with an abdominal mass and a thigh mass that were connected as a single dumbbell-shaped mass. CT was done on admission that showed cystic swelling in the thigh with intra-abdominal extension passing under inguinal ligament, most probably lymphangioma. The patient was assessed and prepared for surgery starting with the abdominal part then after two days for the thigh mass. Distal pulses in the lower limbs were assessed intra- and postoperatively followin...

  14. On Simon's two-stage design for single-arm phase IIA cancer clinical trials under beta-binomial distribution.

    Liu, Junfeng; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe


    Simon (Control. Clin. Trials 1989; 10:1-10)'s two-stage design has been broadly applied to single-arm phase IIA cancer clinical trials in order to minimize either the expected or the maximum sample size under the null hypothesis of drug inefficacy, i.e. when the pre-specified amount of improvement in response rate (RR) is not expected to be observed. This paper studies a realistic scenario where the standard and experimental treatment RRs follow two continuous distributions (e.g. beta distribution) rather than two single values. The binomial probabilities in Simon's (Control. Clin. Trials 1989; 10:1-10) design are replaced by prior predictive Beta-binomial probabilities that are the ratios of two beta functions and domain-restricted RRs involve incomplete beta functions to induce the null hypothesis acceptance probability. We illustrate that Beta-binomial mixture model based two-stage design retains certain desirable properties for hypothesis testing purpose. However, numerical results show that such designs may not exist under certain hypothesis and error rate (type I and II) setups within maximal sample size approximately 130. Furthermore, we give theoretical conditions for asymptotic two-stage design non-existence (sample size goes to infinity) in order to improve the efficiency of design search and to avoid needless searching.

  15. Right Axillary Sweating After Left Thoracoscopic Sypathectomy in Two-Stage Surgery

    Berkant Ozpolat


    Full Text Available One stage bilateral or two stage unilateral video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy could be performed in the treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis. Here we present a case with compensatory sweating of contralateral side after a two stage operation.

  16. The Two-stage Constrained Equal Awards and Losses Rules for Multi-Issue Allocation Situation

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.


    This paper considers two-stage solutions for multi-issue allocation situations.Characterisations are provided for the two-stage constrained equal awards and constrained equal losses rules, based on the properties of composition and path independence.

  17. An inexact mixed risk-aversion two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management under uncertainty.

    Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L


    Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy.

  18. Two-Stage Exams Improve Student Learning in an Introductory Geology Course: Logistics, Attendance, and Grades

    Knierim, Katherine; Turner, Henry; Davis, Ralph K.


    Two-stage exams--where students complete part one of an exam closed book and independently and part two is completed open book and independently (two-stage independent, or TS-I) or collaboratively (two-stage collaborative, or TS-C)--provide a means to include collaborative learning in summative assessments. Collaborative learning has been shown to…

  19. Fluttering in Stratified Flows

    Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva


    The descent motion of heavy objects under the influence of gravitational and aerodynamic forces is relevant to many branches of engineering and science. Examples range from estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying the settlement of marine larvae and its influence on underwater ecology. The behavior of regularly shaped objects freely falling in homogeneous fluids is relatively well understood. For example, the complex interaction of a rigid coin with the surrounding fluid will cause it to either fall steadily, flutter, tumble, or be chaotic. Less is known about the effect of density stratification on the descent behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in a linearly salt-stratified fluids where the density is varied from 1.0 to 1.14 of that of water where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is 1.7 rad/sec and the Froude number Fr robots for space exploration and underwater missions.

  20. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    Zhao, Tingting, E-mail:; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)


    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  1. Two-stage scheduling algorithm based on priority table for clusters with inaccurate system parameters

    LIU An-feng; CHEN Zhi-gang; XIONG Ce


    A new two-stage soft real-time scheduling algorithm based on priority table was proposed for task dispatch and selection in cluster systems with inaccurate parameters. The inaccurate characteristics of the system were modeled through probability analysis. By taking into account the multiple important system parameters, including task deadline, priority, session integrity and memory access locality, the algorithm is expected to achieve high quality of service. Lots of simulation results collected under different load conditions demonstrate that the algorithm can not only effectively overcome the inaccuracy of the system state, but also optimize the task rejected ratio, value realized ratio, differentiated service guaranteed ratio, and session integrity ensured ratio with the average improvement of 3.5%, 5.8%, 7.6% and 5.5%, respectively. Compared with many existing schemes that cannot deal with the inaccurate parameters of the system, the proposed scheme can achieve the best system performance by carefully adjusting scheduling probability. The algorithm is expected to be promising in systems with soft real-time scheduling requirement such as E-commerce applications.

  2. Ecotoxicity of materials from integrated two-stage liquefaction and Exxon Donor Solvent processes

    Dauble, D.D.; Scott, A.J.; Lusty, E.W.; Thomas, B.L.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.


    Coal-derived materials from two coal conversion processes were screened for potential ecological toxicity. We examined the toxicity of materials from different engineering or process options to an aquatic invertebrate and also related potential hazard to relative concentration, composition, and stability of water soluble components. For materials tested from the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) process, only the LC finer (LCF) 650/sup 0/F distillate was highly soluble in water at 20/sup 0/C. The LCF feed and Total Liquid Product (TLP) were not in liquid state at 20/sup 0/C and were relatively insoluble in water. Relative hazard to daphnids from ITSL materials was as follows: LCF 650/sup 0/F distillate greater than or equal to LCF feed greater than or equal to TLP. For Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) materials, process solvent produced in the bottoms recycle mode was more soluble in water than once-through process solvent and, hence, slightly more acutely toxic to daphnids. When compared to other coal liquids or petroleum products, the ITSL or EDS liquids were intermediate in toxicity; relative hazard ranged from 1/7 to 1/13 of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC)-II distillable blend, but was several times greater than the relative hazard for No. 2 diesel fuel oil or Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Although compositonal differences in water-soluble fractions (WSF) were noted among materials, phenolics were the major compound class in all WSFs and probably the primary contributor to acute toxicity.

  3. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Ye Xu


    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  4. Two-stage seasonal streamflow forecasts to guide water resources decisions and water rights allocation

    Block, P. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Bonnafous, L.


    Decision-making in water resources is inherently uncertain producing copious risks, ranging from operational (present) to planning (season-ahead) to design/adaptation (decadal) time-scales. These risks include human activity and climate variability/change. As the risks in designing and operating water systems and allocating available supplies vary systematically in time, prospects for predicting and managing such risks become increasingly attractive. Considerable effort has been undertaken to improve seasonal forecast skill and advocate for integration to reduce risk, however only minimal adoption is evident. Impediments are well defined, yet tailoring forecast products and allowing for flexible adoption assist in overcoming some obstacles. The semi-arid Elqui River basin in Chile is contending with increasing levels of water stress and demand coupled with insufficient investment in infrastructure, taxing its ability to meet agriculture, hydropower, and environmental requirements. The basin is fed from a retreating glacier, with allocation principles founded on a system of water rights and markets. A two-stage seasonal streamflow forecast at leads of one and two seasons prescribes the probability of reductions in the value of each water right, allowing water managers to inform their constituents in advance. A tool linking the streamflow forecast to a simple reservoir decision model also allows water managers to select a level of confidence in the forecast information.

  5. The role of the upper sample size limit in two-stage bioequivalence designs.

    Karalis, Vangelis


    Two-stage designs (TSDs) are currently recommended by the regulatory authorities for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. The TSDs presented until now rely on an assumed geometric mean ratio (GMR) value of the BE metric in stage I in order to avoid inflation of type I error. In contrast, this work proposes a more realistic TSD design where sample re-estimation relies not only on the variability of stage I, but also on the observed GMR. In these cases, an upper sample size limit (UL) is introduced in order to prevent inflation of type I error. The aim of this study is to unveil the impact of UL on two TSD bioequivalence approaches which are based entirely on the interim results. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate several different scenarios of UL levels, within-subject variability, different starting number of subjects, and GMR. The use of UL leads to no inflation of type I error. As UL values increase, the % probability of declaring BE becomes higher. The starting sample size and the variability of the study affect type I error. Increased UL levels result in higher total sample sizes of the TSD which are more pronounced for highly variable drugs.

  6. Preemptive scheduling in a two-stage supply chain to minimize the makespan

    Pei, Jun; Fan, Wenjuan; Pardalos, Panos M.; Liu, Xinbao; Goldengorin, Boris; Yang, Shanlin


    This paper deals with the problem of preemptive scheduling in a two-stage supply chain framework. The supply chain environment contains two stages: production and transportation. In the production stage jobs are processed on a manufacturer's bounded serial batching machine, preemptions are allowed,

  7. Adaptive Urban Stormwater Management Using a Two-stage Stochastic Optimization Model

    Hung, F.; Hobbs, B. F.; McGarity, A. E.


    In many older cities, stormwater results in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and consequent water quality impairments. Because of the expense of traditional approaches for controlling CSOs, cities are considering the use of green infrastructure (GI) to reduce runoff and pollutants. Examples of GI include tree trenches, rain gardens, green roofs, and rain barrels. However, the cost and effectiveness of GI are uncertain, especially at the watershed scale. We present a two-stage stochastic extension of the Stormwater Investment Strategy Evaluation (StormWISE) model (A. McGarity, JWRPM, 2012, 111-24) to explicitly model and optimize these uncertainties in an adaptive management framework. A two-stage model represents the immediate commitment of resources ("here & now") followed by later investment and adaptation decisions ("wait & see"). A case study is presented for Philadelphia, which intends to extensively deploy GI over the next two decades (PWD, "Green City, Clean Water - Implementation and Adaptive Management Plan," 2011). After first-stage decisions are made, the model updates the stochastic objective and constraints (learning). We model two types of "learning" about GI cost and performance. One assumes that learning occurs over time, is automatic, and does not depend on what has been done in stage one (basic model). The other considers learning resulting from active experimentation and learning-by-doing (advanced model). Both require expert probability elicitations, and learning from research and monitoring is modelled by Bayesian updating (as in S. Jacobi et al., JWRPM, 2013, 534-43). The model allocates limited financial resources to GI investments over time to achieve multiple objectives with a given reliability. Objectives include minimizing construction and O&M costs; achieving nutrient, sediment, and runoff volume targets; and community concerns, such as aesthetics, CO2 emissions, heat islands, and recreational values. CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) and


    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL


    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.


    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL


    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  10. Two-Stage Multi-Objective Collaborative Scheduling for Wind Farm and Battery Switch Station

    Zhe Jiang


    Full Text Available In order to deal with the uncertainties of wind power, wind farm and electric vehicle (EV battery switch station (BSS were proposed to work together as an integrated system. In this paper, the collaborative scheduling problems of such a system were studied. Considering the features of the integrated system, three indices, which include battery swapping demand curtailment of BSS, wind curtailment of wind farm, and generation schedule tracking of the integrated system are proposed. In addition, a two-stage multi-objective collaborative scheduling model was designed. In the first stage, a day-ahead model was built based on the theory of dependent chance programming. With the aim of maximizing the realization probabilities of these three operating indices, random fluctuations of wind power and battery switch demand were taken into account simultaneously. In order to explore the capability of BSS as reserve, the readjustment process of the BSS within each hour was considered in this stage. In addition, the stored energy rather than the charging/discharging power of BSS during each period was optimized, which will provide basis for hour-ahead further correction of BSS. In the second stage, an hour-ahead model was established. In order to cope with the randomness of wind power and battery swapping demand, the proposed hour-ahead model utilized ultra-short term prediction of the wind power and the battery switch demand to schedule the charging/discharging power of BSS in a rolling manner. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed models was validated by case studies. The simulation results indicated that the proposed model could realize complement between wind farm and BSS, reduce the dependence on power grid, and facilitate the accommodation of wind power.

  11. Numerical simulation of a step-piston type series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator

    Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi; Inoue, Tatsuo


    A two-stage pulse tube refrigerator has a great advantage in that there are no moving parts at low temperatures. The problem is low theoretical efficiency. In an ordinary two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, the expansion work of the first stage pulse tube is rather large, but is changed to heat. The theoretical efficiency is lower than that of a Stirling refrigerator. A series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator was introduced for solving this problem. The hot end of the regenerator of the second stage is connected to the hot end of the first stage pulse tube. The expansion work in the first stage pulse tube is part of the input work of the second stage, therefore the efficiency is increased. In a simulation result for a step-piston type two-stage series pulse tube refrigerator, the efficiency is increased by 13.8%.

  12. Theory and calculation of two-stage voltage stabilizer on zener diodes

    G. S. Veksler


    Full Text Available Two-stage stabilizer is compared with one-stage. There have been got formulas, which give the possibility to make an engineering calculation. There is an example of the calculation.

  13. Two-stage fungal pre-treatment for improved biogas production from sisal leaf decortication residues

    Muthangya, Mutemi; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Kivaisi, Amelia Kajumulo


    .... Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors...

  14. Experiment research on two-stage dry-fed entrained flow coal gasifier


    The process flow and the main devices of a new two-stage dry-fed coal gasification pilot plant with a throughout of 36 t/d are introduced in this paper. For comparison with the traditional one-stage gasifiers, the influences of the coal feed ratio between two stages on the performance of the gasifier are detailedly studied by a series of experiments. The results reveal that the two-stage gasification decreases the temperature of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, simplifies the gasification process, and reduces the size of the syngas cooler. Moreover, the cold gas efficiency of the gasifier can be improved by using the two-stage gasification. In our experiments, the efficiency is about 3%-6% higher than the existing one-stage gasifiers.


    Vuurpijl, L.; Schomaker, L.


    This paper describes a two-stage classification method for (1) classification of isolated characters and (2) verification of the classification result. Character prototypes are generated using hierarchical clustering. For those prototypes known to sometimes produce wrong classification results, a

  16. A Two-Stage Waste Gasification Reactor for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a two-stage waste processing reactor for space applications. Our proposed technology converts waste from space missions into...

  17. A new multi-motor drive system based on two-stage direct power converter

    Kumar, Dinesh


    The two-stage AC to AC direct power converter is an alternative matrix converter topology, which offers the benefits of sinusoidal input currents and output voltages, bidirectional power flow and controllable input power factor. The absence of any energy storage devices, such as electrolytic capacitors, has increased the potential lifetime of the converter. In this research work, a new multi-motor drive system based on a two-stage direct power converter has been proposed, with two motors c...

  18. Maximally efficient two-stage screening: Determining intellectual disability in Taiwanese military conscripts

    Chia-Chang Chien


    Full Text Available Chia-Chang Chien1, Shu-Fen Huang1,2,3,4, For-Wey Lung1,2,3,41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Calo Psychiatric Center, Pingtung County, TaiwanObjective: The purpose of this study was to apply a two-stage screening method for the large-scale intelligence screening of military conscripts.Methods: We collected 99 conscripted soldiers whose educational levels were senior high school level or lower to be the participants. Every participant was required to take the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R assessments.Results: Logistic regression analysis showed the conceptual level responses (CLR index of the WCST was the most significant index for determining intellectual disability (ID; FIQ ≤ 84. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the optimum cut-off point of CLR. The optimum one cut-off point of CLR was 66; the two cut-off points were 49 and 66. Comparing the two-stage window screening with the two-stage positive screening, the area under the curve and the positive predictive value increased. Moreover, the cost of the two-stage window screening decreased by 59%.Conclusion: The two-stage window screening is more accurate and economical than the two-stage positive screening. Our results provide an example for the use of two-stage screening and the possibility of the WCST to replace WAIS-R in large-scale screenings for ID in the future.Keywords: intellectual disability, intelligence screening, two-stage positive screening, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised

  19. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    Nkemka, Valentine


    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  20. SU-E-J-128: Two-Stage Atlas Selection in Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Purpose: In the new era of big data, multi-atlas-based image segmentation is challenged by heterogeneous atlas quality and high computation burden from extensive atlas collection, demanding efficient identification of the most relevant atlases. This study aims to develop a two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve computational economy with performance guarantee. Methods: We develop a low-cost fusion set selection scheme by introducing a preliminary selection to trim full atlas collection into an augmented subset, alleviating the need for extensive full-fledged registrations. More specifically, fusion set selection is performed in two successive steps: preliminary selection and refinement. An augmented subset is first roughly selected from the whole atlas collection with a simple registration scheme and the corresponding preliminary relevance metric; the augmented subset is further refined into the desired fusion set size, using full-fledged registration and the associated relevance metric. The main novelty of this work is the introduction of an inference model to relate the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, based on which the augmented subset size is rigorously derived to ensure the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance and complexity of the proposed two-stage atlas selection method were assessed using a collection of 30 prostate MR images. It achieved comparable segmentation accuracy as the conventional one-stage method with full-fledged registration, but significantly reduced computation time to 1/3 (from 30.82 to 11.04 min per segmentation). Compared with alternative one-stage cost-saving approach, the proposed scheme yielded superior performance with mean and medium DSC of (0.83, 0.85) compared to (0.74, 0.78). Conclusion: This work has developed a model-guided two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve significant cost reduction while guaranteeing high segmentation accuracy. The benefit

  1. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R


    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  2. Method of oxygen-enriched two-stage underground coal gasification

    Liu Hongtao; Chen Feng; Pan Xia; Yao Kai; Liu Shuqin


    Two-stage underground coal gasification was studied to improve the caloric value of the syngas and to extend gas production times. A model test using the oxygen-enriched two-stage coal gasification method was carried out. The composition of the gas produced, the time ratio of the two stages, and the role of the temperature field were analysed. The results show that oxygen-enriched two-stage gasification shortens the time of the first stage and prolongs the time of the second stage. Feed oxygen concentrations of 30%,35%, 40%, 45%, 60%, or 80% gave time ratios (first stage to second stage) of 1:0.12, 1:0.21, 1:0.51, 1:0.64,1:0.90, and 1:4.0 respectively. Cooling rates of the temperature field after steam injection decreased with time from about 19.1-27.4 ℃/min to 2.3-6.8 ℃/min. But this rate increased with increasing oxygen concentrations in the first stage. The caloric value of the syngas improves with increased oxygen concentration in the first stage. Injection of 80% oxygen-enriched air gave gas with the highest caloric value and also gave the longest production time. The caloric value of the gas obtained from the oxygenenriched two-stage gasification method lies in the range from 5.31 MJ/Nm3 to 10.54 MJ/Nm3.

  3. High magnetostriction parameters for low-temperature sintered cobalt ferrite obtained by two-stage sintering

    Khaja Mohaideen, K.; Joy, P.A., E-mail:


    From the studies on the magnetostriction characteristics of two-stage sintered polycrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} made from nanocrystalline powders, it is found that two-stage sintering at low temperatures is very effective for enhancing the density and for attaining higher magnetostriction coefficient. Magnetostriction coefficient and strain derivative are further enhanced by magnetic field annealing and relatively larger enhancement in the magnetostriction parameters is obtained for the samples sintered at lower temperatures, after magnetic annealing, despite the fact that samples sintered at higher temperatures show larger magnetostriction coefficients before annealing. A high magnetostriction coefficient of ∼380 ppm is obtained after field annealing for the sample sintered at 1100 °C, below a magnetic field of 400 kA/m, which is the highest value so far reported at low magnetic fields for sintered polycrystalline cobalt ferrite. - Highlights: • Effect of two-stage sintering on the magnetostriction characteristics of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. • Two-stage sintering is very effective for enhancing the density and the magnetostriction parameters. • Higher magnetostriction for samples sintered at low temperatures and after magnetic field annealing. • Highest reported magnetostriction of 380 ppm at low fields after two-stage, low-temperature sintering.

  4. 13 K thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator

    TANG Ke; CHEN Guobang; THUMMES Günter


    Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators have attracted academic and commercial interest in recent years due to their more compact configuration and higher efficiency than those of G-M type pulse tube refrigerators. In order to achieve a no-load cooling temperature below 20 K, a thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator has been built. The thermally coupled arrangement was expected to minimize the interference between the two stages and to simplify the adjustment and optimization of the phase shifters. A no-load cooling temperature of 14.97 K has been realized with the two-stage cooler driven by one linear compressor of 200 W electric input. When the two stages are driven by two compressors respectively, with total electric input of 400 W, the prototype has attained a no-load cooling temperature of 12.96 K, which is the lowest temperature ever reported with two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators.

  5. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    Ladan Jamshidy


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results. The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion. The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique.

  6. Stratified medicine and reimbursement issues

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten


    Stratified Medicine (SM) has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to

  7. Performance Evaluation of Two Node Tandem Communication Network with Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation having Two Stage Direct Bulk Arrivals

    K. Srinivasa Rao


    Full Text Available A two node tandem communication network with dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA having two stage direct bulk arrivals is developed and analyzed. The messages arriving to the source are packetized and stored in the buffers for forward transmission. Dynamic bandwidth allocation strategy is proposed by adjusting the transmission rate at every node just before transmission of each packet. The arrival and transmission processes at each node are characterized through compound Poisson and Poisson processes such that several of the statistical characteristics of communication networks identically matches. Using the difference - differential equations, the performance measures like the joint probability generating function of the content of two buffers, average buffer content, mean delays and throughput of nodes are derived and analyzed. It is observed that the bulk arrivals at two nodes and DBA have significant influence on performance measures. This network is much useful in Tele and Satellite communications.

  8. Design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube

    Doolan, Con


    This report outlines the design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube. The project has completed its construction phase and the facility has been installed in the new impulsive research laboratory where commissioning is about to take place. The X-2 uses a unique, two-stage driver design which allows a more compact and lower overall cost free piston compressor. The new facility has been constructed in order to examine the performance envelope of the two-stage driver and how well it couple to sub-orbital and super-orbital expansion tubes. Data obtained from these experiments will be used for the design of a much larger facility, X-3, utilizing the same free piston driver concept.

  9. Analysis of performance and optimum configuration of two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module

    Li Kai-Zhen; Liang Rui-Sheng; Wei Zheng-Jun


    In this paper, the theoretical analysis and simulating calculation were conducted for a basic two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module, which contains one thermocouple in the second stage and several thermocouples in the first stage. The study focused on the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric cooler, especially investigating the influences of some parameters, such as the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of every thermocouple and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage, on the cooling performance of the module. The obtained results of analysis indicate that changing the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of thcrmocouples and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage can improve the cooling performance of the module. These results can be used to optimize the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module and provide guides for the design and application of thermoelectric cooler.

  10. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang


    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  11. Two-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Bone Grafting Technique Using an Allograft Bone Matrix.

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S; Cram, Tyler R; Civitarese, David; O'Brien, Luke; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F


    Outcomes of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been reported to be far superior to those of revision reconstruction. However, as the incidence of ACL reconstruction is rapidly increasing, so is the number of failures. The subsequent need for revision ACL reconstruction is estimated to occur in up to 13,000 patients each year in the United States. Revision ACL reconstruction can be performed in one or two stages. A two-stage approach is recommended in cases of improper placement of the original tunnels or in cases of unacceptable tunnel enlargement. The aim of this study was to describe the technique for allograft ACL tunnel bone grafting in patients requiring a two-stage revision ACL reconstruction.

  12. The CSS and The Two-Staged Methods for Parameter Estimation in SARFIMA Models

    Erol Egrioglu


    Full Text Available Seasonal Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (SARFIMA models are used in the analysis of seasonal long memory-dependent time series. Two methods, which are conditional sum of squares (CSS and two-staged methods introduced by Hosking (1984, are proposed to estimate the parameters of SARFIMA models. However, no simulation study has been conducted in the literature. Therefore, it is not known how these methods behave under different parameter settings and sample sizes in SARFIMA models. The aim of this study is to show the behavior of these methods by a simulation study. According to results of the simulation, advantages and disadvantages of both methods under different parameter settings and sample sizes are discussed by comparing the root mean square error (RMSE obtained by the CSS and two-staged methods. As a result of the comparison, it is seen that CSS method produces better results than those obtained from the two-staged method.

  13. A two-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland for high-rate nitrogen removal.

    Langergraber, Guenter; Leroch, Klaus; Pressl, Alexander; Rohrhofer, Roland; Haberl, Raimund


    By using a two-stage constructed wetland (CW) system operated with an organic load of 40 gCOD.m(-2).d(-1) (2 m2 per person equivalent) average nitrogen removal efficiencies of about 50% and average nitrogen elimination rates of 980 g N.m(-2).yr(-1) could be achieved. Two vertical flow beds with intermittent loading have been operated in series. The first stage uses sand with a grain size of 2-3.2 mm for the main layer and has a drainage layer that is impounded; the second stage sand with a grain size of 0.06-4 mm and a drainage layer with free drainage. The high nitrogen removal can be achieved without recirculation thus it is possible to operate the two-stage CW system without energy input. The paper shows performance data for the two-stage CW system regarding removal of organic matter and nitrogen for the two year operating period of the system. Additionally, its efficiency is compared with the efficiency of a single-stage vertical flow CW system designed and operated according to the Austrian design standards with 4 m2 per person equivalent. The comparison shows that a higher effluent quality could be reached with the two-stage system although the two-stage CW system is operated with the double organic load or half the specific surface area requirement, respectively. Another advantage is that the specific investment costs of the two-stage CW system amount to 1,200 EUR per person (without mechanical pre-treatment) and are only about 60% of the specific investment costs of the singe-stage CW system. IWA Publishing 2008.

  14. Methane production from sweet sorghum residues via a two-stage process

    Stamatelatou, K.; Dravillas, K.; Lyberatos, G. [University of Patras (Greece). Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology


    The start-up of a two-stage reactor configuration for the anaerobic digestion of sweet sorghum residues was evaluated. The sweet sorghum residues were a waste stream originating from the alcoholic fermentation of sweet sorghum and the subsequent distillation step. This waste stream contained high concentration of solid matter (9% TS) and thus could be characterized as a semi-solid, not easily biodegradable wastewater with high COD (115 g/l). The application of the proposed two-stage configuration (consisting of one thermophilic hydrolyser and one mesophilic methaniser) achieved a methane production of 16 l/l wastewater under a hydraulic retention time of 19 d. (author)

  15. Two Stage Fully Differential Sample and Hold Circuit Using .18µm Technology

    Dharmendra Dongardiye


    Full Text Available This paper presents a well-established Fully Differential sample & hold circuitry, implemented in 180-nm CMOS technology. In this two stage method the first stage give us very high gain and second stage gives large voltage swing. The proposed opamp provides 149MHz unity-gain bandwidth , 78 degree phase margin and a differential peak to peak output swing more than 2.4v. using the improved fully differential two stage operational amplifier of 76.7dB gain. Although the sample and hold circuit meets the requirements of SNR specifications.

  16. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    G. Barbagli


    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  17. Development of a linear compressor for two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers

    Peng-da YAN; Wei-li GAO; Guo-bang CHEN


    A valveless linear compressor was built up to drive a self-made two-stage pulse tube cryocooler. With a designed maximum swept volume of 60 cm~3, the compressor can provide the cryocooler with a pressure volume (PV) power of 400 W.Preliminary measurements of the compressor indicated that both an efficiency of 35%~55% and a pressure ratio of 1.3~1.4 could be obtained. The two-stage pulse tube cryocooler driven by this compressor achieved the lowest temperature of 14.2 K.

  18. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process


    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  19. First Law Analysis of a Two-stage Ejector-vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle working with R404A

    Feiza Memet; Daniela-Elena Mitu


    The traditional two-stage vapor compression refrigeration cycle might be replaced by a two-stage ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle if it is aimed the decrease of irreversibility during expansion...

  20. Quantum probability

    Gudder, Stanley P


    Quantum probability is a subtle blend of quantum mechanics and classical probability theory. Its important ideas can be traced to the pioneering work of Richard Feynman in his path integral formalism.Only recently have the concept and ideas of quantum probability been presented in a rigorous axiomatic framework, and this book provides a coherent and comprehensive exposition of this approach. It gives a unified treatment of operational statistics, generalized measure theory and the path integral formalism that can only be found in scattered research articles.The first two chapters survey the ne

  1. Ruin probabilities

    Asmussen, Søren; Albrecher, Hansjörg

    The book gives a comprehensive treatment of the classical and modern ruin probability theory. Some of the topics are Lundberg's inequality, the Cramér-Lundberg approximation, exact solutions, other approximations (e.g., for heavy-tailed claim size distributions), finite horizon ruin probabilities......, extensions of the classical compound Poisson model to allow for reserve-dependent premiums, Markov-modulation, periodicity, change of measure techniques, phase-type distributions as a computational vehicle and the connection to other applied probability areas, like queueing theory. In this substantially...

  2. Ignition Probability

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — USFS, State Forestry, BLM, and DOI fire occurrence point locations from 1987 to 2008 were combined and converted into a fire occurrence probability or density grid...

  3. Probability-1

    Shiryaev, Albert N


    This book contains a systematic treatment of probability from the ground up, starting with intuitive ideas and gradually developing more sophisticated subjects, such as random walks, martingales, Markov chains, the measure-theoretic foundations of probability theory, weak convergence of probability measures, and the central limit theorem. Many examples are discussed in detail, and there are a large number of exercises. The book is accessible to advanced undergraduates and can be used as a text for independent study. To accommodate the greatly expanded material in the third edition of Probability, the book is now divided into two volumes. This first volume contains updated references and substantial revisions of the first three chapters of the second edition. In particular, new material has been added on generating functions, the inclusion-exclusion principle, theorems on monotonic classes (relying on a detailed treatment of “π-λ” systems), and the fundamental theorems of mathematical statistics.

  4. Overcoming the bottlenecks of anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste by two-stage fermentation.

    Stoyanova, Elitza; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bochmann, Günther; Fuchs, Werner


    Two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) was applied for reducing the inhibiting factors by optimizing the acidification stage. Single-stage AD and co-fermentation with chicken manure were conducted coinstantaneous for direct comparison. Degradation of the polyphenols up to 61% was observed during the methanogenic stage. Nevertheless the concentration of phenolic substances was still high; the two-stage fermentation remained stable at OLR 1.5 kgVS/m³day. The buffer capacity of the system was twice as high, compared to the one-stage fermentation, without additives. The two-stage AD was a combined process - thermophilic first stage and mesophilic second stage, which pointed out to be the most profitable for AD of OMSW for the reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 230 to 150 days, and three times faster than the single-stage and the co-fermentation start-up of the fermentation. The optimal HRT and incubation temperature for the first stage were determined to four days and 55°C. The performance of the two-stage AD concerning the stability of the process was followed by the co-digestion of OMSW with chicken manure as a nitrogen-rich co-substrate, which makes them viable options for waste disposal with concomitant energy recovery.

  5. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist


    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output a...... of the reactor had to be constructed in some other material....

  6. Treatment of corn ethanol distillery wastewater using two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Ráduly, B; Gyenge, L; Szilveszter, Sz; Kedves, A; Crognale, S

    In this study the mesophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of corn bioethanol distillery wastewater is investigated in laboratory-scale reactors. Two-stage AD technology separates the different sub-processes of the AD in two distinct reactors, enabling the use of optimal conditions for the different microbial consortia involved in the different process phases, and thus allowing for higher applicable organic loading rates (OLRs), shorter hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and better conversion rates of the organic matter, as well as higher methane content of the produced biogas. In our experiments the reactors have been operated in semi-continuous phase-separated mode. A specific methane production of 1,092 mL/(L·d) has been reached at an OLR of 6.5 g TCOD/(L·d) (TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand) and a total HRT of 21 days (5.7 days in the first-stage, and 15.3 days in the second-stage reactor). Nonetheless the methane concentration in the second-stage reactor was very high (78.9%); the two-stage AD outperformed the reference single-stage AD (conducted at the same reactor loading rate and retention time) by only a small margin in terms of volumetric methane production rate. This makes questionable whether the higher methane content of the biogas counterbalances the added complexity of the two-stage digestion.

  7. A two-stage ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John


    A two-stage enzymatic process for producing fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) in a packed bed reactor is reported. The process uses an experimental immobilized lipase (NS 88001) and Novozym 435 to catalyze transesterification (first stage) and esterification (second stage), respectively. Both stages...

  8. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...... problem....

  9. Use a Log Splitter to Demonstrate Two-Stage Hydraulic Pump

    Dell, Timothy W.


    The two-stage hydraulic pump is commonly used in many high school and college courses to demonstrate hydraulic systems. Unfortunately, many textbooks do not provide a good explanation of how the technology works. Another challenge that instructors run into with teaching hydraulic systems is the cost of procuring an expensive real-world machine…

  10. Two-Stage Sampling Procedures for Comparing Means When Population Distributions Are Non-Normal.

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen

    Two-stage sampling procedures for comparing two population means when variances are heterogeneous have been developed by D. G. Chapman (1950) and B. K. Ghosh (1975). Both procedures assume sampling from populations that are normally distributed. The present study reports on the effect that sampling from non-normal distributions has on Type I error…

  11. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    Gierkink, S.L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.


    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant transconductan

  12. Capacity Analysis of Two-Stage Production lines with Many Products

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractWe consider two-stage production lines with an intermediate buffer. A buffer is needed when fluctuations occur. For single-product production lines fluctuations in capacity availability may be caused by random processing times, failures and random repair times. For multi-product producti

  13. Kinetics analysis of two-stage austenitization in supermartensitic stainless steel

    Nießen, Frank; Villa, Matteo; Hald, John


    The martensite-to-austenite transformation in X4CrNiMo16-5-1 supermartensitic stainless steel was followed in-situ during isochronal heating at 2, 6 and 18 K min−1 applying energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the BESSY II facility. Austenitization occurred in two stages, separated...

  14. An intracooling system for a novel two-stage sliding-vane air compressor

    Murgia, Stefano; Valenti, Gianluca; Costanzo, Ida; Colletta, Daniele; Contaldi, Giulio


    Lube-oil injection is used in positive-displacement compressors and, among them, in sliding-vane machines to guarantee the correct lubrication of the moving parts and as sealing to prevent air leakage. Furthermore, lube-oil injection allows to exploit lubricant also as thermal ballast with a great thermal capacity to minimize the temperature increase during the compression. This study presents the design of a two-stage sliding-vane rotary compressor in which the air cooling is operated by high-pressure cold oil injection into a connection duct between the two stages. The heat exchange between the atomized oil jet and the air results in a decrease of the air temperature before the second stage, improving the overall system efficiency. This cooling system is named here intracooling, as opposed to intercooling. The oil injection is realized via pressure-swirl nozzles, both within the compressors and inside the intracooling duct. The design of the two-stage sliding-vane compressor is accomplished by way of a lumped parameter model. The model predicts an input power reduction as large as 10% for intercooled and intracooled two-stage compressors, the latter being slightly better, with respect to a conventional single-stage compressor for compressed air applications. An experimental campaign is conducted on a first prototype that comprises the low-pressure compressor and the intracooling duct, indicating that a significant temperature reduction is achieved in the duct.

  15. Development of a heavy-duty diesel engine with two-stage turbocharging

    Sturm, L.; Kruithof, J.


    A mean value model was developed by using Matrixx/ Systembuild simulation tool for designing real-time control algorithms for the two-stage engine. All desired characteristics are achieved, apart from lower A/F ratio at lower engine speeds and Turbocharger matches calculations. The CANbus is used to

  16. Two-stage, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of wood : an investigation of fundamentals

    John F. Harris; Andrew J. Baker; Anthony H. Conner; Thomas W. Jeffries; James L. Minor; Roger C. Pettersen; Ralph W. Scott; Edward L Springer; Theodore H. Wegner; John I. Zerbe


    This paper presents a fundamental analysis of the processing steps in the production of methanol from southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.) by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Data for hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis are correlated using models. This information is used to develop and evaluate a process design.

  17. Two-stage data envelopment analysis technique for evaluating internal supply chain efficiency

    Nisakorn Somsuk


    Full Text Available A two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA which uses mathematical linear programming techniques is applied to evaluate the efficiency of a system composed of two relational sub-processes, by which the outputs from the first sub-process (as the intermediate outputs of the system are the inputs for the second sub-process. The relative efficiencies of the system and its sub-processes can be measured by applying the two-stage DEA. According to the literature review on the supply chain management, this technique can be used as a tool for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain composed of two relational sub-processes. The technique can help to determine the inefficient sub-processes. Once the inefficient sub-process was improved its efficiency, it would result in better aggregate efficiency of the supply chain. This paper aims to present a procedure for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain by using the two-stage DEA, under the assumption of constant returns to scale, with an example of internal supply chain efficiency measurement of insurance companies by applying the two-stage DEA for illustration. Moreover, in this paper the authors also present some observations on the application of this technique.

  18. Two-stage estimation in copula models used in family studies

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford


    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for studying a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are derived, generalising the approach by...

  19. Innovative two-stage anaerobic process for effective codigestion of cheese whey and cattle manure.

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Grilli, Selene; Spagni, Alessandro; Fava, Fabio


    The valorisation of agroindustrial waste through anaerobic digestion represents a significant opportunity for refuse treatment and renewable energy production. This study aimed to improve the codigestion of cheese whey (CW) and cattle manure (CM) by an innovative two-stage process, based on concentric acidogenic and methanogenic phases, designed for enhancing performance and reducing footprint. The optimum CW to CM ratio was evaluated under batch conditions. Thereafter, codigestion was implemented under continuous-flow conditions comparing one- and two-stage processes. The results demonstrated that the addition of CM in codigestion with CW greatly improved the anaerobic process. The highest methane yield was obtained co-treating the two substrates at equal ratio by using the innovative two-stage process. The proposed system reached the maximum value of 258 mL(CH4) g(gv(-1), which was more than twice the value obtained by the one-stage process and 10% higher than the value obtained by the two-stage one.

