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Sample records for strangulert richters hernie

  1. La hernie ombilicale africaine : nouvelle classification et revue de 30 ...

    L'objectif de ce travail était de proposer une nouvelle classification de la hernie ombilicale de l'enfant africain et d'évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical.Il s'agit d'une étude prospective portant sur 30 patients porteurs de hernie ombilicale, qui s'est déroulée sur une période de un an et demi dans les services de ...

  2. Hernie de Spiegel: a propos d’un cas

    Karim Ibn Majdoub Hassani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La hernie de Spiegel ou hernie ventrale latérale est une déhiscence inhabituelle apparaissant sur la ligne ou fascia semi-lunaire de Spiegel. C’est une entité clinique rare, représente 0.10 à 1 pourcent des hernies. Aussi, nous a-t-il paru opportun de rapporter ce cas colligé dans le service de chirurgie B du CHU Hassan II de Fès. Nous rapportons l’observation d’une patiente âgée de 60 ans, sans antécédent particulier qui présentais une tuméfaction para ombilicale gauche augmentant progressivement de volume, Une hernie de Spiegel a été suspectée à l’examen clinique, et le diagnostic d’éventration antérolatérale gauche a été retenu à la tomodensitométrie abdominale. Une cure de la hernie par plaque de prolène a été réalisée et les suites opératoires étaient simples. La hernie de Spiegel est une affection rare, son diagnostic clinique peut être difficile. Elle est asymptomatique dans 90 pourcent des cas et Son diagnostic positif est radiologique. Le risque d’étranglement non négligeable impose un traitement chirurgical une fois le diagnostic est confirmé.

  3. How we treat Richter syndrome

    Parikh, Sameer A.; Kay, Neil E.; Shanafelt, Tait D.

    2014-01-01

    Richter syndrome (RS) is defined as the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into an aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). RS occurs in approximately 2% to 10% of CLL patients during the course of their disease, with a transformation rate of 0.5% to 1% per year. A combination of germline genetic characteristics, clinical features (eg, advanced Rai stage), biologic (ζ-associated protein-70+, CD38+, CD49d+) and somatic genetic (del17p13.1 or d...

  4. [A hundred years of Gedeon Richter Ltd].

    Pillich, Lajos

    2002-01-01

    The Company founded by Gedeon Richter in 1901 produced formerly medicines for organotherapeutical treatments, later purified hormones were prepared for therapy. The factory from the fifties developed gradually into the biggest pharmaceutical company in Hungary. Richter produces today mainly synthetic drugs and medicines. Its special field is the steroid synthesis on industrial scale. One tenth of the active ingredients of oral contraceptives of the world is made by Richter.

  5. Gutenberg-Richter law for Internetquakes

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2003-03-01

    The temporal behavior of the Internet is studied by performing Ping experiments. Sudden drastic changes in the Internet time series of round-trip times of the Ping signals (i.e., congestion of the network) are catastrophic and can be identified as “Internetquakes”. Magnitude of the Internetquakes is defined and the Gutenberg-Richter law is found to hold for the cumulative frequency of the Internetquakes and magnitude. Therefore, earthquakes, financial markets and the Internet share a common scale free nature in their temporal behaviors.

  6. Ossificação heterotópica em saco herniário incisional

    Renato Miranda de Melo

    Full Text Available O achado de ossificação heterotópica (OH sobre cicatriz cirúrgica abdominal é um evento raro, mas que soma morbidade ao paciente. Manifesta-se por dor, endurecimento ou desconforto na cicatriz, levando a novas abordagens cirúrgicas. Relatamos um caso de OH no saco herniário incisional com o objetivo precípuo de chamar a atenção para o potencial "totipotente" do fibroblasto, já que sua íntima relação com a OH é inegável. A partir dessa prerrogativa, qualquer forma de tratamento das hérnias incisionais deveria associar o reparo tecidual ao uso de prótese (tela, para enriquecê-lo com os fibroblastos e seus fatores de crescimento celular do próprio paciente, todos autólogos e prontos para uso. A tática é oferecer uma abordagem combinada ou mista, com menores chances de recidiva na correção dessas afecções.

  7. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  8. Histopatologia do saco herniário das hérnias inguinais: a importância do conhecimento morfológico sacular

    Barbosa Cirênio de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo do saco herniário sempre foi motivo de preocupação por parte do cirurgião, embora a estrutura de sua parede seja ainda pouco estudada e conhecida. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar a influência de sexo, cor, idade, região do saco herniário, lado da hérnia, largura, comprimento e espessura da amostra peritoneal na presença de fibras musculares lisas (FML na parede do saco herniário inguinal. Pretende-se também descrever a histologia dos sacos herniários e apresentar algumas teorias sobre a origem das FML, além de destacar a importância do conhecimento da estrutura sacular na identificação de condições patológicas encobertas e certificar o uso do próprio saco como instrumento de reforço nas correções cirúrgicas. Amostras de 252 sacos herniários obtidos no tratamento operatório de hérnias inguinais indiretas, diretas, recidivadas e encarceradas foram encaminhadas para o estudo histopatológico, e foram coradas por Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE e tricrômico de Gomori para a identificação de FML. Estas estiveram presentes em 67,9% das amostras, e ocorreram de modo significativo nas hérnias indiretas e recidivadas, quando comparadas com as diretas e encarceradas. Em relação às variáveis estudadas, os pacientes que apresentaram FML não diferiram significativamente daqueles em que as mesmas não foram observadas. Quando presentes, as FML muitas vezes estavam associadas com vasos sangüíneos espessos, sugerindo a origem à partir da camada média do vaso e podem representar um reforço tecidual em resposta ao trauma mecânico ou a outros fatores da patogênese da hérnia. Foi observado também que o saco herniário pode sediar vários processos patológicos que atingem o peritônio parietal, como a endometriose, inflamações específicas e processos hiperplásicos ou mesmo neoplásicos, inclusive podendo constituir, em alguns casos, a primeira evidência de neoplasias.

  9. P-20: Osteitis Pubisli Futbolcularda İnguinal Herni Varlığının Araştırılması

    Ali Eraslan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available GİRİŞ: Kasık ağrıları futbolda önemli sağlık problemlerindendir. Nedenleri arasında sıklıkla kas-tendon zorlanmaları, avülsiyon kırıkları, osteitis pubis, inguinal herni (gerçek herni kesesi varlığı ve sporcu hernisi (gerçek herni kesesi yokluğu bulunmaktadır.AMAÇ: Bu çalışmada osteitis pubis tanısı almış futbolcularda eski veya mevcut inguinal herni varlığını araştırmak amaçlandı.GEREÇ-YÖNTEM: Spor hekimliği polikliniğine 2011-2016 yılları arasında kasık ağrısıyla başvurmuş ve osteitis pubis tanısı almış erkek futbolcuların arşiv kayıtları retrospektif olarak tarandı. Sporcuların demografik özellikleri, MR görüntüleri ve varsa inguinal USG tetkik sonuçları incelendi. BULGULAR: Arşiv kayıtlarından profesyonel veya rekreasyonel olarak futbol oynayan 51 osteitis pubisli sporcunun MR görüntülerine ulaşıldı. Yaş ortalaması 24.5 (±7.7 yıl bulundu. İnguinal herniyle ilişkili 8 (%15.6 osteitis pubis olgusu bulundu. 3 sporcu (%5.8 polikliniğimize başvurmadan önce inguinal herni operasyonu geçirmişti. 26 sporcuya ise kasık ağrısıyla beraber herni semptomları da (valsalva ile artan inguinal ağrı ve/veya şişlik tarifledikleri için herni muayenesi ve inguinal USG uygulanmıştı. Bunların sadece 5’i (%9.8 gerçek herni kesesi saptanarak cerrahiye sevk edilmişti. 8 olgunun 7'sinde inguinal herniyle ipsilateral osteitis pubis bulguları kontrlateraldekinden daha belirgindi.TARTIŞMA: Çalışmamızın sonuçları osteitis pubisli futbolcularda eş zamanlı inguinal herni olabileceğini ve önceden inguinal herni tamiri geçirmiş bir futbolcuda osteitis pubis gelişebildiğini göstermiştir. Bunun yanında, inguinal duvardaki defektle ipsilateral pubik ramusta daha belirgin osteitis pubis bulgularının oluşu iki patolojiye yol açan mekanizmaların ortak olabileceğine işaret etmektedir. İnguinal herninin tedavisinde cerrahi girişim esastır ve s

  10. Obturatorhernie af Richter-type, en diagnostisk udfordring

    Mohammad, Sharafaden Karim; Perdawood, Sharaf

    2005-01-01

    development of symptoms; on laparotomy it was found to be a Richter hernia. CT scanning can be helpful and will typically show an incarcerated small bowel behind the pectineus muscle. Laparoscopy may be necessary for diagnosis, and the hernia can be repaired laparoscopically....... for awareness of the condition is stressed, and the diagnosis of obturator hernia should be strongly suspected in a thin, elderly woman who has small-bowel obstruction and no previous abdominal surgery. Here is a case report of obturator hernia in which the diagnosis was difficult because of the slow...

  11. Effect of Coulomb stress on the Gutenberg-Richter law

    Navas-Portella, V.; Corral, A.; Jimenez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coulomb stress theory has been used for years in seismology to understand how earthquakes trigger each other. Whenever an earthquake occurs, the stress field changes in its neighbourhood, with places with positive values brought closer to failure, whereas negative values distance away that location from failure. Earthquake models that relate rate changes and Coulomb stress after a main event, such as the rate-and-state model, assume negative and positive stress values affect rate changes according to the same functional form. As a first order approximation, under uniform background seismicity before the main event, different values of the b-exponent in the Gutenberg-Richter law would indicate different behaviour for positive and negative stress. In this work, we study the Gutenberg-Richter law in the aftershock sequence of the Landers earthquake (California, 1992, MW=7.3). By using a statistically based fitting method, we discuss whether the sign of Coulomb stresses and the distance to the fault have a significant effect on the value of the b-exponent.

  12. Introduction to four papers on Curt Richter and analysis of his scientific practice.

    Smith, Gerard P

    2007-09-01

    Curt Richter was one of the founders of our field. He did outstanding research for over 60 years. Richter did fundamental work in appetite for food and minerals in the 1930s and discovered the homeostatic functions of ingestive behavior. This paper introduces four papers on specific topics of his work by contemporaneous experts. Each of the papers reviews Richter's experiments and then shows how the problem developed since he left it. The papers demonstrate that providing the historical basis for contemporary science is not only instructive, it is also heuristic for the science waiting to be done. In addition to introducing the four papers, I analyze the scientific ideas, values, and men that influenced Richter's scientific practice. I conclude that Claude Bernard, Walter Cannon, Francois Magendie, and Maurice Arthus were important for Richter's scientific ideas and values, but it was the joy of research that explains his experimental success for over 60 years.

  13. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...... and terrorism, and contrasts Richter's artworks with utopian visions of nano-science in the mass media.......The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed...

  14. Hans Werner Richter - Wolfgang Borchert : zwei Schriftsteller im 2. Weltkrieg ; ihre Kriegseinsätze und die Umsetzung in Literatur

    Brandes, Katrein

    2018-01-01

    Hans Werner Richter und Wolfgang Borchert, zwei der bekanntesten deutschen Nachkriegsschriftsteller, waren selbst auf erbittert umkämpften Schauplätzen des 2. Weltkrieges eingesetzt: Richter in Italien bei Cassino, Borchert an der Ostfront südlich Moskaus. Trotz der Auseinandersetzung mit ihren literarischen Zeugnissen aus dieser Zeit, wie Richters Roman „Die Geschlagenen“ und Borcherts Kurzgeschichten, ist die Frage nach ihrem eigenen Kriegserleben, nach Schuldbewusstsein und dem Niederschla...

  15. Defamation on facebook: Isparta V Richter 2013 6 SA 529 (GP ...

    In this case discussion, a brief overview is given of the few cases already reported, but in the main the case of Isparta v Richter 2013 6 SA 4529 (GP) is discussed. In this case a South African court for the first time awarded damages to the plaintiff for defamatory comments made on Facebook. The questions that confronted ...

  16. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...

  17. [August Gottlieb Richter: urological aspects of his comprehensive operative and scientific work].

    Seifert, D

    2013-06-01

    August Gottlieb Richter (1742-1812) was one of the most distinguished surgeons in the second half of the eighteenth century. In this article his life and scientific career during an age shaken by wars and radical changes are described. Particular attention is paid to his achievements as a doctor, teacher and scientific author. The latter activity finds its foremost expression in the"Chirurgische Bibliothek" ("Surgical library"), a practice-oriented scientific journal, as well as in his later work"Anfangsgründe der Wundarzneykunst" ("Elements of wound surgery"). This article concentrates on the urological aspects of his work and compares these aspects with contemporary publications. Particular emphasis is placed on Richter's dispute about fashionable medical trends typical for that era as well as his culture of criticism and self-criticism.

  18. Near-tetraploidy is associated with Richter transformation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients receiving ibrutinib.

    Miller, Cecelia R; Ruppert, Amy S; Heerema, Nyla A; Maddocks, Kami J; Labanowska, Jadwiga; Breidenbach, Heather; Lozanski, Gerard; Zhao, Weiqiang; Gordon, Amber L; Jones, Jeffrey A; Flynn, Joseph M; Jaglowski, Samantha M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Blum, Kristie A; T Awan, Farrukh; Rogers, Kerry A; Grever, Michael R; Johnson, Amy J; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Hertlein, Erin K; Blachly, James S; Woyach, Jennifer A; Byrd, John C

    2017-08-22

    Ibrutinib is a highly effective targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, ibrutinib must be discontinued in a subset of patients due to progressive CLL or transformation to aggressive lymphoma (Richter transformation). Transformation occurs early in the course of therapy and has an extremely poor prognosis. Thus, identification of prognostic markers associated with transformation is of utmost importance. Near-tetraploidy (4 copies of most chromosomes within a cell) has been reported in various lymphomas, but its incidence and significance in CLL has not been described. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we detected near-tetraploidy in 9 of 297 patients with CLL prior to beginning ibrutinib treatment on 1 of 4 clinical trials (3.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-5.7%). Near-tetraploidy was associated with aggressive disease characteristics: Rai stage 3/4 ( P = .03), deletion 17p ( P = .03), and complex karyotype ( P = .01). Near-tetraploidy was also associated with ibrutinib discontinuation due to Richter transformation ( P transformation with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In a multivariable model, near-tetraploidy (hazard ratio [HR], 8.66; 95% CI, 3.83-19.59; P transformation. Our results suggest that near-tetraploidy is a potential prognostic marker for Richter transformation to assess in patients going on ibrutinib.

  19. A Network of Themes: A Qualitative Approach to Gerhard Richter's Text

    Narvika Bovcon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gerhard Richter's books Text – a collection of painter's verbal statements about his artistic method – and Atlas – 783 sheets with images, mainly photographs and visual notations – are two archives that complement the understanding of his diverse artistic practice. The paper presents a textual model that experimentally simulates a possible ordering principle for archives. Richter's statements in the book Text are cut up and used as short quotations. Those that relate to multiple aspects of the painter's oeuvre are identified as hubs in the semantic network. The hubs are organized paratactically, as an array of different themes. The paper presents a methodological hypothesis and an experimental model that aim to connect the research of real networks with the paradigms of humanistic interpretation. We have to bear in mind that the network is a result of the researcher's interpretative approach, which is added to the initial archive included in the book Text. The breaking up of Richter's poetics into atoms of quotations is an experimental proposal of a new textuality in art history and humanities, which has its own history. In comparison to digital archives with complex interfaces that often tend to obscure the content, the elements in our experiment appear as specific configurations of the semantic network and are presented in a limited number of linear texts. The method of listing of quotations gathers the fragments into a potential “whole”, i.e. a narrativized gateway to an archive according to the researcher's interpretation.