  20. Extraoral implants for orbit rehabilitation: a comparison between one-stage and two-stage surgeries.

    de Mello, M C L M P; Guedes, R; de Oliveira, J A P; Pecorari, V A; Abrahão, M; Dib, L L


    The aim of the study was to compare the osseointegration success rate and time for delivery of the prosthesis among cases treated by two-stage or one-stage surgery for orbit rehabilitation between 2003 and 2011. Forty-five patients were included, 31 males and 14 females; 22 patients had two-stage surgery and 23 patients had one-stage surgery. A total 138 implants were installed, 42 (30.4%) on previously irradiated bone. The implant survival rate was 96.4%, with a success rate of 99.0% among non-irradiated patients and 90.5% among irradiated patients. Two-stage patients received 74 implants with a survival rate of 94.6% (four implants lost); one-stage surgery patients received 64 implants with a survival rate of 98.4% (one implant lost). The median time interval between implant fixation and delivery of the prosthesis for the two-stage group was 9.6 months and for the one-stage group was 4.0 months (P < 0.001). The one-stage technique proved to be reliable and was associated with few risks and complications; the rate of successful osseointegration was similar to those reported in the literature. The one-stage technique should be considered a viable procedure that shortens the time to final rehabilitation and facilitates appropriate patient follow-up treatment.

  1. Validation of Continuous CHP Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist


    The Viking gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark was built to demonstrate a continuous combined heat and power operation of a two-stage gasifier fueled with wood chips. The nominal input of the gasifier is 75 kW thermal. To validate the continuous operation of the plant, a 9-d...

  2. High rate treatment of terephthalic acid production wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic bioreactor

    Kleerebezem, R.; Beckers, J.; Pol, L.W.H.; Lettinga, G.


    The feasibility was studied of anaerobic treatment of wastewater generated during purified terephthalic acid (PTA) production in two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system. The artificial influent of the system contained the main organic substrates of PTA-wastewater: acetate, be

  3. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi


    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  4. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis


    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were...

  5. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi


    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  6. A Two-Stage Exercise on the Binomial Distribution Using Minitab.

    Shibli, M. Abdullah


    Describes a two-stage experiment that was designed to explain binomial distribution to undergraduate statistics students. A manual coin flipping exercise is explained as the first stage; a computerized simulation using MINITAB software is presented as stage two; and output from the MINITAB exercises is included. (two references) (LRW)

  7. The rearrangement process in a two-stage broadcast switching network

    Jacobsen, Søren B.


    The rearrangement process in the two-stage broadcast switching network presented by F.K. Hwang and G.W. Richards (ibid., vol.COM-33, no.10, p.1025-1035, Oct. 1985) is considered. By defining a certain function it is possible to calculate an upper bound on the number of connections to be moved...

  8. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Yukio Iwashita


    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both post-operative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  9. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Iwashita Yukio


    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both postoperative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  10. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben


    This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  11. Lexicographic Probability, Conditional Probability, and Nonstandard Probability


    the following conditions: CP1. µ(U |U) = 1 if U ∈ F ′. CP2 . µ(V1 ∪ V2 |U) = µ(V1 |U) + µ(V2 |U) if V1 ∩ V2 = ∅, U ∈ F ′, and V1, V2 ∈ F . CP3. µ(V |U...µ(V |X)× µ(X |U) if V ⊆ X ⊆ U , U,X ∈ F ′, V ∈ F . Note that it follows from CP1 and CP2 that µ(· |U) is a probability measure on (W,F) (and, in... CP2 hold. This is easily seen to determine µ. Moreover, µ vaciously satisfies CP3, since there do not exist distinct sets U and X in F ′ such that U

  12. The Bracka two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias: A single center experience

    Rakesh S Joshi


    Full Text Available Background: Surgical correction of severe proximal hypospadias represents a significant surgical challenge and single-stage corrections are often associated with complications and reoperations. Bracka two-stage repair is an attractive alternative surgical procedure with superior, reliable, and reproducible results. Purpose: To study the feasibility and applicability of Bracka two-stage repair for the severe proximal hypospadias and to analyze the outcomes and complications of this surgical technique. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2013. Bracka two-stage repair was performed using inner preputial skin as a free graft in subjects with proximal hypospadias in whom severe degree of chordee and/or poor urethral plate was present. Only primary cases were included in this study. All subjects received three doses of intra-muscular testosterone 3 weeks apart before first stage. Second stage was performed 6 months after the first stage. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 24 months. Results: A total of 43 patients operated for Bracka repair, out of which 30 patients completed two-stage repair. Mean age of the patients was 4 years and 8 months. We achieved 100% graft uptake and no revision was required. Three patients developed fistula, while two had metal stenosis. Glans dehiscence, urethral stricture and the residual chordee were not found during follow-up and satisfactory cosmetic results with good urinary stream were achieved in all cases. Conclusion: The Bracka two-stage repair is a safe and reliable approach in select patients in whom it is impractical to maintain the axial integrity of the urethral plate, and, therefore, a full circumference urethral reconstruction become necessary. This gives good results both in terms of restoration of normal function with minimal complication.

  13. Optimisation of two-stage screw expanders for waste heat recovery applications

    Read, M. G.; Smith, I. K.; Stosic, N.


    It has previously been shown that the use of two-phase screw expanders in power generation cycles can achieve an increase in the utilisation of available energy from a low temperature heat source when compared with more conventional single-phase turbines. However, screw expander efficiencies are more sensitive to expansion volume ratio than turbines, and this increases as the expander inlet vapour dryness fraction decreases. For singlestage screw machines with low inlet dryness, this can lead to under expansion of the working fluid and low isentropic efficiency for the expansion process. The performance of the cycle can potentially be improved by using a two-stage expander, consisting of a low pressure machine and a smaller high pressure machine connected in series. By expanding the working fluid over two stages, the built-in volume ratios of the two machines can be selected to provide a better match with the overall expansion process, thereby increasing efficiency for particular inlet and discharge conditions. The mass flow rate though both stages must however be matched, and the compromise between increasing efficiency and maximising power output must also be considered. This research uses a rigorous thermodynamic screw machine model to compare the performance of single and two-stage expanders over a range of operating conditions. The model allows optimisation of the required intermediate pressure in the two- stage expander, along with the rotational speed and built-in volume ratio of both screw machine stages. The results allow the two-stage machine to be fully specified in order to achieve maximum efficiency for a required power output.

  14. Risk Probabilities

    Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo

    Tail probabilities of sums of heavy-tailed random variables are of a major importance in various branches of Applied Probability, such as Risk Theory, Queueing Theory, Financial Management, and are subject to intense research nowadays. To understand their relevance one just needs to think...... of insurance companies facing losses due to natural disasters, banks seeking protection against huge losses, failures in expensive and sophisticated systems or loss of valuable information in electronic systems. The main difficulty when dealing with this kind of problems is the unavailability of a closed...

  15. Probability theory

    S Varadhan, S R


    This volume presents topics in probability theory covered during a first-year graduate course given at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. The necessary background material in measure theory is developed, including the standard topics, such as extension theorem, construction of measures, integration, product spaces, Radon-Nikodym theorem, and conditional expectation. In the first part of the book, characteristic functions are introduced, followed by the study of weak convergence of probability distributions. Then both the weak and strong limit theorems for sums of independent rando

  16. Two-stage model of radon-induced malignant lung tumors in rats: effects of cell killing

    Luebeck, E. G.; Curtis, S. B.; Cross, F. T.; Moolgavkar, S. H.


    A two-stage stochastic model of carcinogenesis is used to analyze lung tumor incidence in 3750 rats exposed to varying regimens of radon carried on a constant-concentration uranium ore dust aerosol. New to this analysis is the parameterization of the model such that cell killing by the alpha particles could be included. The model contains parameters characterizing the rate of the first mutation, the net proliferation rate of initiated cells, the ratio of the rates of cell loss (cell killing plus differentiation) and cell division, and the lag time between the appearance of the first malignant cell and the tumor. Data analysis was by standard maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Results indicate that the rate of the first mutation is dependent on radon and consistent with in vitro rates measured experimentally, and that the rate of the second mutation is not dependent on radon. An initial sharp rise in the net proliferation rate of initiated cell was found with increasing exposure rate (denoted model I), which leads to an unrealistically high cell-killing coefficient. A second model (model II) was studied, in which the initial rise was attributed to promotion via a step function, implying that it is due not to radon but to the uranium ore dust. This model resulted in values for the cell-killing coefficient consistent with those found for in vitro cells. An "inverse dose-rate" effect is seen, i.e. an increase in the lifetime probability of tumor with a decrease in exposure rate. This is attributed in large part to promotion of intermediate lesions. Since model II is preferable on biological grounds (it yields a plausible cell-killing coefficient), such as uranium ore dust. This analysis presents evidence that a two-stage model describes the data adequately and generates hypotheses regarding the mechanism of radon-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Matching tutor to student: rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay


    Existing models of birdsong learning assume that brain area LMAN introduces variability into song for trial-and-error learning. Recent data suggest that LMAN also encodes a corrective bias driving short-term improvements in song. These later consolidate in area RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using a stochastic gradient descent approach, we derive how 'tutor' circuits should match plasticity mechanisms in 'student' circuits for efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework with which the tutor can build its teaching signal. We show that mismatching the tutor signal and plasticity mechanism can impair or abolish learning. Applied to birdsong, our results predict the temporal structure of the corrective bias from LMAN given a plasticity rule in RA. Our framework can be applied predictively to other paired brain areas showing two-stage learning.

  18. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.


    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Two-stage precipitation process of iron and arsenic from acid leaching solutions



    A leaching process for base metals recovery often generates considerable amounts of impurities such as iron and arsenic into the solution.It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable metals into manageable and stable waste products for final disposal,without loosing the valuable constituents.Boliden Mineral AB has patented a two-stage precipitation process that gives a very clean iron-arsenic precipitate by a minimum of coprecipitation of base metals.The obtained product shows to have good sedimentation and filtration properties,which makes it easy to recover the iron-arsenic depleted solution by filtration and washing of the precipitate.Continuos bench scale tests have been done,showing the excellent results achieved by the two-stage precipitation process.

  20. S-band gain-flattened EDFA with two-stage double-pass configuration

    Fu, Hai-Wei; Xu, Shi-Chao; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Jia, Zhen-An; Liu, Ying-Gang; Zhou, Hong


    A gain-flattened S-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using standard erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed amplifier with two-stage double-pass configuration employs two C-band suppressing filters to obtain the optical gain in S-band. The amplifier provides a maximum signal gain of 41.6 dB at 1524 nm with the corresponding noise figure of 3.8 dB. Furthermore, with a well-designed short-pass filter as a gain flattening filter (GFF), we are able to develop the S-band EDFA with a flattened gain of more than 20 dB in 1504-1524 nm. In the experiment, the two-stage double-pass amplifier configuration improves performance of gain and noise figure compared with the configuration of single-stage double-pass S-band EDFA.

  1. Power Frequency Oscillation Suppression Using Two-Stage Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller for Multigeneration System

    Y. K. Bhateshvar


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a linearized model of automatic generation control (AGC for an interconnected two-area reheat type thermal power system in deregulated environment. A comparison between genetic algorithm optimized PID controller (GA-PID, particle swarm optimized PID controller (PSO-PID, and proposed two-stage based PSO optimized fuzzy logic controller (TSO-FLC is presented. The proposed fuzzy based controller is optimized at two stages: one is rule base optimization and other is scaling factor and gain factor optimization. This shows the best dynamic response following a step load change with different cases of bilateral contracts in deregulated environment. In addition, performance of proposed TSO-FLC is also examined for ±30% changes in system parameters with different type of contractual demands between control areas and compared with GA-PID and PSO-PID. MATLAB/Simulink® is used for all simulations.

  2. A two-stage scheme for multi-view human pose estimation

    Yan, Junchi; Sun, Bing; Liu, Yuncai


    We present a two-stage scheme integrating voxel reconstruction and human motion tacking. By combining voxel reconstruction with human motion tracking interactively, our method can work in a cluttered background where perfect foreground silhouettes are hardly available. For each frame, a silhouette-based 3D volume reconstruction method and hierarchical tracking algorithm are applied in two stages. In the first stage, coarse reconstruction and tracking results are obtained, and then the refinement for reconstruction is applied in the second stage. The experimental results demonstrate our approach is promising. Although our method focuses on the problem of human body voxel reconstruction and motion tracking in this paper, our scheme can be used to reconstruct voxel data and infer the pose of many specified rigid and articulated objects.

  3. Toward Improving Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric Verification using Mobile Sensors: A Two-Stage Classifier Approach.

    Tan, Robin; Perkowski, Marek


    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals sensed from mobile devices pertain the potential for biometric identity recognition applicable in remote access control systems where enhanced data security is demanding. In this study, we propose a new algorithm that consists of a two-stage classifier combining random forest and wavelet distance measure through a probabilistic threshold schema, to improve the effectiveness and robustness of a biometric recognition system using ECG data acquired from a biosensor integrated into mobile devices. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a mixed dataset from 184 subjects under different health conditions. The proposed two-stage classifier achieves a total of 99.52% subject verification accuracy, better than the 98.33% accuracy from random forest alone and 96.31% accuracy from wavelet distance measure algorithm alone. These results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for biometric identification, hence supporting its practicality in areas such as cloud data security, cyber-security or remote healthcare systems.

  4. Effect of two-stage aging on superplasticity of Al-Li alloy

    LUO Zhi-hui; ZHANG Xin-ming; DU Yu-xuan; YE Ling-ying


    The effect of two-stage aging on the microstructures and superplasticity of 01420 Al-Li alloy was investigated by means of OM, TEM analysis and stretching experiment. The results demonstrate that the second phase particles distributed more uniformly with a larger volume fraction can be observed after the two-stage aging (120 ℃, 12 h+300 ℃, 36 h) compared with the single-aging(300 ℃, 48 h). After rolling and recrystallization annealing, fine grains with size of 8-10 μm are obtained, and the superplastic elongation of the specimens reaches 560% at strain rate of 8×10-4 s-1 and 480 ℃. Uniformly distributed fine particles precipitate both on grain boundaries and in grains at lower temperature. When the sheet is aged at high temperature, the particles become coarser with a large volume fraction.

  5. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian


    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries.

  6. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.


    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Performance measurement of insurance firms using a two-stage DEA method

    Raha Jalili Sabet


    Full Text Available Measuring the relative performance of insurance firms plays an important role in this industry. In this paper, we present a two-stage data envelopment analysis to measure the performance of insurance firms, which were active over the period of 2006-2010. The proposed study of this paper performs DEA method in two stages where the first stage considers five inputs and three outputs while the second stage considers the outputs of the first stage as the inputs of the second stage and uses three different outputs for this stage. The results of our survey have indicated that while there were 4 efficient insurance firms most other insurances were noticeably inefficient. This means market was monopolized mostly by a limited number of insurance firms and competition was not fare enough to let other firms participate in economy, more efficiently.

  8. Direct Torque Control of Sensorless Induction Machine Drives: A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach

    Jinliang Zhang


    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF has been widely applied for sensorless direct torque control (DTC in induction machines (IMs. One key problem associated with EKF is that the estimator suffers from computational burden and numerical problems resulting from high order mathematical models. To reduce the computational cost, a two-stage extended Kalman filter (TEKF based solution is presented for closed-loop stator flux, speed, and torque estimation of IM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVM operations in this paper. The novel observer can be similarly derived as the optimal two-stage Kalman filter (TKF which has been proposed by several researchers. Compared to a straightforward implementation of a conventional EKF, the TEKF estimator can reduce the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the performance of the proposed TEKF estimator for DTC of IMs.

  9. Syme's two-stage amputation in insulin-requiring diabetics with gangrene of the forefoot.

    Pinzur, M S; Morrison, C; Sage, R; Stuck, R; Osterman, H; Vrbos, L


    Thirty-five insulin-requiring adult diabetic patients underwent 38 Syme's Two-Stage amputations for gangrene of the forefoot with nonreconstructible peripheral vascular insufficiency. All had a minimum Doppler ischemic index of 0.5, serum albumin of 3.0 gm/dl, and total lymphocyte count of 1500. Thirty-one (81.6%) eventually healed and were uneventfully fit with a prosthesis. Regional anesthesia was used in all of the patients, with 22 spinal and 16 ankle block anesthetics. Twenty-seven (71%) returned to their preamputation level of ambulatory function. Six (16%) had major, and fifteen (39%) minor complications following the first stage surgery. The results of this study support the use of the Syme's Two-Stage amputation in adult diabetic patients with gangrene of the forefoot requiring amputation.

  10. Low-noise SQUIDs with large transfer: two-stage SQUIDs based on DROSs

    Podt, M.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.


    We have realized a two-stage integrated superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system with a closed loop bandwidth of 2.5 MHz, operated in a direct voltage readout mode. The corresponding flux slew rate was 1.3×10 5Φ0/s and the measured white flux noise was 1.3 μ Φ0/√Hz at 4.2 K. The system is based on a conventional dc SQUID with a double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS) as the second stage. Because of the large flux-to-voltage transfer, the sensitivity of the system is completely determined by the sensor SQUID and not by the DROS or the room-temperature preamplifier. Decreasing the Josephson junction area enables a further improvement of the sensitivity of the two-stage SQUID systems.

  11. Experiment and surge analysis of centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system

    Yituan HE; Chaochen MA


    To study a centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system's surge and influencing factors, a special test bench was set up and the system surge test was performed. The test results indicate that the measured parameters such as air mass flow and rotation speed of a high pressure (HP) stage compressor can be converted into corrected para-meters under a standard condition according to the Mach number similarity criterion, because the air flow in a HP stage compressor has entered the Reynolds number (Re) auto-modeling range. Accordingly, the reasons leading to a two-stage turbocharging system's surge can be analyzed according to the corrected mass flow characteristic maps and actual operating conditions of HP and low pressure (LP) stage compressors.

  12. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  13. Hybrid staging of a Lysholm positive displacement engine with two Westinghouse two stage impulse Curtis turbines

    Parker, D.A.


    The University of California at Berkeley has tested and modeled satisfactorly a hybrid staged Lysholm engine (positive displacement) with a two stage Curtis wheel turbine. The system operates in a stable manner over its operating range (0/1-3/1 water ratio, 120 psia input). Proposals are made for controlling interstage pressure with a partial admission turbine and volume expansion to control mass flow and pressure ratio for the Lysholm engine.

  14. Noncausal two-stage image filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors

    S. V. Vishnevyy


    Full Text Available Introduction. It is necessary to develop adaptive algorithms, which allow to detect such regions and to apply filter with respective parameters for suppression of anomalous noises for the purposes of image filtration, which consist of regions with anomalous errors. Development of adaptive algorithm for non-causal two-stage images filtration at pres-ence of observations with anomalous errors. The adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is developed. On the first stage the adaptive one-dimensional algorithm for causal filtration is used for independent processing along rows and columns of image. On the second stage the obtained data are united and a posteriori estimations are calculated. Results of experimental investigations. The developed adaptive algorithm for noncausal images filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors is investigated on the model sample by means of statistical modeling on PC. The image is modeled as a realization of Gaussian-Markov random field. The modeled image is corrupted with uncorrelated Gaussian noise. Regions of image with anomalous errors are corrupted with uncorrelated Gaussian noise which has higher power than normal noise on the rest part of the image. Conclusions. The analysis of adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is done. The characteristics of accuracy of computed estimations are shown. The comparisons of first stage and second stage of the developed adaptive algorithm are done. Adaptive algorithm is compared with known uniform two-stage algorithm of image filtration. According to the obtained results the uniform algorithm does not suppress anomalous noise meanwhile the adaptive algorithm shows good results.

  15. Full noise characterization of a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier

    Falferi, P [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Mezzena, R [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vinante, A [INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail:


    From measurements performed on a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier coupled to a high- Q electrical resonator we give a complete noise characterization of the SQUID amplifier around the resonator frequency of 11 kHz in terms of additive, back action and cross-correlation noise spectral densities. The minimum noise temperature evaluated at 135 mK is 10 {mu}K and corresponds to an energy resolution of 18{Dirac_h}.

  16. A covariate adjusted two-stage allocation design for binary responses in randomized clinical trials.

    Bandyopadhyay, Uttam; Biswas, Atanu; Bhattacharya, Rahul


    In the present work, we develop a two-stage allocation rule for binary response using the log-odds ratio within the Bayesian framework allowing the current allocation to depend on the covariate value of the current subject. We study, both numerically and theoretically, several exact and limiting properties of this design. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by using some data set. We compare this rule with some of the existing rules by computing various performance measures.

  17. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun


    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  18. Investigation on a two-stage solvay refrigerator with magnetic material regenerator

    Chen, Guobang; Zheng, Jianyao; Zhang, Fagao; Yu, Jianping; Tao, Zhenshi; Ding, Cenyu; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Peiyi; Long, Yi

    This paper describes experimental results that the no-load temperature of a two-stage Solvay refrigerator has been reached in liquid helium temperature region from the original 11.5 K by using magnetic regenerative material instead of lead. The structure and technological characteristics of the prototype machine are presented. The effects of operating frequency and pressure on the refrigerating temperature have been discussed in this paper.

  19. Biological hydrogen production from olive mill wastewater with two-stage processes

    Eroglu, Ela; Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)


    In the present work two novel two-stage hydrogen production processes from olive mill wastewater (OMW) have been introduced. The first two-stage process involved dark-fermentation followed by a photofermentation process. Dark-fermentation by activated sludge cultures and photofermentation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 were both performed in 55ml glass vessels, under anaerobic conditions. In some cases of dark-fermentation, activated sludge was initially acclimatized to the OMW to provide the adaptation of microorganisms to the extreme conditions of OMW. The highest hydrogen production potential obtained was 29l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW} after photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with activated sludge. Photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with acclimated activated sludge had the highest hydrogen production rate (0.008ll{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The second two-stage process involved a clay treatment step followed by photofermentation by R. sphaeroides O.U.001. Photofermentation with the effluent of the clay pretreatment process (4% (v/v)) gives the highest hydrogen production potential (35l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW}), light conversion efficiency (0.42%) and COD conversion efficiency (52%). It was concluded that both pretreatment processes enhanced the photofermentative hydrogen production process. Moreover, hydrogen could be produced with highly concentrated OMW. Two-stage processes developed in the present investigation have a high potential for solving the environmental problems caused by OMW. (author)

  20. The two-stage aegean extension, from localized to distributed, a result of slab rollback acceleration

    Brun, Jean-Pierre; Faccenna, Claudio; Gueydan, Frédéric; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Philippon, Mélody; Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Gorini, Christian


    International audience; Back-arc extension in the Aegean, which was driven by slab rollback since 45 Ma, is described here for the first time in two stages. From Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene, deformation was localized leading to i) the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks to crustal depths, ii) the exhumation of high-temperature metamorphic rocks in core complexes and iii) the deposition of sedimentary basins. Since Middle Miocene, extension distributed over the whole Aegean domai...

  1. A Two-stage Discriminating Framework for Making Supply Chain Operation Decisions under Uncertainties

    Gu, H; Rong, G


    This paper addresses the problem of making supply chain operation decisions for refineries under two types of uncertainties: demand uncertainty and incomplete information shared with suppliers and transport companies. Most of the literature only focus on one uncertainty or treat more uncertainties identically. However, we note that refineries have more power to control uncertainties in procurement and transportation than in demand in the real world. Thus, a two-stage framework for dealing wit...

  2. Low-noise SQUIDs with large transfer: two-stage SQUIDs based on DROSs

    Podt, M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst


    We have realized a two-stage integrated superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system with a closed loop bandwidth of 2.5 MHz, operated in a direct voltage readout mode. The corresponding flux slew rate was 1.3×105 Φ0/s and the measured white flux noise was 1.3 μΦ0/√Hz at 4.2 K. The

  3. Latent Inhibition as a Function of US Intensity in a Two-Stage CER Procedure

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Alonso, Gumersinda


    An experiment is reported in which the effect of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity on latent inhibition (LI) was examined, using a two-stage conditioned emotional response (CER) procedure in rats. A tone was used as the pre-exposed and conditioned stimulus (CS), and a foot-shock of either a low (0.3 mA) or high (0.7 mA) intensity was used as…

  4. Two stage dual gate MESFET monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Contolatis, A.

    A monolithic two stage gain control amplifier has been developed using submicron gate length dual gate MESFETs fabricated on ion implanted material. The amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 30 GHz with a gain control range of over 30 dB. This ion implanted monolithic IC is readily integrable with other phased array receiver functions such as low noise amplifiers and phase shifters.

  5. Exergy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with two-stage and intercooler

    Kılıç, Bayram


    In this study, exergy analyses of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with two-stage and intercooler using refrigerants R507, R407c, R404a were carried out. The necessary thermodynamic values for analyses were calculated by Solkane program. The coefficient of performance, exergetic efficiency and total irreversibility rate of the system in the different operating conditions for these refrigerants were investigated. The coefficient of performance, exergetic efficiency and total irreversibility rate for alternative refrigerants were compared.

  6. Exergy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with two-stage and intercooler

    Kilic, Bayram [Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Bucak, Burdur (Turkey)


    In this study, exergy analyses of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with two-stage and intercooler using refrigerants R507, R407c, R404a were carried out. The necessary thermodynamic values for analyses were calculated by Solkane program. The coefficient of performance, exergetic efficiency and total irreversibility rate of the system in the different operating conditions for these refrigerants were investigated. The coefficient of performance, exergetic efficiency and total irreversibility rate for alternative refrigerants were compared. (orig.)

  7. Performance of Combined Water Turbine Darrieus-Savonius with Two Stage Savonius Buckets and Single Deflector

    Sahim, Kaprawi; Santoso, Dyos; Sipahutar, Riman


    The objective of this study is to show the effect of single deflector plate on the performance of combined Darrieus-Savonius water turbine. In order to overcome the disadvantages of low torque of solo Darrieus turbine, a plate deflector mounted in front of returning Savonius bucket of combined water turbine composing of Darrieus and Savonius rotor has been proposed in this study. Some configurations of combined turbines with two stage Savonius rotors were experimentally tested in a river of c...

  8. Perceived Health Benefits and Soy Consumption Behavior: Two-Stage Decision Model Approach

    Moon, Wanki; Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Rimal, Arbindra


    A two-stage decision model is developed to assess the effect of perceived soy health benefits on consumers' decisions with respect to soy food. The first stage captures whether or not to consume soy food, while the second stage reflects how often to consume. A conceptual/analytical framework is also employed, combining Lancaster's characteristics model and Fishbein's multi-attribute model. Results show that perceived soy health benefits significantly influence both decision stages. Further, c...

  9. Stratified Medicine and Reimbursement Issues

    Hans-Joerg eFugel


    Full Text Available Stratified Medicine (SM has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to strengthen the value proposition to pricing and reimbursement (P&R authorities. However, the introduction of SM challenges current reimbursement schemes in many EU countries and the US as different P&R policies have been adopted for drugs and diagnostics. Also, there is a lack of a consistent process for value assessment of more complex diagnostics in these markets. New, innovative approaches and more flexible P&R systems are needed to reflect the added value of diagnostic tests and to stimulate investments in new technologies. Yet, the framework for access of diagnostic–based therapies still requires further development while setting the right incentives and appropriate align stakeholders interests when realizing long- term patient benefits. This article addresses the reimbursement challenges of SM approaches in several EU countries and the US outlining some options to overcome existing reimbursement barriers for stratified medicine.

  10. High quantum efficiency mid-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors with one and two stages

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Jianxin; Xu, Zhicheng; He, Li


    In this paper, we report on mid-wavelength infrared interband cascade photodetectors grown on InAs substrates. We studied the transport properties of the photon-generated carriers in the interband cascade structures by comparing two different detectors, a single stage detector and a two-stage cascade detector. The two-stage device showed quantum efficiency around 19.8% at room temperature, and clear optical response was measured even at a temperature of 323 K. The two detectors showed similar Johnson-noise limited detectivity. The peak detectivity of the one- and two-stage devices was measured to be 2.15 × 1014 cm·Hz1/02/W and 2.19 × 1014 cm·Hz1/02/W at 80 K, 1.21 × 109 cm·Hz1/02/W and 1.23 × 109 cm·Hz1/02/W at 300 K, respectively. The 300 K background limited infrared performance (BLIP) operation temperature is estimated to be over 140 K.

  11. Development of Two-Stage Stirling Cooler for ASTRO-F

    Narasaki, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Ootsuka, K.; Kyoya, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, T.


    A two-stage small Stirling cooler has been developed and tested for the infrared astronomical satellite ASTRO-F that is planned to be launched by Japanese M-V rocket in 2005. ASTRO-F has a hybrid cryogenic system that is a combination of superfluid liquid helium (HeII) and two-stage Stirling coolers. The mechanical cooler has a two-stage displacer driven by a linear motor in a cold head and a new linear-ball-bearing system for the piston-supporting structure in a compressor. The linear-ball-bearing supporting system achieves the piston clearance seal, the long piston-stroke operation and the low frequency operation. The typical cooling power is 200 mW at 20 K and the total input power to the compressor and the cold head is below 90 W without driver electronics. The engineering, the prototype and the flight models of the cooler have been fabricated and evaluated to verify the capability for ASTRO-F. This paper describes the design of the cooler and the results from verification tests including cooler performance test, thermal vacuum test, vibration test and lifetime test.

  12. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C


    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant.

  13. Continuous removal of endocrine disruptors by versatile peroxidase using a two-stage system.

    Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Lu-Chau, Thelmo A; Eibes, Gemma; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Maria T; Lema, Juan M


    The oxidant Mn(3+) -malonate, generated by the ligninolytic enzyme versatile peroxidase in a two-stage system, was used for the continuous removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from synthetic and real wastewaters. One plasticizer (bisphenol-A), one bactericide (triclosan) and three estrogenic compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were removed from wastewater at degradation rates in the range of 28-58 µg/L·min, with low enzyme inactivation. First, the optimization of three main parameters affecting the generation of Mn(3+) -malonate (hydraulic retention time as well as Na-malonate and H2 O2 feeding rates) was conducted following a response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the degradation of the EDCs was proven at high (1.3-8.8 mg/L) and environmental (1.2-6.1 µg/L) concentrations. Finally, when the two-stage system was compared with a conventional enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) using the same enzyme, a 14-fold increase of the removal efficiency was observed. At the same time, operational problems found during EDCs removal in the EMR system (e.g., clogging of the membrane and enzyme inactivation) were avoided by physically separating the stages of complex formation and pollutant oxidation, allowing the system to be operated for a longer period (∼8 h). This study demonstrates the feasibility of the two-stage enzymatic system for removing EDCs both at high and environmental concentrations.

  14. A two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with a cold inertance tube

    Gan, Z. H.; Fan, B. Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, X. J.; Chen, G. B.


    A thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) with inertance tubes as phase shifters has been designed, manufactured and tested. In order to obtain a larger phase shift at the low acoustic power of about 2.0 W, a cold inertance tube as well as a cold reservoir for the second stage, precooled by the cold end of the first stage, was introduced into the system. The transmission line model was used to calculate the phase shift produced by the cold inertance tube. Effect of regenerator material, geometry and charging pressure on the performance of the second stage of the two-stage PTC was investigated based on the well known regenerator model REGEN. Experimental results of the two-stage PTC were carried out with an emphasis on the performance of the second stage. A lowest cooling temperature of 23.7 K and 0.50 W at 33.9 K were obtained with an input electric power of 150.0 W and an operating frequency of 40 Hz.

  15. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries.

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar


    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  16. A Comparison of Direct and Two-Stage Transportation of Patients to Hospital in Poland

    Anna Rosiek


    Full Text Available Background: The rapid international expansion of telemedicine reflects the growth of technological innovations. This technological advancement is transforming the way in which patients can receive health care. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Poland, at the Department of Cardiology of the Regional Hospital of Louis Rydygier in Torun. The researchers analyzed the delay in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study was conducted as a survey and examined 67 consecutively admitted patients treated invasively in a two-stage transport system. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Two-stage transportation does not meet the timeframe guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Intervals for the analyzed group of patients were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Direct transportation of the patient to a reference center with interventional cardiology laboratory has a significant impact on reducing in-hospital delay in case of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Perspectives: This article presents the results of two-stage transportation of the patient with acute coronary syndrome. This measure could help clinicians who seek to assess time needed for intervention. It also shows how time from the beginning of pain in chest is important and may contribute to patient disability, death or well-being.

  17. Two-Stage Liver Transplantation with Temporary Porto-Middle Hepatic Vein Shunt

    Giovanni Varotti


    Full Text Available Two-stage liver transplantation (LT has been reported for cases of fulminant liver failure that can lead to toxic hepatic syndrome, or massive hemorrhages resulting in uncontrollable bleeding. Technically, the first stage of the procedure consists of a total hepatectomy with preservation of the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC, followed by the creation of a temporary end-to-side porto-caval shunt (TPCS. The second stage consists of removing the TPCS and implanting a liver graft when one becomes available. We report a case of a two-stage total hepatectomy and LT in which a temporary end-to-end anastomosis between the portal vein and the middle hepatic vein (TPMHV was performed as an alternative to the classic end-to-end TPCS. The creation of a TPMHV proved technically feasible and showed some advantages compared to the standard TPCS. In cases in which a two-stage LT with side-to-side caval reconstruction is utilized, TPMHV can be considered as a safe and effective alternative to standard TPCS.

  18. Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling.

    Terza, Joseph V; Basu, Anirban; Rathouz, Paul J


    The paper focuses on two estimation methods that have been widely used to address endogeneity in empirical research in health economics and health services research-two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS) and two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI). 2SPS is the rote extension (to nonlinear models) of the popular linear two-stage least squares estimator. The 2SRI estimator is similar except that in the second-stage regression, the endogenous variables are not replaced by first-stage predictors. Instead, first-stage residuals are included as additional regressors. In a generic parametric framework, we show that 2SRI is consistent and 2SPS is not. Results from a simulation study and an illustrative example also recommend against 2SPS and favor 2SRI. Our findings are important given that there are many prominent examples of the application of inconsistent 2SPS in the recent literature. This study can be used as a guide by future researchers in health economics who are confronted with endogeneity in their empirical work.

  19. Two-stage solar concentrators based on parabolic troughs: asymmetric versus symmetric designs.

    Schmitz, Max; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo


    While nonimaging concentrators can approach the thermodynamic limit of concentration, they generally suffer from poor compactness when designed for small acceptance angles, e.g., to capture direct solar irradiation. Symmetric two-stage systems utilizing an image-forming primary parabolic concentrator in tandem with a nonimaging secondary concentrator partially overcome this compactness problem, but their achievable concentration ratio is ultimately limited by the central obstruction caused by the secondary. Significant improvements can be realized by two-stage systems having asymmetric cross-sections, particularly for 2D line-focus trough designs. We therefore present a detailed analysis of two-stage line-focus asymmetric concentrators for flat receiver geometries and compare them to their symmetric counterparts. Exemplary designs are examined in terms of the key optical performance metrics, namely, geometric concentration ratio, acceptance angle, concentration-acceptance product, aspect ratio, active area fraction, and average number of reflections. Notably, we show that asymmetric designs can achieve significantly higher overall concentrations and are always more compact than symmetric systems designed for the same concentration ratio. Using this analysis as a basis, we develop novel asymmetric designs, including two-wing and nested configurations, which surpass the optical performance of two-mirror aplanats and are comparable with the best reported 2D simultaneous multiple surface designs for both hollow and dielectric-filled secondaries.

  20. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen


    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process.

  1. Study on two stage activated carbon/HFC-134a based adsorption chiller

    >K Habib,


    In this paper, a theoretical analysis on the performance of a thermally driven two-stage four-bed adsorption chiller utilizing low-grade waste heat of temperatures between 50°C and 70°C in combination with a heat sink (cooling water) of 30°C for air-conditioning applications has been described. Activated carbon (AC) of type Maxsorb III/HFC-134a pair has been examined as an adsorbent/refrigerant pair. FORTRAN simulation program is developed to analyze the influence of operating conditions (hot and cooling water temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle times) on the cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP. The main advantage of this two-stage chiller is that it can be operational with smaller regenerating temperature lifts than other heat-driven single-stage chillers. Simulation results shows that the two-stage chiller can be operated effectively with heat sources of 50°C and 70°C in combination with a coolant at 30°C.

  2. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail:; Sun, Xiangyang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  3. A Two-stage injection-locked magnetron for accelerators with superconducting cavities

    Kazakevich, Grigory; Flanagan, Gene; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Mike; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Chase, Brian; Nagaitsev, Sergey; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Solyak, Nikolay; Tupikov, Vitali; Wolff, Daniel


    A concept for a two-stage injection-locked CW magnetron intended to drive Superconducting Cavities (SC) for intensity-frontier accelerators has been proposed. The concept considers two magnetrons in which the output power differs by 15-20 dB and the lower power magnetron being frequency-locked from an external source locks the higher power magnetron. The injection-locked two-stage CW magnetron can be used as an RF power source for Fermilab's Project-X to feed separately each of the 1.3 GHz SC of the 8 GeV pulsed linac. We expect output/locking power ratio of about 30-40 dB assuming operation in a pulsed mode with pulse duration of ~ 8 ms and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The experimental setup of a two-stage magnetron utilising CW, S-band, 1 kW tubes operating at pulse duration of 1-10 ms, and the obtained results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Study on the Control Algorithm of Two-Stage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicles

    Changhao Piao


    Full Text Available The fast response, high efficiency, and good reliability are very important characteristics to electric vehicles (EVs dc/dc converters. Two-stage dc-dc converter is a kind of dc-dc topologies that can offer those characteristics to EVs. Presently, nonlinear control is an active area of research in the field of the control algorithm of dc-dc converters. However, very few papers research on two-stage converter for EVs. In this paper, a fixed switching frequency sliding mode (FSFSM controller and double-integral sliding mode (DISM controller for two-stage dc-dc converter are proposed. And a conventional linear control (lag is chosen as the comparison. The performances of the proposed FSFSM controller are compared with those obtained by the lag controller. In consequence, the satisfactory simulation and experiment results show that the FSFSM controller is capable of offering good large-signal operations with fast dynamical responses to the converter. At last, some other simulation results are presented to prove that the DISM controller is a promising method for the converter to eliminate the steady-state error.