  20. Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter alustasid koostööd / Heikki Sal-Saller

    Sal-Saller, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter Eesti sõlmisid koostöölepingu fondi loomiseks, millest eraldatakse stipendiume farmatseutilise tehnoloogia erialal kaitstud õppeaasta parima uurimistöö teostanud üliõpilastele

  1. RICHTER: A Smartphone Application for Rapid Collection of Geo-Tagged Pictures of Earthquake Damage

    Skinnemoen, H.; Bossu, R.; Furuheim, K.; Bjorgo, E.

    2010-12-01

    RICHTER (Rapid geo-Images for Collaborative Help Targeting Earthquake Response) is a smartphone version of a professional application developed to provide high quality geo-tagged image communication over challenging network links, such as satellites and poor mobile links. Developed for Android mobile phones, it allows eyewitnesses to share their pictures of earthquake damage easily and without cost with the Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). The goal is to engage citizens in the collection of the most up-to-date visual information on local damage for improved rapid impact assessment. RICHTER integrates the innovative and award winning ASIGN protocol initially developed for satellite communication between cameras / computers / satcom terminals and servers at HQ. ASIGN is a robust and optimal image and video communication management solution for bandwidth-limited communication networks which was developed for use particularly in emergency and disaster situations. Contrary to a simple Multimedia Messaging System (MMS), RICHTER allows access to high definition images with embedded location information. Location is automatically assigned from either the internal GPS, derived from the mobile network (triangulation) or the current Wi-Fi domain, in that order, as this corresponds to the expected positioning accuracy. Pictures are compressed to 20-30KB of data typically for fast transfer and to avoid network overload. Full size images can be requested by the EMSC either fully automatically, or on a case-by-case basis, depending on the user preferences. ASIGN was initially developed in coordination with INMARSAT and the European Space Agency. It was used by the Rapid Mapping Unit of the United Nations notably for the damage assessment of the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake where more than 700 photos were collected. RICHTER will be freely distributed on the EMSC website to eyewitnesses in the event of significantly damaging earthquakes. The EMSC is the second

  2. Laparoskopisk operation for incisionelt hernie

    Zinther, Nellie Bering; Wara, Pål; Friis-Andersen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Ventral hernias and their surgical treatment have long been a therapeutical problem. High recurrence and complication rates have caused surgeons to refrain from performing this type of surgery, often by enforcing strict indications for surgical management. With the introduction of laparoscopic mesh...

  3. Deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law on account of a random distribution of block sizes

    Sibiryakov, B. P., E-mail: sibiryakovbp@ipgg.sbras.ru [Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper studies properties of a continuum with structure. The characteristic size of the structure governs the fact that difference relations are nonautomatically transformed into differential ones. It is impossible to consider an infinitesimal volume of a body, to which the major conservation laws could be applied, because the minimum representative volume of the body must contain at least a few elementary microstructures. The corresponding equations of motion are equations of infinite order, solutions of which include, along with usual sound waves, unusual waves with abnormally low velocities without a lower limit. It is shown that in such media weak perturbations can increase or decrease outside the limits. The number of complex roots of the corresponding dispersion equation, which can be interpreted as the number of unstable solutions, depends on the specific surface of cracks and is an almost linear dependence on a logarithmic scale, as in the seismological Gutenberg–Richter law. If the distance between one pore (crack) to another one is a random value with some distribution, we must write another dispersion equation and examine different scenarios depending on the statistical characteristics of the random distribution. In this case, there are sufficient deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law and this theoretical result corresponds to some field and laboratory observations.

  4. Extension of Gutenberg-Richter distribution to MW -1.3, no lower limit in sight

    Boettcher, Margaret S.; McGarr, A.; Johnston, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    With twelve years of seismic data from TauTona Gold Mine, South Africa, we show that mining-induced earthquakes follow the Gutenberg-Richter relation with no scale break down to the completeness level of the catalog, at moment magnitude M W -1.3. Events recorded during relatively quiet hours in 2006 indicate that catalog detection limitations, not earthquake source physics, controlled the previously reported minimum magnitude in this mine. Within the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) experiment's dense seismic array, earthquakes that exhibit shear failure at magnitudes as small as M W -3.9 are observed, but we find no evidence that M W -3.9 represents the minimum magnitude. In contrast to previous work, our results imply small nucleation zones and that earthquake processes in the mine can readily be scaled to those in either laboratory experiments or natural faults.

  5. A Percolation Perspective for Gutenburg-Richter Scaling and b-values for Fracking Assocated Seismicity

    Norris, J. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Published 60 years ago, the Gutenburg-Richter law provides a universal frequency-magnitude distribution for natural and induced seismicity. The GR law is a two parameter power-law with the b-value specifying the relative frequency of small and large events. For large catalogs of natural seismicity, the observed b-values are near one, while fracking associated seismicity has observed b-values near two, indicating relatively fewer large events. We have developed a computationally inexpensive percolation model for fracking that allows us to generate large catalogs of fracking associated seismicity. Using these catalogs, we show that different power-law fitting procedures produce different b-values for the same data set. This shows that care must be taken when determining and comparing b-values for fracking associated seismicity.

  6. Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816 / Vladimir Sazonov

    Sazonov, Vladimir, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816, hrsg. von Indrek Jürjo, Sergei Stadnikov, Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Bd. 20. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač 2013, 313 lk.

  7. Defamation On Facebook: Isparta V Richter 2013 6 Sa 529 (GP

    Anneliese Roos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Litigation involving social media is still very new in South Africa and only a few reported cases can be found. In this case discussion, a brief overview is given of the few cases already reported, but in the main the case of Isparta v Richter 2013 6 SA 4529 (GP is discussed. In this case a South African court for the first time awarded damages to the plaintiff for defamatory comments made on Facebook. The questions that confronted the judge were whether the alleged defamatory statements did indeed relate to the plaintiff and whether the comments, individually or collectively, could be considered defamatory. The issue whether the "tagging" of another user of Facebook makes that user liable for the defamatory comments of the tagger is also addressed in the case. The case discussion concludes with a reference to other issues that could play a role in litigation involving Facebook, namely the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 and foreign law.

  8. Southern San Andreas Fault seismicity is consistent with the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency distribution

    Page, Morgan T.; Felzer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The magnitudes of any collection of earthquakes nucleating in a region are generally observed to follow the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) distribution. On some major faults, however, paleoseismic rates are higher than a G-R extrapolation from the modern rate of small earthquakes would predict. This, along with other observations, led to formulation of the characteristic earthquake hypothesis, which holds that the rate of small to moderate earthquakes is permanently low on large faults relative to the large-earthquake rate (Wesnousky et al., 1983; Schwartz and Coppersmith, 1984). We examine the rate difference between recent small to moderate earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) and the paleoseismic record, hypothesizing that the discrepancy can be explained as a rate change in time rather than a deviation from G-R statistics. We find that with reasonable assumptions, the rate changes necessary to bring the small and large earthquake rates into alignment agree with the size of rate changes seen in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) modeling, where aftershock triggering of large earthquakes drives strong fluctuations in the seismicity rates for earthquakes of all magnitudes. The necessary rate changes are also comparable to rate changes observed for other faults worldwide. These results are consistent with paleoseismic observations of temporally clustered bursts of large earthquakes on the SSAF and the absence of M greater than or equal to 7 earthquakes on the SSAF since 1857.