  5. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.


    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  6. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics


    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  7. Two-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies: The Low Component-Stress Approach

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    The discussion concerning the use of single-stage contra two-stage PFC solutions has been going on for the last decade and it continues. The purpose of this paper is to direct the focus back on how the power is processed and not so much as to the number of stages or the amount of power processed....... The performance of the basic DC/DC topologies is reviewed with focus on the component stress. The knowledge obtained in this process is used to review some examples of the alternative PFC solutions and compare these solutions with the basic twostage PFC solution....

  8. Generalized Yule-walker and two-stage identification algorithms for dual-rate systems

    Feng DING


    In this paper, two approaches are developed for directly identifying single-rate models of dual-rate stochastic systems in which the input updating frequency is an integer multiple of the output sampling frequency. The first is the generalized Yule-Walker algorithm and the second is a two-stage algorithm based on the correlation technique. The basic idea is to directly identify the parameters of underlying single-rate models instead of the lifted models of dual-rate systems from the dual-rate input-output data, assuming that the measurement data are stationary and ergodic. An example is given.

  9. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben


    in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  10. SQL/JavaScript Hybrid Worms As Two-stage Quines

    Orlicki, José I


    Delving into present trends and anticipating future malware trends, a hybrid, SQL on the server-side, JavaScript on the client-side, self-replicating worm based on two-stage quines was designed and implemented on an ad-hoc scenario instantiating a very common software pattern. The proof of concept code combines techniques seen in the wild, in the form of SQL injections leading to cross-site scripting JavaScript inclusion, and seen in the laboratory, in the form of SQL quines propa- gated via RFIDs, resulting in a hybrid code injection. General features of hybrid worms are also discussed.

  11. Two stage DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation based on Subspace Techniques

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; So, Hing-Cheung


    optimally weighted harmonic multiple signal classification (MCOW-HMUSIC) estimator is devised for the estimation of fundamental frequencies. Secondly, the spatio- temporal multiple signal classification (ST-MUSIC) estimator is proposed for the estimation of DOA with the estimated frequencies. Statistical......In this paper, the problem of fundamental frequency and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signal is addressed. The estimation procedure consists of two stages. Firstly, by making use of the subspace technique and Markov-based eigenanalysis, a multi- channel...... evaluation with synthetic signals shows the high accuracy of the proposed methods compared with their non-weighting versions....

  12. Performance of the SITP 35K two-stage Stirling cryocooler

    Liu, Dongyu; Li, Ao; Li, Shanshan; Wu, Yinong


    This paper presents the design, development, optimization experiment and performance of the SITP two-stage Stirling cryocooler. The geometry size of the cooler, especially the diameter and length of the regenerator were analyzed. Operating parameters by experiments were optimized to maximize the second stage cooling performance. In the test the cooler was operated at various drive frequency, phase shift between displacer and piston, fill pressure. The experimental results indicate that the cryocooler has a higher efficiency with a performance of 0.85W at 35K with a compressor input power of 56W at a phase shift of 65°, an operating frequency of 40Hz, 1MPa fill pressure.

  13. Two-Stage Bulk Electron Heating in the Diffusion Region of Anti-Parallel Symmetric Reconnection

    Le, Ari; Daughton, William


    Electron bulk energization in the diffusion region during anti-parallel symmetric reconnection entails two stages. First, the inflowing electrons are adiabatically trapped and energized by an ambipolar parallel electric field. Next, the electrons gain energy from the reconnection electric field as they undergo meandering motion. These collisionless mechanisms have been decribed previously, and they lead to highly-structured electron velocity distributions. Nevertheless, a simplified control-volume analysis gives estimates for how the net effective heating scales with the upstream plasma conditions in agreement with fully kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations.

  14. Use of two-stage membrane countercurrent cascade for natural gas purification from carbon dioxide

    Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Karaseva, M. D.


    Membrane technology scheme is offered and presented as a two-stage countercurrent recirculating cascade, in order to solve the problem of natural gas dehydration and purification from CO2. The first stage is a single divider, and the second stage is a recirculating two-module divider. This scheme allows natural gas to be cleaned from impurities, with any desired degree of methane extraction. In this paper, the optimal values of the basic parameters of the selected technological scheme are determined. An estimation of energy efficiency was carried out, taking into account the energy consumption of interstage compressor and methane losses in energy units.

  15. Forecasting long memory series subject to structural change: A two-stage approach

    Papailias, Fotis; Dias, Gustavo Fruet


    A two-stage forecasting approach for long memory time series is introduced. In the first step, we estimate the fractional exponent and, by applying the fractional differencing operator, obtain the underlying weakly dependent series. In the second step, we produce multi-step-ahead forecasts...... for the weakly dependent series and obtain their long memory counterparts by applying the fractional cumulation operator. The methodology applies to both stationary and nonstationary cases. Simulations and an application to seven time series provide evidence that the new methodology is more robust to structural...... change and yields good forecasting results....

  16. Space Station Freedom carbon dioxide removal assembly two-stage rotary sliding vane pump

    Matteau, Dennis


    The design and development of a positive displacement pump selected to operate as an essential part of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) are described. An oilless two-stage rotary sliding vane pump was selected as the optimum concept to meet the CDRA application requirements. This positive displacement pump is characterized by low weight and small envelope per unit flow, ability to pump saturated gases and moderate amount of liquid, small clearance volumes, and low vibration. It is easily modified to accommodate several stages on a single shaft optimizing space and weight, which makes the concept ideal for a range of demanding space applications.

  17. Two-Stage Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TSMLE for MT-CDMA Signals in the Indoor Environment

    Sesay Abu B


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage maximum likelihood estimation (TSMLE technique suited for multitone code division multiple access (MT-CDMA system. Here, an analytical framework is presented in the indoor environment for determining the average bit error rate (BER of the system, over Rayleigh and Ricean fading channels. The analytical model is derived for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK modulation technique by taking into account the number of tones, signal bandwidth (BW, bit rate, and transmission power. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis, and to justify the approximations made therein. Moreover, these results are shown to agree completely with those obtained by simulation.

  18. Two-Stage Electric Vehicle Charging Coordination in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna


    Increased environmental awareness in the recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources (RESs); especially solar PV and wind. One of the effective solutions to compensate intermittencies in generation from the RESs is to enable consumer participation in demand response (DR......). Being a sizable rated element, electric vehicles (EVs) can offer a great deal of demand flexibility in future intelligent grids. This paper first investigates and analyzes driving pattern and charging requirements of EVs. Secondly, a two-stage charging algorithm, namely local adaptive control...

  19. Health care planning and education via gaming-simulation: a two-stage experiment.

    Gagnon, J H; Greenblat, C S


    A two-stage process of gaming-simulation design was conducted: the first stage of design concerned national planning for hemophilia care; the second stage of design was for gaming-simulation concerning the problems of hemophilia patients and health care providers. The planning design was intended to be adaptable to large-scale planning for a variety of health care problems. The educational game was designed using data developed in designing the planning game. A broad range of policy-makers participated in the planning game.

  20. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard


    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...

  1. The global stability of a delayed predator-prey system with two stage-structure

    Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail:; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)


    Based on the classical delayed stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we introduce and study a delayed predator-prey system, where prey and predator have two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. The time delays are the time lengths between the immature's birth and maturity of prey and predator species. Results on global asymptotic stability of nonnegative equilibria of the delay system are given, which generalize and suggest that good continuity exists between the predator-prey system and its corresponding stage-structured system.

  2. A Two-Stage Assembly-Type Flowshop Scheduling Problem for Minimizing Total Tardiness

    Ju-Yong Lee


    Full Text Available This research considers a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness. The first stage consists of two independent machines, and the second stage consists of a single machine. Two types of components are fabricated in the first stage, and then they are assembled in the second stage. Dominance properties and lower bounds are developed, and a branch and bound algorithm is presented that uses these properties and lower bounds as well as an upper bound obtained from a heuristic algorithm. The algorithm performance is evaluated using a series of computational experiments on randomly generated instances and the results are reported.

  3. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr


    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  4. Two-stage continuous fermentation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligeria and Candida utilis.

    Admassu, W; Korus, R A; Heimsch, R C


    Biomass production and carbohydrate reduction were determined for a two-stage continuous fermentation process with a simulated potato processing waste feed. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was grown in the first stage and a mixed culture of S. fibuligera and Candida utilis was maintained in the second stage. All conditions for the first and second stages were fixed except the flow of medium to the second stage was varied. Maximum biomass production occurred at a second stage dilution rate, D(2), of 0.27 h (-1). Carbohydrate reduction was inversely proportional to D(2), between 0.10 and 0.35 h (-1).

  5. Structural requirements and basic design concepts for a two-stage winged launcher system (Saenger)

    Kuczera, H.; Keller, K.; Kunz, R.


    An evaluation is made of materials and structures technologies deemed capable of increasing the mass fraction-to-orbit of the Saenger two-stage launcher system while adequately addressing thermal-control and cryogenic fuel storage insulation problems. Except in its leading edges, nose cone, and airbreathing propulsion system air intakes, Ti alloy-based materials will be the basis of the airframe primary structure. Lightweight metallic thermal-protection measures will be employed. Attention is given to the design of the large lower stage element of Saenger.

  6. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    Ladan Jamshidy; Hamid Reza Mozaffari; Payam Faraji; Roohollah Sharifi


    Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with ...

  7. An Investigation on the Formation of Carbon Nanotubes by Two-Stage Chemical Vapor Deposition

    M. S. Shamsudin


    Full Text Available High density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been synthesized from agricultural hydrocarbon: camphor oil using a one-hour synthesis time and a titanium dioxide sol gel catalyst. The pyrolysis temperature is studied in the range of 700–900°C at increments of 50°C. The synthesis process is done using a custom-made two-stage catalytic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The CNT characteristics are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that structural properties of CNT are highly dependent on pyrolysis temperature changes.


    W. I. Sawich


    Full Text Available A study was made of the aspects of forming highly resistant coatings in the surface zone of tool steels and solid carbide inserts by a two-stage method. at the first stage of the method, pure Ta or Nb coatings were electrodeposited on samples of tool steel and solid carbide insert in a molten salt bath containing Ta and Nb fluorides. at the second stage, the electrodeposited coating of Ta (Nb was subjected to carburizing or boriding to form carbide (TaC, NbC or boride (TaB, NbB cladding layers.

  9. A two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation and subgroup analysis for phase II binary response trials.

    Zhong, Wei; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Carlin, Bradley P


    Frequentist sample size determination for binary outcome data in a two-arm clinical trial requires initial guesses of the event probabilities for the two treatments. Misspecification of these event rates may lead to a poor estimate of the necessary sample size. In contrast, the Bayesian approach that considers the treatment effect to be random variable having some distribution may offer a better, more flexible approach. The Bayesian sample size proposed by (Whitehead et al., 2008) for exploratory studies on efficacy justifies the acceptable minimum sample size by a "conclusiveness" condition. In this work, we introduce a new two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation at the interim stage. Our design inherits the properties of good interpretation and easy implementation from Whitehead et al. (2008), generalizes their method to a two-sample setting, and uses a fully Bayesian predictive approach to reduce an overly large initial sample size when necessary. Moreover, our design can be extended to allow patient level covariates via logistic regression, now adjusting sample size within each subgroup based on interim analyses. We illustrate the benefits of our approach with a design in non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a simple binary covariate (patient gender), offering an initial step toward within-trial personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic meta-signature of breast cancer developed by two-stage mixture modeling of microarray data

    Ghosh Debashis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of studies have profiled tumor specimens using distinct microarray platforms and analysis techniques. With the accumulating amount of microarray data, one of the most intriguing yet challenging tasks is to develop robust statistical models to integrate the findings. Results By applying a two-stage Bayesian mixture modeling strategy, we were able to assimilate and analyze four independent microarray studies to derive an inter-study validated "meta-signature" associated with breast cancer prognosis. Combining multiple studies (n = 305 samples on a common probability scale, we developed a 90-gene meta-signature, which strongly associated with survival in breast cancer patients. Given the set of independent studies using different microarray platforms which included spotted cDNAs, Affymetrix GeneChip, and inkjet oligonucleotides, the individually identified classifiers yielded gene sets predictive of survival in each study cohort. The study-specific gene signatures, however, had minimal overlap with each other, and performed poorly in pairwise cross-validation. The meta-signature, on the other hand, accommodated such heterogeneity and achieved comparable or better prognostic performance when compared with the individual signatures. Further by comparing to a global standardization method, the mixture model based data transformation demonstrated superior properties for data integration and provided solid basis for building classifiers at the second stage. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in cell cycle and signal transduction activities were over-represented in the meta-signature. Conclusion The mixture modeling approach unifies disparate gene expression data on a common probability scale allowing for robust, inter-study validated prognostic signatures to be obtained. With the emerging utility of microarrays for cancer prognosis, it will be important to establish paradigms to meta

  11. Stratified wake of an accelerating hydrofoil

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi


    Wakes of towed and self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids are significantly different from non-stratified wakes. Long time effects of stratification on the development of the wakes of bluff bodies moving at constant speed are well known. In this experimental study we demonstrate how buoyancy affects the initial growth of vortices developing in the wake of a hydrofoil accelerating from rest. Particle image velocimetry measurements were applied to characterize the wake evolution behind a NACA 0015 hydrofoil accelerating in water and for low Reynolds number and relatively strong and stably stratified fluid (Re=5,000, Fr~O(1)). The analysis of velocity and vorticity fields, following vortex identification and an estimate of the circulation, reveal that the vortices in the stratified fluid case are stretched along the streamwise direction in the near wake. The momentum thickness profiles show lower momentum thickness values for the stratified late wake compared to the non-stratified wake, implying that the dra...

  12. Complex Dynamical Behavior of a Two-Stage Colpitts Oscillator with Magnetically Coupled Inductors

    V. Kamdoum Tamba


    Full Text Available A five-dimensional (5D controlled two-stage Colpitts oscillator is introduced and analyzed. This new electronic oscillator is constructed by considering the well-known two-stage Colpitts oscillator with two further elements (coupled inductors and variable resistor. In contrast to current approaches based on piecewise linear (PWL model, we propose a smooth mathematical model (with exponential nonlinearity to investigate the dynamics of the oscillator. Several issues, such as the basic dynamical behaviour, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and frequency spectra of the oscillator, are investigated theoretically and numerically by varying a single control resistor. It is found that the oscillator moves from the state of fixed point motion to chaos via the usual paths of period-doubling and interior crisis routes as the single control resistor is monitored. Furthermore, an experimental study of controlled Colpitts oscillator is carried out. An appropriate electronic circuit is proposed for the investigations of the complex dynamics behaviour of the system. A very good qualitative agreement is obtained between the theoretical/numerical and experimental results.

  13. Optimization of Two-Stage Peltier Modules: Structure and Exergetic Efficiency

    Cesar Ramirez-Lopez


    Full Text Available In this paper we undertake the theoretical analysis of a two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module (TEM which contains an arbitrary and different number of thermocouples, n1 and n2, in each stage (pyramid-styled TEM. The analysis is based on a dimensionless entropy balance set of equations. We study the effects of n1 and n2, the flowing electric currents through each stage, the applied temperatures and the thermoelectric properties of the semiconductor materials on the exergetic efficiency. Our main result implies that the electric currents flowing in each stage must necessarily be different with a ratio about 4.3 if the best thermal performance and the highest temperature difference possible between the cold and hot side of the device are pursued. This fact had not been pointed out before for pyramid-styled two stage TEM. The ratio n1/n2 should be about 8.

  14. A two-stage series diode for intense large-area moderate pulsed X rays production

    Lai, Dingguo; Qiu, Mengtong; Xu, Qifu; Su, Zhaofeng; Li, Mo; Ren, Shuqing; Huang, Zhongliang


    This paper presents a method for moderate pulsed X rays produced by a series diode, which can be driven by high voltage pulse to generate intense large-area uniform sub-100-keV X rays. A two stage series diode was designed for Flash-II accelerator and experimentally investigated. A compact support system of floating converter/cathode was invented, the extra cathode is floating electrically and mechanically, by withdrawing three support pins several milliseconds before a diode electrical pulse. A double ring cathode was developed to improve the surface electric field and emission stability. The cathode radii and diode separation gap were optimized to enhance the uniformity of X rays and coincidence of the two diode voltages based on the simulation and theoretical calculation. The experimental results show that the two stage series diode can work stably under 700 kV and 300 kA, the average energy of X rays is 86 keV, and the dose is about 296 rad(Si) over 615 cm2 area with uniformity 2:1 at 5 cm from the last converter. Compared with the single diode, the average X rays' energy reduces from 132 keV to 88 keV, and the proportion of sub-100-keV photons increases from 39% to 69%.

  15. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang


    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  16. Planning an Agricultural Water Resources Management System: A Two-Stage Stochastic Fractional Programming Model

    Liang Cui


    Full Text Available Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in many regions and countries throughout the world. In this study, a two-stage stochastic fractional programming (TSFP method is developed for planning an agricultural water resources management system under uncertainty. TSFP can provide an effective linkage between conflicting economic benefits and the associated penalties; it can also balance conflicting objectives and maximize the system marginal benefit with per unit of input under uncertainty. The developed TSFP method is applied to a real case of agricultural water resources management of the Zhangweinan River Basin China, which is one of the main food and cotton producing regions in north China and faces serious water shortage. The results demonstrate that the TSFP model is advantageous in balancing conflicting objectives and reflecting complicated relationships among multiple system factors. Results also indicate that, under the optimized irrigation target, the optimized water allocation rate of Minyou Channel and Zhangnan Channel are 57.3% and 42.7%, respectively, which adapts the changes in the actual agricultural water resources management problem. Compared with the inexact two-stage water management (ITSP method, TSFP could more effectively address the sustainable water management problem, provide more information regarding tradeoffs between multiple input factors and system benefits, and help the water managers maintain sustainable water resources development of the Zhangweinan River Basin.

  17. A separate two-stage pulse tube cooler working at liquid helium temperature

    QIU Limin; HE Yonglin; GAN Zhihua; WAN Laihong; CHEN Guobang


    A novel 4 K separate two-stage pulse tube cooler (PTC) was designed and tested. The cooler consists of two separate pulse tube coolers, in which the cold end of the first stage regenerator is thermally connected with the middle part of the second regenerator. Compared to the traditional coupled multi-stage pulse tube cooler, the mutual interference between stages can be significantly eliminated. The lowest refrigeration temperature obtained at the first stage pulse tube was 13.8 K. This is a new record for single stage PTC. With two compressors and two rotary valves driving mode, the separate two-stage PTC obtained a refrigeration temperature of 2.5 K at the second stage. Cooling capacities of 508 mW at 4.2 K and 15 W at 37.5 K were achieved simultaneously. A one-compressor and one-rotary valve driving mode has been proposed to further simplify the structure of separate type PTC.

  18. Two-Stage Single-Compartment Models to Evaluate Dissolution in the Lower Intestine.

    Markopoulos, Constantinos; Vertzoni, Maria; Symillides, Mira; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos


    The purpose was to propose two-stage single-compartment models for evaluating dissolution characteristics in distal ileum and ascending colon, under conditions simulating the bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in fasted and fed state by using the mini-paddle and the compendial flow-through apparatus (closed-loop mode). Immediate release products of two highly dosed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), sulfasalazine and L-870,810, and one mesalamine colon targeting product were used for evaluating their usefulness. Change of medium composition simulating the conditions in distal ileum (SIFileum ) to a medium simulating the conditions in ascending colon in fasted state and in fed state was achieved by adding an appropriate solution in SIFileum . Data with immediate release products suggest that dissolution in lower intestine is substantially different than in upper intestine and is affected by regional pH differences > type/intensity of fluid convection > differences in concentration of other luminal components. Asacol® (400 mg/tab) was more sensitive to type/intensity of fluid convection. In all the cases, data were in line with available human data. Two-stage single-compartment models may be useful for the evaluation of dissolution in lower intestine. The impact of type/intensity of fluid convection and viscosity of media on luminal performance of other APIs and drug products requires further exploration.

  19. Simultaneous bile duct and portal venous branch ligation in two-stage hepatectomy

    Hiroya Iida; Chiaki Yasui; Tsukasa Aihara; Shinichi Ikuta; Hidenori Yoshie; Naoki Yamanaka


    Hepatectomy is an effective surgical treatment for multiple bilobar liver metastases from colon cancer; however, one of the primary obstacles to completing surgical resection for these cases is an insufficient volume of the future remnant liver, which may cause postoperative liver failure. To induce atrophy of the unilateral lobe and hypertrophy of the future remnant liver, procedures to occlude the portal vein have been conventionally used prior to major hepatectomy. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman in whom two-stage hepatectomy was performed in combination with intraoperative ligation of the portal vein and the bile duct of the right hepatic lobe. This procedure was designed to promote the atrophic effect on the right hepatic lobe more effectively than the conventional technique, and to the best of our knowledge, it was used for the first time in the present case. Despite successful induction of liver volume shift as well as the following procedure, the patient died of subsequent liver failure after developing recurrent tumors. We discuss the first case in which simultaneous ligation of the portal vein and the biliary system was successfully applied as part of the first step of two-stage hepatectomy.

  20. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz


    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  1. Development and optimization of a two-stage gasifier for heat and power production

    Kosov, V. V.; Zaichenko, V. M.


    The major methods of biomass thermal conversion are combustion in excess oxygen, gasification in reduced oxygen, and pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen. The end products of these methods are heat, gas, liquid and solid fuels. From the point of view of energy production, none of these methods can be considered optimal. A two-stage thermal conversion of biomass based on pyrolysis as the first stage and pyrolysis products cracking as the second stage can be considered the optimal method for energy production that allows obtaining synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and not containing liquid or solid particles. On the base of the two stage cracking technology, there was designed an experimental power plant of electric power up to 50 kW. The power plant consists of a thermal conversion module and a gas engine power generator adapted for operation on syngas. Purposes of the work were determination of an optimal operation temperature of the thermal conversion module and an optimal mass ratio of processed biomass and charcoal in cracking chamber of the thermal conversion module. Experiments on the pyrolysis products cracking at various temperatures show that the optimum cracking temperature is equal to 1000 °C. From the results of measuring the volume of gas produced in different mass ratios of charcoal and wood biomass processed, it follows that the maximum volume of the gas in the range of the mass ratio equal to 0.5-0.6.

  2. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Ahmad MURAD


    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  3. An integrated two-stage support vector machine approach to forecast inundation maps during typhoons

    Jhong, Bing-Chen; Wang, Jhih-Huang; Lin, Gwo-Fong


    During typhoons, accurate forecasts of hourly inundation depths are essential for inundation warning and mitigation. Due to the lack of observed data of inundation maps, sufficient observed data are not available for developing inundation forecasting models. In this paper, the inundation depths, which are simulated and validated by a physically based two-dimensional model (FLO-2D), are used as a database for inundation forecasting. A two-stage inundation forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to yield 1- to 6-h lead-time inundation maps during typhoons. In the first stage (point forecasting), the proposed approach not only considers the rainfall intensity and inundation depth as model input but also simultaneously considers cumulative rainfall and forecasted inundation depths. In the second stage (spatial expansion), the geographic information of inundation grids and the inundation forecasts of reference points are used to yield inundation maps. The results clearly indicate that the proposed approach effectively improves the forecasting performance and decreases the negative impact of increasing forecast lead time. Moreover, the proposed approach is capable of providing accurate inundation maps for 1- to 6-h lead times. In conclusion, the proposed two-stage forecasting approach is suitable and useful for improving the inundation forecasting during typhoons, especially for long lead times.

  4. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang


    TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction and ...... tar destruction and a high moisture content of the biomass enhances the decomposition of phenol and inhibits the formation of naphthalene. This enhances tar conversion and gasification in the char-bed, and thus contributes in-directly to the tar destruction.......TwoStage gasification of biomass results in almost tar free producer gas suitable for multiple end-use purposes. In the present study, it is investigated to what extent the partial oxidation process of the pyrolysis gas from the first stage is involved in direct and in-direct tar destruction...... and conversion. The study identifies the following major impact factors regarding tar content in the producer gas: oxidation temperature, excess air ratio and biomass moisture content. In a experimental setup, wood pellets were pyrolyzed and the resulting pyrolysis gas was transferred in a heated partial...

  5. Numerical simulation of municipal solid waste combustion in a novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator.

    Huai, X L; Xu, W L; Qu, Z Y; Li, Z G; Zhang, F P; Xiang, G M; Zhu, S Y; Chen, G


    A mathematical model was presented in this paper for the combustion of municipal solid waste in a novel two-stage reciprocating grate furnace. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the temperature, the flow and the species distributions in the furnace, with practical operational conditions taken into account. The calculated results agree well with the test data, and the burning behavior of municipal solid waste in the novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator can be demonstrated well. The thickness of waste bed, the initial moisture content, the excessive air coefficient and the secondary air are the major factors that influence the combustion process. If the initial moisture content of waste is high, both the heat value of waste and the temperature inside incinerator are low, and less oxygen is necessary for combustion. The air supply rate and the primary air distribution along the grate should be adjusted according to the initial moisture content of the waste. A reasonable bed thickness and an adequate excessive air coefficient can keep a higher temperature, promote the burnout of combustibles, and consequently reduce the emission of dioxin pollutants. When the total air supply is constant, reducing primary air and introducing secondary air properly can enhance turbulence and mixing, prolong the residence time of flue gas, and promote the complete combustion of combustibles. This study provides an important reference for optimizing the design and operation of municipal solid wastes furnace.

  6. Two stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture of Scenedesmus incrassatulus: potential for lutein production.

    Flórez-Miranda, Liliana; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia; Melchy-Antonio, Orlando; Jerónimo, Fernando Martínez-; Flores-Ortíz, Cesar Mateo


    A biomass production process including two stages, heterotrophy/photoinduction (TSHP), was developed to improve biomass and lutein production by the green microalgae Scenedesmus incrassatulus. To determine the effects of different nitrogen sources (yeast extract and urea) and temperature in the heterotrophic stage, experiments using shake flask cultures with glucose as the carbon source were carried out. The highest biomass productivity and specific pigment concentrations were reached using urea+vitamins (U+V) at 30°C. The first stage of the TSHP process was done in a 6L bioreactor, and the inductions in a 3L airlift photobioreactor. At the end of the heterotrophic stage, S. incrassatulus achieved the maximal biomass concentration, increasing from 7.22gL(-1) to 17.98gL(-1) with an increase in initial glucose concentration from 10.6gL(-1) to 30.3gL(-1). However, the higher initial glucose concentration resulted in a lower specific growth rate (μ) and lower cell yield (Yx/s), possibly due to substrate inhibition. After 24h of photoinduction, lutein content in S. incrassatulus biomass was 7 times higher than that obtained at the end of heterotrophic cultivation, and the lutein productivity was 1.6 times higher compared with autotrophic culture of this microalga. Hence, the two-stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture is an effective strategy for high cell density and lutein production in S. incrassatulus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko


    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  8. Dynamics of installation way for the actuator of a two-stage active vibration-isolator

    HU Li; HUANG Qi-bai; HE Xue-song; YUAN Ji-xuan


    We investigated the behaviors of an active control system of two-stage vibration isolation with the actuator installed in parallel with either the upper passive mount or the lower passive isolation mount. We revealed the relationships between the active control force of the actuator and the parameters of the passive isolators by studying the dynamics of two-stage active vibration isolation for the actuator at the foregoing two positions in turn. With the actuator installed beside the upper mount, a small active force can achieve a very good isolating effect when the frequency of the stimulating force is much larger than the natural frequency of the upper mount; a larger active force is required in the low-frequency domain; and the active force equals the stimulating force when the upper mount works within the resonance region, suggesting an approach to reducing wobble and ensuring desirable installation accuracy by increasing the upper-mount stiffness. In either the low or the high frequency region far away from the resonance region, the active force is smaller when the actuator is beside the lower mount than beside the upper mount.

  9. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  10. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong


    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage...

  11. Two-stage electrodialytic concentration of glyceric acid from fermentation broth.

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Sakaki, Keiji


    The aim of this research was the application of a two-stage electrodialysis (ED) method for glyceric acid (GA) recovery from fermentation broth. First, by desalting ED, glycerate solutions (counterpart is Na+) were concentrated using ion-exchange membranes, and the glycerate recovery and energy consumption became more efficient with increasing the initial glycerate concentration (30 to 130 g/l). Second, by water-splitting ED, the concentrated glycerate was electroconverted to GA using bipolar membranes. Using a culture broth of Acetobacter tropicalis containing 68.6 g/l of D-glycerate, a final D-GA concentration of 116 g/l was obtained following the two-stage ED process. The total energy consumption for the D-glycerate concentration and its electroconversion to D-GA was approximately 0.92 kWh per 1 kg of D-GA. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of two-stage hardening in C-Mn steel wire rods containing pearlitic microstructure

    Singh, Balbir; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Saxena, Atul


    The 8 and 10 mm diameter wire rods intended for use as concrete reinforcement were produced/ hot rolled from C-Mn steel chemistry containing various elements within the range of C:0.55-0.65, Mn:0.85-1.50, Si:0.05-0.09, S:0.04 max, P:0.04 max and N:0.006 max wt%. Depending upon the C and Mn contents the product attained pearlitic microstructure in the range of 85-93% with balance amount of polygonal ferrite transformed at prior austenite grain boundaries. The pearlitic microstructure in the wire rods helped in achieving yield strength, tensile strength, total elongation and reduction in area values within the range of 422-515 MPa, 790-950 MPa, 22-15% and 45-35%, respectively. On analyzing the tensile results it was revealed that the material experienced hardening in two stages separable by a knee strain value of about 0.05. The occurrence of two stage hardening thus in the steel with hardening coefficients of 0.26 and 0.09 could be demonstrated with the help of derived relationships existed between flow stress and the strain.

  13. Rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    Teşileanu, Tiberiu; Ölveczky, Bence; Balasubramanian, Vijay


    Trial-and-error learning requires evaluating variable actions and reinforcing successful variants. In songbirds, vocal exploration is induced by LMAN, the output of a basal ganglia-related circuit that also contributes a corrective bias to the vocal output. This bias is gradually consolidated in RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using stochastic gradient descent, we derive how the activity in ‘tutor’ circuits (e.g., LMAN) should match plasticity mechanisms in ‘student’ circuits (e.g., RA) to achieve efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework through which the tutor can build its teaching signal. We show that mismatches between the tutor signal and the plasticity mechanism can impair learning. Applied to birdsong, our results predict the temporal structure of the corrective bias from LMAN given a plasticity rule in RA. Our framework can be applied predictively to other paired brain areas showing two-stage learning. DOI: PMID:28374674

  14. Two-stage estimation for multivariate recurrent event data with a dependent terminal event.

    Chen, Chyong-Mei; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Pao-Sheng


    Recurrent event data arise in longitudinal follow-up studies, where each subject may experience the same type of events repeatedly. The work in this article is motivated by the data from a study of repeated peritonitis for patients on peritoneal dialysis. Due to the aspects of medicine and cost, the peritonitis cases were classified into two types: Gram-positive and non-Gram-positive peritonitis. Further, since the death and hemodialysis therapy preclude the occurrence of recurrent events, we face multivariate recurrent event data with a dependent terminal event. We propose a flexible marginal model, which has three characteristics: first, we assume marginal proportional hazard and proportional rates models for terminal event time and recurrent event processes, respectively; second, the inter-recurrences dependence and the correlation between the multivariate recurrent event processes and terminal event time are modeled through three multiplicative frailties corresponding to the specified marginal models; third, the rate model with frailties for recurrent events is specified only on the time before the terminal event. We propose a two-stage estimation procedure for estimating unknown parameters. We also establish the consistency of the two-stage estimator. Simulation studies show that the proposed approach is appropriate for practical use. The methodology is applied to the peritonitis cohort data that motivated this study. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Two-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles with dual-fuel propulsion in the Orbiter

    Martin, J. A.


    Earth-to-orbit vehicle studies of future replacements for the Space Shuttle are needed to guide technology development. Previous studies that have examined single-stage vehicles have shown advantages for dual-fuel propulsion. Previous two-stage system studies have assumed all-hydrogen fuel for the Orbiters. The present study examined dual-fuel Orbiters and found that the system dry mass could be reduced with this concept. The possibility of staging the booster at a staging velocity low enough to allow coast-back to the launch site is shown to be beneficial, particularly in combination with a dual-fuel Orbiter. An engine evaluation indicated the same ranking of engines as did a previous single-stage study. Propane and RP-1 fuels result in lower vehicle dry mass than methane, and staged-combustion engines are preferred over gas-generator engines. The sensitivity to the engine selection is less for two-stage systems than for single-stage systems.

  16. Two-stage effects of awareness cascade on epidemic spreading in multiplex networks

    Guo, Quantong; Jiang, Xin; Lei, Yanjun; Li, Meng; Ma, Yifang; Zheng, Zhiming


    Human awareness plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the control of propagation patterns. The dynamic process with human awareness is called awareness cascade, during which individuals exhibit herd-like behavior because they are making decisions based on the actions of other individuals [Borge-Holthoefer et al., J. Complex Networks 1, 3 (2013), 10.1093/comnet/cnt006]. In this paper, to investigate the epidemic spreading with awareness cascade, we propose a local awareness controlled contagion spreading model on multiplex networks. By theoretical analysis using a microscopic Markov chain approach and numerical simulations, we find the emergence of an abrupt transition of epidemic threshold βc with the local awareness ratio α approximating 0.5 , which induces two-stage effects on epidemic threshold and the final epidemic size. These findings indicate that the increase of α can accelerate the outbreak of epidemics. Furthermore, a simple 1D lattice model is investigated to illustrate the two-stage-like sharp transition at αc≈0.5 . The results can give us a better understanding of why some epidemics cannot break out in reality and also provide a potential access to suppressing and controlling the awareness cascading systems.

  17. Configuration Consideration for Expander in Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Two-Stage Compression Cycle

    MA Yitai; YANG Junlan; GUAN Haiqing; LI Minxia


    To investigate the configuration consideration of expander in transcritical carbon dioxide two-stage compression cycle, the best place in the cycle should be searched for to reinvest the recovery work so as to improve the system efficiency. The expander and the compressor are connected to the same shaft and integrated into one unit, with the latter being driven by the former, thus the transfer loss and leakage loss can be decreased greatly. In these systems, the expander can be either connected with the first stage compressor (shortened as DCDL cycle) or the second stage compressor (shortened as DCDH cycle), but the two configuration ways can get different performances. By setting up theoretical model for two kinds of expander configuration ways in the transcritical carbon dioxide two-stage compression cycle, the first and the second laws of thermodynamics are used to analyze the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency, inter-stage pressure, discharge temperature and exergy losses of each component for the two cycles. From the model results, the performance of DCDH cycle is better than that of DCDL cycle. The analysis results are indispensable to providing a theoretical basis for practical design and operating.

  18. Two-stage coordination multi-radio multi-channel mac protocol for wireless mesh networks

    Zhao, Bingxuan


    Within the wireless mesh network, a bottleneck problem arises as the number of concurrent traffic flows (NCTF) increases over a single common control channel, as it is for most conventional networks. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes a two-stage coordination multi-radio multi-channel MAC (TSC-M2MAC) protocol that designates all available channels as both control channels and data channels in a time division manner through a two-stage coordination. At the first stage, a load balancing breadth-first-search-based vertex coloring algorithm for multi-radio conflict graph is proposed to intelligently allocate multiple control channels. At the second stage, a REQ/ACK/RES mechanism is proposed to realize dynamical channel allocation for data transmission. At this stage, the Channel-and-Radio Utilization Structure (CRUS) maintained by each node is able to alleviate the hidden nodes problem; also, the proposed adaptive adjustment algorithm for the Channel Negotiation and Allocation (CNA) sub-interval is ab...

  19. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.


    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  20. Two-stage image segmentation based on edge and region information


    A two-stage method for image segmentation based on edge and region information is proposed. Different deformation schemes are used at two stages for segmenting the object correctly in image plane. At the first stage, the contour of the model is divided into several segments hierarchically that deform respectively using affine transformation. After the contour is deformed to the approximate boundary of object, a fine match mechanism using statistical information of local region to redefine the external energy of the model is used to make the contour fit the object's boundary exactly. The algorithm is effective, as the hierarchical segmental deformation makes use of the globe and local information of the image, the affine transformation keeps the consistency of the model, and the reformative approaches of computing the internal energy and external energy are proposed to reduce the algorithm complexity. The adaptive method of defining the search area at the second stage makes the model converge quickly. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model is effective and robust to local minima and able to search for concave objects.

  1. Waste-gasification efficiency of a two-stage fluidized-bed gasification system.

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chang, Tsung-Jen; Weng, Wang-Chang


    This study employed a two-stage fluidized-bed gasifier as a gasification reactor and two additives (CaO and activated carbon) as the Stage-II bed material to investigate the effects of the operating temperature (700°C, 800°C, and 900°C) on the syngas composition, total gas yield, and gas-heating value during simulated waste gasification. The results showed that when the operating temperature increased from 700 to 900°C, the molar percentage of H2 in the syngas produced by the two-stage gasification process increased from 19.4 to 29.7mol% and that the total gas yield and gas-heating value also increased. When CaO was used as the additive, the molar percentage of CO2 in the syngas decreased, and the molar percentage of H2 increased. When activated carbon was used, the molar percentage of CH4 in the syngas increased, and the total gas yield and gas-heating value increased. Overall, CaO had better effects on the production of H2, whereas activated carbon clearly enhanced the total gas yield and gas-heating value. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-Stage Orthogonal Least Squares Methods for Neural Network Construction.

    Zhang, Long; Li, Kang; Bai, Er-Wei; Irwin, George W


    A number of neural networks can be formulated as the linear-in-the-parameters models. Training such networks can be transformed to a model selection problem where a compact model is selected from all the candidates using subset selection algorithms. Forward selection methods are popular fast subset selection approaches. However, they may only produce suboptimal models and can be trapped into a local minimum. More recently, a two-stage fast recursive algorithm (TSFRA) combining forward selection and backward model refinement has been proposed to improve the compactness and generalization performance of the model. This paper proposes unified two-stage orthogonal least squares methods instead of the fast recursive-based methods. In contrast to the TSFRA, this paper derives a new simplified relationship between the forward and the backward stages to avoid repetitive computations using the inherent orthogonal properties of the least squares methods. Furthermore, a new term exchanging scheme for backward model refinement is introduced to reduce computational demand. Finally, given the error reduction ratio criterion, effective and efficient forward and backward subset selection procedures are proposed. Extensive examples are presented to demonstrate the improved model compactness constructed by the proposed technique in comparison with some popular methods.

  3. Two-stage numerical simulation for temperature profile in furnace of tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XU Qiong-hui; ZHOU Ping


    Considering the fact that the temperature distribution in furnace of a tangential fired pulverized coal boiler is difficult to be measured and monitored, two-stage numerical simulation method was put forward. First, multi-field coupling simulation in typical work conditions was carried out off-line with the software CFX-4.3, and then the expression of temperature profile varying with operating parameter was obtained. According to real-time operating parameters, the temperature at arbitrary point of the furnace can be calculated by using this expression. Thus the temperature profile can be shown on-line and monitoring for combustion state in the furnace is realized. The simul-ation model was checked by the parameters measured in an operating boiler, DG130-9.8/540. The maximum of relative error is less than 12% and the absolute error is less than 120 ℃, which shows that the proposed two-stage simulation method is reliable and able to satisfy the requirement of industrial application.

  4. A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory

    Guo, Jiarong


    A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).

  5. Two-stage high temperature sludge gasification using the waste heat from hot blast furnace slags.

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong


    Nowadays, disposal of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants and recovery of waste heat from steel industry, become two important environmental issues and to integrate these two problems, a two-stage high temperature sludge gasification approach was investigated using the waste heat in hot slags herein. The whole process was divided into two stages, i.e., the low temperature sludge pyrolysis at ⩽ 900°C in argon agent and the high temperature char gasification at ⩾ 900°C in CO2 agent, during which the heat required was supplied by hot slags in different temperature ranges. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms were identified and it was indicated that an Avrami-Erofeev model could best interpret the stage of char gasification. Furthermore, a schematic concept of this strategy was portrayed, based on which the potential CO yield and CO2 emission reduction achieved in China could be ∼1.92∗10(9)m(3) and 1.93∗10(6)t, respectively.

  6. A two-stage method to determine optimal product sampling considering dynamic potential market.

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing


    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level.

  7. Two staged incentive contract focused on efficiency and innovation matching in critical chain project management

    Min Zhang


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the relative optimal incentive contract to effectively encourage employees to improve work efficiency while actively implementing innovative behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This paper analyzes a two staged incentive contract coordinated with efficiency and innovation in Critical Chain Project Management using learning real options, based on principle-agent theory. The situational experiment is used to analyze the validity of the basic model. Finding: The two staged incentive scheme is more suitable for employees to create and implement learning real options, which will throw themselves into innovation process efficiently in Critical Chain Project Management. We prove that the combination of tolerance for early failure and reward for long-term success is effective in motivating innovation. Research limitations/implications: We do not include the individual characteristics of uncertain perception, which might affect the consistency of external validity. The basic model and the experiment design need to improve. Practical Implications: The project managers should pay closer attention to early innovation behavior and monitoring feedback of competition time in the implementation of Critical Chain Project Management. Originality/value: The central contribution of this paper is the theoretical and experimental analysis of incentive schemes for innovation in Critical Chain Project Management using the principal-agent theory, to encourage the completion of CCPM methods as well as imitative free-riding on the creative ideas of other members in the team.

  8. Selective capsulotomies of the expanded breast as a remodelling method in two-stage breast reconstruction.

    Grimaldi, Luca; Campana, Matteo; Brandi, Cesare; Nisi, Giuseppe; Brafa, Anna; Calabrò, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carlo


    The two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expander and prosthesis is nowadays a common method for achieving a satisfactory appearance in selected patients who had a mastectomy, but its most common aesthetic drawback is represented by an excessive volumetric increment of the superior half of the reconstructed breast, with a convexity of the profile in that area. A possible solution to limit this effect, and to fulfil the inferior pole, may be obtained by reducing the inferior tissue resistance by means of capsulotomies. This study reports the effects of various types of capsulotomies, performed in 72 patients after removal of the mammary expander, with the aim of emphasising the convexity of the inferior mammary aspect in the expanded breast. According to each kind of desired modification, possible solutions are described. On the basis of subjective and objective evaluations, an overall high degree of satisfaction has been evidenced. The described selective capsulotomies, when properly carried out, may significantly improve the aesthetic results in two-stage reconstructed breasts, with no additional scars, with minimal risks, and with little lengthening of the surgical time.

  9. Rapid Two-stage Versus One-stage Surgical Repair of Interrupted Aortic Arch with Ventricular Septal Defect in Neonates

    Meng-Lin Lee


    Conclusion: The outcome of rapid two-stage repair is comparable to that of one-stage repair. Rapid two-stage repair has the advantages of significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass duration and AXC time, and avoids deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. LVOTO remains an unresolved issue, and postoperative aortic arch restenosis can be dilated effectively by percutaneous balloon angioplasty.

  10. Two-Stage Nerve Graft in Severe Scar: A Time-Course Study in a Rat Model

    Shayan Zadegan


    According to the EPT and WRL, the two-stage nerve graft showed significant improvement (P=0.020 and P =0.017 respectively. The TOA showed no significant difference between the two groups. The total vascular index was significantly higher in the two-stage nerve graft group (P

  11. How stratified is mantle convection?

    Puster, Peter; Jordan, Thomas H.


    We quantify the flow stratification in the Earth's mid-mantle (600-1500 km) in terms of a stratification index for the vertical mass flux, Sƒ (z) = 1 - ƒ(z) / ƒref (z), in which the reference value ƒref(z) approximates the local flux at depth z expected for unstratified convection (Sƒ=0). Although this flux stratification index cannot be directly constrained by observations, we show from a series of two-dimensional convection simulations that its value can be related to a thermal stratification index ST(Z) defined in terms of the radial correlation length of the temperature-perturbation field δT(z, Ω). ST is a good proxy for Sƒ at low stratifications (SƒUniformitarian Principle. The bound obtained here from global tomography is consistent with local seismological evidence for slab flux into the lower mantle; however, the total material flux has to be significantly greater (by a factor of 2-3) than that due to slabs alone. A stratification index, Sƒ≲0.2, is sufficient to exclude many stratified convection models still under active consideration, including most forms of chemical layering between the upper and lower mantle, as well as the more extreme versions of avalanching convection governed by a strong endothermic phase change.

  12. Stability and multiattractor dynamics of a toggle switch based on a two-stage model of stochastic gene expression.

    Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten


    A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the

  13. Two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral single-port sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis†

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Vanni, Camilla; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo


    OBJECTIVES Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. It can be performed through either one or two stages of surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the operative and postoperative results of two-stage unilateral vs one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. METHODS From November 1995 to February 2011, 270 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis were recruited for this study. One hundred and thirty patients received one-stage bilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 140, two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of 4 months between the procedures (two-stage group). RESULTS The mean postoperative follow-up period was 12.5 (range: 1–24 months). After surgery, hands and axillae of all patients were dry and warm. Sixteen (12%) patients of the one-stage group and 15 (11%) of the two-stage group suffered from mild/moderate pain (P = 0.8482). The mean operative time was 38 ± 5 min in the one-stage group and 39 ± 8 min in the two-stage group (P = 0.199). Pneumothorax occurred in 8 (6%) patients of the one-stage group and in 11 (8%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 25 (19%) patients of the one-stage group and in 6 (4%) of the two-stage group (P = 0.0001). No patients developed Horner's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Both two-stage unilateral and one-stage bilateral single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies are effective, safe and minimally invasive procedures. Two-stage unilateral sympathectomy can be performed with a lower occurrence of compensatory sweating, improving permanently the quality of life in patients with palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:23442937

  14. Two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral single-port sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Vanni, Camilla; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo


    Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. It can be performed through either one or two stages of surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the operative and postoperative results of two-stage unilateral vs one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. From November 1995 to February 2011, 270 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis were recruited for this study. One hundred and thirty patients received one-stage bilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 140, two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of 4 months between the procedures (two-stage group). The mean postoperative follow-up period was 12.5 (range: 1-24 months). After surgery, hands and axillae of all patients were dry and warm. Sixteen (12%) patients of the one-stage group and 15 (11%) of the two-stage group suffered from mild/moderate pain (P = 0.8482). The mean operative time was 38 ± 5 min in the one-stage group and 39 ± 8 min in the two-stage group (P = 0.199). Pneumothorax occurred in 8 (6%) patients of the one-stage group and in 11 (8%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 25 (19%) patients of the one-stage group and in 6 (4%) of the two-stage group (P = 0.0001). No patients developed Horner's syndrome. Both two-stage unilateral and one-stage bilateral single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies are effective, safe and minimally invasive procedures. Two-stage unilateral sympathectomy can be performed with a lower occurrence of compensatory sweating, improving permanently the quality of life in patients with palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis.

  15. Two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones

    Jiong Lu; Yao Cheng; Xian-Ze Xiong; Yi-Xin Lin; Si-Jia Wu; Nan-Sheng Cheng


    AIM:To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones.METHODS:Four databases,including PubMed,Embase,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index up to September 2011,were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers.The primary outcomes were stone clearance from the common bile duct,postoperative morbidity and mortality.The secondary outcomes were conversion to other procedures,number of procedures per patient,length of hospital stay,total operative time,hospitalization charges,patient acceptance and quality of life scores.RESULTS:Seven eligible RCTs [five trials (n =621)comparing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with LC +laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE);two trials (n =166) comparing postoperative ERCP/EST + LC with LC + LCBDE],composed of 787 patients in total,were included in the final analysis.The metaanalysis detected no statistically significant difference between the two groups in stone clearance from the common bile duct [risk ratios (RR) =-0.10,95% confidence intervals (CI):-0.24 to 0.04,P =0.17],postoperative morbidity (RR =0.79,95% CI:0.58 to 1.10,P =0.16),mortality (RR =2.19,95% CI:0.33 to 14.67,P =0.42),conversion to other procedures (RR =1.21,95% CI:0.54 to 2.70,P =0.39),length of hospital stay (MD =0.99,95% CI:-1.59 to 3.57,P =0.45),total operative time (MD =12.14,95% CI:-1.83 to 26.10,P =0.09).Two-stage (LC + ERCP/EST) management clearly required more procedures per patient than single-stage (LC + LCBDE) management.CONCLUSION:Single-stage management is equivalent to two-stage management but requires fewer procedures.However,patient's condition,operator's expertise and local resources should be taken into account in

  16. Two-stage dilute-acid and organic-solvent lignocellulosic pretreatment for enhanced bioprocessing

    Brodeur, G.; Telotte, J.; Stickel, J. J.; Ramakrishnan, S.


    A two stage pretreatment approach for biomass is developed in the current work in which dilute acid (DA) pretreatment is followed by a solvent based pretreatment (N-methyl morpholine N oxide -- NMMO). When the combined pretreatment (DAWNT) is applied to sugarcane bagasse and corn stover, the rates of hydrolysis and overall yields (>90%) are seen to dramatically improve and under certain conditions 48 h can be taken off the time of hydrolysis with the additional NMMO step to reach similar conversions. DAWNT shows a 2-fold increase in characteristic rates and also fractionates different components of biomass -- DA treatment removes the hemicellulose while the remaining cellulose is broken down by enzymatic hydrolysis after NMMO treatment to simple sugars. The remaining residual solid is high purity lignin. Future work will focus on developing a full scale economic analysis of DAWNT for use in biomass fractionation.

  17. Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks Based on Two-Stage Bayesian Network Structure Learning Algorithm

    Gui-xia Liu; Wei Feng; Han Wang; Lei Liu; Chun-guang Zhou


    In the post-genomic biology era, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data is very important to understand the underlying biological system, and it has been a challenging task in bioinformatics. The Bayesian network model has been used in reconstructing the gene regulatory network for its advantages, but how to determine the network structure and parameters is still important to be explored. This paper proposes a two-stage structure learning algorithm which integrates immune evolution algorithm to build a Bayesian network .The new algorithm is evaluated with the use of both simulated and yeast cell cycle data. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can find many of the known real regulatory relationships from literature and predict the others unknown with high validity and accuracy.

  18. The Application of Two-stage Structure Decomposition Technique to the Study of Industrial Carbon Emissions

    Yanqiu HE


    The total carbon emissions control is the ultimate goal of carbon emission reduction, while industrial carbon emissions are the basic units of the total carbon emission. On the basis of existing research results, in this paper, a two-stage input-output structure decomposition method is creatively proposed for fully combining the input-output method with the structure decomposition technique. In this study, more comprehensive technical progress indicators were chosen in comparison with the previous studies and included the utilization efficiency of all kinds of intermediate inputs such as energy and non-energy products, and finally were positioned at the factors affecting the carbon emissions of different industries. Through analysis, the affecting rate of each factor on industrial carbon emissions was acquired. Thus, a theory basis and data support is provided for the total carbon emissions control of China from the perspective of industrial emissions.

  19. A two-stage metal valorisation process from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD

    H. Issa


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates possibility of separate zinc and lead recovery from coal composite pellets, composed of EAFD with other synergetic iron-bearing wastes and by-products (mill scale, pyrite-cinder, magnetite concentrate, through a two-stage process. The results show that in the first, low temp erature stage performed in electro-resistant furnace, removal of lead is enabled due to presence of chlorides in the system. In the second stage, performed at higher temperatures in Direct Current (DC plasma furnace, valorisation of zinc is conducted. Using this process, several final products were obtained, including a higher purity zinc oxide, which, by its properties, corresponds washed Waelz oxide.

  20. A wavelet-based two-stage near-lossless coder.

    Yea, Sehoon; Pearlman, William A


    In this paper, we present a two-stage near-lossless compression scheme. It belongs to the class of "lossy plus residual coding" and consists of a wavelet-based lossy layer followed by arithmetic coding of the quantized residual to guarantee a given L(infinity) error bound in the pixel domain. We focus on the selection of the optimum bit rate for the lossy layer to achieve the minimum total bit rate. Unlike other similar lossy plus lossless approaches using a wavelet-based lossy layer, the proposed method does not require iteration of decoding and inverse discrete wavelet transform in succession to locate the optimum bit rate. We propose a simple method to estimate the optimal bit rate, with a theoretical justification based on the critical rate argument from the rate-distortion theory and the independence of the residual error.

  1. Two-Stage Over-the-Air (OTA Test Method for LTE MIMO Device Performance Evaluation

    Ya Jing


    Full Text Available With MIMO technology being adopted by the wireless communication standards LTE and HSPA+, MIMO OTA research has attracted wide interest from both industry and academia. Parallel studies are underway in COST2100, CTIA, and 3GPP RAN WG4. The major test challenge for MIMO OTA is how to create a repeatable scenario which accurately reflects the MIMO antenna radiation performance in a realistic wireless propagation environment. Different MIMO OTA methods differ in the way to reproduce a specified MIMO channel model. This paper introduces a novel, flexible, and cost-effective method for measuring MIMO OTA using a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the antenna pattern is measured in an anechoic chamber using a nonintrusive approach, that is without cabled connections or modifying the device. In the second stage, the antenna pattern is convolved with the chosen channel model in a channel emulator to measure throughput using a cabled connection.

  2. Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task.

    Angele, Bernhard; Slattery, Timothy J; Rayner, Keith


    We used a display change detection paradigm (Slattery, Angele, & Rayner Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1924-1938 2011) to investigate whether display change detection uses orthographic regularity and whether detection is affected by the processing difficulty of the word preceding the boundary that triggers the display change. Subjects were significantly more sensitive to display changes when the change was from a nonwordlike preview than when the change was from a wordlike preview, but the preview benefit effect on the target word was not affected by whether the preview was wordlike or nonwordlike. Additionally, we did not find any influence of preboundary word frequency on display change detection performance. Our results suggest that display change detection and lexical processing do not use the same cognitive mechanisms. We propose that parafoveal processing takes place in two stages: an early, orthography-based, preattentional stage, and a late, attention-dependent lexical access stage.

  3. Enhanced biodiesel production in Neochloris oleoabundans by a semi-continuous process in two stage photobioreactors.

    Yoon, Se Young; Hong, Min Eui; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun


    Under autotrophic conditions, highly productive biodiesel production was achieved using a semi-continuous culture system in Neochloris oleoabundans. In particular, the flue gas generated by combustion of liquefied natural gas and natural solar radiation were used for cost-effective microalgal culture system. In semi-continuous culture, the greater part (~80%) of the culture volume containing vegetative cells grown under nitrogen-replete conditions in a first photobioreactor (PBR) was directly transferred to a second PBR and cultured sequentially under nitrogen-deplete conditions for accelerating oil accumulation. As a result, in semi-continuous culture, the productivities of biomass and biodiesel in the cells were increased by 58% (growth phase) and 51% (induction phase) compared to the cells in batch culture, respectively. The semi-continuous culture system using two stage photobioreactors is a very efficient strategy to further improve biodiesel production from microalgae under photoautotrophic conditions.

  4. The Sources of Efficiency of the Nigerian Banking Industry: A Two- Stage Approach

    Frances Obafemi


    Full Text Available The paper employed a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach to examine the sources oftechnical efficiency in the Nigerian banking sub-sector. Using a cross sectionof commercial and merchant banks, the study showed that the Nigerian bankingindustry was not efficient both in the pre-and-post-liberalization era. Thestudy further revealed that market share was the strongest determinant oftechnical efficiency in the Nigerian banking Industry. Thus, appropriatemacroeconomic policy, institutional development and structural reforms mustaccompany financial liberalization to create the stable environment requiredfor it to succeed. Hence, the present bank consolidation and reforms by theCentral Bank of Nigeria, which started with Soludo and continued with Sanusi,are considered necessary, especially in the areas of e banking and reorganizingthe management of banks.

  5. Two-stage triolein breath test differentiates pancreatic insufficiency from other causes of malabsorption

    Goff, J.S.


    In 24 patients with malabsorption, (/sup 14/C)triolein breath tests were conducted before and together with the administration of pancreatic enzymes (Pancrease, Johnson and Johnson, Skillman, N.J.). Eleven patients with pancreatic insufficiency had a significant rise in peak percent dose per hour /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion after Pancrease, whereas 13 patients with other causes of malabsorption had no increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion (2.61 +/- 0.96 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.45, p less than 0.001). The two-stage (/sup 14/C)triolein breath test appears to be an accurate and simple noninvasive test of fat malabsorption that differentiates steatorrhea secondary to pancreatic insufficiency from other causes of steatorrhea.

  6. Heuristic for Critical Machine Based a Lot Streaming for Two-Stage Hybrid Production Environment

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.


    Lot streaming in Hybrid flowshop [HFS] is encountered in many real world problems. This paper deals with a heuristic approach for Lot streaming based on critical machine consideration for a two stage Hybrid Flowshop. The first stage has two identical parallel machines and the second stage has only one machine. In the second stage machine is considered as a critical by valid reasons these kind of problems is known as NP hard. A mathematical model developed for the selected problem. The simulation modelling and analysis were carried out in Extend V6 software. The heuristic developed for obtaining optimal lot streaming schedule. The eleven cases of lot streaming were considered. The proposed heuristic was verified and validated by real time simulation experiments. All possible lot streaming strategies and possible sequence under each lot streaming strategy were simulated and examined. The heuristic consistently yielded optimal schedule consistently in all eleven cases. The identification procedure for select best lot streaming strategy was suggested.

  7. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter


    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through the dedi......In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through...... the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show...

  8. Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.

    Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin


    This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production.

  9. Study of a two-stage photobase generator for photolithography in microelectronics.

    Turro, Nicholas J; Li, Yongjun; Jockusch, Steffen; Hagiwara, Yuji; Okazaki, Masahiro; Mesch, Ryan A; Schuster, David I; Willson, C Grant


    The investigation of the photochemistry of a two-stage photobase generator (PBG) is described. Absorption of a photon by a latent PBG (1) (first step) produces a PBG (2). Irradiation of 2 in the presence of water produces a base (second step). This two-photon sequence (1 + hν → 2 + hν → base) is an important component in the design of photoresists for pitch division technology, a method that doubles the resolution of projection photolithography for the production of microelectronic chips. In the present system, the excitation of 1 results in a Norrish type II intramolecular hydrogen abstraction to generate a 1,4-biradiacal that undergoes cleavage to form 2 and acetophenone (Φ ∼ 0.04). In the second step, excitation of 2 causes cleavage of the oxime ester (Φ = 0.56) followed by base generation after reaction with water.

  10. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis


    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were...... estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15 and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data...... was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10 d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation...

  11. A Two-Stage Diagnosis Framework for Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring

    Janet M. Twomey


    Full Text Available Advances in high performance sensing technologies enable the development of wind turbine condition monitoring system to diagnose and predict the system-wide effects of failure events. This paper presents a vibration-based two stage fault detection framework for failure diagnosis of rotating components in wind turbines. The proposed framework integrates an analytical defect detection method and a graphical verification method together to ensure the diagnosis efficiency and accuracy. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is demonstrated with a case study with the gearbox condition monitoring Round Robin study dataset provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. The developed methodology successfully picked five faults out of seven in total with accurate severity levels without producing any false alarm in the blind analysis. The case study results indicated that the developed fault detection framework is effective for analyzing gear and bearing faults in wind turbine drive train system based upon system vibration characteristics.

  12. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine.

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E


    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery.


    HE Hua; FENG Qi; SHEN Rong-ying; WANG Yu


    The possible intermittent impacts of a two-stage isolation system with rigid limiters have been investigated. The isolation system is under periodic external excitation disturbed by small stationary Gaussian white noise after shock. The maximal impact Then in the period after shock, the zero order approximate stochastic discrete model and the first order approximate stochastic model are developed. The real isolation system of an MTU diesel engine is used to evaluate the established model. After calculating of the numerical example, the effects of noise excitation on the isolation system are discussed.The results show that the property of the system is complicated due to intermittent impact. The difference between zero order model and the first order model may be great.The effect of small noise is obvious. The results may be expected useful to the naval designers.

  14. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube cooler for refrigeration at 25 K

    Dietrich, M


    A two-stage Stirling-type U-shape pulse tube cryocooler driven by a 10 kW-class linear compressor was designed, built and tested. A special feature of the cold head is the absence of a heat exchanger at the cold end of the first stage, since the intended application requires no cooling power at an intermediate temperature. Simulations where done using Sage-software to find optimum operating conditions and cold head geometry. Flow-impedance matching was required to connect the compressor designed for 60 Hz operation to the 40 Hz cold head. A cooling power of 12.9 W at 25 K with an electrical input power of 4.6 kW has been achieved up to now. The lowest temperature reached is 13.7 K.

  15. Two-stage reflective optical system for achromatic 10 nm x-ray focusing

    Motoyama, Hiroto; Mimura, Hidekazu


    Recently, coherent x-ray sources have promoted developments of optical systems for focusing, imaging, and interferometers. In this paper, we propose a two-stage focusing optical system with the goal of achromatically focusing pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), with a focal width of 10 nm. In this optical system, the x-ray beam is expanded by a grazing-incidence aspheric mirror, and it is focused by a mirror that is shaped as a solid of revolution. We describe the design procedure and discuss the theoretical focusing performance. In theory, soft-XFEL lights can be focused to a 10 nm area without chromatic aberration and with high reflectivity; this creates an unprecedented power density of 1020 W cm-2 in the soft-x-ray range.

  16. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... to achieve the power reserve. In this method, the solar irradiance and temperature measurements that have been used in conventional power reserve control schemes to estimate the available PV power are not required, and thereby being a sensorless approach with reduced cost. Experimental tests have been...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...

  17. Sensorless Reserved Power Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Due to still increasing penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A reserved power control, where the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... to achieve the power reserve. In this method, the irradiance measurements that have been used in conventional control schemes to estimate the available PV power are not required, and thereby being a sensorless solution. Simulations and experimental tests have been performed on a 3-kW two-stage single...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the reserved power control for grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...

  18. Prey-Predator Model with Two-Stage Infection in Prey: Concerning Pest Control

    Swapan Kumar Nandi


    Full Text Available A prey-predator model system is developed; specifically the disease is considered into the prey population. Here the prey population is taken as pest and the predators consume the selected pest. Moreover, we assume that the prey species is infected with a viral disease forming into susceptible and two-stage infected classes, and the early stage of infected prey is more vulnerable to predation by the predator. Also, it is assumed that the later stage of infected pests is not eaten by the predator. Different equilibria of the system are investigated and their stability analysis and Hopf bifurcation of the system around the interior equilibriums are discussed. A modified model has been constructed by considering some alternative source of food for the predator population and the dynamical behavior of the modified model has been investigated. We have demonstrated the analytical results by numerical analysis by taking some simulated set of parameter values.

  19. Lossless and near-lossless digital angiography coding using a two-stage motion compensation approach.

    dos Santos, Rafael A P; Scharcanski, Jacob


    This paper presents a two-stage motion compensation coding scheme for image sequences in hemodynamics. The first stage of the proposed method implements motion compensation, and the second stage corrects local pixel intensity distortions with a context adaptive linear predictor. The proposed method is robust to the local intensity distortions and the noise that often degrades these image sequences, providing lossless and near-lossless quality. Our experiments with lossless compression of 12bits/pixel studies indicate that, potentially, our approach can perform 3.8%, 2% and 1.6% better than JPEG-2000, JPEG-LS and the method proposed by Scharcanski [1], respectively. The performance tends to improve for near-lossless compression. Therefore, this work presents experimental evidence that for coding image sequences in hemodynamics, an adequate motion compensation scheme can be more efficient than the still-image coding methods often used nowadays.

  20. Quasi-estimation as a Basis for Two-stage Solving of Regression Problem

    Gordinsky, Anatoly


    An effective two-stage method for an estimation of parameters of the linear regression is considered. For this purpose we introduce a certain quasi-estimator that, in contrast to usual estimator, produces two alternative estimates. It is proved that, in comparison to the least squares estimate, one alternative has a significantly smaller quadratic risk, retaining at the same time unbiasedness and consistency. These properties hold true for one-dimensional, multi-dimensional, orthogonal and non-orthogonal problems. Moreover, a Monte-Carlo simulation confirms high robustness of the quasi-estimator to violations of the initial assumptions. Therefore, at the first stage of the estimation we calculate mentioned two alternative estimates. At the second stage we choose the better estimate out of these alternatives. In order to do so we use additional information, among it but not exclusively of a priori nature. In case of two alternatives the volume of such information should be minimal. Furthermore, the additional ...

  1. A characteristics study on the performance of a two-stage light gas gun

    吴应湘; 郑之初; P.Kupschus


    In order to obtain an overall and systematic understanding of the performance of a two-stage light gas gun (TLGG), a numerical code to simulate the process occurring in a gun shot is advanced based on the quasi-one-dimensional unsteady equations of motion with the real gas effect, friction and heat transfer taken into account in a characteristic formulation for both driver and propellant gas. Comparisons of projectile velocities and projectile pressures along the barrel with experimental results from JET (Joint European Torus) and with computational data got by the Lagrangian method indicate that this code can provide results with good accuracy over a wide range of gun geometry and loading conditions.

  2. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    Junhu Ruan


    Full Text Available We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs and assign medial aid points (MAPs to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is.

  3. A Two-Stage LGSM for Three-Point BVPs of Second-Order ODEs

    Chein-Shan Liu


    Full Text Available The study in this paper is a numerical integration of second-order three-point boundary value problems under two imposed nonlocal boundary conditions at t=t0, t=ξ, and t=t1 in a general setting, where t0<ξtwo-stage Lie-group shooting method for finding unknown initial conditions, which are obtained through an iterative solution of derived algebraic equations in terms of a weighting factor r∈(0,1. The best r is selected by matching the target with a minimal discrepancy. Numerical examples are examined to confirm that the new approach has high efficiency and accuracy with a fast speed of convergence. Even for multiple solutions, the present method is also effective to find them.

  4. A Two-Stage LGSM for Three-Point BVPs of Second-Order ODEs

    Liu Chein-Shan


    Full Text Available Abstract The study in this paper is a numerical integration of second-order three-point boundary value problems under two imposed nonlocal boundary conditions at , , and in a general setting, where . We construct a two-stage Lie-group shooting method for finding unknown initial conditions, which are obtained through an iterative solution of derived algebraic equations in terms of a weighting factor . The best is selected by matching the target with a minimal discrepancy. Numerical examples are examined to confirm that the new approach has high efficiency and accuracy with a fast speed of convergence. Even for multiple solutions, the present method is also effective to find them.

  5. Shaft Position Influence on Technical Characteristics of Universal Two-Stages Helical Speed Reducers

    Мilan Rackov


    Full Text Available Purchasers of speed reducers decide on buying those reducers, that can the most approximately satisfy their demands with much smaller costs. Amount of used material, ie. mass and dimensions of gear unit influences on gear units price. Mass and dimensions of gear unit, besides output torque, gear unit ratio and efficiency, are the most important parameters of technical characteristics of gear units and their quality. Centre distance and position of shafts have significant influence on output torque, gear unit ratio and mass of gear unit through overall dimension of gear unit housing. Thus these characteristics are dependent on each other. This paper deals with analyzing of centre distance and shaft position influence on output torque and ratio of universal two stages gear units.

  6. A Two-stage Tuning Method of Servo Parameters for Feed Drives in Machine Tools


    Based on the evaluation of dynamic performance for feed drives in machine tools, this paper presents a two-stage tuning method of servo parameters. In the first stage, the evaluation of dynamic performance, parameter tuning and optimization on a mechatronic integrated system simulation platform of feed drives are performed. As a result, a servo parameter combination is acquired. In the second stage, the servo parameter combination from the first stage is set and tuned further in a real machine tool whose dynamic performance is measured and evaluated using the cross grid encoder developed by Heidenhain GmbH. A case study shows that this method simplifies the test process effectively and results in a good dynamic performance in a real machine tool.

  7. Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Two-Stage-Bio-Contact Oxidation Process

    LI Xiang-dong; FENG Qi-yan; LIU Zhong-wei; XIAO Xin; LIN Guo-hua


    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and gas volume on efficiency of wastewater treatment are discussed based on a simulation experiment in which the domestic swage was treated by the two-stage-bio-contact oxidation process. The result shows that the average CODcr, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), and ammonia-nitrogen removal rate are 94.5 %, 93.2 %, 91.7 % and 46.9 %, respectively, under the conditions of a total air/water ratio of 5: 1 , an air/water ratio of 3:1 for oxidation tank 1 and 2:1for oxidation tank 2 and a hydraulic retention time of 1 h for each stage. This method is suitable for domestic sewage treatment of residential community and small towns as well.

  8. Alignment and characterization of the two-stage time delay compensating XUV monochromator

    Eckstein, Martin; Kubin, Markus; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg


    We present the design, implementation and alignment procedure for a two-stage time delay compensating monochromator. The setup spectrally filters the radiation of a high-order harmonic generation source providing wavelength-selected XUV pulses with a bandwidth of 300 to 600~meV in the photon energy range of 3 to 50~eV. XUV pulses as short as $12\\pm3$~fs are demonstrated. Transmission of the 400~nm (3.1~eV) light facilitates precise alignment of the monochromator. This alignment strategy together with the stable mechanical design of the motorized beamline components enables us to automatically scan the XUV photon energ in pump-probe experiments that require XUV beam pointing stability. The performance of the beamline is demonstrated by the generation of IR-assisted sidebands in XUV photoionization of argon atoms.

  9. Final two-stage MOAO on-sky demonstration with CANARY

    Gendron, E.; Morris, T.; Basden, A.; Vidal, F.; Atkinson, D.; Bitenc, U.; Buey, T.; Chemla, F.; Cohen, M.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N.; Feautrier, P.; Gach, J.-L.; Gratadour, D.; Henry, D.; Huet, J.-M.; Morel, C.; Morris, S.; Myers, R.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Reeves, A.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Stadler, E.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Younger, E.


    CANARY is an on-sky Laser Guide Star (LGS) tomographic AO demonstrator in operation at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma. From the early demonstration of open-loop tomography on a single deformable mirror using natural guide stars in 2010, CANARY has been progressively upgraded each year to reach its final goal in July 2015. It is now a two-stage system that mimics the future E-ELT: a GLAO-driven woofer based on 4 laser guide stars delivers a ground-layer compensated field to a figure sensor locked tweeter DM, that achieves the final on-axis tomographic compensation. We present the overall system, the control strategy and an overview of its on-sky performance.

  10. Performance of a highly loaded two stage axial-flow fan

    Ruggeri, R. S.; Benser, W. A.


    A two-stage axial-flow fan with a tip speed of 1450 ft/sec (442 m/sec) and an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 was designed, built, and tested. At design speed and pressure ratio, the measured flow matched the design value of 184.2 lbm/sec (83.55kg/sec). The adiabatic efficiency at the design operating point was 85.7 percent. The stall margin at design speed was 10 percent. A first-bending-mode flutter of the second-stage rotor blades was encountered near stall at speeds between 77 and 93 percent of design, and also at high pressure ratios at speeds above 105 percent of design. A 5 deg closed reset of the first-stage stator eliminated second-stage flutter for all but a narrow speed range near 90 percent of design.

  11. A Two-stage Kalman Filter for Sensorless Direct Torque Controlled PM Synchronous Motor Drive

    Boyu Yi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal two-stage extended Kalman filter (OTSEKF for closed-loop flux, torque, and speed estimation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVPWM operation of drive system. The novel observer is obtained by using the same transformation as in a linear Kalman observer, which is proposed by C.-S. Hsieh and F.-C. Chen in 1999. The OTSEKF is an effective implementation of the extended Kalman filter (EKF and provides a recursive optimum state estimation for PMSMs using terminal signals that may be polluted by noise. Compared to a conventional EKF, the OTSEKF reduces the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed OTSEKF observer for DTC of PMSMs.

  12. Synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anammox processes in two-stage ASBRs

    Duan, Y.; Li, W. R.; Zhao, Y.


    The “methanation + anaerobic ammonia oxidation autotrophic denitrification” method was adopted by using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) and realized a satisfactory synchronous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in wastewater after 75 days operation. 90% of COD was removed at a COD load of 1.2 kg/(m3•d) and 90% of TN was removed at a TN load of 0.14 kg/(m3•d). The anammox reaction ratio was estimated to be 1: 1.32: 0.26. The results showed that synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation processes in two-stage ASBRs was feasible.

  13. a Remote Liquid Target Loading System for a Two-Stage Gas Gun

    Gibson, L. L.; Bartram, B.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Sheffield, S. A.; Stahl, D. B.


    A Remote Liquid Loading System (RLLS) was designed and tested for the application of loading high-hazard liquid materials into instrumented target cells for gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. These high hazard liquids tend to react with confining materials in a short period of time, degrading target assemblies and potentially building up pressure through the evolution of gas in the reactions. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target immediately prior to gun firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of an RLLS built for the LANL two-stage gas gun. The system has been used successfully to interrogate the shock initiation behavior of ˜98 wt% percent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solutions, using embedded electromagnetic gauges for measurement of shock wave profiles in-situ.

  14. Two-Stage Surgery for a Large Cervical Dumbbell Tumour in Neurofibromatosis 1: A Case Report

    Mohd Ariff S


    Full Text Available Spinal neurofibromas occur sporadically and typically occur in association with neurofibromatosis 1. Patients afflicted with neurofibromatosis 1 usually present with involvement of several nerve roots. This report describes the case of a 14- year-old child with a large intraspinal, but extradural tumour with paraspinal extension, dumbbell neurofibroma of the cervical region extending from the C2 to C4 vertebrae. The lesions were readily detected by MR imaging and were successfully resected in a two-stage surgery. The time interval between the first and second surgery was one month. We provide a brief review of the literature regarding various surgical approaches, emphasising the utility of anterior and posterior approaches.

  15. Effekt of a two-stage nursing assesment and intervention - a randomized intervention study

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    to the geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, primary physician or arrangements with next-of-kin. Findings: Primary endpoints will be presented as unplanned readmission to ED; admission to nursing home; and death. Secondary endpoints will be presented as physical function; depressive symptoms......Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...... % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. The objective was to examine the effect of a two-stage nursing assessment and intervention to address the patients uncompensated problems given just after discharge from ED and one and six months after. Method: We conducted a prospective...

  16. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu


    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  17. Fast Image Segmentation Based on a Two-Stage Geometrical Active Contour

    肖昌炎; 张素; 陈亚珠


    A fast two-stage geometric active contour algorithm for image segmentation is developed. First, the Eikonal equation problem is quickly solved using an improved fast sweeping method, and a criterion of local minimum of area gradient (LMAG) is presented to extract the optimal arrival time. Then, the final time function is passed as an initial state to an area and length minimizing flow model, which adjusts the interface more accurately and prevents it from leaking. For object with complete and salient edge, using the first stage only is able to obtain an ideal result, and this results in a time complexity of O(M), where M is the number of points in each coordinate direction. Both stages are needed for convoluted shapes, but the computation cost can be drastically reduced. Efficiency of the algorithm is verified in segmentation experiments of real images with different feature.