  9. A Study of the Historical Earthquake Catalog and Gutenberg-richter Parameter Values of the Korean Peninsula

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil; Rhee, Hyun Me

    2010-01-01

    The KIER's Korean historical earthquake catalog was revised for MMI≥VI events recorded from the years 27 A.D. to 1904. The magnitude of each event was directly determined from the criteria suggested by Seo. The criteria incorporated the damage phenomena of the Japanese historical earthquake catalog, recent seismological studies, and the results of tests performed on ancient structures in Korea. Thus, the uncertainty of the magnitudes of the Korean historical earthquakes can be reduced. Also, the Gutenberg-Richter parameter values were estimated based on the revised catalog of this study. It was determined that the magnitudes of a maximum inland and minimum offshore event were approximately 6.3 and 6.5, respectively. The Gutenberg-Richter parameter pairs of the historical earthquake catalog were estimated to be a=5.32±0.21, b=0.95±0.19, which were somewhat lower than those obtained from recent complete instrumental earthquakes. No apparent change in the Gutenberg-Richter parameter is observed for the 16 th -17 th centuries of the seismically active period

  10. Successful Treatment of Richter Transformation with Ibrutinib in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    Samip Master

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL who progress to Richter transformation (RT have a poor prognosis. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens do not have good response rates. There are few case reports on the use of ibrutinib in RT. Here, we present a patient who was heavily pretreated for CLL, including allogeneic stem cell transplant, and progressed to RT. She had a mixed response to multi-agent chemotherapy and was started on ibrutinib. She had a complete response for 16 months on single-agent ibrutinib with minimal toxicity.

  11. The Gutenberg-Richter b value: Precursors to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes

    Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude law of earthquakes is long established in seismology. This law states that the cumulative number (N) of earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to M is well approximated by the relation: logN=A-bM, where the constant A is a measure of the fertility of earthquakes and the other constant b characterizes their size distribution. The b value is typically close to 1, but spatial and temporal changes in b are also known to reflect the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to be associated with asperities and frictional properties. Laboratory experiments predicted systematic decrease in b toward the end of a seismic cycle. In this context, we investigated b values over an extensive range of space and time for the 11 March 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake and 26 December 2004 Mw9.1 Sumatra earthquake. In this presentation, we show that significant decade-scale decrease in b is a common precursor to both mega-quakes around their hypocenters. This is the first time to confirm predicted change in b from laboratory experiment for M9-class quakes. We propose that b value can be an important indicator to infer a next great earthquake, showing the great potential for a future large quake off the Pacific coast of Hokkaido district. The results demonstrate that the use of b helps to improve probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Along this line, we present a progress report on b value analysis conducted for greater Tokyo and discuss future directions of this research toward moving to a new generation of the capital's earthquake hazards. This is supported by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

  12. Richter transformation driven by Epstein-Barr virus reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    García-Barchino, Maria J; Sarasquete, Maria E; Panizo, Carlos; Morscio, Julie; Martinez, Antonio; Alcoceba, Miguel; Fresquet, Vicente; Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Paiva, Bruno; Young, Ken H; Robles, Eloy F; Roa, Sergio; Celay, Jon; Larrayoz, Marta; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A; Balanzategui, Ana; Jimenez, Cristina; Rodriguez, Idoia; Calasanz, Maria J; Larrayoz, Maria J; Segura, Victor; Garcia-Muñoz, Ricardo; Rabasa, Maria P; Yi, Shuhua; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Puig-Moron, Noemi; Orfao, Alberto; Böttcher, Sebastian; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M; Miguel, Jesus San; Prosper, Felipe; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Gonzalez, Marcos; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2018-05-01

    The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In contrast to EBV - tumours, EBV + DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL, and they also showed CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV + DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal centre DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programme type II or III, and very short survival. These data suggested that EBV reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression can transform either CLL cells or non-tumoural B lymphocytes into EBV + DLBCL. To investigate this hypothesis, xenogeneic transplantation of blood cells from 31 patients with CLL and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was performed in Rag2 -/- IL2γc -/- mice. Remarkably, the recipients' impaired immunosurveillance favoured the spontaneous outgrowth of EBV + B-cell clones from 95% of CLL and 64% of MBL patients samples, but not from healthy donors. Eventually, these cells generated monoclonal tumours (mostly CLL-unrelated but also CLL-related), recapitulating the principal features of EBV + DLBCL in patients. Accordingly, clonally related and unrelated EBV + DLBCL xenografts showed indistinguishable cellular, virological and molecular features, and synergistically responded to combined inhibition of EBV replication with ganciclovir and B-cell receptor signalling with ibrutinib in vivo. Our study underscores the risk of RT driven by EBV in CLL patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies, and provides the scientific rationale for testing ganciclovir and ibrutinib in EBV + DLBCL. Copyright © 2018 Pathological

  13. The evolution of the Gutenberg-Richter, b-value, throughout periodic and aperiodic stick-slip cycles

    Bolton, D. C.; Riviere, J.; Marone, C.; Johnson, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter earthquake size statistic, b value, is a useful proxy for documenting the state of stress on a fault and understanding precursory phenomena preceding dynamic failure. It has been shown that the b value varies systematically as a function of position within the seismic cycle. Frictional studies on intact rock samples with saw-cut faults have shown that b value decreases continuously preceding failure. For intact rock samples, the spatiotemporal changes in b value are thought to be related to the evolution of asperities and micro-cracks. However, few studies have shown how b value evolves spatially and temporally for fault zones containing gouge and wear materials. We hypothesize that the micromechanical mechanisms acting within fault gouge, such as creation and destruction of force chains, grain rolling, sliding, jamming and fracturing play an important role in the evolution of b value and that they may have distinct signatures during periodic and aperiodic cycles of stick-slip frictional motion. We report results from experiments conducted on simulated fault gouge using a biaxial deformation apparatus in a double-direct shear configuration. Acoustic emissions (AEs) are recorded at 4 MHz from 36 P-polarized piezoelectric transducers, which are embedded in steel blocks located adjacent to the fault zone. We compute the frequency-magnitude distribution of detected AEs using a moving window in events where each window is overlapped by 75%. We report on the evolution of b value as a function of normal stress and gouge layer thickness. For periodic slip events, b value reaches a maximum value immediately after a slip event and decreases continuously until the next failure. Aperiodic slip events show similar trends in b-value initially, however unlike periodic slip events, b value reaches a steady state value before failure occurs. In addition, for periodic slip events the magnitude of the change in b value scales inversely with gouge layer thickness

  14. Magnetic spectra and Richter aftereffect relaxation in Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3−x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} ferrites

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Xian; Feng, Zekun, E-mail: fengzekun@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electric Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The static and dynamic magnetic properties of cerium (Ce) doped yttrium iron garnet Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3−x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) ferrites (YIG) have been reported in this work. The ferrites were fabricated by the traditional solid-state reaction method. All ferrite samples reveal pure garnet structure identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The substitution of cerium not only enhances the saturation magnetization of the samples, but also regulates the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K{sub 1}. Obvious differences in permeability spectra over a frequency of 1 MHz - 1 GHz can be observed. It is verified that the permeability dispersion and magnetic losses of Ce-doped YIG ferrite contain the contribution of Richter aftereffect relaxation due to the existence of Fe{sup 2+} ions. The fitting results of the permeability spectra applied three-mechanism model is in good agreement with experimental data, which successfully explains the mechanisms of magnetic losses observed at 1 MHz to 1 GHz for Ce-doped YIG ferrite. In addition, the frequency shift of Richter aftereffect has also been discussed.

  15. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    Chu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  16. A local earthquake coda magnitude and its relation to duration, moment M sub O, and local Richter magnitude M sub L

    Suteau, A. M.; Whitcomb, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A relationship was found between the seismic moment, M sub O, of shallow local earthquakes and the total duration of the signal, t, in seconds, measured from the earthquakes origin time, assuming that the end of the coda is composed of backscattering surface waves due to lateral heterogenity in the shallow crust following Aki. Using the linear relationship between the logarithm of M sub O and the local Richter magnitude M sub L, a relationship between M sub L and t, was found. This relationship was used to calculate a coda magnitude M sub C which was compared to M sub L for Southern California earthquakes which occurred during the period from 1972 to 1975.