  18. Parametric theoretical study of a two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination

    Kosmadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)


    The present work concerns the parametric study of an autonomous, two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination. The main goal of the current simulation is to estimate the efficiency, as well as to calculate the annual mechanical energy available for desalination in the considered cases, in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters on the performance of the system. The parametric study concerns the variation of different parameters, without changing actually the baseline case. The effect of the collectors' slope and the total number of evacuated tube collectors used, have been extensively examined. The total cost is also taken into consideration and is calculated for the different cases examined, along with the specific fresh water cost (EUR/m{sup 3}). (author)

  19. Removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil using a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic composting technique.

    Ponza, Supat; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Shrestha, Rajendra P; Jugsujinda, Aroon


    The effect of organic carbon addition on remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated clay soil was investigated using a two stage anaerobic-aerobic composting system. TCE removal rate and processes involved were determined. Uncontaminated clay soil was treated with composting materials (dried cow manure, rice husk and cane molasses) to represent carbon based treatments (5%, 10% and 20% OC). All treatments were spiked with TCE at 1,000 mg TCE/kg DW and incubated under anaerobic and mesophillic condition (35 degrees C) for 8 weeks followed by continuous aerobic condition for another 6 weeks. TCE dissipation, its metabolites and biogas composition were measured throughout the experimental period. Results show that TCE degradation depended upon the amount of organic carbon (OC) contained within the composting treatments/matrices. The highest TCE removal percentage (97%) and rate (75.06 micro Mole/kg DW/day) were obtained from a treatment of 10% OC composting matrices as compared to 87% and 27.75 micro Mole/kg DW/day for 20% OC, and 83% and 38.08 micro Mole/kg DW/day for soil control treatment. TCE removal rate was first order reaction kinetics. Highest degradation rate constant (k(1) = 0.035 day(- 1)) was also obtained from the 10% OC treatment, followed by 20% OC (k(1) = 0.026 day(- 1)) and 5% OC or soil control treatment (k(1) = 0.023 day(- 1)). The half-life was 20, 27 and 30 days, respectively. The overall results suggest that sequential two stages anaerobic-aerobic composting technique has potential for remediation of TCE in heavy texture soil, providing that easily biodegradable source of organic carbon is present.

  20. Two-Stage Surgical Treatment for Non-Union of a Shortened Osteoporotic Femur

    Galal Zaki Said


    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of non-union with severe shortening of the femur following diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis.Case Presentation: A boy, aged 16 years presented with a dangling and excessively short left lower limb. He was using an elbow crutch in his right hand to help him walk. He had a history of diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis at the age of 9. Examination revealed a freely mobile non-union of the left femur. The femur was the seat of an 18 cm shortening and a 4 cm defect at the non-union site; the knee joint was ankylosed in extension. The tibia and fibula were 10 cm short. Considering the extensive shortening in the femur and tibia in addition to osteoporosis, he was treated in two stages. In stage I, the femoral non-union was treated by open reduction, internal fixation and iliac bone grafting. The patient was then allowed to walk with full weight bearing in an extension brace for 7 months. In Stage II, equalization of leg length discrepancy (LLD was achieved by simultaneous distraction of the femur and tibia by unilateral frames. At the 6 month follow- up, he was fully weight bearing without any walking aid, with a heel lift to compensate the 1.5 cm shortening. Three years later he reported that he was satisfied with the result of treatment and was leading a normal life as a university student.Conclusions: Two-stage treatment succeeded to restore about 20 cm of the femoral shortening in a severely osteoporotic bone. It has also succeeded in reducing the treatment time of the external fixator.

  1. Design and Characterization of two stage High-Speed CMOS Operational Amplifier

    Rahul Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A method described in this paper is to design a Two Stage CMOS operational amplifier and analyze the effect of various aspect ratios on the characteristics of this Op-Amp, which operates at 1.8V power supply using tsmc 0.18μm CMOS technology. In this paper trade-off curves are computed between all characteristics such as Gain, PM, GBW, ICMRR, CMRR, Slew Rate etc. The OPAMP designed is a two-stage CMOS OPAMP. The OPAMP is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 14MHz and exhibits a gain of 59.98dB with a 61.235 phase margin. Design has been carried out in Mentor graphics tools. Simulation results are verified using Model Sim Eldo and Design Architect IC. The task of CMOS operational amplifiers (Op-Amps design optimization is investigated in this work. This Paper focused on the optimization of various aspect ratios, which gave the result of different parameter. When this task is analyzed as a search problem, it can be translated into a multi-objective optimization application in which various Op-Amps’ specifications have to be taken into account, i.e., Gain, GBW (gain-bandwidth product, phase margin and others. The results are compared with respect to standard characteristics of the op-amp with the help of graph and table. Simulation results agree with theoretical predictions. Simulations confirm that the settling time can be further improved by increasing the value of GBW, the settling time is achieved 19ns. It has been demonstrated that when W/L increases the parameters GBW increases and settling time reduces.

  2. Anti-kindling Induced by Two-Stage Coordinated Reset Stimulation with Weak Onset Intensity

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A.


    Abnormal neuronal synchrony plays an important role in a number of brain diseases. To specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization, Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation, a spatiotemporally patterned stimulation technique, was designed with computational means. In neuronal networks with spike timing–dependent plasticity CR stimulation causes a decrease of synaptic weights and finally anti-kindling, i.e., unlearning of abnormally strong synaptic connectivity and abnormal neuronal synchrony. Long-lasting desynchronizing aftereffects of CR stimulation have been verified in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In general, for different neuromodulation approaches, both invasive and non-invasive, it is desirable to enable effective stimulation at reduced stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects. For the first time, we here present a two-stage CR stimulation protocol, where two qualitatively different types of CR stimulation are delivered one after another, and the first stage comes at a particularly weak stimulation intensity. Numerical simulations show that a two-stage CR stimulation can induce the same degree of anti-kindling as a single-stage CR stimulation with intermediate stimulation intensity. This stimulation approach might be clinically beneficial in patients suffering from brain diseases characterized by abnormal neuronal synchrony where a first treatment stage should be performed at particularly weak stimulation intensities in order to avoid side effects. This might, e.g., be relevant in the context of acoustic CR stimulation in tinnitus patients with hyperacusis or in the case of electrical deep brain CR stimulation with sub-optimally positioned leads or side effects caused by stimulation of the target itself. We discuss how to apply our method in first in man and proof of concept studies. PMID:27242500

  3. Mineral chemistry of the Tissint meteorite: Indications of two-stage crystallization in a closed system

    Liu, Yang; Baziotis, Ioannis P.; Asimow, Paul D.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.


    The Tissint meteorite is a geochemically depleted, olivine-phyric shergottite. Olivine megacrysts contain 300-600 μm cores with uniform Mg# ( 80 ± 1) followed by concentric zones of Fe-enrichment toward the rims. We applied a number of tests to distinguish the relationship of these megacrysts to the host rock. Major and trace element compositions of the Mg-rich core in olivine are in equilibrium with the bulk rock, within uncertainty, and rare earth element abundances of melt inclusions in Mg-rich olivines reported in the literature are similar to those of the bulk rock. Moreover, the P Kα intensity maps of two large olivine grains show no resorption between the uniform core and the rim. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest the olivine megacrysts are phenocrysts. Among depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Tissint is the first one that acts mostly as a closed system with olivine megacrysts being the phenocrysts. The texture and mineral chemistry of Tissint indicate a crystallization sequence of: olivine (Mg# 80 ± 1) → olivine (Mg# 76) + chromite → olivine (Mg# 74) + Ti-chromite → olivine (Mg# 74-63) + pyroxene (Mg# 76-65) + Cr-ulvöspinel → olivine (Mg# 63-35) + pyroxene (Mg# 65-60) + plagioclase, followed by late-stage ilmenite and phosphate. The crystallization of the Tissint meteorite likely occurred in two stages: uniform olivine cores likely crystallized under equilibrium conditions; and a fractional crystallization sequence that formed the rest of the rock. The two-stage crystallization without crystal settling is simulated using MELTS and the Tissint bulk composition, and can broadly reproduce the crystallization sequence and mineral chemistry measured in the Tissint samples. The transition between equilibrium and fractional crystallization is associated with a dramatic increase in cooling rate and might have been driven by an acceleration in the ascent rate or by encounter with a steep thermal gradient in the Martian crust.

  4. Focused ultrasound simultaneous irradiation/MRI imaging, and two-stage general kinetic model.

    Sheng-Yao Huang

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated how to use focused ultrasound (FUS to temporarily disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to facilitate the delivery of medication into lesion sites in the brain. In this study, through the setup of a real-time system, FUS irradiation and injections of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA and Gadodiamide (Gd, an MRI contrast agent can be conducted simultaneously during MRI scanning. By using this real-time system, we were able to investigate in detail how the general kinetic model (GKM is used to estimate Gd penetration in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain resulting from UCA concentration changes after single FUS irradiation. Two-stage GKM was proposed to estimate the Gd penetration in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain under experimental conditions with repeated FUS irradiation combined with different UCA concentrations. The results showed that the focal increase in the transfer rate constant of Ktrans caused by BBB disruption was dependent on the doses of UCA. Moreover, the amount of in vivo penetration of Evans blue in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain under various FUS irradiation experimental conditions was assessed to show the positive correlation with the transfer rate constants. Compared to the GKM method, the Two-stage GKM is more suitable for estimating the transfer rate constants of the brain treated with repeated FUS irradiations. This study demonstrated that the entire process of BBB disrupted by FUS could be quantitatively monitored by real-time dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI.

  5. Condition monitoring of distributed systems using two-stage Bayesian inference data fusion

    Jaramillo, Víctor H.; Ottewill, James R.; Dudek, Rafał; Lepiarczyk, Dariusz; Pawlik, Paweł


    In industrial practice, condition monitoring is typically applied to critical machinery. A particular piece of machinery may have its own condition monitoring system that allows the health condition of said piece of equipment to be assessed independently of any connected assets. However, industrial machines are typically complex sets of components that continuously interact with one another. In some cases, dynamics resulting from the inception and development of a fault can propagate between individual components. For example, a fault in one component may lead to an increased vibration level in both the faulty component, as well as in connected healthy components. In such cases, a condition monitoring system focusing on a specific element in a connected set of components may either incorrectly indicate a fault, or conversely, a fault might be missed or masked due to the interaction of a piece of equipment with neighboring machines. In such cases, a more holistic condition monitoring approach that can not only account for such interactions, but utilize them to provide a more complete and definitive diagnostic picture of the health of the machinery is highly desirable. In this paper, a Two-Stage Bayesian Inference approach allowing data from separate condition monitoring systems to be combined is presented. Data from distributed condition monitoring systems are combined in two stages, the first data fusion occurring at a local, or component, level, and the second fusion combining data at a global level. Data obtained from an experimental rig consisting of an electric motor, two gearboxes, and a load, operating under a range of different fault conditions is used to illustrate the efficacy of the method at pinpointing the root cause of a problem. The obtained results suggest that the approach is adept at refining the diagnostic information obtained from each of the different machine components monitored, therefore improving the reliability of the health assessment of

  6. Novel two-stage piezoelectric-based ocean wave energy harvesters for moored or unmoored buoys

    Murray, R.; Rastegar, J.


    Harvesting mechanical energy from ocean wave oscillations for conversion to electrical energy has long been pursued as an alternative or self-contained power source. The attraction to harvesting energy from ocean waves stems from the sheer power of the wave motion, which can easily exceed 50 kW per meter of wave front. The principal barrier to harvesting this power is the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally vary from 0.1Hz to 0.5Hz. In this paper the application of a novel class of two-stage electrical energy generators to buoyant structures is presented. The generators use the buoy's interaction with the ocean waves as a low-speed input to a primary system, which, in turn, successively excites an array of vibratory elements (secondary system) into resonance - like a musician strumming a guitar. The key advantage of the present system is that by having two decoupled systems, the low frequency and highly varying buoy motion is converted into constant and much higher frequency mechanical vibrations. Electrical energy may then be harvested from the vibrating elements of the secondary system with high efficiency using piezoelectric elements. The operating principles of the novel two-stage technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy between the two systems. Also, prototypical design examples are offered, as well as an in-depth computer simulation of a prototypical heaving-based wave energy harvester which generates electrical energy from the up-and-down motion of a buoy riding on the ocean's surface.

  7. Anti-kindling induced by two-stage coordinated reset stimulation with weak onset intensity

    Magteld eZeitler


    Full Text Available Abnormal neuronal synchrony plays an important role in a number of brain diseases. To specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization, Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation, a spatiotemporally patterned stimulation technique, was designed with computational means. In neuronal networks with spike timing–dependent plasticity CR stimulation causes a decrease of synaptic weights and finally anti-kindling, i.e. unlearning of abnormally strong synaptic connectivity and abnormal neuronal synchrony. Long-lasting desynchronizing aftereffects of CR stimulation have been verified in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In general, for different neuromodulation approaches, both invasive and non-invasive, it is desirable to enable effective stimulation at reduced stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects. For the first time, we here present a two-stage CR stimulation protocol, where two qualitatively different types of CR stimulation are delivered one after another, and the first stage comes at a particularly weak stimulation intensity. Numerical simulations show that a two-stage CR stimulation can induce the same degree of anti-kindling as a single-stage CR stimulation with intermediate stimulation intensity. This stimulation approach might be clinically beneficial in patients suffering from brain diseases characterized by abnormal neuronal synchrony where a first treatment stage should be performed at particularly weak stimulation intensities in order to avoid side effects. This might, e.g., be relevant in the context of acoustic CR stimulation in tinnitus patients with hyperacusis or in the case of electrical deep brain CR stimulation with sub-optimally positioned leads or side effects caused by stimulation of the target itself. We discuss how to apply our method in first in man and proof of concept studies.

  8. Two-Stage Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Implant for Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: Getting the Size Right

    Jiajun Feng


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy is to craft a natural-looking breast with symmetry. The latissimus dorsi (LD flap with implant is an established technique for this purpose. However, it is challenging to obtain adequate volume and satisfactory aesthetic results using a one-stage operation when considering factors such as muscle atrophy, wound dehiscence and excessive scarring. The two-stage reconstruction addresses these difficulties by using a tissue expander to gradually enlarge the skin pocket which eventually holds an appropriately sized implant.MethodsWe analyzed nine patients who underwent unilateral two-stage LD reconstruction. In the first stage, an expander was placed along with the LD flap to reconstruct the mastectomy defect, followed by gradual tissue expansion to achieve overexpansion of the skin pocket. The final implant volume was determined by measuring the residual expander volume after aspirating the excess saline. Finally, the expander was replaced with the chosen implant.ResultsThe average volume of tissue expansion was 460 mL. The resultant expansion allowed an implant ranging in volume from 255 to 420 mL to be placed alongside the LD muscle. Seven patients scored less than six on the relative breast retraction assessment formula for breast symmetry, indicating excellent breast symmetry. The remaining two patients scored between six and eight, indicating good symmetry.ConclusionsThis approach allows the size of the eventual implant to be estimated after the skin pocket has healed completely and the LD muscle has undergone natural atrophy. Optimal reconstruction results were achieved using this approach.

  9. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.


    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  10. Core science: Stratified by a sunken impactor

    Nakajima, Miki


    There is potential evidence for a stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, but its origin is not well understood. Laboratory experiments suggest that the stratified layer could be a sunken remnant of the giant impact that formed the Moon.

  11. A Fixpoint Semantics for Stratified Databases



    Przmusinski extended the notion of stratified logic programs,developed by Apt,Blair and Walker,and by van Gelder,to stratified databases that allow both negative premises and disjunctive consequents.However,he did not provide a fixpoint theory for such class of databases.On the other hand,although a fixpoint semantics has been developed by Minker and Rajasekar for non-Horn logic programs,it is tantamount to traditional minimal model semantics which is not sufficient to capture the intended meaning of negation in the premises of clauses in stratified databases.In this paper,a fixpoint approach to stratified databases is developed,which corresponds with the perfect model semantics.Moreover,algorithms are proposed for computing the set of perfect models of a stratified database.


    Xhelil Koleci; Coryn, Chris L.S.; Kristin A. Hobson; Rruzhdi Keci


    The objective of sampling is to estimate population parameters, such as incidence or prevalence, from information contained in a sample. In this paper, the authors describe sources of error in sampling; basic probability sampling designs, including simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, and cluster sampling; estimating a population size if unknown; and factors influencing sample size determination for epidemiological studies in veterinary medicine.

  13. Sampling strategies for estimating forest cover from remote sensing-based two-stage inventories

    Piermaria; Corona; Lorenzo; Fattorini; Maria; Chiara; Pagliarella


    Background: Remote sensing-based inventories are essential in estimating forest cover in tropical and subtropical countries, where ground inventories cannot be performed periodically at a large scale owing to high costs and forest inaccessibility(e.g. REDD projects) and are mandatory for constructing historical records that can be used as forest cover baselines. Given the conditions of such inventories, the survey area is partitioned into a grid of imagery segments of pre-fixed size where the proportion of forest cover can be measured within segments using a combination of unsupervised(automated or semi-automated) classification of satellite imagery and manual(i.e. visual on-screen)enhancements. Because visual on-screen operations are time expensive procedures, manual classification can be performed only for a sample of imagery segments selected at a first stage, while forest cover within each selected segment is estimated at a second stage from a sample of pixels selected within the segment. Because forest cover data arising from unsupervised satellite imagery classification may be freely available(e.g. Landsat imagery)over the entire survey area(wall-to-wall data) and are likely to be good proxies of manually classified cover data(sample data), they can be adopted as suitable auxiliary information.Methods: The question is how to choose the sample areas where manual classification is carried out. We have investigated the efficiency of one-per-stratum stratified sampling for selecting segments and pixels, where to carry out manual classification and to determine the efficiency of the difference estimator for exploiting auxiliary information at the estimation level. The performance of this strategy is compared with simple random sampling without replacement.Results: Our results were obtained theoretically from three artificial populations constructed from the Landsat classification(forest/non forest) available at pixel level for a study area located in central Italy

  14. A two-stage cognitive theory of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Highlighting the role of lowered decision thresholds.

    Moritz, Steffen; Pfuhl, Gerit; Lüdtke, Thies; Menon, Mahesh; Balzan, Ryan P; Andreou, Christina


    We outline a two-stage heuristic account for the pathogenesis of the positive symptoms of psychosis. A narrative review on the empirical evidence of the liberal acceptance (LA) account of positive symptoms is presented. At the heart of our theory is the idea that psychosis is characterized by a lowered decision threshold, which results in the premature acceptance of hypotheses that a nonpsychotic individual would reject. Once the hypothesis is judged as valid, counterevidence is not sought anymore due to a bias against disconfirmatory evidence as well as confirmation biases, consolidating the false hypothesis. As a result of LA, confidence in errors is enhanced relative to controls. Subjective probabilities are initially low for hypotheses in individuals with delusions, and delusional ideas at stage 1 (belief formation) are often fragile. In the course of the second stage (belief maintenance), fleeting delusional ideas evolve into fixed false beliefs, particularly if the delusional idea is congruent with the emotional state and provides "meaning". LA may also contribute to hallucinations through a misattribution of (partially) normal sensory phenomena. Interventions such as metacognitive training that aim to "plant the seeds of doubt" decrease positive symptoms by encouraging individuals to seek more information and to attenuate confidence. The effect of antipsychotic medication is explained by its doubt-inducing properties. The model needs to be confirmed by longitudinal designs that allow an examination of causal relationships. Evidence is currently weak for hallucinations. The theory may account for positive symptoms in a subgroup of patients. Future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental and numerical studies on two-stage combustion of biomass

    Houshfar, Eshan


    In this thesis, two-stage combustion of biomass was experimentally/numerically investigated in a multifuel reactor. The following emissions issues have been the main focus of the work: 1- NOx and N2O 2- Unburnt species (CO and CxHy) 3- Corrosion related emissions.The study had a focus on two-stage combustion in order to reduce pollutant emissions (primarily NOx emissions). It is well known that pollutant emissions are very dependent on the process conditions such as temperature, reactant concentrations and residence times. On the other hand, emissions are also dependent on the fuel properties (moisture content, volatiles, alkali content, etc.). A detailed study of the important parameters with suitable biomass fuels in order to optimize the various process conditions was performed. Different experimental studies were carried out on biomass fuels in order to study the effect of fuel properties and combustion parameters on pollutant emissions. Process conditions typical for biomass combustion processes were studied. Advanced experimental equipment was used in these studies. The experiments showed the effects of staged air combustion, compared to non-staged combustion, on the emission levels clearly. A NOx reduction of up to 85% was reached with staged air combustion using demolition wood as fuel. An optimum primary excess air ratio of 0.8-0.95 was found as a minimizing parameter for the NOx emissions for staged air combustion. Air staging had, however, a negative effect on N2O emissions. Even though the trends showed a very small reduction in the NOx level as temperature increased for non-staged combustion, the effect of temperature was not significant for NOx and CxHy, neither in staged air combustion or non-staged combustion, while it had a great influence on the N2O and CO emissions, with decreasing levels with increasing temperature. Furthermore, flue gas recirculation (FGR) was used in combination with staged combustion to obtain an enhanced NOx reduction. The

  16. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi


    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single......-stage methanogenic process (HRT 15d) under organic loading rate (OLR) 3gVS/(Ld). The two-stage process was still stable when the OLR was increased to 4.5gVS/(Ld), while the single-stage process failed. The study further revealed that by changing the HRThydrogen:HRTmethane ratio of the two-stage process from 3...

  17. Differentiating the persistency and permanency of some two stages DNA splicing language via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach

    Mudaber, M. H.; Yusof, Y.; Mohamad, M. S.


    Predicting the existence of restriction enzymes sequences on the recombinant DNA fragments, after accomplishing the manipulating reaction, via mathematical approach is considered as a convenient way in terms of DNA recombination. In terms of mathematics, for this characteristic of the recombinant DNA strands, which involve the recognition sites of restriction enzymes, is called persistent and permanent. Normally differentiating the persistency and permanency of two stages recombinant DNA strands using wet-lab experiment is expensive and time-consuming due to running the experiment at two stages as well as adding more restriction enzymes on the reaction. Therefore, in this research, by using Yusof-Goode (Y-G) model the difference between persistent and permanent splicing language of some two stages is investigated. Two theorems were provided, which show the persistency and non-permanency of two stages DNA splicing language.

  18. A two-stage logistic regression-ANN model for the prediction of distress banks: Evidence from 11 emerging countries

    Shu Ling Lin


      This paper proposes a new approach of two-stage hybrid model of logistic regression-ANN for the construction of a financial distress warning system for banking industry in emerging market during 1998-2006...

  19. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources


    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  20. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    Lalaurette, Elodie


    A two-stage dark-fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials into hydrogen gas at high yields and rates. Fermentation using Clostridium thermocellum produced 1.67 mol H2/mol-glucose at a rate of 0.25 L H2/L-d with a corn stover lignocellulose feed, and 1.64 mol H2/mol-glucose and 1.65 L H2/L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 ± 290 mL H2/g-COD was produced from a synthetic effluent with a wastewater inoculum (fermentation effluent inoculum; FEI) by electrohydrogensis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yields were increased to 980 ± 110 mL H2/g-COD with the synthetic effluent by combining in the inoculum samples from multiple microbial fuel cells (MFCs) each pre-acclimated to a single substrate (single substrate inocula; SSI). Hydrogen yields and production rates with SSI and the actual fermentation effluents were 980 ± 110 mL/g-COD and 1.11 ± 0.13 L/L-d (synthetic); 900 ± 140 mL/g-COD and 0.96 ± 0.16 L/L-d (cellobiose); and 750 ± 180 mL/g-COD and 1.00 ± 0.19 L/L-d (lignocellulose). A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.11 ± 0.13 L H2/L reactor/d was produced with synthetic effluent. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC using SSI were 270 ± 20% for the synthetic effluent, 230 ± 50% for lignocellulose effluent and 220 ± 30% for the cellobiose effluent. COD removals were ∼90% for the synthetic effluents, and 70-85% based on VFA removal (65% COD removal) with the cellobiose and lignocellulose effluent. The overall hydrogen yield was 9.95 mol-H2/mol-glucose for the cellobiose. These results show that pre-acclimation of MFCs to single substrates improves performance with a complex mixture of substrates, and that high hydrogen yields and gas production rates can be achieved using a two-stage fermentation and MEC


    Wang, Lei; Pedersen, Peder; Agu, Emmanuel; Strong, Diane; Tulu, Bengisu


    It is standard practice for clinicians and nurses to primarily assess patients' wounds via visual examination. This subjective method can be inaccurate in wound assessment and also represents a significant clinical workload. Hence, computer-based systems, especially implemented on mobile devices, can provide automatic, quantitative wound assessment and can thus be valuable for accurately monitoring wound healing status. Out of all wound assessment parameters, the measurement of the wound area is the most suitable for automated analysis. Most of the current wound boundary determination methods only process the image of the wound area along with a small amount of surrounding healthy skin. In this paper, we present a novel approach that uses Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the wound boundary on a foot ulcer image captured with an image capture box, which provides controlled lighting, angle and range conditions. The Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) method is applied for effective super-pixel segmentation. A cascaded two-stage classifier is trained as follows: in the first stage a set of k binary SVM classifiers are trained and applied to different subsets of the entire training images dataset, and a set of incorrectly classified instances are collected. In the second stage, another binary SVM classifier is trained on the incorrectly classified set. We extracted various color and texture descriptors from super-pixels that are used as input for each stage in the classifier training. Specifically, we apply the color and Bag-of-Word (BoW) representation of local Dense SIFT features (DSIFT) as the descriptor for ruling out irrelevant regions (first stage), and apply color and wavelet based features as descriptors for distinguishing healthy tissue from wound regions (second stage). Finally, the detected wound boundary is refined by applying a Conditional Random Field (CRF) image processing technique. We have implemented the wound classification on a Nexus

  2. A farm-scale pilot plant for biohydrogen and biomethane production by two-stage fermentation

    R. Oberti


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered one of the possible main energy carriers for the future, thanks to its unique environmental properties. Indeed, its energy content (120 MJ/kg can be exploited virtually without emitting any exhaust in the atmosphere except for water. Renewable production of hydrogen can be obtained through common biological processes on which relies anaerobic digestion, a well-established technology in use at farm-scale for treating different biomass and residues. Despite two-stage hydrogen and methane producing fermentation is a simple variant of the traditional anaerobic digestion, it is a relatively new approach mainly studied at laboratory scale. It is based on biomass fermentation in two separate, seuqential stages, each maintaining conditions optimized to promote specific bacterial consortia: in the first acidophilic reactorhydrogen is produced production, while volatile fatty acids-rich effluent is sent to the second reactor where traditional methane rich biogas production is accomplished. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed, manufactured and installed at the experimental farm of the University of Milano and operated using a biomass mixture of livestock effluents mixed with sugar/starch-rich residues (rotten fruits and potatoes and expired fruit juices, afeedstock mixture based on waste biomasses directly available in the rural area where plant is installed. The hydrogenic and the methanogenic reactors, both CSTR type, had a total volume of 0.7m3 and 3.8 m3 respectively, and were operated in thermophilic conditions (55 2 °C without any external pH control, and were fully automated. After a brief description of the requirements of the system, this contribution gives a detailed description of its components and of engineering solutions to the problems encountered during the plant realization and start-up. The paper also discusses the results obtained in a first experimental run which lead to production in the range of previous

  3. Removal of cesium from simulated liquid waste with countercurrent two-stage adsorption followed by microfiltration

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Guang-Hui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Gu, Ping, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption isotherm of cesium by copper ferrocyanide followed a Freundlich model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decontamination factor of cesium was higher in lab-scale test than that in jar test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A countercurrent two-stage adsorption-microfiltration process was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium concentration in the effluent could be calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a new cesium removal process with a higher decontamination factor. - Abstract: Copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) was used as an adsorbent to remove cesium. Jar test results showed that the adsorption capacity of CuFC was better than that of potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate. Lab-scale tests were performed by an adsorption-microfiltration process, and the mean decontamination factor (DF) was 463 when the initial cesium concentration was 101.3 {mu}g/L, the dosage of CuFC was 40 mg/L and the adsorption time was 20 min. The cesium concentration in the effluent continuously decreased with the operation time, which indicated that the used adsorbent retained its adsorption capacity. To use this capacity, experiments on a countercurrent two-stage adsorption (CTA)-microfiltration (MF) process were carried out with CuFC adsorption combined with membrane separation. A calculation method for determining the cesium concentration in the effluent was given, and batch tests in a pressure cup were performed to verify the calculated method. The results showed that the experimental values fitted well with the calculated values in the CTA-MF process. The mean DF was 1123 when the dilution factor was 0.4, the initial cesium concentration was 98.75 {mu}g/L and the dosage of CuFC and adsorption time were the same as those used in the lab-scale test. The DF obtained by CTA-MF process was more than three times higher than the single-stage adsorption in the jar test.

  4. Two-stage induced differentiation of OCT4+/Nanog+ stem-like cells in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Li, Rong; Huang, Jinsu; Ma, Meili; Lou, Yuqing; Zhang, Yanwei; Wu, Lixia; Chang, David W; Zhao, Picheng; Dong, Qianggang; Wu, Xifeng; Han, Baohui


    Stem-like cells in solid tumors are purported to contribute to cancer development and poor treatment outcome. The abilities to self-renew, differentiate, and resist anticancer therapies are hallmarks of these rare cells, and steering them into lineage commitment may be one strategy to curb cancer development or progression. Vitamin D is a prohormone that can alter cell growth and differentiation and may induce the differentiation cancer stem-like cells. In this study, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4)-positive/Nanog homeobox (Nanog)- positive lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSCs) were enriched from spheroid cultured SPC-A1 cells and differentiated by a two-stage induction (TSI) method, which involved knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) expression (first stage) followed by sequential induction with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3, VD3) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment (second stage). The results showed the HIF1α-knockdowned cells displayed diminished cell invasion and clonogenic activities. Moreover, the TSI cells highly expressed tumor suppressor protein p63 (P63) and forkhead box J1 (FOXJ1) and lost stem cell characteristics, including absent expression of OCT4 and Nanog. These cells regained sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro while losing tumorigenic capacity and decreased tumor cell proliferation in vivo. Our results suggest that induced transdifferentiation of LACSCs by vitamin D and SAHA may become novel therapeutic avenue to alter tumor cell phenotypes and improve patient outcome.The development and progression of lung cancer may involve rare population of stem-like cells that have the ability to grow, differentiate, and resist drug treatment. However, current therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on tumor characteristics and neglected the potential source of cells that may contribute to poor clinical outcome. We generated lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells from spheroid culture and

  5. First Law Analysis of a Two-stage Ejector-vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle working with R404A

    Feiza Memet; Daniela-Elena Mitu


    The traditional two-stage vapor compression refrigeration cycle might be replaced by a two-stage ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle if it is aimed the decrease of irreversibility during expansion. In this respect, the expansion valve is changed with an ejector. The performance improvement is searched in the case of choosing R404A as a refrigerant. Using the ejector as an expansion device ensures a higher value for COP compared to the traditional case. On the basis...

  6. Considerations Regarding Age at Surgery and Fistula Incidence Using One- and Two-stage Closure for Cleft Palate

    Simona Stoicescu; Dm Enescu


    Introduction: Although cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the most common congenital malformations, occurring in 1 in 700 live births, there is still no generally accepted treatment protocol. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for cleft palate repair; these techniques can be divided into one-stage (one operation) cleft palate repair and two-stage cleft palate closure. The aim of this study is to present our cleft palate team experience in using the two-stage cleft palate closu...

  7. Reducing the risk of foaming and decreasing viscosity by two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    Stoyanova, Elitza; Forsthuber, Boris; Pohn, Stefan; Schwarz, Christian; Fuchs, Werner; Bochmann, Günther


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugar beet pressed pulp (SBPP) is a promising treatment concept. It produces biogas as a renewable energy source making sugar production more energy efficient and it turns SBPP from a residue into a valuable resource. In this study one- and two-stage mono fermentation at mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor were compared. Also the optimal incubation temperature for the pre-acidification stage was studied. The fastest pre-acidification, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, occurred at a temperature of 55 °C. In the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage system stable fermentation at loading rate of 7 kg VS/m³ d was demonstrated. No artificial pH adjustment was necessary to maintain optimum levels in both the pre-acidification and the methanogenic reactor. The total HRT of the two-stage AD was 36 days which is considerably lower compared to the one-stage AD (50 days). The frequently observed problem of foaming at high loading rates was less severe in the two-stage reactor. Moreover the viscosity of digestate in the methanogenic stage of the two-stage fermentation was in average tenfold lower than in the one-stage fermentation. This decreases the energy input for the reactor stirring about 80 %. The observed advantages make the two-stage process economically attractive, despite higher investments for a two reactor system.

  8. Two stage enucleation and deflation of a large unicystic ameloblastoma with mural invasion in mandible.

    Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Ando, Tomohiro; Akizuki, Tanetaka


    A treatment for strategy of unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) should be decided by its pathology type including luminal or mural type. Luminal type of UA can be treated only by enucleation alone, but UA with mural invasion should be treated aggressively like conventional ameloblastomas. However, it is difficult to diagnose the subtype of UA by an initial biopsy. There is a possibility that the lesion is an ordinary cyst or keratocystic odontogenic tumor, leading to a possible overtreatment. Therefore, this study performed the enucleation of the cyst wall and deflation at first, and the pathological finding confirmed mural invasion into the cystic wall, leading to the second surgery. The second surgery enucleated scar tissue, bone curettage, and deflation, and was able to contribute to the reduction of the recurrence rate by removing tumor nest in scar tissue or new bone, enhancing new bone formation, and shrinking the mandibular expanding by fenestration. In this study, a large UA with mural invasion including condyle was treated by "two-stage enucleation and deflation" in a 20-year-old patient.

  9. Contextual Classification of Point Clouds Using a Two-Stage Crf

    Niemeyer, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.


    In this investigation, we address the task of airborne LiDAR point cloud labelling for urban areas by presenting a contextual classification methodology based on a Conditional Random Field (CRF). A two-stage CRF is set up: in a first step, a point-based CRF is applied. The resulting labellings are then used to generate a segmentation of the classified points using a Conditional Euclidean Clustering algorithm. This algorithm combines neighbouring points with the same object label into one segment. The second step comprises the classification of these segments, again with a CRF. As the number of the segments is much smaller than the number of points, it is computationally feasible to integrate long range interactions into this framework. Additionally, two different types of interactions are introduced: one for the local neighbourhood and another one operating on a coarser scale. This paper presents the entire processing chain. We show preliminary results achieved using the Vaihingen LiDAR dataset from the ISPRS Benchmark on Urban Classification and 3D Reconstruction, which consists of three test areas characterised by different and challenging conditions. The utilised classification features are described, and the advantages and remaining problems of our approach are discussed. We also compare our results to those generated by a point-based classification and show that a slight improvement is obtained with this first implementation.

  10. CO removal by two-stage methanation for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Zhiyuan Li; Wanliang Mi; Juan Gong; Zhenlong Lu; Lihao Xu; Qingquan Su


    In order to remove CO to achieve lower CO content of below 10 ppm in the CO removal step of reformer for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) co-generation systems, CO preferential methanation under various conditions were studied in this paper. Results showed that, with a single kind of catalyst, it was difficult to reach both CO removal depth and CO2 conversion ratio of below 5%. Thus, a two-stage methanation process applying two kinds of catalysts is proposed in this study, that is, one kind of catalyst with relatively low activity and high selectivity for the first stage at higher temperature, and another kind of catalyst with relatively high activity and high selectivity for the second stage at lower temperature. Experimental results showed that at the first stage CO content was decreased from 1% to below 0.1% at 250-300 ℃, and at the second stage to below 10 ppm at 150-185 ℃. CO2 conversion was kept less than 5%. At the same time, influence of inlet CO content and GHSV on CO removal depth was also discussed in this paper.




    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power, high slew rate, high gain, ultra wide band two stage CMOS cascode operational amplifier for radio frequency application. Current mirror based cascoding technique and pole zero cancelation technique is used to ameliorate the gain and enhance the unity gain bandwidth respectively, which is the novelty of the circuit. In cascading technique a common source transistor drive a common gate transistor. The cascoding is used to enhance the output resistance and hence improve the overall gain of the operational amplifier with less complexity and less power dissipation. To bias the common gate transistor, a current mirror is used in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated using Cadence analog and digital system design tools of 45 nanometer CMOS technology. The simulated results of the circuit show DC gain of 63.62 dB, unity gain bandwidth of 2.70 GHz, slew rate of 1816 V/µs, phase margin of 59.53º, power supply of the proposed operational amplifier is 1.4 V (rail-to-rail ±700 mV, and power consumption is 0.71 mW. This circuit specification has encountered the requirements of radio frequency application.

  12. Two-Stage Chaos Optimization Search Application in Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV Array

    Lihua Wang


    Full Text Available In order to deliver the maximum available power to the load under the condition of varying solar irradiation and environment temperature, maximum power point tracking (MPPT technologies have been used widely in PV systems. Among all the MPPT schemes, the chaos method is one of the hot topics in recent years. In this paper, a novel two-stage chaos optimization method is presented which can make search faster and more effective. In the process of proposed chaos search, the improved logistic mapping with the better ergodic is used as the first carrier process. After finding the current optimal solution in a certain guarantee, the power function carrier as the secondary carrier process is used to reduce the search space of optimized variables and eventually find the maximum power point. Comparing with the traditional chaos search method, the proposed method can track the change quickly and accurately and also has better optimization results. The proposed method provides a new efficient way to track the maximum power point of PV array.

  13. Modified landfill gas generation rate model of first-order kinetics and two-stage reaction

    Jiajun CHEN; Hao WANG; Na ZHANG


    This investigation was carried out to establish a new domestic landfill gas (LFG) generation rate model that takes into account the impact ofleachate recirculation. The first-order kinetics and two-stage reaction (FKTSR) model of the LFG generation rate includes mechanisms of the nutrient balance for biochemical reaction in two main stages. In this study, the FKTSR model was modified by the introduction of the outflow function and the organic acid conversion coefficient in order to represent the in-situ condition of nutrient loss through leachate. Laboratory experiments were carried out to simulate the impact of leachate recirculation and verify the modified FKTSR model. The model calibration was then calculated by using the experimental data. The results suggested that the new model was in line with the experimental data. The main parameters of the modified FKTSR model, including the LFG production potential (L0), the reaction rate constant in the first stage (K1), and the reaction rate constant in the second stage (K2) of 64.746 L, 0.202 d-1, and 0.338 d-1,respectively, were comparable to the old ones of 42.069 L,0.231 d-1, and 0.231 d-1. The new model is better able to explain the mechanisms involved in LFG generation.

  14. Hypervelocity projectile acceleration with a railgun using a two-stage gas gun injector

    Hawke, R. S.


    Unique potential applications of electromagnetic railguns [R.S. Hawke, IEEE Trans. Nucl. NS-28 (2) (1981) 1542] have motivated a decade of continuous development throughout the world. This effort has led to routine acceleration of projectiles of from 1 g to about 1 kg, to velocities of nearly 4 km/s. Attempts to reach higher velocities have met with problems in the 6- to 8-km/s range [J.V. Parker, Proc. 4th Symp. on Electromagnetic Launch Tech., Austin, TX, 1988, to be published in IEEE Trans. Mag.]. The principal problem is "restrike", which causes shunting of the propulsive plasma armature by the formation of a second plasma short circuit in the breech region of the railgun. One means of impeding restrike is the use of a two-stage light-gas gun (2SLGG) as a projectile injector. A joint development project was initiated in early 1986 between the Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque (SNLA) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The project is based on the use of a 2SLGG to inject projectiles at about 7 km/s. The injection gas is hydrogen, which serves to inhibit formation of the secondary arc and to minimize barrel ablation and armature contamination. Results and status of this work are discussed.

  15. Two-stage light-gas magnetoplasma accelerator for hypervelocity impact simulation

    Khramtsov, P. P.; Vasetskij, V. A.; Makhnach, A. I.; Grishenko, V. M.; Chernik, M. Yu; Shikh, I. A.; Doroshko, M. V.


    The development of macroparticles acceleration methods for high-speed impact simulation in a laboratory is an actual problem due to increasing of space flights duration and necessity of providing adequate spacecraft protection against micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. This paper presents results of experimental study of a two-stage light- gas magnetoplasma launcher for acceleration of a macroparticle, in which a coaxial plasma accelerator creates a shock wave in a high-pressure channel filled with light gas. Graphite and steel spheres with diameter of 2.5-4 mm were used as a projectile and were accelerated to the speed of 0.8-4.8 km/s. A launching of particle occurred in vacuum. For projectile velocity control the speed measuring method was developed. The error of this metod does not exceed 5%. The process of projectile flight from the barrel and the process of a particle collision with a target were registered by use of high-speed camera. The results of projectile collision with elements of meteoroid shielding are presented. In order to increase the projectile velocity, the high-pressure channel should be filled with hydrogen. However, we used helium in our experiments for safety reasons. Therefore, we can expect that the range of mass and velocity of the accelerated particles can be extended by use of hydrogen as an accelerating gas.

  16. Biological sulfate removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a two-stage UASB reactor

    Jin Li; Jun Wang; Zhaokun Luan; Zhongguang Ji; Lian Yu


    A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to remove sulfate from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater.Mesophilic operation (35±0.5℃) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 hr.Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L.The results indicated that sulfate removal was enhanced with increasing the ratio of COD/SO42-.At low COD/SO42-,the growth of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was carbon-limited.The optimal sulfate removal efficiencies were 75% when the HRT was no less than 38 hr.Sulfidogenesis mainly happened in the sulfate-reducing stage,while methanogenesis in the methane-producing stage.Microbes in sulfate-reducing stage performed granulation better than that in methaneproducing stage.Higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in sulfate-reducing stage helped to adhere and connect the flocculent sludge particles together.SRB accounted for about 31% both in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage at COD/SO42- ratio of 0.5,while it dropped dramatically from 34% in sulfate-reducing stage to 10% in methane-producing stage corresponding to the COD/SO42- ratio of 4.7.SRB and MPA were predominant in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage respectively.

  17. Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport

    Li, Yuguo


    The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under our experimental conditions. The real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number (Rec) and normalized cough expired volume (Q/AD, with Q as the cough expired volume and A as the opening area). However, the effects of Rec and Q/AD on the maximum penetration distances proved to be more significant; larger values of Rec and Q/AD reflected cough flows with greater penetration distances. A protocol was developed to scale the particle experiments between the prototype in air, and the model in water. The water tank experiments revealed that although medium and large particles deposit readily, their maximum spread distance is similar to that of small particles. Moreover, the leading vortex plays an important role in enhancing particle transport. PMID:28046084

  18. Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms

    Brazhnikov, D V; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Bonert, A E; Il'enkov, R Ya; Goncharov, A N


    The problem of deep laser cooling of $^{24}$Mg atoms is theoretically studied. We propose two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electro-dipole transition $3^3P_2$$\\to$$3^3D_3$ ($\\lambda$=383.9 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with $\\sigma^+$ and $\\sigma^-$ light beams, while the second one uses a lin$\\perp$lin molasses. We focus on achieving large number of ultracold atoms (T$_{eff}$ < 10 $\\mu$K) in a cold atomic cloud. The calculations have been done out of many widely used approximations and based on quantum treatment with taking full account of recoil effect. Steady-state average kinetic energies and linear momentum distributions of cold atoms are analysed for various light-field intensities and frequency detunings. The results of conducted quantum analysis have revealed noticeable differences from results of semiclassical approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. At certain conditions the second cooling stage can provide sufficiently lower kinetic energies of atom...

  19. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Rakesh R Narala


    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  20. Dynamic two-stage mechanism of versatile DNA damage recognition by xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein

    Clement, Flurina C.; Camenisch, Ulrike; Fei, Jia; Kaczmarek, Nina; Mathieu, Nadine [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter, E-mail: [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The recognition and subsequent repair of DNA damage are essential reactions for the maintenance of genome stability. A key general sensor of DNA lesions is xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein, which recognizes a wide variety of helix-distorting DNA adducts arising from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, genotoxic chemicals and reactive metabolic byproducts. By detecting damaged DNA sites, this unique molecular sensor initiates the global genome repair (GGR) pathway, which allows for the removal of all the aforementioned lesions by a limited repertoire of excision factors. A faulty GGR activity causes the accumulation of DNA adducts leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, neurological degeneration and other traits of premature aging. Recent findings indicate that XPC protein achieves its extraordinary substrate versatility by an entirely indirect readout strategy implemented in two clearly discernible stages. First, the XPC subunit uses a dynamic sensor interface to monitor the double helix for the presence of non-hydrogen-bonded bases. This initial screening generates a transient nucleoprotein intermediate that subsequently matures into the ultimate recognition complex by trapping undamaged nucleotides in the abnormally oscillating native strand, in a way that no direct contacts are made between XPC protein and the offending lesion itself. It remains to be elucidated how accessory factors like Rad23B, centrin-2 or the UV-damaged DNA-binding complex contribute to this dynamic two-stage quality control process.

  1. A two-stage storage routing model for green roof runoff detention.

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Sonnenwald, Fred; Stovin, Virginia


    Green roofs have been adopted in urban drainage systems to control the total quantity and volumetric flow rate of runoff. Modern green roof designs are multi-layered, their main components being vegetation, substrate and, in almost all cases, a separate drainage layer. Most current hydrological models of green roofs combine the modelling of the separate layers into a single process; these models have limited predictive capability for roofs not sharing the same design. An adaptable, generic, two-stage model for a system consisting of a granular substrate over a hard plastic 'egg box'-style drainage layer and fibrous protection mat is presented. The substrate and drainage layer/protection mat are modelled separately by previously verified sub-models. Controlled storm events are applied to a green roof system in a rainfall simulator. The time-series modelled runoff is compared to the monitored runoff for each storm event. The modelled runoff profiles are accurate (mean Rt(2) = 0.971), but further characterization of the substrate component is required for the model to be generically applicable to other roof configurations with different substrate.

  2. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Xinhua He


    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  3. Two-stage collaborative global optimization design model of the CHPG microgrid

    Liao, Qingfen; Xu, Yeyan; Tang, Fei; Peng, Sicheng; Yang, Zheng


    With the continuous developing of technology and reducing of investment costs, renewable energy proportion in the power grid is becoming higher and higher because of the clean and environmental characteristics, which may need more larger-capacity energy storage devices, increasing the cost. A two-stage collaborative global optimization design model of the combined-heat-power-and-gas (abbreviated as CHPG) microgrid is proposed in this paper, to minimize the cost by using virtual storage without extending the existing storage system. P2G technology is used as virtual multi-energy storage in CHPG, which can coordinate the operation of electric energy network and natural gas network at the same time. Demand response is also one kind of good virtual storage, including economic guide for the DGs and heat pumps in demand side and priority scheduling of controllable loads. Two kinds of storage will coordinate to smooth the high-frequency fluctuations and low-frequency fluctuations of renewable energy respectively, and achieve a lower-cost operation scheme simultaneously. Finally, the feasibility and superiority of proposed design model is proved in a simulation of a CHPG microgrid.

  4. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bartram, Brian Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, John Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  5. An Enhanced Two-Stage Impulse Noise Removal Technique based on Fast ANFIS and Fuzzy Decision

    V. Saradhadevi


    Full Text Available Image enhancement plays a vital role in various applications. There are many techniques to remove the noise from the image and produce the clear visual of the image. Moreover, there are several filters and image smoothing techniques available in the literature. All these available techniques have certain limitations. Recently, neural networks are found to be a very efficient tool for image enhancement. A novel two-stage noise removal technique for image enhancement and noise removal is proposed in this paper. In noise removal stage, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS with a Modified Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm was used to eliminate the impulse noise. The usage of Modified Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm will reduce the execution time. In the image enhancement stage, the fuzzy decision rules inspired by the Human Visual System (HVS are used to categorize the image pixels into human perception sensitive class and nonsensitive class, and to enhance the quality of the image. The Hyper trapezoidal fuzzy membership function is used in the proposed technique. In order to improve the sensitive regions with higher visual quality, a Neural Network (NN is proposed. The experiment is conducted with standard image. It is observed from the experimental result that the proposed FANFIS shows significant performance when compared to existing methods.

  6. Prediction of syngas quality for two-stage gasification of selected waste feedstocks.

    De Filippis, Paolo; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino; Pochetti, Fausto


    This paper compares the syngas produced from methane with the syngas obtained from the gasification, in a two-stage reactor, of various waste feedstocks. The syngas composition and the gasification conditions were simulated using a simple thermodynamic model. The waste feedstocks considered are: landfill gas, waste oil, municipal solid waste (MSW) typical of a low-income country, the same MSW blended with landfill gas, refuse derived fuel (RDF) made from the same MSW, the same RDF blended with waste oil and a MSW typical of a high-income country. Energy content, the sum of H2 and CO gas percentages, and the ratio of H2 to CO are considered as measures of syngas quality. The simulation shows that landfill gas gives the best results in terms of both H2+CO and H2/CO, and that the MSW of low-income countries can be expected to provide inferior syngas on all three quality measures. Co-gasification of the MSW from low-income countries with landfill gas, and the mixture of waste oil with RDF from low-income MSW are considered as options to improve gas quality.

  7. Two-stage Hydrolysis of Invasive Algal Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation

    Xin Wang; Xianhua Liu; Guangyi Wang


    The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel(i.e.bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia.Under optimum conditions(120℃ and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants yielded a low concentration of glucose(4.1mM or 4.3g glucose/kg fresh algal biomass). However, two-stage hydrolysis of the homogenates (combination of dilute acid hydrolysis with enzymatic hydrolysis) produced 13.8g of glucose from one kilogram of fresh algal feedstock. Batch fermentation analysis produced 79.1g EtOH from one kilogram of dried invasive algal feedstock using the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli K011. Furthermore, ethanol production kinetics indicated that the invasive algal feedstock contained different types of sugar, including C5-sugar. This study represents the first report on third generation biofuel production from invasive macroalgae, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine invasive biomass.

  8. New Grapheme Generation Rules for Two-Stage Modelbased Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion

    Seng Kheang


    Full Text Available The precise conversion of arbitrary text into its  corresponding phoneme sequence (grapheme-to-phoneme or G2P conversion is implemented in speech synthesis and recognition, pronunciation learning software, spoken term detection and spoken document retrieval systems. Because the quality of this module plays an important role in the performance of such systems and many problems regarding G2P conversion have been reported, we propose a novel two-stage model-based approach, which is implemented using an existing weighted finite-state transducer-based G2P conversion framework, to improve the performance of the G2P conversion model. The first-stage model is built for automatic conversion of words  to phonemes, while  the second-stage  model utilizes the input graphemes and output phonemes obtained from the first stage to determine the best final output phoneme sequence. Additionally, we designed new grapheme generation rules, which enable extra detail for the vowel and consonant graphemes appearing within a word. When compared with previous approaches, the evaluation results indicate that our approach using rules focusing on the vowel graphemes slightly improved the accuracy of the out-of-vocabulary dataset and consistently increased the accuracy of the in-vocabulary dataset.

  9. A New Two-Stage Approach to Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting

    Dragan Tasić


    Full Text Available In the deregulated energy market, the accuracy of load forecasting has a significant effect on the planning and operational decision making of utility companies. Electric load is a random non-stationary process influenced by a number of factors which make it difficult to model. To achieve better forecasting accuracy, a wide variety of models have been proposed. These models are based on different mathematical methods and offer different features. This paper presents a new two-stage approach for short-term electrical load forecasting based on least-squares support vector machines. With the aim of improving forecasting accuracy, one more feature was added to the model feature set, the next day average load demand. As this feature is unknown for one day ahead, in the first stage, forecasting of the next day average load demand is done and then used in the model in the second stage for next day hourly load forecasting. The effectiveness of the presented model is shown on the real data of the ISO New England electricity market. The obtained results confirm the validity advantage of the proposed approach.

  10. Solar Impulsive Hard X-Ray Emission and Two-Stage Electron Acceleration

    Tian-Xi Zhang; Arjun Tan; Shi Tsan Wu


    Heating and acceleration of electrons in solar impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) flares are studied according to the two-stage acceleration model developed by Zhang for solar 3Herich events. It is shown that electrostatic H-cyclotron waves can be excited at a parallel phase velocity less than about the electron thermal velocity and thus can significantly heat the electrons (up to 40 MK) through Landau resonance. The preheated electrons with velocities above a threshold are further accelerated to high energies in the flare-acceleration process. The flareproduced electron spectrum is obtained and shown to be thermal at low energies and power law at high energies. In the non-thermal energy range, the spectrum can be double power law if the spectral power index is energy dependent or related. The electron energy spectrum obtained by this study agrees quantitatively with the result derived from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) HXR observations in the flare of 2002 July 23. The total flux and energy flux of electrons accelerated in the solar flare also agree with the measurements.

  11. Cooperative Hierarchical PSO With Two Stage Variable Interaction Reconstruction for Large Scale Optimization.

    Ge, Hongwei; Sun, Liang; Tan, Guozhen; Chen, Zheng; Chen, C L Philip


    Large scale optimization problems arise in diverse fields. Decomposing the large scale problem into small scale subproblems regarding the variable interactions and optimizing them cooperatively are critical steps in an optimization algorithm. To explore the variable interactions and perform the problem decomposition tasks, we develop a two stage variable interaction reconstruction algorithm. A learning model is proposed to explore part of the variable interactions as prior knowledge. A marginalized denoising model is proposed to construct the overall variable interactions using the prior knowledge, with which the problem is decomposed into small scale modules. To optimize the subproblems and relieve premature convergence, we propose a cooperative hierarchical particle swarm optimization framework, where the operators of contingency leadership, interactional cognition, and self-directed exploitation are designed. Finally, we conduct theoretical analysis for further understanding of the proposed algorithm. The analysis shows that the proposed algorithm can guarantee converging to the global optimal solutions if the problems are correctly decomposed. Experiments are conducted on the CEC2008 and CEC2010 benchmarks. The results demonstrate the effectiveness, convergence, and usefulness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The impact of alcohol marketing on youth drinking behaviour: a two-stage cohort study.

    Gordon, Ross; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford


    To examine whether awareness of, and involvement with alcohol marketing at age 13 is predictive of initiation of drinking, frequency of drinking and units of alcohol consumed at age 15. A two-stage cohort study, involving a questionnaire survey, combining interview and self-completion, was administered in respondents' homes. Respondents were drawn from secondary schools in three adjoining local authority areas in the West of Scotland, UK. From a baseline sample of 920 teenagers (aged 12-14, mean age 13), in 2006, a cohort of 552 was followed up 2 years later (aged 14-16, mean age 15). Data were gathered on multiple forms of alcohol marketing and measures of drinking initiation, frequency and consumption. At follow-up, logistic regression demonstrated that, after controlling for confounding variables, involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline was predictive of both uptake of drinking and increased frequency of drinking. Awareness of marketing at baseline was also associated with an increased frequency of drinking at follow-up. Our findings demonstrate an association between involvement with, and awareness of, alcohol marketing and drinking uptake or increased drinking frequency, and we consider whether the current regulatory environment affords youth sufficient protection from alcohol marketing.

  13. Flexible distributions for triple-goal estimates in two-stage hierarchical models

    Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg; Lin, Rongheng; Louis, Thomas A.


    Performance evaluations often aim to achieve goals such as obtaining estimates of unit-specific means, ranks, and the distribution of unit-specific parameters. The Bayesian approach provides a powerful way to structure models for achieving these goals. While no single estimate can be optimal for achieving all three inferential goals, the communication and credibility of results will be enhanced by reporting a single estimate that performs well for all three. Triple goal estimates [Shen and Louis, 1998. Triple-goal estimates in two-stage hierarchical models. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 60, 455–471] have this performance and are appealing for performance evaluations. Because triple-goal estimates rely more heavily on the entire distribution than do posterior means, they are more sensitive to misspecification of the population distribution and we present various strategies to robustify triple-goal estimates by using nonparametric distributions. We evaluate performance based on the correctness and efficiency of the robustified estimates under several scenarios and compare empirical Bayes and fully Bayesian approaches to model the population distribution. We find that when data are quite informative, conclusions are robust to model misspecification. However, with less information in the data, conclusions can be quite sensitive to the choice of population distribution. Generally, use of a nonparametric distribution pays very little in efficiency when a parametric population distribution is valid, but successfully protects against model misspecification. PMID:19603088

  14. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China


    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the δ18OQuartz-Feldspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  15. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China



    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the Δ18OQuariz-Feidspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  16. Two-stage categorization in brand extension evaluation: electrophysiological time course evidence.

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available A brand name can be considered a mental category. Similarity-based categorization theory has been used to explain how consumers judge a new product as a member of a known brand, a process called brand extension evaluation. This study was an event-related potential study conducted in two experiments. The study found a two-stage categorization process reflected by the P2 and N400 components in brand extension evaluation. In experiment 1, a prime-probe paradigm was presented in a pair consisting of a brand name and a product name in three conditions, i.e., in-category extension, similar-category extension, and out-of-category extension. Although the task was unrelated to brand extension evaluation, P2 distinguished out-of-category extensions from similar-category and in-category ones, and N400 distinguished similar-category extensions from in-category ones. In experiment 2, a prime-probe paradigm with a related task was used, in which product names included subcategory and major-category product names. The N400 elicited by subcategory products was more significantly negative than that elicited by major-category products, with no salient difference in P2. We speculated that P2 could reflect the early low-level and similarity-based processing in the first stage, whereas N400 could reflect the late analytic and category-based processing in the second stage.

  17. Design and Analysis of a Split Deswirl Vane in a Two-Stage Refrigeration Centrifugal Compressor

    Jeng-Min Huang


    Full Text Available This study numerically investigated the influence of using the second row of a double-row deswirl vane as the inlet guide vane of the second stage on the performance of the first stage in a two-stage refrigeration centrifugal compressor. The working fluid was R134a, and the turbulence model was the Spalart-Allmaras model. The parameters discussed included the cutting position of the deswirl vane, the staggered angle of two rows of vane, and the rotation angle of the second row. The results showed that the performance of staggered angle 7.5° was better than that of 15° or 22.5°. When the staggered angle was 7.5°, the performance of cutting at 1/3 and 1/2 of the original deswirl vane length was slightly different from that of the original vane but obviously better than that of cutting at 2/3. When the staggered angle was 15°, the cutting position influenced the performance slightly. At a low flow rate prone to surge, when the second row at a staggered angle 7.5° cutting at the half of vane rotated 10°, the efficiency was reduced by only about 0.6%, and 10% of the swirl remained as the preswirl of the second stage, which is generally better than other designs.

  18. Integration of a Water Scrubbing Technique and Two-Stage Pressurized Anaerobic Digestion in One Process

    Andreas Lemmer


    Full Text Available Two-stage pressurized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology. This technology integrates in one process biogas production with upgrading and pressure boosting for grid injection. To investigate whether the efficiency of this novel system could be further increased, a water scrubbing system was integrated into the methanogensis step. Therefore, six leach-bed reactors were used for hydrolysis/acidification and a 30-L pressurized anaerobic filter operated at 9 bar was adopted for acetogenesis/methanogenesis. The fermentation liquid of the pressurized anaerobic filter was circulated periodically via a flash tank, operating at atmospheric pressure. Due to the pressure drop, part of dissolved carbon dioxide was released from the liquid phase into the flash tank. The depressurized fermentation liquid was then recycled to the pressurized reactor. Three different flow rates (0 L·day−1, 20 L·day−1 and 40 L·day−1 were tested with three repetitions. As the daily recycled flashed liquid flow was increased from 0 to 40 L, six times as much as the daily feeding, the methane content in the biogas increased from 75 molar percent (mol% to 87 mol%. The pH value of the substrate in the methane reactor rose simultaneously from 6.5 to 6.7. The experimental data were verified by calculation.

  19. Two stage thermophilic sludge digestion - solids degradation, heat and energy considerations

    Zupancic, Gregor Drago; Ros, Milenko


    The conventional process for solids treatment is mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion (at about 35{sup o}C). In this process about 44% of volatile solids (VSS) are removed at about 40-50 days retention time with the specific biogas production of about 400 L/kg of VSS inserted. At the National Institute of Chemistry Ljubljana, thermophilic sludge digestion at 50 to 60{sup o}C was studied. As the result of research two-stage anaerobic-aerobic process was developed and patented. A case of 3+12 days retention time (anaerobic + aerobic stage) gave specific biogas production equal to mesophilic process (about 400 L/kg of VSS inserted) and VSS removal of 62% in 15 days of total retention time. A case of 3+6 days retention time gave the same biogas production of 400 L/kg and VSS removal of 49% in 9 days of total retention time. The main problem at thermophilic sludge digestion is the heat requirements for sustaining the process. The biogas produced is not sufficient for covering the heat requirements. This problem was resolved with heat regeneration between outflow and inflow sludge. Such regeneration brought the process equal to mesophilic process. With 80 to 95% excess heat of power production from produced biogas all heat requirements were covered. (author)

  20. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Lay Eng Teoh


    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  1. Two-stage Framework for a Topology-Based Projection and Visualization of Classified Document Collections

    Oesterling, Patrick; Scheuermann, Gerik; Teresniak, Sven; Heyer, Gerhard; Koch, Steffen; Ertl, Thomas; Weber, Gunther H.


    During the last decades, electronic textual information has become the world's largest and most important information source available. People have added a variety of daily newspapers, books, scientific and governmental publications, blogs and private messages to this wellspring of endless information and knowledge. Since neither the existing nor the new information can be read in its entirety, computers are used to extract and visualize meaningful or interesting topics and documents from this huge information clutter. In this paper, we extend, improve and combine existing individual approaches into an overall framework that supports topological analysis of high dimensional document point clouds given by the well-known tf-idf document-term weighting method. We show that traditional distance-based approaches fail in very high dimensional spaces, and we describe an improved two-stage method for topology-based projections from the original high dimensional information space to both two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) visualizations. To show the accuracy and usability of this framework, we compare it to methods introduced recently and apply it to complex document and patent collections.

  2. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Chen Y


    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  3. A two-stage heuristic method for vehicle routing problem with split deliveries and pickups

    Yong WANG; Xiao-lei MA; Yun-teng LAO; Hai-yan YU; Yong LIU


    The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization issue in transportation and logistics network systems. There exist several limitations associated with the traditional VRP. Releasing the restricted conditions of traditional VRP has become a research focus in the past few decades. The vehicle routing problem with split deliveries and pickups (VRPSPDP) is particularly proposed to release the constraints on the visiting times per customer and vehicle capacity, that is, to allow the deliveries and pickups for each customer to be simultaneously split more than once. Few studies have focused on the VRPSPDP problem. In this paper we propose a two-stage heuristic method integrating the initial heuristic algorithm and hybrid heuristic algorithm to study the VRPSPDP problem. To validate the proposed algorithm, Solomon benchmark datasets and extended Solomon benchmark datasets were modified to compare with three other popular algorithms. A total of 18 datasets were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The computational results indicated that the proposed algorithm is superior to these three algorithms for VRPSPDP in terms of total travel cost and average loading rate.

  4. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process.

    Liu, Dawei; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini


    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H(2)/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH(4)/g VS added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. pH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary. Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase.

  5. Evidence that viral RNAs have evolved for efficient, two-stage packaging.

    Borodavka, Alexander; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter G


    Genome packaging is an essential step in virus replication and a potential drug target. Single-stranded RNA viruses have been thought to encapsidate their genomes by gradual co-assembly with capsid subunits. In contrast, using a single molecule fluorescence assay to monitor RNA conformation and virus assembly in real time, with two viruses from differing structural families, we have discovered that packaging is a two-stage process. Initially, the genomic RNAs undergo rapid and dramatic (approximately 20-30%) collapse of their solution conformations upon addition of cognate coat proteins. The collapse occurs with a substoichiometric ratio of coat protein subunits and is followed by a gradual increase in particle size, consistent with the recruitment of additional subunits to complete a growing capsid. Equivalently sized nonviral RNAs, including high copy potential in vivo competitor mRNAs, do not collapse. They do support particle assembly, however, but yield many aberrant structures in contrast to viral RNAs that make only capsids of the correct size. The collapse is specific to viral RNA fragments, implying that it depends on a series of specific RNA-protein interactions. For bacteriophage MS2, we have shown that collapse is driven by subsequent protein-protein interactions, consistent with the RNA-protein contacts occurring in defined spatial locations. Conformational collapse appears to be a distinct feature of viral RNA that has evolved to facilitate assembly. Aspects of this process mimic those seen in ribosome assembly.

  6. Beneficiation of low grade graphite ore of eastern India by two-stage grinding and flotation

    Vasumathi N.


    Full Text Available A low grade graphite run-of-mine (r.o.m ore from eastern India was studied for its amenability to beneficiation by flotation technique. The petrography studies indicate that the ore primarily consists of quartz and graphite with minor quantity of mica. It analyzed 89.89% ash and 8.59% fixed carbon. The ore was crushed in stages followed by primary coarse wet grinding to 212 μm (d80. Rougher flotation was carried out in Denver flotation cell to eliminate gangue as much as possible in the form of primary tailings with minimal loss of carbon. Diesel & pine oil were used as collector and frother respectively. Regrinding of rougher concentrate to150 μm (d80 was resorted to further liberate the graphite values and was followed by multi-stage cleaning. This two-stage grinding approach involving a primary coarse grinding and regrinding of rougher float followed by its multi-stage cleaning was found to yield required grade of concentrate for applications such as refractories, batteries and high temperature lubricants. This approach is supposed to retain the flake size of coarse, free and liberated graphite, if available, during primary coarse grinding and rougher flotation stage with minimal grinding energy costs as against the usual practice of single stage grinding in the case of many ores. A final concentrate of 8.97% weight recovery with 5.80% ash and 92.13% fixed carbon could be achieved.

  7. Two-stage method for purification of ceruloplasmin based on its interaction with neomycin.

    Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Romanico, D N; Zakharova, E T; Vasilyev, V B


    A two-stage chromatography that yields highly purified ceruloplasmin (CP) from human plasma and from rat and rabbit serum is described. The isolation procedure is based on the interaction of CP with neomycin, and it provides a high yield of CP. Constants of inhibition by gentamycin, kanamycin, and neomycin of oxidase activity of CP in its reaction with p-phenylenediamine were assayed. The lowest K(i) for neomycin (11 µM) corresponded to the highest specific adsorption of CP on neomycin-agarose (10 mg CP/ml of resin). Isolation of CP from 1.4 liters of human plasma using ion-exchange chromatography on UNO-Sphere Q and affinity chromatography on neomycin-agarose yields 348 mg of CP with 412-fold purification degree. Human CP preparation obtained with A(610)/A(280) ~ 0.052 contained neither immunoreactive prothrombin nor active thrombin. Upon storage at 37°C under sterile conditions, the preparation remained stable for two months. Efficient preparation of highly purified CP from rat and rabbit sera treated according to a similar protocol suggests the suitability of our method for isolation of CP from plasma and serum of other animals. The yield of CP in three separate purifications was no less than 78%.

  8. Multifunctional Solar Systems Based On Two-Stage Regeneration Absorbent Solution

    Doroshenko A.V.


    Full Text Available The concepts of multifunctional dehumidification solar systems, heat supply, cooling, and air conditioning based on the open absorption cycle with direct absorbent regeneration developed. The solar systems based on preliminary drainage of current of air and subsequent evaporated cooling. The solar system using evaporative coolers both types (direct and indirect. The principle of two-stage regeneration of absorbent used in the solar systems, it used as the basis of liquid and gas-liquid solar collectors. The main principle solutions are designed for the new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors. Analysis of the heat losses in the gas-liquid solar collectors, due to the mechanism of convection and radiation is made. Optimal cost of gas and liquid, as well as the basic dimensions and configuration of the working channel of the solar collector identified. Heat and mass transfer devices, belonging to the evaporative cooling system based on the interaction between the film and the gas stream and the liquid therein. Multichannel structure of the polymeric materials used to create the tip. Evaporative coolers of water and air both types (direct and indirect are used in the cooling of the solar systems. Preliminary analysis of the possibilities of multifunctional solar absorption systems made reference to problems of cooling media and air conditioning on the basis of experimental data the authors. Designed solar systems feature low power consumption and environmental friendliness.

  9. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity.

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R


    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

  10. DC measurements on InAs two-stage spin-filter cascades

    Jacob, Jan; Lehmann, Hauke; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Matsuyama, Toru; Meier, Guido; Merkt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Zentrum fuer Mikrostrukturforschung, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)


    For spintronics it is a prerequisite to create devices capable of generating and detecting spin-polarized currents. We present an all-semiconductor nanostructure based on an InAs heterostructure, which can be used to generate spin-polarized currents all-electrically utilizing the intrinsic spin Hall effect in a Y-shaped junction. By cascading two spin filters the first acts as a generator of spin-polarized currents while the second acts as an all-electrical detector. Measurements applying an AC voltage to the two-stage spin-filter cascade have proven the feasibility of these devices as efficient generators and detectors for spin-polarized currents. For the investigation of the influence of magnetic and electric fields in different directions it is essential to use DC voltages to direct the electron flow in constant direction instead of alternating directions in the AC case and thereby keeping the geometric relation between the current flow and the applied field constant. To enable lock-in technique we apply a DC voltage with AC modulation to the spin-filter cascade.

  11. A Two-Stage Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction from RGBD Images.

    Wang, Kangkan; Wang, Xianwang; Pan, Zhigeng; Liu, Kai


    This paper proposes a new approach for 3D face reconstruction with RGBD images from an inexpensive commodity sensor. The challenges we face are: 1) substantial random noise and corruption are present in low-resolution depth maps; and 2) there is high degree of variability in pose and face expression. We develop a novel two-stage algorithm that effectively maps low-quality depth maps to realistic face models. Each stage is targeted toward a certain type of noise. The first stage extracts sparse errors from depth patches through the data-driven local sparse coding, while the second stage smooths noise on the boundaries between patches and reconstructs the global shape by combining local shapes using our template-based surface refinement. Our approach does not require any markers or user interaction. We perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations on both synthetic and real test sets. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce high-resolution 3D face models with high accuracy, even if inputs are of low quality, and have large variations in viewpoint and face expression.

  12. Depth-dependent extension, two-stage breakup and depleted lithospheric counterflow at rifted margins

    Huismans, Ritske S.; Beaumont, Christopher


    Uniform lithospheric extension predicts basic properties of non-volcanic rifted margins but fails to explain other important characteristics. Significant discrepancies are observed at 'type I' margins (such as the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugates), where large tracts of continental mantle lithosphere are exposed at the sea floor, and 'type II' margins (such as some ultrawide central South Atlantic margins), where thin continental crust spans wide regions below which continental lower crust and mantle lithosphere have apparently been removed. Neither corresponds to uniform extension. Instead, either crust or mantle lithosphere has been preferentially removed. Using dynamical models, we demonstrate that these margins are opposite end members: in type I, depth-dependent extension results in crustal-necking breakup before mantle-lithosphere breakup and in type II, the converse is true. These two-layer, two-stage breakup behaviours explain the discrepancies and have implications for the styles of the associated sedimentary basins. Laterally flowing lower-mantle lithosphere may underplate both type I and type II margins, thereby contributing to their anomalous characteristics.

  13. An Adaptive Two-Stage BPNN–DCT Image Compression Technique

    Dr. Tarun Kumar


    Full Text Available Neural Networks offer the potential for providing a novel solution to the problem of data compression by its ability to generate an internal data representation. This network, which is an application of back propagation network, accepts a large amount of image data, compresses it for storage or transmission, and subsequently restores it when desired. A new approach for reducing training time by reconstructing representative vectors has also been proposed. Performance of the network has been evaluated using some standard real world images. Neural networks can be trained to represent certain sets of data. After decomposing an image using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, a two stage neural network may be able to represent the DCT coefficients in less space than the coefficients themselves. After splitting the image and the decomposition using several methods, neural networks were trained to represent the image blocks. By saving the weights and bias of each neuron, by using the Inverse DCT (IDCT coefficient mechanism an image segment can be approximately recreated. Compression can be achieved using neural networks. Current results have been promising except for the amount of time needed to train a neural network. One method of speeding up code execution is discussed. However, plenty of future research work is available in this area it is shown that the development architecture and training algorithm provide high compression ratio and low distortion while maintaining the ability to generalize and is very robust as well

  14. Classification of brain disease in magnetic resonance images using two-stage local feature fusion

    Li, Tao; Li, Wu; Yang, Yehui


    Background Many classification methods have been proposed based on magnetic resonance images. Most methods rely on measures such as volume, the cerebral cortical thickness and grey matter density. These measures are susceptible to the performance of registration and limited in representation of anatomical structure. This paper proposes a two-stage local feature fusion method, in which deformable registration is not desired and anatomical information is represented from moderate scale. Methods Keypoints are firstly extracted from scale-space to represent anatomical structure. Then, two kinds of local features are calculated around the keypoints, one for correspondence and the other for representation. Scores are assigned for keypoints to quantify their effect in classification. The sum of scores for all effective keypoints is used to determine which group the test subject belongs to. Results We apply this method to magnetic resonance images of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The advantage of local feature in correspondence and representation contributes to the final classification. With the help of local feature (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, SIFT) in correspondence, the performance becomes better. Local feature (Histogram of Oriented Gradient, HOG) extracted from 16×16 cell block obtains better results compared with 4×4 and 8×8 cell block. Discussion This paper presents a method which combines the effect of SIFT descriptor in correspondence and the representation ability of HOG descriptor in anatomical structure. This method has the potential in distinguishing patients with brain disease from controls. PMID:28207873

  15. New higher-order Godunov code for modelling performance of two-stage light gas guns

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Miller, R. J.


    A new quasi-one-dimensional Godunov code for modeling two-stage light gas guns is described. The code is third-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time. A very accurate Riemann solver is used. Friction and heat transfer to the tube wall for gases and dense media are modeled and a simple nonequilibrium turbulence model is used for gas flows. The code also models gunpowder burn in the first-stage breech. Realistic equations of state (EOS) are used for all media. The code was validated against exact solutions of Riemann's shock-tube problem, impact of dense media slabs at velocities up to 20 km/sec, flow through a supersonic convergent-divergent nozzle and burning of gunpowder in a closed bomb. Excellent validation results were obtained. The code was then used to predict the performance of two light gas guns (1.5 in. and 0.28 in.) in service at the Ames Research Center. The code predictions were compared with measured pressure histories in the powder chamber and pump tube and with measured piston and projectile velocities. Very good agreement between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions and measurements was obtained. Actual powder-burn rates in the gun were found to be considerably higher (60-90 percent) than predicted by the manufacturer and the behavior of the piston upon yielding appears to differ greatly from that suggested by low-strain rate tests.