  17. Promoter methylation patterns in Richter syndrome affect stem-cell maintenance and cell cycle regulation and differ from de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Rinaldi, Andrea; Mensah, Afua Adjeiwaa; Kwee, Ivo; Forconi, Francesco; Orlandi, Ester M; Lucioni, Marco; Gattei, Valter; Marasca, Roberto; Berger, Françoise; Cogliatti, Sergio; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rossi, Davide; Bertoni, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In a fraction of patients, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) can transform to Richter syndrome (RS), usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We studied genome-wide promoter DNA methylation in RS and clonally related CLL-phases of transformed patients, alongside de novo DLBCL (of non-germinal centre B type), untransformed-CLL and normal B-cells. The greatest differences in global DNA methylation levels were observed between RS and DLBCL, indicating that these two diseases, although histologically similar, are epigenetically distinct. RS was more highly methylated for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. When RS was compared to the preceding CLL-phase and with untransformed-CLL, RS presented a higher degree of methylation for genes possessing the H3K27me3 mark and PRC2 targets, as well as for gene targets of TP53 and RB1. Comparison of the methylation levels of individual genes revealed that OSM, a stem cell regulatory gene, exhibited significantly higher methylation levels in RS compared to CLL-phases. Its transcriptional repression by DNA methylation was confirmed by 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment of DLBCL cells, determining an increased OSM expression. Our results showed that methylation patterns in RS are largely different from de novo DLBCL. Stem cell-related genes and cell cycle regulation genes are targets of DNA methylation in RS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Richter syndrome) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): a cohort study of newly diagnosed patients.

    Parikh, Sameer A; Rabe, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Zent, Clive S; Habermann, Thomas M; Ding, Wei; Leis, Jose F; Schwager, Susan M; Hanson, Curtis A; Macon, William R; Kay, Neil E; Slager, Susan L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2013-09-01

    Nearly all information about patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [Richter syndrome (RS)] is derived from retrospective case series or patients treated on clinical trials. We used the Mayo Clinic CLL Database to identify patients with newly diagnosed CLL between January 2000 and July 2011. Individuals who developed biopsy-proven RS during follow-up were identified. After a median follow-up of 4 years, 37/1641 (2·3%) CLL patients developed RS. The rate of RS was approximately 0·5%/year. Risk of RS was associated with advanced Rai stage at diagnosis (P CLL (1%/year). Stereotyped B-cell receptors (odds-ratio = 4·2; P = 0·01) but not IGHV4-39 family usage was associated with increased risk of RS. Treatment with combination of purine analogues and alkylating agents increased the risk of RS three-fold (odds-ratio = 3·26, P = 0·0003). Median survival after RS diagnosis was 2·1 years. The RS prognosis score stratified patients into three risk groups with median survivals of 0·5 years, 2·1 years and not reached. Both underlying characteristics of the CLL clone and subsequent CLL therapy influence the risk of RS. Survival after RS remains poor and new therapies are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Browse Title Index

    Togo), Abstract. E Padaro, I.M.D. Kueviakoe, K.J. Guedenon, H Magnang, K Mawussi, Y Layibo, A Vovor, A.Y. Segbena. Vol 13, No 1 (2011): Serie D, Hernie de richter revelee par un abces inguinal droit, Abstract. KK Kanassoua, K Amegbor, ED ...

  20. Tiempo e imagen en Gaston Bachelard y Herni Bergson

    Juan de Dios Martínez Lozornio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca un acercamiento a la cuestión del tiempo de la creación. Las reflexiones estéticas de Gastón Bachelard ponen énfasis en dicho aspecto, sin embargo, hace referencia constantemente –en contraposición– a la duración de Henri Bergson, desarrollando así una dialéctica intuicional en la que la duración se enfrenta al instante. El lugar en el que se da esta lucha de intuiciones es la imagen, pues en ésta se manifiesta la temporalidad esencial de la creación artística según Bachelard. This article seeks an approach to the question of the time of creation. The aesthetic reflections of Gaston Bachelard put emphasis on this aspect, however, constant reference –as opposed– to the duration of Henri Bergson, thus developing an intuitional dialectic in which the duration is faced to the instant. The place where takes place this struggle of intuitions is the image, because there, following Bachelard, the essential temporality of the artistic creation manifests itself.

  1. ZDRAVSTVENA NEGA PACIENTA PO OPERACIJI DISCUS HERNIE PO MARJORY GORDON

    Đuran, Denis

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu bomo predstavili hernijo diska, vzroke za nastanek, zdravljenje ter vlogo medicinske sestre. Bolečine v hrbtenici so v današnjih časih zelo pogost problem, celotne populacije. Način življenja in starost sta glavni vzrok za degenerativne spremembe hrbtenice, predvsem medvretenčne ploščice. Hernija diska pomeni zdrs medvretenčne ploščice iz vretenca in sicer kot posledica degenerativnih sprememb. Hernija najpogosteje nastane v ledvenem segmentu hrbtenice. Pojavijo se bolečine,...

  2. Whose Ethics? Which Wittgenstein? | Richter | Philosophical Papers

    . I argue that we should distinguish not only between Wittgenstein's personal opinions and his philosophy, but also, within his philosophical work, between broadly methodological remarks and what Wittgenstein might call genuinely ...

  3. ISPARTA v RICHTER 2013 6 SA 529 (GP)

    10332324

    corporations for marketing purposes,7 but also by individuals for social networking. (It should be ... Facebook is used by 93% of major brands. See World .... her and the second one was malicious and was aimed at damaging her reputation as.

  4. Riigikaitseõpetajad käisid seminaril / Gunnar Richter

    Richter, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Riigikaitseõpetajatele korraldatud seminarist Viimsis Laidoneri Muuseumis, kus arutati riigikaitseõpetuse vajalikkust ja olulisust koolides. Ettekandega esines teiste seas ka Riigikogu liige Mart Laar

  5. ISPARTA v RICHTER 2013 6 SA 529 (GP)

    10332324

    In order to follow the reasoning of the court, the discussion starts off with a brief overview ..... It was therefore easy to identify to whom the first defendant was ..... defendant made defamatory comments about the plaintiff's business to a company.

  6. The structure of the desiccated Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903)

    Czerneková, Michaela; Jönsson, K. I.; Chajec, Ł.; Student, S.; Poprawa, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1367-1377 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : anhydrobiosis * cryptobiosis * tardigrades * tun * ultrastructure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  7. Integrative redescription of a common Arctic water bear Pilatobius recamieri (Richters, 1911)

    Gasiorek, P.; Zawierucha, Krzystof; Stec, D.; Michalczyk, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 2239-2252 ISSN 0722-4060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : biodiversity * hypsibiidae * microfauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  8. Antigen receptors and somatic hypermutation in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Richter's transformation

    Smit, Laura A.; van Maldegem, Febe; Langerak, Anton W.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; de Wit, Mireille J.; Bea, Silvia; Campo, Elias; Bende, Richard J.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin genes in B cells. It has been proposed that aberrant targeting of the somatic hypermutation machinery is instrumental in initiation and

  9. Nobel laureate Burton Richter to speak about future of particle physics

    2007-01-01

    "Particle physics is about to transform our thinking once again. Experiments of the last 15 years suggest new forms of matter, new forces of nature and perhas even new dimensions of space and time. Pinning down the new ideas will require more data from larger and more expensive machines - at a time when funding is more difficult than ever to secure." (1,5 page)

  10. Magnitude X on the Richter Scale: Welfare Cost of Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    Stephane Pallage; Michel Robe

    2000-01-01

    Economic fluctuations are much stronger in developing countries than in the United States. Yet, while a large literature debates what constitutes a reasonable estimate of the welfare cost of business cycles in the US, it remains an open question how large that cost is in developing countries. Using several model economies, we provide such a measure for a large number of low--income countries. Our first main result is that the welfare cost of output fluctuations per se is far from trivial in t...

  11. Global patterns of organic carbon export and sequestration in the ocean (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    Henson, S.; Sanders, R.; Madsen, E.; Le Moigne, F.; Quartly, G.