  16. Food behavior change in late-life widowhood: A two-stage process.

    Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H; Sutherland, Olga; Maitland, Scott B; Locher, J L


    Widowhood is a common life event for married older women. Prior research has found disruptions in eating behaviors to be common among widows. Little is known about the process underlying these disruptions. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical understanding of the changing food behaviors of older women during the transition of widowhood. Qualitative methods based on constructivist grounded theory guided by a critical realist worldview were used. Individual active interviews were conducted with 15 community-living women, aged 71-86 years, living alone, and widowed six months to 15 years at the time of the interview. Participants described a variety of educational backgrounds and levels of health, were mainly white and of Canadian or European descent, and reported sufficient income to meet their needs. The loss of regular shared meals initiated a two-stage process whereby women first fall into new patterns and then re-establish the personal food system, thus enabling women to redirect their food system from one that satisfied the couple to one that satisfied their personal food needs. Influences on the trajectory of the change process included the couple's food system, experience with nutritional care, food-related values, and food-related resources. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Artificial trachea reconstruction with two-stage approach using memory-alloy mesh

    赵凤瑞; 张银合; 刘世民; 余建军


    @@ Artificial tracheal prosthesis is now a challenge to the entire surgical field all over the world. Previously, all kinds of prosthesis were "inner stent" that could not be integrated with native trachea. Since there is an interface between smooth surface of the prosthesis and living tissues, and the inner side of the prosthesis is not covered with living membrane, infections always happen around the prosthesis. We then developed a new technique, which combined memory-alloy mesh with traditional operative procedures. Memory-alloy mesh is extensible, flexible and can maintain the shape of a tube. It has very good compatibility with tissues and no antigenicity. Thus, it is the most desirable material nowadays that can be found to make the frame of an artificial trachea by using a two-stage approach. That is imbedding a pre-shaped memory-alloy mesh under skin or endothelium (pleura or peritoneum), and then making the "sandwich" pedicle skin and muscle flap to a pedicled artificial trachea anastomosed with native trachea. After a two-year experimental study, a patient received the artificial trachea replacement on April 18, 2002, with a good result.

  18. A Novel Two-Stage Illumination Estimation Framework for Expression Recognition

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available One of the critical issues for facial expression recognition is to eliminate the negative effect caused by variant poses and illuminations. In this paper a two-stage illumination estimation framework is proposed based on three-dimensional representative face and clustering, which can estimate illumination directions under a series of poses. First, 256 training 3D face models are adaptively categorized into a certain amount of facial structure types by k-means clustering to group people with similar facial appearance into clusters. Then the representative face of each cluster is generated to represent the facial appearance type of that cluster. Our training set is obtained by rotating all representative faces to a certain pose, illuminating them with a series of different illumination conditions, and then projecting them into two-dimensional images. Finally the saltire-over-cross feature is selected to train a group of SVM classifiers and satisfactory performance is achieved when estimating a number of test sets including images generated from 64 3D face models kept for testing, CAS-PEAL face database, CMU PIE database, and a small test set created by ourselves. Compared with other related works, our method is subject independent and has less computational complexity O(C×N without 3D facial reconstruction.

  19. Two-stage transcriptional reprogramming in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing ethanol production from xylose.

    Cao, Limin; Tang, Xingliang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Tian, Xuelei; Wang, Jingyu; Xiong, Mingyong; Xiao, Wei


    Conversion of lignocellulosic material to ethanol is a major challenge in second generation bio-fuel production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This report describes a novel strategy named "two-stage transcriptional reprogramming (TSTR)" in which key gene expression at both glucose and xylose fermentation phases is optimized in engineered S. cerevisiae. Through a combined genome-wide screening of stage-specific promoters and the balancing of the metabolic flux, ethanol yields and productivity from mixed sugars were significantly improved. In a medium containing 50g/L glucose and 50g/L xylose, the top-performing strain WXY12 rapidly consumed glucose within 12h and within 84h it consistently achieved an ethanol yield of 0.48g/g total sugar, which was 94% of the theoretical yield. WXY12 utilizes a KGD1 inducible promoter to drive xylose metabolism, resulting in much higher ethanol yield than a reference strain using a strong constitutive PGK1 promoter. These promising results validate the TSTR strategy by synthetically regulating the xylose assimilation pathway towards efficient xylose fermentation.

  20. Viroporins, Examples of the Two-Stage Membrane Protein Folding Model

    Luis Martinez-Gil


    Full Text Available Viroporins are small, α-helical, hydrophobic virus encoded proteins, engineered to form homo-oligomeric hydrophilic pores in the host membrane. Viroporins participate in multiple steps of the viral life cycle, from entry to budding. As any other membrane protein, viroporins have to find the way to bury their hydrophobic regions into the lipid bilayer. Once within the membrane, the hydrophobic helices of viroporins interact with each other to form higher ordered structures required to correctly perform their porating activities. This two-step process resembles the two-stage model proposed for membrane protein folding by Engelman and Poppot. In this review we use the membrane protein folding model as a leading thread to analyze the mechanism and forces behind the membrane insertion and folding of viroporins. We start by describing the transmembrane segment architecture of viroporins, including the number and sequence characteristics of their membrane-spanning domains. Next, we connect the differences found among viroporin families to their viral genome organization, and finalize focusing on the pathways used by viroporins in their way to the membrane and on the transmembrane helix-helix interactions required to achieve proper folding and assembly.

  1. A cooperation model based on CVaR measure for a two-stage supply chain

    Xu, Xinsheng; Meng, Zhiqing; Shen, Rui


    In this paper, we introduce a cooperation model (CM) for the two-stage supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. In this model, it is supposed that the objective of the manufacturer is to maximise his/her profit while the objective of the retailer is to minimise his/her CVaR while controlling the risk originating from fluctuation in market demand. In reality, the manufacturer and the retailer would like to choose their own decisions as to wholesale price and order quantity to optimise their own objectives, resulting the fact that the expected decision of the manufacturer and that of the retailer may conflict with each other. Then, to achieve cooperation, the manufacturer and the retailer both need to give some concessions. The proposed model aims to coordinate the decisions of the manufacturer and the retailer, and balance the concessions of the two in their cooperation. We introduce an s* - optimal equilibrium solution in this model, which can decide the minimum concession that the manufacturer and the retailer need to give for their cooperation, and prove that the s* - optimal equilibrium solution can be obtained by solving a goal programming problem. Further, the case of different concessions made by the manufacturer and the retailer is also discussed. Numerical results show that the CM is efficient in dealing with the cooperations between the supplier and the retailer.

  2. Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a large enrollment gateway course.

    Fournier, Kimberly A; Couret, Jannelle; Ramsay, Jason B; Caulkins, Joshua L


    Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as "high stakes" because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in "C" students when compared to "A" students: P test anxiety were not significantly associated with the group portion of the examinations. Patterns of changes in test anxiety over the course of the semester underscore a complex interaction between test anxiety, student background, and student performance. Results suggest that pathways for test anxiety in "high stakes" courses may be separate from the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of collaborative testing. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Autothermal two-stage gasification of low-density waste-derived fuels

    Hamel, Stefan [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Hasselbach, Holger [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Weil, Steffen [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Krumm, Wolfgang [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)]. E-mail:


    In order to increase the efficiency of waste utilization in thermal conversion processes, pre-treatment is advantageous. With the Herhof Stabilat[reg] process, residual domestic waste is upgraded to waste-derived fuel by means of biological drying and mechanical separation of inerts and metals. The dried and homogenized waste-derived Stabilat[reg] fuel has a relatively high calorific value and contains high volatile matter which makes it suitable for gasification. As a result of extensive mechanical treatment, the Stabilat[reg] produced is of a fluffy appearance with a low density. A two-stage gasifier, based on a parallel-arranged bubbling fluidized bed and a fixed bed reactor, has been developed to convert Stabilat[reg] into hydrogen-rich product gas. This paper focuses on the design and construction of the configured laboratory-scale gasifier and experience with its operation. The processing of low-density fluffy waste-derived fuel using small-scale equipment demands special technical solutions for the core components as well as for the peripheral equipment. These are discussed here. The operating results of Stabilat[reg] gasification are also presented.

  4. Two-staged operation on C2 neoplastic lesions: anterior excision and posterior stabilization.

    Colak, Ahmet; Kutlay, Murat; Kibici, Kenan; Demircan, M Nusret; Akin, Osman N


    This retrospective study included eight consecutive cases with C2 vertebral body neoplastic lesions. The anterior retropharyngeal approach was used to remove the lesions and decompress the spinal cord. Spinal stabilization with occipitocervical plating in a second-stage operation makes the treatment more tolerable for patients. The object of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a two-stage operation strategy for these lesions. Eight patients were operated on via anterior retropharyngeal approach and then stabilized with occipitocervical plates posteriorly in a second sitting. All neck pain and all dysphagia problems resolved. Partial neurologic improvement was achieved in three out of four patients. No postoperative infection was seen. The retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine and anterior foramen magnum lesions is an effective alternative to transoral surgery because of low complication rates. Neoplastic lesions in the upper cervical spine can safely and effectively be operated with this technique. The general medical status of patients with malignancies does not permit too long, time-consuming operations. Stabilization of the spine in a separate operation increases patient tolerability without any morbidity.

  5. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations

    Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan


    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers. PMID:28704489

  6. Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues

    Muthangya, Mutemi; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Kivaisi, Amelia Kajumulo


    Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agro-industrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR. PMID:20087466

  7. Thermodynamic Investigation of Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System Connected by a Compressor

    L. Kairouani


    Full Text Available The present work is to analyze a two-stage cycle based on the ammonia-water absorption system, with intermediate compression. The two generators of the system are heated by geothermal energy at low temperature. The study shows that this system makes it possible at lower generator temperature, under the limits permitted by the systems suggested up to now. For Tg = 335 K, Tc = Ta = 308 K and Te = 263 K, based on the electric consumption, the system efficiency is 8.2. The comparative study of the hybrid system and vapor compression systems shows the superiority of the proposed system. Supplied by the geothermal sources of the Tunisian south, the system makes it possible to obtain for a pilot geothermal station, a production of 75 tons of ice per day. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 2.38 tons of CO2 per day. Therefore, based on the typical geothermal energy sources in Tunisia which present a global refrigeration potential of 4.4 MW, the daily quantity of ice that could be produced is about 865 tons. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 10,000 tons of CO2 per year.

  8. A Two-Stage Compression Method for the Fault Detection of Roller Bearings

    Huaqing Wang


    Full Text Available Data measurement of roller bearings condition monitoring is carried out based on the Shannon sampling theorem, resulting in massive amounts of redundant information, which will lead to a big-data problem increasing the difficulty of roller bearing fault diagnosis. To overcome the aforementioned shortcoming, a two-stage compressed fault detection strategy is proposed in this study. First, a sliding window is utilized to divide the original signals into several segments and a selected symptom parameter is employed to represent each segment, through which a symptom parameter wave can be obtained and the raw vibration signals are compressed to a certain level with the faulty information remaining. Second, a fault detection scheme based on the compressed sensing is applied to extract the fault features, which can compress the symptom parameter wave thoroughly with a random matrix called the measurement matrix. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the comparison of the three selected symptom parameters is also presented in this paper.

  9. A two-stage cascade model of BOLD responses in human visual cortex.

    Kendrick N Kay

    Full Text Available Visual neuroscientists have discovered fundamental properties of neural representation through careful analysis of responses to controlled stimuli. Typically, different properties are studied and modeled separately. To integrate our knowledge, it is necessary to build general models that begin with an input image and predict responses to a wide range of stimuli. In this study, we develop a model that accepts an arbitrary band-pass grayscale image as input and predicts blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD responses in early visual cortex as output. The model has a cascade architecture, consisting of two stages of linear and nonlinear operations. The first stage involves well-established computations-local oriented filters and divisive normalization-whereas the second stage involves novel computations-compressive spatial summation (a form of normalization and a variance-like nonlinearity that generates selectivity for second-order contrast. The parameters of the model, which are estimated from BOLD data, vary systematically across visual field maps: compared to primary visual cortex, extrastriate maps generally have larger receptive field size, stronger levels of normalization, and increased selectivity for second-order contrast. Our results provide insight into how stimuli are encoded and transformed in successive stages of visual processing.

  10. A Two-Stage Relational Reinforcement Learning with Continuous Actions for Real Service Robots

    Zaragoza, Julio H.; Morales, Eduardo F.

    Reinforcement Learning is a commonly used technique in robotics, however, traditional algorithms are unable to handle large amounts of data coming from the robot’s sensors, require long training times, are unable to re-use learned policies on similar domains, and use discrete actions. This work introduces TS-RRLCA, a two stage method to tackle these problems. In the first stage, low-level data coming from the robot’s sensors is transformed into a more natural, relational representation based on rooms, walls, corners, doors and obstacles, significantly reducing the state space. We also use Behavioural Cloning, i.e., traces provided by the user to learn, in few iterations, a relational policy that can be re-used in different environments. In the second stage, we use Locally Weighted Regression to transform the initial policy into a continuous actions policy. We tested our approach with a real service robot on different environments for different navigation and following tasks. Results show how the policies can be used on different domains and perform smoother, faster and shorter paths than the original policies.

  11. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Gibson, L. L.; Bartram, B. D.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Lang, J. M.; Morris, J. S.


    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  12. Remote liquid target loading system for LANL two-stage gas gun

    Gibson, L. L.; Bartram, B.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Sheffield, S. A.; Stahl, D. B.


    A Remote Liquid Loading System (RLLS) was designed to load high hazard liquid materials into targets for gas-gun driven impact experiments. These high hazard liquids tend to react with confining materials in a short period of time, degrading target assemblies and potentially building up pressure through the evolution of gas in the reactions. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target in place immediately prior to firing the gun, provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a RLLS built for the LANL two-stage gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of PMMA and assembled to form a liquid containment cell with a volume of approximately 25 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide. Teflon and 304-stainless steel were the two most compatible materials with the materials to be tested. Teflon valves and tubing, as well as stainless steel tubing, were used to handle the liquid, along with a stainless steel reservoir. Preliminary testing was done to ensure proper flow rate and safety. The system has been used to successfully load 97.5 percent hydrogen peroxide into a target cell just prior to a successful multiple magnetic gauge experiment. TV cameras on the target verified the bubble-free filling operation.

  13. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

    Pardo Julio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  14. Biodegradation of naphtalenesulphonic acid-containing sewages in a two-stage treatment plant

    Krull, R. (Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Technische Chemie und Chemische Verfahrenstechnik); Hempel, D.C. (Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Technische Chemie und Chemische Verfahrenstechnik)


    The production of naphthol the coupling compound in the syntheses of azo-dyes occurs a naphthalenesulphonic acid-containing wastewater. The aerobic biodegradation of a complex mixture of naphthalenemono- and -disulphonic acids with high amounts of inorganic salts was examined in a two-stage plant with specially adapted and immobilized microorganisms fixed on broken sand particles. The plant consists of two airlift-loop reactors. An interposed settling tank separates the two different bacterial communities in the stages. In the first stage the sequential metabolization of naphthalene-2- and -1-sulphonic acid was achieved by strain Pseudomonas testosteroni A[sub 3] at residence times down to 1.5 h. The total degradation of remaining naphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and the degradation of recalcitrant naphthalenedisulphonic acids was obtained by a defined mixed culture in the second unit. Because of the more recalcitrant character of the remaining components in the second stage examinations with Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]-loaded and salt-free wastewater were carried out at mean residence times between 50 and 6.3 h. With salt-loaded sewage an overall degradation of approximately 71% was achieved. The main component in the effluent was non-biodegradable naphthalene-1.5-disulphonic acid. Investigations with salt-free wastewater have shown an increasing overall degradation up to 84%. Thus, in the presence of inorganic salts a considerable inhibition of the biological degradation of the recalcitrant substances in the second unit was found. (orig.)

  15. A two-stage visual tracking algorithm using dual-template

    Yu Xia


    Full Text Available Template matching and updates are crucial steps in visual object tracking. In this article, we propose a two-stage object tracking algorithm using a dual-template. By design, the initial state of a target can be estimated using a prior fixed template at the first stage with a particle-filter-based tracking framework. The use of prior templates maintains the stability of an object tracking algorithm, because it consists of invariant and important features. In the second step, a mean shift is used to gain the optimal location of the object with the stage update template. The stage template improves the ability of target recognition using a classified update method. The complementary of dual-template improves the quality of template matching and the performance of object tracking. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance in terms of accuracy and robustness, and it exhibits good results in the presence of deformation, noise and occlusion.

  16. A two-stage association study suggests BRAP as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    Fuquan Zhang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67. In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73. Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2 (P  =  0.0039 and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2 (P < 1.0E-4. Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness.

  17. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.


    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  18. Beyond two-stage models for lung carcinogenesis in the Mayak workers: implications for plutonium risk.

    Sascha Zöllner

    Full Text Available Mechanistic multi-stage models are used to analyze lung-cancer mortality after Plutonium exposure in the Mayak-workers cohort, with follow-up until 2008. Besides the established two-stage model with clonal expansion, models with three mutation stages as well as a model with two distinct pathways to cancer are studied. The results suggest that three-stage models offer an improved description of the data. The best-fitting models point to a mechanism where radiation increases the rate of clonal expansion. This is interpreted in terms of changes in cell-cycle control mediated by bystander signaling or repopulation following cell killing. No statistical evidence for a two-pathway model is found. To elucidate the implications of the different models for radiation risk, several exposure scenarios are studied. Models with a radiation effect at an early stage show a delayed response and a pronounced drop-off with older ages at exposure. Moreover, the dose-response relationship is strongly nonlinear for all three-stage models, revealing a marked increase above a critical dose.

  19. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang


    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  20. Two-stage liver transplantation: an effective procedure in urgent conditions.

    Montalti, Roberto; Busani, Stefano; Masetti, Michele; Girardis, Massimo; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Begliomini, Bruno; Rompianesi, Gianluca; Rinaldi, Laura; Ballarin, Roberto; Pasetto, Alberto; Gerunda, Giorgio E


    Temporary portocaval shunt and total hepatectomy is a technique used in the presence of toxic liver syndrome because of fulminant hepatic failure, hepatic trauma, primary non-function (PNF), and eclampsia. We performed this technique on four patients. An indication for anhepatic state was severe hemodynamic instability in three of them. Etiologies of these three patients were as follows: PNF after liver transplantation, ischemic hepatitis after right hepatic artery embolization, and massive reperfusion syndrome during a liver transplantation. In the fourth patient, during the liver transplantation when hepatic artery was ligated, a kidney carcinoma in the donor graft was discovered. We decided to complete the hepatectomy and to construct a temporary portocaval shunt. Mean anhepatic phases were 19 h and 15 min. All patients survived the two-stage liver transplantation procedure without major complications. Our cases demonstrated that temporary portocaval shunt while awaiting urgent liver transplantation could be an effective "bridge" in selected patients who develop toxic liver syndrome; however, a short time between portocaval shunt and transplantation and careful intensive care managements are mandatory.

  1. Predictive Modeling of a Two-Stage Gearbox towards Fault Detection

    Edward J. Diehl


    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach to the modeling and analysis of a benchmark two-stage gearbox test bed to characterize gear fault signatures when processed with harmonic wavelet transform (HWT analysis. The eventual goal of condition monitoring is to be able to interpret vibration signals from nonstationary machinery in order to identify the type and severity of gear damage. To advance towards this goal, a lumped-parameter model that can be analyzed efficiently is developed which characterizes the gearbox vibratory response at the system level. The model parameters are identified through correlated numerical and experimental investigations. The model fidelity is validated first by spectrum analysis, using constant speed experimental data, and secondly by HWT analysis, using nonstationary experimental data. Model prediction and experimental data are compared for healthy gear operation and a seeded fault gear with a missing tooth. The comparison confirms that both the frequency content and the predicted, relative response magnitudes match with physical measurements. The research demonstrates that the modeling method in combination with the HWT data analysis has the potential for facilitating successful fault detection and diagnosis for gearbox systems.

  2. Performance assessment of two-stage anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes.

    Bo, Zhang; Pin-Jing, He


    This study is aimed at investigating the performance of the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes in a lab-scale setup. The semi-continuous experiment showed that the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes had a bioconversion rate of 83%, biogas yield of 338 mL x (g chemical oxygen demand (COD))(-1) and total solid conversion of 63% when the entire two-phase anaerobic digestion process was subjected to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.7 g x (L d)(-1). In the hydrolysis-acidogenesis process, the efficiency of solubilization decreased from 72.6% to 41.1%, and the acidogenesis efficiency decreased from 31.8% to 17.8% with an increase in the COD loading rate. On the other hand, the performance of the subsequent methanogenic process was not susceptible to the increase in the feeding COD loading rate in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis stage. Lactic acid was one of the main fermentation products, accounting for over 40% of the total soluble COD in the fermentation liquid. The batch experiments indicated that the lactic acid was the earliest predominant fermentation product, and distributions of fermentation products were pH dependent. Results showed that increasing the feeding OLR of kitchen wastes made the two-stage anaerobic digestion process more effective. Moreover, there was a potential improvement in the performance of anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes with a corresponding improvement in the hydrolysis process.

  3. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Karthik Rajendran


    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.

  4. Treatment of Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater in Low Concentration by Two-Stage Ozonization

    Luo, Xianping; Yan, Qun; Wang, Chunying; Luo, Caigui; Zhou, Nana; Jian, Chensheng


    Ammonia nitrogen wastewater (about 100 mg/L) was treated by two-stage ozone oxidation method. The effects of ozone flow rate and initial pH on ammonia removal were studied, and the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal by ozone oxidation was discussed. After the primary stage of ozone oxidation, the ammonia removal efficiency reached 59.32% and pH decreased to 6.63 under conditions of 1 L/min ozone flow rate and initial pH 11. Then, the removal efficiency could be over 85% (the left ammonia concentration was lower than 15 mg/L) after the second stage, which means the wastewater could have met the national discharge standards of China. Besides, the mechanism of ammonia removal by ozone oxidation was proposed by detecting the products of the oxidation: ozone oxidation directly and ·OH oxidation; ammonia was mainly transformed into NO3−-N, less into NO2−-N, not into N2. PMID:26404353


    Xiangtong QI


    This paper studies a two-stage production system with n job orders where each job needs two sequential operations. In addition to the two in-house production facilities, the manufacturer has another option of outsourcing some stage-one operations to a remote outside supplier. The jobs with their stage-one operations outsourced are subject to a batch transportation delay from the outside supplier before their respective stage-two operations can be started in-house. The problem is to design an integrated schedule that considers both the in-house production and the outsourcing with the aim of optimally balancing the outsourcing cost and the makespan. The problem is NP-hard. We have developed an optimal algorithm and a heuristic algorithm to solve the problem, and conducted computational experiments to validate our model and algorithms. Our modeling and algorithm framework can be extended to handle other more general cases such as when the outside supplier has a production facility with a different processing efficiency and when there are many outside suppliers on a spot market.

  6. Two-stage magnetic refrigerator for astronomical applications with reservoir temperatures above 4 K

    Hagmann, C.; Richards, P. L.

    We propose a novel adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to produce temperatures as low as 100 mK starting from a high temperature reservoir between 4 and 8 K. The high temperature reservoir for the ADR can be provided by a mechanical cooler or an unpumped liquid helium bath. This refrigerator can be used to cool bolometric infrared detectors for low background astronomy from mountain tops, balloons or satellites, as well as to cool cryogenic X-ray detectors. The two-stage ADR consists of a single magnet with a paramagnetic chromic caesium alum (CCA) salt pill to produce the low temperature and paramagnetic gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) as the first stage to intercept heat from the high temperature reservoir. Thermal contact between the paramagnets and the reservoir during magnetization is made with a mechanical heat switch. The ADR is suspended with Kevlar cords under tension for high mechanical stiffness and low parasitic heat leak. In a single cycle, the ADR maintains a temperature of 100 mK for 10-100 h. This time depends strongly on the magnetic field and reservoir temperature but not on the volume of the paramagnetic material as long as the heat leak is dominated by the suspension.

  7. Two-stage removal of nitrate from groundwater using biological and chemical treatments.

    Ayyasamy, Pudukadu Munusamy; Shanthi, Kuppusamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Lee, Soon-Jae; Choi, Nag-Choul; Kim, Dong-Ju


    In this study, we attempted to treat groundwater contaminated with nitrate using a two-stage removal system: one is biological treatment using the nitrate-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas sp. RS-7 and the other is chemical treatment using a coagulant. For the biological system, the effect of carbon sources on nitrate removal was first investigated using mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 500 mg l(-1) nitrate to select the most effective carbon source. Among three carbon sources, namely, glucose, starch and cellulose, starch at 1% was found to be the most effective. Thus, starch was used as a representative carbon source for the remaining part of the biological treatment where nitrate removal was carried out for MSM solution and groundwater samples containing 500 mg l(-1) and 460 mg l(-1) nitrate, respectively. About 86% and 89% of nitrate were removed from the MSM solution and groundwater samples, respectively at 72 h. Chemical coagulants such as alum, lime and poly aluminium chloride were tested for the removal of nitrate remaining in the samples. Among the coagulants, lime at 150 mg l(-1) exhibited the highest nitrate removal efficiency with complete disappearance for the MSM solutions. Thus, a combined system of biological and chemical treatments was found to be more effective for the complete removal of nitrate from groundwater.

  8. A two-stage magnetic refrigerator for astronomical applications with reservoir temperatures above 4 K

    Hagmann, C.; Richards, P. L.


    We propose a novel adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to produce temperatures as low as 100 mK starting from a high temperature reservoir between 4 and 8 K. The high temperature reservoir for the ADR can be provided by a mechanical cooler or an unpumped liquid helium bath. This refrigerator can be used to cool bolometric infrared detectors for low background astronomy from mountain tops, balloons or satellites as well as to cool cryogenic x-ray detectors. The two-stage ADR consists of a single magnet with a paramagnetic chromic-cesium-alum (CCA) salt pill to produce the low temperature and paramagnetic gadolinium-gallium-garnet (GGG) as the first stage to intercept heat from the high temperature reservoir. Thermal contact between the paramagnets and the reservoir during magnetization is made with a mechanical heat switch. The ADR is suspended with Kevlar chords under tension for high mechanical stiffness and low parasitic heat leak. In a single cycle, the ADR maintains a temperature of 100 mK for 10 to 100 hours. This time depends strongly on the magnetic field and reservoir temperature but not on the volume of the paramagnetic material as long as the heat leak is dominated by the suspension.

  9. Complex Dynamics of a Continuous Bertrand Duopoly Game Model with Two-Stage Delay

    Junhai Ma


    Full Text Available This paper studies a continuous Bertrand duopoly game model with two-stage delay. Our aim is to investigate the influence of delay and weight on the complex dynamic characteristics of the system. We obtain the bifurcation point of the system respect to delay parameter by calculating. In addition, the dynamic properties of the system are simulated by power spectrum, attractor, bifurcation diagram, the largest Lyapunov exponent, 3D surface chart, 4D Cubic Chart, 2D parameter bifurcation diagram, and 3D parameter bifurcation diagram. The results show that the stability of the system depends on the delay and weight, in order to maintain stability of price and ensure the firm profit, the firms must control the parameters in the reasonable region. Otherwise, the system will lose stability, and even into chaos, which will cause fluctuations in prices, the firms cannot be profitable. Finally, the chaos control of the system is carried out by a control strategy of the state variables’ feedback and parameter variation, which effectively avoid the damage of chaos to the economic system. Therefore, the results of this study have an important practical significance to make decisions with multi-stage delay for oligopoly firms.

  10. An adaptive two-stage energy-efficiency mechanism for the doze mode in EPON

    Nikoukar, AliAkbar; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Su, Yu-Min; Liem, Andrew Tanny


    Sleep and doze power-saving modes are the common ways to reduce power consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in Ethernet passive optical network (EPON). The doze mode turns off the ONU transmitter when there is no traffic in the upstream direction while the sleep mode turns off the ONU transmitter and receiver. As the result, the sleep mode is more efficient compared to the doze mode, but it introduces additional complexity of scheduling and signaling, losses the clock synchronization and requires long clock recovery time; furthermore, it requires the cooperation of the optical line terminal (OLT) in the downstream direction to queue frames. To improve the energy-saving in the doze mode, a new two-stage mechanism is introduced that the doze sleep duration is extended for longer time with acceptable quality-of-services (QoS) metrics when ONU is idle in the current cycle. By this way the ONU enters the doze mode even in the high load traffic; moreover, the green dynamic bandwidth allocation (GBA) is proposed to calculate the doze sleep duration based on the ONU queue state and incoming traffic ratio. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism significantly improves the energy-saving 74% and 54% when traffic load is from the light load to the high load in different traffic situations, and also promises the QoS performance.

  11. Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis.

    Mohamed, A.


    In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results.

  12. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water.

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yu, Wen-zheng; Shen, Ji-min; Gregory, John


    A novel two-stage coagulant addition strategy applied in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (UF) process for treatment of humic-rich water at neutral pH was investigated in this study. When aluminum sulfate (alum) doses were set at a ratio of 3:1 added during rapid mix stage and half way through flocculation stage, the integrated process of two-stage alum addition achieved almost the same organic matter removal as that of conventional one-stage alum addition at the same overall dose. Whereas membrane fouling could be effectively mitigated by the two-stage addition exhibited by trans-membrane pressure (TMP) developments. The TMP developments were found to be primarily attributed to external fouling on membrane surface, which was closely associated with floc characteristics. The results of jar tests indicated that the average size of flocs formed in two-stage addition mode roughly reached one half larger than that in one-stage addition mode, which implied a beneficial effect on membrane fouling reduction. Moreover, the flocs with more irregular structure and lower effective density resulted from the two-stage alum addition, which caused higher porosity of cake layer formed by such flocs on membrane surface. Microscopic observations of membrane surface demonstrated that internal fouling in membrane pores could be also remarkably limited by two-stage alum addition. It is likely that the freshly formed hydroxide precipitates were distinct in surface characteristics from the aged precipitates due to formation of more active groups or adsorption of more labile aluminum species. Consequently, the flocs could further connect and aggregate to contribute to preferable properties for filtration performance of the coagulation-UF process. As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes.

  13. Considerations Regarding Age at Surgery and Fistula Incidence Using One- and Two-stage Closure for Cleft Palate

    Simona Stoicescu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Although cleft lip and palate (CLP is one of the most common congenital malformations, occurring in 1 in 700 live births, there is still no generally accepted treatment protocol. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for cleft palate repair; these techniques can be divided into one-stage (one operation cleft palate repair and two-stage cleft palate closure. The aim of this study is to present our cleft palate team experience in using the two-stage cleft palate closure and the clinical outcomes in terms of oronasal fistula rate. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 80 patients who underwent palate repair over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. All cleft palate patients were incorporated. Information on patient’s gender, cleft type, age at repair, one- or two-stage cleft palate repair were collected and analyzed. Results: Fifty-three (66% and twenty-seven (34% patients underwent two-stage and one-stage repair, respectively. According to Veau classification, more than 60% of them were Veau III and IV, associating cleft lip to cleft palate. Fistula occurred in 34% of the two-stage repairs versus 7% of one-stage repairs, with an overall incidence of 24%. Conclusions: Our study has shown that a two-stage cleft palate closure has a higher rate of fistula formation when compared with the one-stage repair. Two-stage repair is the protocol of choice in wide complete cleft lip and palate cases, while one-stage procedure is a good option for cleft palate alone, or some specific cleft lip and palate cases (narrow cleft palate, older age at surgery

  14. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  15. Operation of a two-stage fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from organic waste.

    Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Hisatomo; Goto, Masafumi


    A pilot-scale experimental plant for the production of hydrogen and methane by a two-stage fermentation process was constructed and operated using a mixture of pulverized garbage and shredded paper wastes. Thermophilic hydrogen fermentation was established at 60 degrees C in the first bioreactor by inoculating with seed microflora. Following the hydrogenogenic process, methanogenesis in the second bioreactor was conducted at 55 degrees C using an internal recirculation packed-bed reactor (IRPR). After conducting steady-state operations under a few selected conditions, the overall hydraulic retention time was optimized at 8 d (hydrogenogenesis, 1.2 d; methanogenesis, 6.8 d), producing 5.4 m3/m3/d of hydrogen and 6.1 m3/m3/d of methane with chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solid removal efficiencies of 79.3% and 87.8%, respectively. Maximum hydrogen production yield was calculated to be 2.4 mol/mol hexose and 56 L/kg COD loaded. The methanogenic performance of the IRPR was stable, although the organic loading rate and the composition of the effluent from the hydrogenogenic process fluctuated substantially. A clone library analysis of the microflora in the hydrogenogenic reactor indicated that hydrogen-producing Thermoanaerobacterium-related organisms in the inoculum were active in the hydrogen fermentation of garbage and paper wastes, although no aseptic operations were applied. We speculate that the operation at high temperature and the inoculation of thermophiles enabled the selective growth of the introduced microorganisms and gave hydrogen fermentation efficiencies comparable to laboratory experiments. This is the first report on fermentative production of hydrogen and methane from organic waste at an actual level.

  16. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning: electrophysiological evidence for a two-stage process.

    Hamamé, Carlos M; Cosmelli, Diego; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Aboitiz, Francisco


    Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d') and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP) components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.

  17. An evaluation of a two-stage spiral processing ultrafine bituminous coal

    Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering


    Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a multistage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating ultrafine bituminous coal. This spiral mimics a two-stage separation in that the refuse is removed after four turns, and the clean coal and middlings are repulped (without water addition) and then separated in the final three turns. Feed samples were collected from the spiral circuit of a coal cleaning plant located in southwestern Pennsylvania. The samples consisted of undeslimed cyclone feed (nominal -0.15 mm) and deslimed spiral feed (nominal 0.15 x 0.053 mm). Testing was carried out to investigate the effects of slurry flow rate and solids concentration on spiral performance. Detailed size and ash analyses were performed on the spiral feed and product samples. For selected tests, float-sink and sulfur analyses were performed. In nearly all cases, ash reduction occurred down to approximately 0.025 mm, with some sulfur reduction occurring even in the -0.025 mm interval. The separation of the +0.025 mm material was not significantly affected by the presence of the -0.025 mm material when treating the undeslimed feed. The -0.025 mm material split in approximately the same ratio as the slurry, and the majority of the water traveled to the clean coal stream. This split ultimately increased the overall clean coal ash value. A statistical analysis determined that both flow rate and solids concentration affected the clean coal ash value and yield, though the flow rate had a greater effect on the separation. 23 refs.

  18. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.


    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  19. Two-stage crystallization of charged colloids under low supersaturation conditions.

    Kratzer, Kai; Arnold, Axel


    We report simulations on the homogeneous liquid-fcc nucleation of charged colloids for both low and high contact energy values. As a precursor for crystal formation, we observe increased local order at the position where the crystal will form, but no correlations with the local density. Thus, the nucleation is driven by order fluctuations rather than density fluctuations. Our results also show that the transition involves two stages in both cases, first a transition of liquid → bcc, followed by a bcc → hcp/fcc transition. Both transitions have to overcome free energy barriers, so that a spherical bcc-like cluster is formed first, in which the final fcc structure is nucleated mainly at the surface of the crystallite. This means that the second stage bcc-fcc phase transition is a heterogeneous nucleation in the partially grown solid phase, even though we start from a homogeneous bulk liquid. The height of the bcc → hcp/fcc free energy barrier strongly depends on the contact energies of the colloids. For low contact energy this barrier is low, so that the bcc → hcp/fcc transition occurs spontaneously. For the higher contact energy, the second barrier is too high to be crossed spontaneously by the colloidal system. However, it was possible to ratchet the system over the second barrier and to transform the bcc nuclei into the stable hcp/fcc phase. The transitions are dominated by the first liquid-bcc transition and can be described by classical nucleation theory using an effective surface tension.

  20. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil


    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality.


    A. Kiselev Mikhail


    Full Text Available The experience of developing unmanned fighting vehicles indicates that the main challenge in this field reduces itself to creating the systems which can replace the pilot both as a sensor and as the operator of the flight. This problem can be partial- ly solved by introducing remote control, but there are certain flight segments where it can only be executed under fully inde- pendent control and data support due to various reasons, such as tight time, short duration, lack of robust communication, etc. Such stages also include close-range air combat maneuvering (CRACM - a key flight segment as far as the fighter's purpose is concerned, which also places the highest demands on the fighter's design. Until recently the creation of an unmanned fighter airplane has been a fundamentally impossible task due to the absence of sensors able to provide the necessary data support to control the fighter during CRACM. However, the development prospects of aircraft hardware (passive type flush antennae, op- tico-locating panoramic view stations are indicative of producing possible solutions to this problem in the nearest future. There- fore, presently the only fundamental impediment on the way to developing an unmanned fighting aircraft is the problem of cre- ating algorithms for automatic trajectory control during CRACM. This paper presents the strategy of automatic trajectory con- trol synthesis by a two-stage dynamic system aiming to reach the conditions specified with respect to an object in pursuit. It contains certain results of control algorithm parameters impact assessment in regards to the pursuit mission effectiveness. Based on the obtained results a deduction is drawn pertaining to the efficiency of the offered method and its possible utilization in au- tomated control of an unmanned fighting aerial vehicle as well as organizing group interaction during CRACM.

  2. Two-stage re-estimation adaptive design: a simulation study

    Francesca Galli


    Full Text Available Background: adaptive clinical trial design has been proposed as a promising new approach to improve the drug discovery process. Among the many options available, adaptive sample size re-estimation is of great interest mainly because of its ability to avoid a large ‘up-front’ commitment of resources. In this simulation study, we investigate the statistical properties of two-stage sample size re-estimation designs in terms of type I error control, study power and sample size, in comparison with the fixed-sample study.Methods: we simulated a balanced two-arm trial aimed at comparing two means of normally distributed data, using the inverse normal method to combine the results of each stage, and considering scenarios jointly defined by the following factors: the sample size re-estimation method, the information fraction, the type of group sequential boundaries and the use of futility stopping. Calculations were performed using the statistical software SAS™ (version 9.2.Results: under the null hypothesis, any type of adaptive design considered maintained the prefixed type I error rate, but futility stopping was required to avoid the unwanted increase in sample size. When deviating from the null hypothesis, the gain in power usually achieved with the adaptive design and its performance in terms of sample size were influenced by the specific design options considered.Conclusions: we show that adaptive designs incorporating futility stopping, a sufficiently high information fraction (50-70% and the conditional power method for sample size re-estimation have good statistical properties, which include a gain in power when trial results are less favourable than anticipated. 

  3. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  4. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Bogdanoff, D. W.


    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  5. Enhancement of pyruvate production by Torulopsis glabrata using a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy.

    Li, Y; Hugenholtz, J; Chen, J; Lun, S-Y


    The effect of agitation speeds on the performance of producing pyruvate by a multi-vitamin auxotrophic yeast, Torulopsis glabrata, was investigated in batch fermentation. High pyruvate yield on glucose (0.797 g g(-1)) was achieved under high agitation speed (700 rpm), but the glucose consumption rate was rather low (1.14 g l(-1) h(-1)). Glucose consumption was enhanced under low agitation speed (500 rpm), but the pyruvate yield on glucose decreased to 0.483 g g(-1). Glycerol production was observed under low agitation speed and decreased with increasing agitation speed. Based on process analysis and carbon flux distribution calculation, a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy was proposed, in which the agitation speed was controlled at 700 rpm in the first 16 h and then switched to 500 rpm. This was experimentally proven to be successful. Relatively high concentration of pyruvate (69.4 g l(-1)), high pyruvate yield on glucose (0.636 g g(-1)), and high glucose consumption rate (1.95 g l(-1)h(-1)) were achieved by applying this strategy. The productivity (1.24 g l(-1) h(-1)) was improved by 36%, 23% and 31%, respectively, compared with fermentations in which agitation speeds were kept constant at 700 rpm, 600 rpm, and 500 rpm. Experimental results indicate that the difference between the performances for producing pyruvate under a favorable state of oxygen supply (dissolved oxygen concentration >50%) was caused by the different regeneration pathways of NADH generated from glycolysis.

  6. End-wall boundary layer measurements in a two-stage fan

    Ball, C. L.; Reid, L.; Schmidt, J. F.


    Detailed flow measurements made in the casing boundary layer of a two-stage transonic fan are summarized. These measurements were taken at stations upstream of the fan, between all blade rows, and downstream of the last blade row. At the design tip speed of 429 m/sec the fan achieved a peak efficiency of 0.846 at a pressure ratio of 2.471. The boundary layer data were obtained at three weight flows at the design speed: one near choke flow, one near peak efficiency, and one near stall. Conventional boundary layer parameters were calculated from the data measured at each measuring station for each of the three flows. A classical two dimensional casing boundary layer was measured at the fan inlet and extended inward to approximately 15 percent of span. A highly three dimensional boundary layer was measured at the exit of each blade row and extended inward to approximately 10 percent of span. The steep radial gradient of axial velocity noted at the exit of the rotors was reduced substantially as the flow passed through the stators. This reduced gradient is attributed to flow mixing. The amount of flow mixing was reflected in the radial redistribution of total temperature as the flow passed through the stators. The data also show overturning of the tip flow at the stator exits that is consistent with the expected effect of the secondary flow field. The blockage factors calculated from the measured data show an increase in blockage across the rotors and a decrease across the stators.

  7. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H


    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  8. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning: electrophysiological evidence for a two-stage process.

    Carlos M Hamamé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d' and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz and alpha (8-14 Hz frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.

  9. Study of high power, two-stage, TWT X-band amplifier

    Wang, P.; Golkowski, C.; Hayashi, Y.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L.


    A disk loaded slow wave structure with a cold wave phase (without electron beam) velocity of the TM{sub 01} wave greater than the speed of light (1.05c) is used as the electron bunching stage of a two stage X-band amplifier. The high phase velocity section produces well defined electron bunches. The second section, where the cold wave phase velocity is (0.84c), i.e., less than beam velocity of 0.91c, is used to generate the high output power microwave radiation. The tightly bunched beam from the high phase velocity section enhances the beam energy conversion into microwave radiation compared to that obtained with a synchronous electron-wave bunches. The amplifier is driven by a 7mm diameter 750 kV, 500A pencil electron beam. The structure, which has a 4 GHz bandwidth, produces an amplified output with a power in the range of 20--60 MW. At higher output powers (>60MW) pulse shortening develops. The authors suspect that the pulse shortening is a result of excitation of the hybrid mode, HEM{sub 11}, which overlaps (about 0.5 GHz separation) with the frequency domain of the desired TM{sub 0.1} mode. A new amplifier with similar phase velocity characteristics but with a 1 GHz bandwidth and an HEM{sub 11}, TM{sub 01} mode frequency separation of 3.3 GHz has been designed and constructed. The interaction frequency for the HEM mode is above the passband of the TM mode. Testing is in progress. The performance of the new amplifier will be compared with results obtained using the earlier configuration.

  10. The influence of Thomson effect in the performance optimization of a two stage thermoelectric cooler

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.


    The exoreversible and irreversible thermodynamic models of a two stage thermoelectric cooler (TTEC) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects have been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for the interstage temperature, optimum current for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of a TTEC are derived as well. The number of thermocouples in the first and second stages of a TTEC for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions are optimized. The results show that the exergy efficiency is lower than the energy efficiency e.g., in an irreversible TTEC with total 30 thermocouples, heat sink temperature (TH) of 300 K and heat source temperature (TC) of 280 K, the obtained maximum cooling power, maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 20.37 W, 0.7147 and 5.10% respectively. It has been found that the Thomson effect increases the cooling power and energy efficiency of the TTEC system e.g., in the exoreversible TTEC the cooling power and energy efficiency increased from 14.87 W to 16.36 W and from 0.4079 to 0.4998 respectively for ΔTC of 40 K when Thomson effect is considered. It has also been found that the heat transfer area at the hot side of an irreversible TTEC should be higher than the cold side for maximum performance operation. This study will help in the designing of the actual multistage thermoelectric cooling systems.

  11. Hearing sensitivity in adults with a unilateral cleft lip and palate after two-stage palatoplasty.

    Kappen, I F P M; Schreinemakers, J B S; Oomen, K P Q; Bittermann, D; Kon, M; Breugem, C C; Mink van der Molen, A B


    To evaluate long-term hearing and middle ear status in patients treated for a unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by two-stage palatoplasty. Forty-nine UCLP patients aged 17 years and older were included in this retrospective study. Patients were invited for a multidisciplinary long-term follow-up of their treatment at a tertiary center for craniofacial surgery in the Netherlands. ENT assessment included tympanometry and pure-tone audiometry. Medical files were searched for medical and surgical history. In total, 19.4% of the patients had significant long-term hearing loss (PTA > 20 dB), comprising conductive hearing loss in 21.5% of the patients. In the majority (70%), this hearing loss was more pronounced at higher frequencies. In 25% the high fletcher index showed hearing thresholds above 20 dB. Ventilation tubes were placed at least once in 78.7% of the patients. The frequency of tube insertion was positively correlated with the incidence of reduced tympanic compliance (tympanogram type B) and the need for a pharyngoplasty. The present study reports long-term hearing outcomes in UCLP patients with hard palate closure at 3 years of age. Persistent hearing loss was observed in 19.4% of our patients (PTA > 20 dB), mainly at the higher frequencies. Ventilation tube placement was associated with reduced tympanic compliance and higher risk on hearing loss (PTA air conduction). Our high incidence of velopharyngeal incompetence during early childhood, which is likely associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction, might have contributed to these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process.

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini


    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single-stage methanogenic process (HRT 15 d) under organic loading rate (OLR) 3 gVS/(L d). The two-stage process was still stable when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gVS/(Ld), while the single-stage process failed. The study further revealed that by changing the HRT(hydrogen):HRT(methane) ratio of the two-stage process from 3:12 to 1:14, 6.7%, more energy could be obtained. Microbial community analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were different in the hydrogen reactors (Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum-like species) and methane reactors (Clostridium thermocellum-like species). The changes of substrates and HRT did not change the dominant species. The archaeal community structures in methane reactors were similar both in single- and two- stage reactors, with acetoclastic methanogens Methanosarcina acetivorans-like organisms as the dominant species.

  13. Probability Aggregates in Probability Answer Set Programming

    Saad, Emad


    Probability answer set programming is a declarative programming that has been shown effective for representing and reasoning about a variety of probability reasoning tasks. However, the lack of probability aggregates, e.g. {\\em expected values}, in the language of disjunctive hybrid probability logic programs (DHPP) disallows the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DHPP to allow arbitrary probability aggregates. We introduce two types of p...

  14. Description of two-stage processes in reactions of nucleon and cluster knock out by medium-energy protons on the basis of the effective t-matrix

    Vdovin, A.I.; Golovin, A.V.; Loshchakov, I.I.


    We propose to calculate the amplitude for the two-stage processes in reactions of nucleon and cluster knock out from light nuclei by medium-energy protons as a coherent sum of amplitudes of the probability of the quasielastic pp (or px) interaction and of inelastic proton scattering by the target nucleus with formation of excited states of the intermediate nucleus and with their subsequent decay with emission of a nucleon or a particle x. The reaction matrix element is calculated on the basis of the t-matrix distorted-wave approximation. All functions entering into the matrix element are given analytically, which allows the analytic calculation of multidimensional integrals entering into the matrix element. The calculations of the energy spectra of protons carried out with this model are in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi


    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  16. A two-stage approach for improved prediction of residue contact maps

    Pollastri Gianluca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein topology representations such as residue contact maps are an important intermediate step towards ab initio prediction of protein structure. Although improvements have occurred over the last years, the problem of accurately predicting residue contact maps from primary sequences is still largely unsolved. Among the reasons for this are the unbalanced nature of the problem (with far fewer examples of contacts than non-contacts, the formidable challenge of capturing long-range interactions in the maps, the intrinsic difficulty of mapping one-dimensional input sequences into two-dimensional output maps. In order to alleviate these problems and achieve improved contact map predictions, in this paper we split the task into two stages: the prediction of a map's principal eigenvector (PE from the primary sequence; the reconstruction of the contact map from the PE and primary sequence. Predicting the PE from the primary sequence consists in mapping a vector into a vector. This task is less complex than mapping vectors directly into two-dimensional matrices since the size of the problem is drastically reduced and so is the scale length of interactions that need to be learned. Results We develop architectures composed of ensembles of two-layered bidirectional recurrent neural networks to classify the components of the PE in 2, 3 and 4 classes from protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity interaction scales. Our predictor, tested on a non redundant set of 2171 proteins, achieves classification performances of up to 72.6%, 16% above a base-line statistical predictor. We design a system for the prediction of contact maps from the predicted PE. Our results show that predicting maps through the PE yields sizeable gains especially for long-range contacts which are particularly critical for accurate protein 3D reconstruction. The final predictor's accuracy on a non-redundant set of 327 targets is 35

  17. Two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages

    Cooper David G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages was developed. The first stage, containing only the uninfected host bacterium, was operated under self-cycling fermentation (SCF conditions. This automated method, using the derivative of the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER as the control parameter, led to the synchronization of the host bacterium. The second stage, containing both the host and the phage, was operated using self-cycling infection (SCI with CER and CER-derived data as the control parameters. When each infection cycle was terminated, phages were harvested and a new infection cycle was initiated by adding host cells from the SCF (first stage. This was augmented with fresh medium and the small amount of phages left from the previous cycle initiated the next infection cycle. Both stages were operated independently, except for this short period of time when the SCF harvest was added to the SCI to initiate the next cycle. Results It was demonstrated that this mode of operation resulted in stable infection cycles if the growth of the host cells in the SCF was synchronized. The final phage titers obtained were reproducible among cycles and were as good as those obtained in batch productions performed under the same conditions (medium, temperature, initial multiplicity of infection, etc.. Moreover, phages obtained in different cycles showed no important difference in infectivity. Finally, it was shown that cell synchronization of the host cells in the first stage (SCF not only maintained the volumetric productivity (phages per volume but also led to higher specific productivity (phage per cell per hour in the second stage (SCI. Conclusions Production of bacteriophage T4 in the semi-continuous, automated SCF/SCI system was efficient and reproducible from cycle to cycle. Synchronization of the host in the first stage prior to infection led to improvements in the specific productivity of phages in

  18. Synthetic control charts with two-stage sampling for monitoring bivariate processes

    Antonio F. B. Costa


    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the synthetic control chart with two-stage sampling (SyTS chart to control bivariate processes. During the first stage, one item of the sample is inspected and two correlated quality characteristics (x;y are measured. If the Hotelling statistic T1² for these individual observations of (x;y is lower than a specified value UCL1 the sampling is interrupted. Otherwise, the sampling goes on to the second stage, where the remaining items are inspected and the Hotelling statistic T2² for the sample means of (x;y is computed. When the statistic T2² is larger than a specified value UCL2, the sample is classified as nonconforming. According to the synthetic control chart procedure, the signal is based on the number of conforming samples between two neighbor nonconforming samples. The proposed chart detects process disturbances faster than the bivariate charts with variable sample size and it is from the practical viewpoint more convenient to administer.Este artigo apresenta um gráfico de controle com regra especial de decisão e amostragens em dois estágios para o monitoramento de processos bivariados. No primeiro estágio, um item da amostra é inspecionado e duas características de qualidade correlacionadas (x;y são medidas. Se a estatística de Hotelling T1² para as observações individuais de (x;y for menor que um valor especificado UCL1 a amostragem é interrompida. Caso contrário, a amostragem segue para o segundo estágio, onde os demais itens da amostra são inspecionados e a estatística de Hotelling T2² para as médias de (x;y é calculada. Quando a estatística T2² é maior que um valor especificado UCL2, a amostra é classificada como não conforme. De acordo com a regra especial de decisão, o alarme é baseado no número de amostras entre duas não conformes. O gráfico proposto é mais ágil e mais simples do ponto de vista operacional que o gráfico de controle bivariado com tamanho de amostras variável.

  19. A two-stage pretreatment approach to maximise sugar yield and enhance reactive lignin recovery from poplar wood chips.

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Chandra, R P; Saddler, J N


    A two-stage pretreatment approach, employing steam followed by organosolv treatment, was assessed for its ability to fractionate and recover most of the hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose components of poplar wood chips. A mild steaming stage was initially used to maximise hemicellulose sugar recovery, with 63% of the original xylan solubilised and recovered after this stage and close to 90% recovered in total. Rather than hindering subsequent organosolv delignification, the prior steam treatment enhanced lignin solubilisation with more than 66% of the original lignin removed after the two-stage pretreatment. The extracted lignin contained at least equal or greater amounts of functional groups as compared to the lignin solubilised after a single-stage organosolv pretreatment. More than 98% of the original cellulose was recovered after the two-stage pretreatment and 88% of the cellulose could be hydrolysed to glucose at enzyme loading of 5FPU/g cellulose after 72h.


    Jung Myoung Lee


    Full Text Available Coastal Bermuda grass (CBG is an agricultural residue with considerable potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic-based ethanol. The treatment of biomass with water at high temperature, termed autohydrolysis, can be used to recover sugars in the filtrate and to improve enzyme digestibility of the pretreated solids. The effect of a two- stage autohydrolysis process with respect to total sugar recovery relative to a one stage process was investigated. CBG was subjected to lab scale one-stage (150, 160, and 170 C and two-stage (150/170 C and 160/170 C isothermal autohydrolysis processes followed by enzyme hydrolysis on the residual solids with different loadings (5 to 30 FPU/g. Two-stage autohydrolysis (160/170 C solubilized 94.2% of the hemicellulose based on the original CBG material but only 17.7% of the cellulose and 30.4% of the lignin. Increases in the severity factor (a combination of time and temperature of autohydrolysis pretreatments decreased the recoverable carbohydrates and total solids. Two-stage autohydrolysis enhanced enzyme digestibility of the cellulose in pretreated solids relative to one-stage autohydrolysis, especially at higher values of FPU/g. The overall total theoretical sugar recovery achievable by the two stage process was 57.8% and for the one stage process only 51.6% with 30 FPU/g. This marginal increase would have to be considered relative to increased complexity of operations when deciding whether to implement one or two stage autohydrolysis.

  1. Effect of ammoniacal nitrogen on one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Scotto Di Perta, Ester [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Panico, Antonio [Telematic University PEGASO, Piazza Trieste e Trento, 48, 80132 Naples (Italy); Frunzo, Luigi [Department of Mathematics and Applications Renato Caccioppoli, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Pirozzi, Francesco [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)


    Highlights: • Almost 100% of the biomethane potential of food waste was recovered during AD in a two-stage CSTR. • Recirculation of the liquid fraction of the digestate provided the necessary buffer in the AD reactors. • A higher OLR (0.9 gVS/L·d) led to higher accumulation of TAN, which caused more toxicity. • A two-stage reactor is more sensitive to elevated concentrations of ammonia. • The IC{sub 50} of TAN for the AD of food waste amounts to 3.8 g/L. - Abstract: This research compares the operation of one-stage and two-stage anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems fed semi-continuously with food waste. The main purpose was to investigate the effects of ammoniacal nitrogen on the anaerobic digestion process. The two-stage system gave more reliable operation compared to one-stage due to: (i) a better pH self-adjusting capacity; (ii) a higher resistance to organic loading shocks; and (iii) a higher conversion rate of organic substrate to biomethane. Also a small amount of biohydrogen was detected from the first stage of the two-stage reactor making this system attractive for biohythane production. As the digestate contains ammoniacal nitrogen, re-circulating it provided the necessary alkalinity in the systems, thus preventing an eventual failure by volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. However, re-circulation also resulted in an ammonium accumulation, yielding a lower biomethane production. Based on the batch experimental results the 50% inhibitory concentration of total ammoniacal nitrogen on the methanogenic activities was calculated as 3.8 g/L, corresponding to 146 mg/L free ammonia for the inoculum used for this research. The two-stage system was affected by the inhibition more than the one-stage system, as it requires less alkalinity and the physically separated methanogens are more sensitive to inhibitory factors, such as ammonium and propionic acid.

  2. A cause and effect two-stage BSC-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency of organizations

    Seyed Esmaeel Najafi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration of balanced score card (BSE with two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA. The proposed model of this paper uses different financial and non-financial perspectives to evaluate the performance of decision making units in different BSC stages. At each stage, a two-stage DEA method is implemented to measure the relative efficiency of decision making units and the results are monitored using the cause and effect relationships. An empirical study for a banking sector is also performed using the method developed in this paper and the results are briefly analyzed.

  3. First Law Analysis of a Two-stage Ejector-vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle working with R404A

    Feiza Memet


    Full Text Available The traditional two-stage vapor compression refrigeration cycle might be replaced by a two-stage ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle if it is aimed the decrease of irreversibility during expansion. In this respect, the expansion valve is changed with an ejector. The performance improvement is searched in the case of choosing R404A as a refrigerant. Using the ejector as an expansion device ensures a higher value for COP compared to the traditional case. On the basis of the ejector approach it possible to identify the highest COP value for a given condensation temperature, when the evaporation temperature varies.

  4. Scaling Qualitative Probability

    Burgin, Mark


    There are different approaches to qualitative probability, which includes subjective probability. We developed a representation of qualitative probability based on relational systems, which allows modeling uncertainty by probability structures and is more coherent than existing approaches. This setting makes it possible proving that any comparative probability is induced by some probability structure (Theorem 2.1), that classical probability is a probability structure (Theorem 2.2) and that i...

  5. Stably stratified magnetized stars in general relativity

    Yoshida, Shijun; Shibata, Masaru


    We construct magnetized stars composed of a fluid stably stratified by entropy gradients in the framework of general relativity, assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics and employing a barotropic equation of state. We first revisit basic equations for describing stably-stratified stationary axisymmetric stars containing both poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. As sample models, the magnetized stars considered by Ioka and Sasaki (2004), inside which the magnetic fields are confined, are modified to the ones stably stratified. The magnetized stars newly constructed in this study are believed to be more stable than the existing relativistic models because they have both poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields with comparable strength, and magnetic buoyancy instabilities near the surface of the star, which can be stabilized by the stratification, are suppressed.

  6. Thermals in stratified regions of the ISM

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary


    We present a model of a "thermal" (i.e., a hot bubble) rising within an exponentially stratified region of the ISM. This model includes terms representing the ram pressure braking and the entrainment of environmental gas into the thermal. We then calibrate the free parameters associated with these two terms through a comparison with 3D numerical simulations of a rising bubble. Finally, we apply our "thermal" model to the case of a hot bubble produced by a SN within the stratified ISM of the Galactic disk.

  7. On Stratified Vortex Motions under Gravity.


    AD-A156 930 ON STRATIFIED VORTEX MOTIONS UNDER GRAVITY (U) NAVAL i/i RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC Y T FUNG 20 JUN 85 NRL-MIR-5564 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 20/4...Under Gravity LCn * Y. T. Fung Fluid Dynamics Branch - Marine Technologyv Division June 20, 1985 SO Cyk. NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Washington, D.C...DN880-019 TITLE (Include Security Classification) On Stratified Vortex Motions Under Gravity 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Funa, Y.T. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b

  8. Mixing by microorganisms in stratified fluids

    Wagner, Gregory L; Lauga, Eric


    We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P\\'eclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, $\\eta$, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates $\\eta$ in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, $a$, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, $\\ell = \\left ( \


    A. Rodríguez-González


    Full Text Available We present a model of a “thermal” (i.e., a hot bubble rising within an exponentially stratified region of the ISM. This model includes terms representing the ram pressure braking and the entrainment of environmental gas into the thermal. We then calibrate the free parameters associated with these two terms through a comparison with 3D numerical simulations of a rising bubble. Finally, we apply our “thermal” model to the case of a hot bubble produced by a SN within the stratified ISM of the Galactic disk.

  10. A two-stage method for microcalcification cluster segmentation in mammography by deformable models

    Arikidis, N.; Kazantzi, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Karahaliou, A.; Costaridou, L., E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Vassiou, K. [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41500 (Greece)


    Purpose: Segmentation of microcalcification (MC) clusters in x-ray mammography is a difficult task for radiologists. Accurate segmentation is prerequisite for quantitative image analysis of MC clusters and subsequent feature extraction and classification in computer-aided diagnosis schemes. Methods: In this study, a two-stage semiautomated segmentation method of MC clusters is investigated. The first stage is targeted to accurate and time efficient segmentation of the majority of the particles of a MC cluster, by means of a level set method. The second stage is targeted to shape refinement of selected individual MCs, by means of an active contour model. Both methods are applied in the framework of a rich scale-space representation, provided by the wavelet transform at integer scales. Segmentation reliability of the proposed method in terms of inter and intraobserver agreements was evaluated in a case sample of 80 MC clusters originating from the digital database for screening mammography, corresponding to 4 morphology types (punctate: 22, fine linear branching: 16, pleomorphic: 18, and amorphous: 24) of MC clusters, assessing radiologists’ segmentations quantitatively by two distance metrics (Hausdorff distance—HDIST{sub cluster}, average of minimum distance—AMINDIST{sub cluster}) and the area overlap measure (AOM{sub cluster}). The effect of the proposed segmentation method on MC cluster characterization accuracy was evaluated in a case sample of 162 pleomorphic MC clusters (72 malignant and 90 benign). Ten MC cluster features, targeted to capture morphologic properties of individual MCs in a cluster (area, major length, perimeter, compactness, and spread), were extracted and a correlation-based feature selection method yielded a feature subset to feed in a support vector machine classifier. Classification performance of the MC cluster features was estimated by means of the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az ± Standard Error) utilizing

  11. A New Cost-Effective Multi-Drive Solution based on a Two-Stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede


    of a protection circuit involving twelve diodes with full voltage/current ratings used only during faulty situations, makes this topology not so attractive. Lately, two stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion (DPEC) topologies have been proposed, providing similar functionality as a matrix converter but allowing...

  12. Using Errors to Teach through a Two-Staged, Structured Review: Peer-Reviewed Quizzes and "What's Wrong with Me?"

    Coppola, Brian P.; Pontrello, Jason K.


    Using errors as a method of learning has been made explicit through a two-staged peer review and discussion. During organic chemistry discussion sessions, quizzes are followed by a structured peer review designed to help students identify and discuss student errors. After the face-to-face discussion, a second stage of review involves analyzing and…

  13. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    Heijdenrijk, Kees


    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  14. Modelling of two-stage anaerobic digestion using the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1).

    Blumensaat, F; Keller, J


    The aim of the study presented was to implement a process model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a pilot-scale process for anaerobic two-stage digestion of sewage sludge. The model implemented was initiated to support experimental investigations of the anaerobic two-stage digestion process. The model concept implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink is a derivative of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) that has been developed by the IWA task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic processes. In the present study the original model concept has been adapted and applied to replicate a two-stage digestion process. Testing procedures, including balance checks and 'benchmarking' tests were carried out to verify the accuracy of the implementation. These combined measures ensured a faultless model implementation without numerical inconsistencies. Parameters for both, the thermophilic and the mesophilic process stage, have been estimated successfully using data from lab-scale experiments described in literature. Due to the high number of parameters in the structured model, it was necessary to develop a customised procedure that limited the range of parameters to be estimated. The accuracy of the optimised parameter sets has been assessed against experimental data from pilot-scale experiments. Under these conditions, the model predicted reasonably well the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage digestion process in pilot scale.

  15. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  16. Research on Two-channel Interleaved Two-stage Paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter for Plasma Cutting Power Supply

    Yang, Xi-jun; Qu, Hao; Yao, Chen


    As for high power plasma power supply, due to high efficiency and flexibility, multi-channel interleaved multi-stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter becomes the first choice. In the paper, two-channel interleaved two- stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter powered by three-phase AC power supply...

  17. A Two-Stage Multi-Agent Based Assessment Approach to Enhance Students' Learning Motivation through Negotiated Skills Assessment

    Chadli, Abdelhafid; Bendella, Fatima; Tranvouez, Erwan


    In this paper we present an Agent-based evaluation approach in a context of Multi-agent simulation learning systems. Our evaluation model is based on a two stage assessment approach: (1) a Distributed skill evaluation combining agents and fuzzy sets theory; and (2) a Negotiation based evaluation of students' performance during a training…

  18. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  19. Comparative evaluation of the intermediate systems employed in two-stage refrigeration cycles driven by compound compressors

    Cabello, R.; Llopis, R.; Sanchez, D. [Jaume I University, Dep. of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Torrella, E. [Polytechnic University of Valencia, Dep. of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)


    This work presents an experimental evaluation, from an energy analysis point of view, for two of the most used inter-stage systems in two-stage vapour compression cycles driven by compound compressors: the direct liquid injection and subcooler systems. The evaluation considers the two-stage cycle with no intermediate systems as reference cycle, and was performed on a plant driven by a compound compressor using the refrigerant R404A for an evaporating temperature range of -36 to -20 C and for a condensing temperature range of 30-47 C. The analysis of the results shows that the inter-stage systems determine the performance of the energy parameters, which are discussed in the paper. The configuration yielding the best results was the two-stage compression cycle with subcooler, since the cooling capacity and COP values for this configuration were the highest. Conversely, the two-stage compression cycle working with direct liquid injection showed lower performance from an energy point of view, though this configuration allows a substantial reduction of the discharge temperature. (author)

  20. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    Heijdenrijk, Kees


    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  1. Meta-analysis using individual participant data: one-stage and two-stage approaches, and why they may differ.

    Burke, Danielle L; Ensor, Joie; Riley, Richard D


    Meta-analysis using individual participant data (IPD) obtains and synthesises the raw, participant-level data from a set of relevant studies. The IPD approach is becoming an increasingly popular tool as an alternative to traditional aggregate data meta-analysis, especially as it avoids reliance on published results and provides an opportunity to investigate individual-level interactions, such as treatment-effect modifiers. There are two statistical approaches for conducting an IPD meta-analysis: one-stage and two-stage. The one-stage approach analyses the IPD from all studies simultaneously, for example, in a hierarchical regression model with random effects. The two-stage approach derives aggregate data (such as effect estimates) in each study separately and then combines these in a traditional meta-analysis model. There have been numerous comparisons of the one-stage and two-stage approaches via theoretical consideration, simulation and empirical examples, yet there remains confusion regarding when each approach should be adopted, and indeed why they may differ. In this tutorial paper, we outline the key statistical methods for one-stage and two-stage IPD meta-analyses, and provide 10 key reasons why they may produce different summary results. We explain that most differences arise because of different modelling assumptions, rather than the choice of one-stage or two-stage itself. We illustrate the concepts with recently published IPD meta-analyses, summarise key statistical software and provide recommendations for future IPD meta-analyses. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Jianhua Wang


    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  3. Evaluation of a Two-Stage Approach in Trans-Ethnic Meta-Analysis in Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Hong, Jaeyoung; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dupuis, Josée; Liu, Ching-Ti


    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has achieved great success in detecting loci underlying human diseases. Incorporating GWAS results from diverse ethnic populations for meta-analysis, however, remains challenging because of the possible heterogeneity across studies. Conventional fixed-effects (FE) or random-effects (RE) methods may not be most suitable to aggregate multiethnic GWAS results because of violation of the homogeneous effect assumption across studies (FE) or low power to detect signals (RE). Three recently proposed methods, modified RE (RE-HE) model, binary-effects (BE) model and a Bayesian approach (Meta-analysis of Transethnic Association [MANTRA]), show increased power over FE and RE methods while incorporating heterogeneity of effects when meta-analyzing trans-ethnic GWAS results. We propose a two-stage approach to account for heterogeneity in trans-ethnic meta-analysis in which we clustered studies with cohort-specific ancestry information prior to meta-analysis. We compare this to a no-prior-clustering (crude) approach, evaluating type I error and power of these two strategies, in an extensive simulation study to investigate whether the two-stage approach offers any improvements over the crude approach. We find that the two-stage approach and the crude approach for all five methods (FE, RE, RE-HE, BE, MANTRA) provide well-controlled type I error. However, the two-stage approach shows increased power for BE and RE-HE, and similar power for MANTRA and FE compared to their corresponding crude approach, especially when there is heterogeneity across the multiethnic GWAS results. These results suggest that prior clustering in the two-stage approach can be an effective and efficient intermediate step in meta-analysis to account for the multiethnic heterogeneity.

  4. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)


    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  5. Turbulent Mixing in Stably Stratified Flows


    Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, volume 46, page 19889898. Elsevier, 1987. R. M. Kerr. Higher-order derivative correlations and the alignment of...19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, volume 46, pages 3-9. Elsevier, 1988. P. Meunier and G. Spedding. Stratified propelled

  6. Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas


    Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...

  7. On Probability Leakage

    Briggs, William M.


    The probability leakage of model M with respect to evidence E is defined. Probability leakage is a kind of model error. It occurs when M implies that events $y$, which are impossible given E, have positive probability. Leakage does not imply model falsification. Models with probability leakage cannot be calibrated empirically. Regression models, which are ubiquitous in statistical practice, often evince probability leakage.

  8. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju


    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  9. Two stage study of wound microorganisms affecting burns and plastic surgery inpatients.

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Ali, Syed N; Jeffery, Steven L A; Thomas, Sunil S


    This study was designed to identify wound microorganisms and the reasons for differing prevalence between the wards, burns unit and intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional centre for burns and plastic surgery. Antibiotic sensitivities of the 10 most prevalent microorganisms cultured from inpatient wound swabs were also investigated. Inpatient wound swab data were collected retrospectively using notes and departmental database information between January and June 2007. Data were analyzed using chi-squared tests and P-values. Eight hundred five positive wound swabs from 204 swab positive inpatients were analyzed. Stage 1 of this study demonstrated 917 positive swab episodes and 30 varieties of organism. The five most prevalent organisms cultured were Staphylococcus (23.9%), Acinetobacter (21.2%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20.8%), Pseudomonas (9.7%) and Enterococcus (5.2%). Stage 2 revealed that Acinetobacter baumanni (ABAU) was significantly more prevalent in military over civilian inpatients (P PAER) was significantly more prevalent in military inpatients over civilian inpatients (P PAER were significantly more prevalent in the ICU setting. Furthermore, military inpatient wounds grew more ABAU, MRSA, and PAER than civilians, probably due to the longer inpatient stay, dirty nature of wounds, site and complex mechanism of injury. Finally, this study suggests that ABAU was brought into the unit by military patients.

  10. Probability 1/e

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.


    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  11. Probability an introduction

    Goldberg, Samuel


    Excellent basic text covers set theory, probability theory for finite sample spaces, binomial theorem, probability distributions, means, standard deviations, probability function of binomial distribution, more. Includes 360 problems with answers for half.

  12. Probability 1/e

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.


    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  13. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel


    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  14. Two-stage partial melting during the Variscan extensional tectonics (Montagne Noire, France)

    Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Tartèse, Romain; Ruffet, Gilles; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Poilvet, Jean-Charles


    One of the striking features that characterise the late stages of the Variscan orogeny is the development of gneiss and migmatite domes, as well as extensional Late Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary basins. It remains a matter of debate whether the formation of domes was related to the well-documented late orogenic extension or to the contractional tectonics that preceded. Migmatization and magmatism are expected to predate extension if the domes are compression-related regional anticlines, but they must both precede and be contemporaneous with extension if they are extensional core complexes. In the Montagne Noire area (southern French Massif Central), where migmatization, magmatism and the deformation framework are well documented, the age of the extensional event was unequivocally constrained to 300-290 Ma. Therefore, dating migmatization in this area is a key point for discriminating between the two hypotheses and understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt. For this purpose, a migmatite and an associated anatectic granite from the Montagne Noire dome were dated by LA-ICP-MS (U-Th-Pb on zircon and monazite) and laser probe 40Ar-39Ar (K-Ar on muscovite). Although zircon did not record any Variscan age unequivocally related to compression (380-330 Ma), two age groups were identified from the monazite crystals. A first event, at ca. 319 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite), is interpreted as a first stage of migmatization and as the emplacement age of the granite, respectively. A second event at ca. 298-295 Ma, recorded by monazite (U-Th-Pb) and by the muscovite 40Ar-39Ar system in the migmatite and in the granite, could be interpreted as a fluid-induced event, probably related to a second melting event identified through the syn-extensional emplacement of the nearby Montalet leucogranite ca. 295 Ma ago. The ages of these two events post-date the Variscan compression and agree with an overall extensional context for the development of the

  15. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian


    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide...... fuel cells (SOFC). Based on experimental data from a demonstrated 0.6 MWth two-stage gasifier, a model of the gasifier plant was developed and calibrated. Similarly, an SOFC model was developed using published experimental data. Simulation of a 3 MWth plant combining two-stage biomass gasification......, carbon conversion factor in the gasifier and the efficiency of the DC/AC inverter were the most influential parameters in the model. Thus, a detailed study of the practical values of these parameters was conducted to determine the performance of the plant with the lowest possible uncertainty. The SOFC...

  16. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi


    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  17. A Two-Stage State Recognition Method for Asynchronous SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface System

    ZHANG Zimu; DENG Zhidong


    A two-stage state recognition method is proposed for asynchronous SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential) based brain-computer interface (SBCI) system.The two-stage method is composed of the idle state (IS) detection and control state (CS) discrimination modules.Based on blind source separation and continuous wavelet transform techniques,the proposed method integrates functions of multi-electrode spatial filtering and feature extraction.In IS detection module,a method using the ensemble IS feature is proposed.In CS discrimination module,the ensemble CS feature is designed as feature vector for control intent classification.Further,performance comparisons are investigated among our IS detection module and other existing ones.Also the experimental results validate the satisfactory performance of our CS discrimination module.

  18. Left thoracoscopic two-stage repair of tracheoesophageal fistula with a right aortic arch and a vascular ring

    Oshima, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroo; Tainaka, Takahisa; Tanano, Akihide; Shirota, Chiyoe; Yokota, Kazuki; Murase, Naruhiko; Shirotsuki, Ryo; Chiba, Kosuke; Hinoki, Akinari


    A right aortic arch (RAA) is found in 5% of neonates with tracheoesophageal fistulae (TEF) and may be associated with vascular rings. Oesophageal repairs for TEF with an RAA via the right chest often pose surgical difficulties. We report for the first time in the world a successful two-stage repair by left-sided thoracoscope for TEF with an RAA and a vascular ring. We switched from right to left thoracoscopy after finding an RAA. A proximal oesophageal pouch was hemmed into the vascular ring; therefore, we selected a two-stage repair. The TEF was resected and simple internal traction was placed into the oesophagus at the first stage. Detailed examination showed the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) completing a vascular ring. The subsequent primary oesophago-oesophagostomy and dissection of PDA was performed by left-sided thoracoscope. Therefore, left thoracoscopic repair is safe and feasible for treating TEF with an RAA and a vascular ring. PMID:27143697

  19. Train Stop Scheduling in a High-Speed Rail Network by Utilizing a Two-Stage Approach

    Huiling Fu


    Full Text Available Among the most commonly used methods of scheduling train stops are practical experience and various “one-step” optimal models. These methods face problems of direct transferability and computational complexity when considering a large-scale high-speed rail (HSR network such as the one in China. This paper introduces a two-stage approach for train stop scheduling with a goal of efficiently organizing passenger traffic into a rational train stop pattern combination while retaining features of regularity, connectivity, and rapidity (RCR. Based on a three-level station classification definition, a mixed integer programming model and a train operating tactics descriptive model along with the computing algorithm are developed and presented for the two stages. A real-world numerical example is presented using the Chinese HSR network as the setting. The performance of the train stop schedule and the applicability of the proposed approach are evaluated from the perspective of maintaining RCR.

  20. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation.

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop


    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280).