    2012-04-01

    A major term in the global carbon cycle is the ocean's biological carbon pump which is dominated by sinking of small organic particles from the surface ocean to its interior. Here we examine global patterns in particle export efficiency (PEeff), the proportion of primary production that is exported from the surface ocean, and transfer efficiency (Teff), the fraction of exported organic matter that reaches the deep ocean. This is achieved through extrapolating from in situ estimates of particulate organic carbon export to the global scale using satellite-derived data. Global scale estimates derived from satellite data show, in keeping with earlier studies, that PEeff is high at high latitudes and low at low latitudes, but that Teff is low at high latitudes and high at low latitudes. However, in contrast to the relationship observed for deep biomineral fluxes in previous studies, we find that Teff is strongly negatively correlated with opal export flux from the upper ocean, but uncorrelated with calcium carbonate export flux. We hypothesise that the underlying factor governing the spatial patterns observed in Teff is ecosystem function, specifically the degree of recycling occurring in the upper ocean, rather than the availability of calcium carbonate for ballasting. Finally, our estimate of global integrated carbon export is only 50% of previous estimates. The lack of consensus amongst different methodologies on the strength of the biological carbon pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary carbon flux remains incomplete.

  12. Who to Blame: Irrational Decision-Makers or Stupid Modelers? (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Water management benefits from a suite of modelling tools and techniques that help simplifying and understanding the complexities involved in managing water resource systems. Early water management models were mainly concerned with optimizing a single objective, related to the design, operations or management of water resource systems (e.g. economic cost, hydroelectricity production, reliability of water deliveries). Significant improvements in methodologies, computational capacity, and data availability over the last decades have resulted in developing more complex water management models that can now incorporate multiple objectives, various uncertainties, and big data. These models provide an improved understanding of complex water resource systems and provide opportunities for making positive impacts. Nevertheless, there remains an alarming mismatch between the optimal solutions developed by these models and the decisions made by managers and stakeholders of water resource systems. Modelers continue to consider decision makers as irrational agents who fail to implement the optimal solutions developed by sophisticated and mathematically rigours water management models. On the other hand, decision makers and stakeholders accuse modelers of being idealist, lacking a perfect understanding of reality, and developing 'smart' solutions that are not practical (stable). In this talk I will have a closer look at the mismatch between the optimality and stability of solutions and argue that conventional water resources management models suffer inherently from a full-cooperation assumption. According to this assumption, water resources management decisions are based on group rationality where in practice decisions are often based on individual rationality, making the group's optimal solution unstable for individually rational decision makers. I discuss how game theory can be used as an appropriate framework for addressing the irrational "rationality assumption" of water resources management models and for better capturing the social aspects of decision making in water management systems with multiple stakeholders.

  13. Effects of cortisol on cognition in major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder - 2014 Curt Richter Award Winner.

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-01-01

    Stress hormones influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including memory performance and executive function. It is well established that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. While most of the effects have been attributed to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been also emphasized. Dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported for several mental disorders. While major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD) seem to be characterized by enhanced cortisol release in concert with a reduced feedback sensitivity of the HPA axis, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a contrary picture has been reported. Despite the fact that altered GR function has been discussed for these disorders only very few studies have investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive performance in these patients so far. In a series of studies, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognition (i.e. declarative memory, working memory and response inhibition) in different mental disorders such as MDD, PTSD and BPD. While in patients with MDD cortisol administration failed to effect memory retrieval, patients with PTSD and BPD showed enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after cortisol administration. These results indicate an altered sensitivity to cortisol in these disorders. Results from one of our recent studies in the field of social cognition underline the importance of the MR. We found that emotional empathy was enhanced through stimulation of the MR via fludrocortisone in healthy participants and women with BPD. This review aims to integrate these findings and discuss potential mechanisms and implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remember Gerhard Richter in the Thunderstorm of Beethoven: The Influence of Cross-Sensory Coupling on Memory, Intercultural Communication, and the Verbalization of Paintings and Sounds

    Martinez Emilie

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study focuses on the perception and verbalization of messages conveyed through instrumental music, soundscapes, and contemporary paintings. International young-adult university students learning German participated in a series of experiments conducted at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. To incorporate globalization and cultural difference into this analysis, the author compared the reactions of Western and Asian participants to auditory and visual stimuli...

  15. Chronic subordinate colony housing paradigm: A mouse model for mechanisms of PTSD vulnerability, targeted prevention, and treatment-2016 Curt Richter Award Paper.

    Reber, Stefan O; Langgartner, Dominik; Foertsch, Sandra; Postolache, Teodor T; Brenner, Lisa A; Guendel, Harald; Lowry, Christopher A

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable individual variability in vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); evidence suggests that this variability is related in part to genetic and environmental factors, including adverse early life experience. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that induction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be a common mechanism underlying gene and environment interactions that increase the risk for development of PTSD symptoms, and, therefore, may be a target for novel interventions for prevention or treatment of PTSD. Development of murine models with face, construct, and predictive validity would provide opportunities to investigate in detail complex genetic, environmental, endocrine, and immunologic factors that determine vulnerability to PTSD-like syndromes, and furthermore may provide mechanistic insight leading to development of novel interventions for both prevention and treatment of PTSD symptoms. Here we describe the potential use of the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm in mice as an adequate animal model for development of a PTSD-like syndrome and describe recent studies that suggest novel interventions for the prevention and treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating surface and mantle constraints for palaeo-ocean evolution: a tour of the Arctic and adjacent regions (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    Shephard, Grace E.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions heavily rely on absolute motions derived from hotspot trails or palaeomagnetic data and ocean-floor magnetic anomaies and fracture-zone geometries to constrain the detailed history of ocean basins. However, as oceanic lithosphere is progressively recycled into the mantle, kinematic data regarding the history of these now extinct-oceans is lost. In order to better understand their evolution, novel workflows, which integrate a wide range of complementary yet independent geological and geophysical datasets from both the surface and deep mantle, must be utilised. In particular, the emergence of time-dependent, semi or self-consistent geodynamic models of ever-increasing temporal and spatial resolution are revealing some critical constraints on the evolution and fate of oceanic slabs. The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is no exception; since the breakup of Pangea, this enigmatic region has seen major plate reorganizations and the opening and closure of several ocean basins. At the surface, a myriad of potential kinematic scenarios including polarity, timing, geometry and location of subduction have emerged, including for systems along continental margins and intra-oceanic settings. Furthermore, recent work has reignited a debate about the origins of 'anchor' slabs, such as the Farallon and Mongol-Okhotsk slabs, which have been used to refine absolute plate motions. Moving to the mantle, seismic tomography models reveal a region peppered with inferred slabs, however assumptions about their affinities and subduction location, timing, geometry and polarity are often made in isolation. Here, by integrating regional plate reconstructions with insights from seismic tomography, satellite derived gravity gradients, slab sinking rates and geochemistry, I explore some Mesozoic examples from the palaeo-Arctic, northern Panthalassa and western margin of North America, including evidence for a discrete and previously undescribed slab under present-day Greenland. While regional in focus, the methods and insights described have global applications and illustrate the power of an integrated approach.

  17. Reparación, restauración y reciclaje de la Casa Richter en Frutillar. Una intervención crítica sustentable

    Edward Rojas

    2009-08-01

    Esta recuperación se realiza mediante una operación de "intervención crítica", que involucra no solo la reparación y tecnificación del viejo edificio de madera, sino que también la restauración que le devolverá la dignidad de antaño, así como el reciclaje de algunos espacios para adecuarlos a los requerimientos de su nuevo destino.

  18. Browse Title Index

    Vol 20, No 1 (2015), Hernie obturatrice étranglée: à propos de deux cas, Abstract ... Vol 12, No 1 (2012), High serum estradiol confers no risk for breast cancer: .... Vol 15, No 1 (2013), Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for ...

  19. Case report

    abp

    7 mai 2015 ... Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une résection du sac associée à une fermeture en points séparés et les suites opératoires ont été simples. Devant toute occlusion intestinale aiguë, il faut avoir à l'esprit que la hernie interne supravésicale peut en être une cause inhabituelle. Pan African Medical Journal.

  20. Prevalence vybraných vrozených vad v České republice – vývojové vady centrálního nervového systému a zažívacího traktu

    Šípek, A.; Gregor, V.; Horáček, J.; Šípek jr., A.; Klaschka, Jan; Malý, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2015), s. 47-53 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : defekty neurální trubice * vrozený hydrocefalus * defekty břišní stěny * vrozené vady jícnu * anorektální malformace * kongenitální diafragmatická hernie Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2015

  1. Fallbericht: Seltene Raumforderungen der Leiste in der klinischen Erscheinung inguinaler Hernien: eine seminomatöse Lymphknotenmetastase und ein Liposarkom des Samenstranges

    Burger M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Wir berichten über eine seminomatöse inguinale Lymphknotenmetastase und ein Liposarkom des Samenstranges, die sich klinisch als eine inguinale Hernie präsentierten. Kasuistik: Fall 1: Ein 53jähriger Patient wurde unter der Annahme einer inguinalen Hernie links in einer chirurgischen Abteilung operiert. Es fand sich eine Raumforderung, welche in der Schnellschnittuntersuchung den Befund einer seminomatösen Lymphknotenmetastase ergab. In der folgenden Abklärung ergab sich ein linksseitiges pT2-Seminom. Anamnestisch wurde vor 26 Jahren eine inguinale Varikozelektomie links vorgenommen. Fall 2: Ein 61jähriger Patient stellte sich mit einer schmerzlosen Raumforderung der rechten Leiste vor, die klinisch als inguinale Hernie imponierte und seit drei Jahren größenprogredient war. Die Ultraschall- und MRT-Befunde wurden als eine inguinale Hernie mit einem Peritonealfett enthaltenden Bruchsack gedeutet. Intraoperativ fand sich ein Liposarkom des Samenstranges. Schlußfolgerung: Trotz der Häufigkeit inguinaler Herniotomien sind überraschende maligne Raumforderungen selten. Man sollte diese Möglichkeit aber bei transskrotalen Eingriffen in der Anamnese und bei nicht eindeutig einzuordnenden Befunden differentialdiagnostisch bedenken. Inguinale Lymphknotenmetastasen testikulärer Neoplasien sind selten, in der Literatur ist ein eindeutiger Zusammenhang mit Eingriffen im Skrotal- und Leistenbereich beschrieben. Die klinische Erscheinung einer solchen als Leistenhernie ist bisher noch nicht beschrieben worden. Liposarkome des Samenstranges sind ebenfalls selten. Therapeutisch sollte eine radikale chirurgische Exzision und in Fällen unklarer Absetzungsränder eine Radiatio erfolgen. Lokalrezidive treten häufig und eventuell auch spät auf.

  2. New data on the Lower Cambrian trilobites of Cortijos de Malagon (Spain

    Jago, J. B.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available A Small trilobite fauna from the late Lower Cambrian Sanstones from Los Cortijos de Malagon of Southem Spain is described herein. This fauna ineludes the following taxa: Realaspis (? sp.; Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. and Lusatiops afI. ribotanusd, Richter and Richter, 1948.En este trabajo se describe la fauna de trilobites del Cámbrico inferior de las areniscas de los Cortijos de Malagón en el SE español. Comprende Realaspis (? sp., Kingaspis (? sp.; cf. Latoucheia sp. y Lusatiops afI. ribotanus. Richter y Richter, 1948.

  3. As hérnias medem-se aos palmos?

    Cátia Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma doente do sexo feminino com 74 anos, autónoma, com antecedentes patológicos de obesidade, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensão arterial e doença osteoarticular degenerativa, que recorreu à urgência por infeção respiratória inferior. Negava sintomas gastrointestinais ou antecedentes cirúrgicos. Ao exame objetivo, destacava-se a presença de uma hérnia umbilical volumosa não dolorosa à palpação, mas que condicionava a sua mobilidade, sendo impossível a redução do conteúdo herniário. Após insistência na anamnese, a doente referiu o seu aparecimento na infância, na altura com recusa em efetuar a sua correção cirúrgica, tendo sido perdido o seu seguimento posteriormente. A radiografia e a tomografia computorizada abdominais mostraram um colo herniário de seis centímetros de diâmetro e herniação de praticamente todo o intestino delgado e parte do cólon, sem evidência de encarceramento (Figuras 1 e 2. Apesar de décadas de evolução condicionarem um progressivo e forte impacto nas atividades da vida diária, a doente não procurou os cuidados de saúde por esse motivo, mantendo a sua decisão e sendo encaminhada para a consulta externa. As complicações herniárias abdominais incluem a obstrução intestinal e a temida emergência cirúrgica da hérnia encarcerada, não se desprezando a morbilidade inerente, bem evidente neste caso.1-2

  4. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques de la ...

    O. Ndour

    Une hernie inguinale était retrouvée chez 11 patients (9%). Chez deux enfants, la cryptorchidie bilatérale entrait dans le cadre d'un syndrome de. Prune Belly. Aucune échographie n'a été réalisée chez nos patients. Les aspects thérapeutiques et évolutifs. La majeure partie de nos patients (n = 95 soit 77,2%) a été opérée.

  5. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  6. Will we ever see their like again? Departing directors at the top US physics laboratories leave a discipline in search of inspired leadership

    1998-01-01

    Burt Richter stands down next August as director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre. His departure follows that of Nick Samios from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the retirement next year of John Peoples from Fermilab.

  7. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011.

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South ...

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South African children the birth to ten study. Krisela Steyn, Thea de Wet, Linda Richter, Noel Cameron, Naomi S Levitt, Christopher Morrell ...

  9. V strane piramid : zhizn i trudõ Otto Friedricha von Richtera / Sergei Stadnikov ; tõlk. Veronika Einberg

    Stadnikov, Sergei, 1956-

    2003-01-01

    Vastse-Kuustest pärit egüptoloogist Otto Friedrich von Richter'ist (1791-1816). Richteri ja Lindmani Egiptuse-Nuubia ekspeditsioonist, Tartu Ülikooli Muinasteaduse muuseumile annetatud kollektsioonist

  10. Earthquake Recurrence and the Resolution Potential of Tectono‐Geomorphic Records

    Zielke, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    combination consistently reproduces the above‐mentioned field observations. Doing so, I find that neither a purely characteristic earthquake (CE) nor a Gutenberg–Richter (GR) earthquake recurrence model is able to consistently reproduce those field

  11. Gendered differences in AIDS and AIDS-related cause of death ...

    Nicole De Wet

    2016-10-14

    Oct 14, 2016 ... et al., 2004; Phakathi, Van Rooyen, Fritz, & Richter, 2011). Despite the ..... AIDS mortality than their male counterparts (Clark, Collinson,. Kahn ... death notification data in South Africa: 1997-2004 (Report No. 03-09-05). Pre-.

  12. Oceanographic profile Zooplankton biomass measurements collected using net in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 1995 (NODC Accession 0000970)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mumm, Nicolai, H. Auel, H. Hanssen, W. Hagen, C. Richter, and H.J. Hirche. 1998. Breaking the ice: large-scale distribution of mesozooplankton after a decade of...

  13. Risk-taking under progressive taxation

    Bamberg, Günter

    1988-01-01

    Risk-taking under progressive taxation : 3 partial effects / Günter Bamberg ; Wolfram R. Richter. - In: Measurement in economics / ed. by Wolfgang Eichhorn. - Heidelberg : Physica-Verl., 1988. - S. 479-497

  14. Does systematic variation improve the reproducibility of animal experiments?

    Jonker, R.M.; Guenther, A.; Engqvist, L.; Schmoll, T.

    2013-01-01

    Reproducibility of results is a fundamental tenet of science. In this journal, Richter et al.1 tested whether systematic variation in experimental conditions (heterogenization) affects the reproducibility of results. Comparing this approach with the current standard of ensuring reproducibility

  15. The United States Air Force and Humanitarian Airlift Operations 1947-1994

    1998-01-01

    Ecuador . Aftershocks in southern Ecuador on December 10 compounded the destruction in cities and villages such as Loja , Cariamango, Celica, and Alamor... Ecuador . Date(s): August 10–19, 1949. Emergency: An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale struck central Ecuador . Air Force Organization(s...Operations: A severe earthquake registering 7.5 on the Richter scale struck the high valleys of central Ecuador in the Andes on Thursday, August 4

  16. Nine Years of Cooperation: The US-German Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Helicopter Aeromechanics 2003-2012

    2013-12-01

    qualities of side-stick controlled helicopters was given the “Ian Cheeseman Best Paper Award” at the Eu - ropean Rotorcraft Forum 2012. ii    As...Forum of the AHS, Phoenix, 2006 35    [22] Gardner, Anthony D., Richter, Kai, Rosemann, Henning : Simulation of Oscillat- ing Airfoils and Moving Flaps...Numerical Methods, 65th Annual Forum of the AHS, Grape- vine, TX, 2009 [26] Gardner, Anthony D., Richter, Kai, Rosemann, Henning : Numerical Investiga

  17. Conodonta, Trilobita, and Anthozoa near the Late Frasnian Upper Kellwasser Event of the Geipel Quarry section in Schleiz, Thuringian Mountains (Germany

    D. Weyer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New recoveries of Trilobita, Anthozoa and Conodonta from the linguiformis Zone close to the Frasnian/Famennian boundary and Immediately preceding the Upper Kellwasser Event level at Schleiz (Thuringia are investigated. The trilobites species are Harpes neogracilis Richter & Richter, 1924, Palpebralia cf. brecciae (Richter, 1913 and Acuticryphops acuticeps (Kayser, 1889, the latter is represented by several morphs with different numbers of eye-lenses; the trend to eye-reduction is discussed. The Rugosa fauna that was nearly unknown from the psychrospheric facies worldwide, comprise six taxa of the Cyathaxoniina. The rich conodont faunas permit tracing the exact boundary between the top of the Late Palmatolepis rhenana Zone and the Palmatolepis linguiformis Zone. Im Niveau der Frasnium/Famennium-Grenze werden neue Fossilfunde der letzten Trilobita, Anthozoa und Conodonta aus der linguiformis-Zone (vor dem Oberen Kellwasser-Event mitgeteilt. Harpes neogracilis Richter & Richter, 1924, Palpebralia cf. brecciae (Richter, 1913 und Acuticryphops acuticeps (Kayser, 1889 wurden beobachtet; bei letzterem wird an Hand verschiedener Morphen mit unterschiedlicher Linsenzahl der Trend zur Augenreduktion diskutiert. Von der Rugosa-Fauna, die weltweit aus solcher psychrosphaerischer Fazies fast unbekannt blieb, sind sechs Taxa der Cyathaxoniina skizziert. Die reichen Condonta-Faunen erlauben eine präzise Grenzziehung zwischen dem Top der Late Palmatolepis rhenana-Zone und der Palmatolepis linguiformis-Zone. doi:10.1002/mmng.20030060104

  18. Apport de l’histopathologie dans le diagnostic d’une calcinose scrotale: a propos d’un cas

    K. Doh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La calcinose scrotale est une maladie rare, bénigne, de pathogénie incertaine caractérisée par de nombreux nodules indolores, durs du scrotum en absence de tout trouble métabolique systémique. Nous rapportons le cas d’un patient âgé de 57 ans qui présente une calcinose scrotale de découverte histologique fortuite associée à un eczéma chronique et une hernie inguinale gauche. Nous discutons après une revue de la littérature, les aspects pathogéniques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et anatomopathologiques de cette pathologie mal comprise.

  19. Die Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers - Experte oder notwendiges Übel?

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Die Zahl der gedolmetschten Gerichtsverhandlungen steigt weiterhin in vielen Rechtssystemen, weshalb es immer wichtiger wird, dass Rechtssysteme über qualifizierte Dolmetscher verfügen. In Dänemark begegnen Richter, die Rezipienten von Gerichtsdolmetschleistungen sind, sowohl professionellen als...... auch nicht- oder semi-professionellen Gerichtsdolmetschern. Dies lässt vermuten, dass die Richter in der Praxis Dolmetschleistungen von sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität erleben und vermutlich kein einheitliches Bild von der Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers haben. Ziel der Studie, die ich in diesem Beitrag...

  20. Communicating knowledge in science, science journalism and art

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    Richter. The specialized knowledge about the image is communicated in three very different contexts with three very different outcomes. The paper uses Niklas Luhmann's system theory to describe science, science journalism, and art as autonomous social subsystems of communication. Also, Luhmann's notions...... of irritation and interference are employed to frame an interpretation of the complex relations between communicating knowledge about the image in science, science journalism, and art. Even though the functional differentiation between the communication systems of science, science journalism, and art remains...... that Richter's Erster Blick ends up questioning the epistemological and ontological grounds for communication of knowledge in science and in science journalism....

  1. Animal model of chronic abdominal hernia in rabbit Modelo animal de hérnia abdominal crônica em coelhos

    Walter da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To create a feasible animal model of hernia that should be reliable to test the different types of mesh and/or surgical technique. METHODS: Thirty six male New Zealand albino rabbits were submitted to surgical procedure to provoke a standard hole in the abdominal wall. A metallic frame measuring 3 cm length and 1 cm width was allocated longitudinally on the umbilicus scar and the comprehensive three squared centimeters area was resected. A continuous 4.0 polyamide was performed to closure the subcutaneous and skin. RESULTS: During three weeks a score of signals/symptoms was performed to evaluate the wound and clinical conditions. No death or severe complications occurred. In the 3rd week the hernia ring and visceral adhesions were evaluated. Soft omental adherences were present in the hernial sac in all animals. The area of hernia ring ranged from 32.1±5.5 to 35.6±3.1 squared centimeter and the maximum was 39 cm² and the minimum was 30 cm². The model results in protrusion which was similar to a human incisional hernia with hernia sac, visceral adhesions and fibrous healing ring. CONCLUSION: The model was more reliable to test further techniques or mesh on hernia repair.OBJETIVO: Criação de um modelo animal de hérnia que seja confiável para testar as diferentes técnicas e tipos de telas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis coelhos foram submetidos a procedimento operatório que provocou uma falha na parede abdominal. Uma moldura metálica com 3 cm de comprimento e 1 cm de largura foi colocada longitudinalmente sobre a cicatriz umbilical e ressecada uma área de 3cm². Uma sutura contínua de poliamida 4.0 fechou a tela subcutânea e pele. RESULTADOS: durante três semanas o escore de sinais e sintomas foi coletado para avaliar as condições clínicas e da ferida operatória. Não ocorreram óbitos ou complicações graves. Na terceira semana o anel herniário e aderências peritoneais foram avaliadas. Aderências frouxas estavam presentes

  2. Download this PDF file

    Of Nigerians, albinos, satanists and anecdotes. A critical review of the HSRC report on human trafficking cgould@issafrica.org, marlise.richter@gmail.com, ... The deluge of news articles about human trafficking in South Africa, and the media preoccupation with trafficking in ..... There is also no discussion about the ethical.

  3. From phonon confinement to phonon splitting in flat single nanostructures: A case of VO2@V2O5 core–shell nano-ribbons

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ) as explained by Eklund's group for surface phonons and (d) our own modification based on the transformation from the spherical coordinates in the Richter equation to Cartesian coordinates; the latter being in keeping with the ribbon geometry. The change...

  4. Optical and microstructural investigations of porous silicon

    Unknown

    (Canham 1990, 1992; Cullis and Canham 1991). .... R Prabakaran, R Kesavamoorthy and Alok Singh. 222. [. ] [ ] ,d. 5.0. )( ),0(. 4. )( .... 291 cm–1 peak position and 43 cm–1 FWHM. .... Richter H, Wang Z P and Ley L 1981 Solid State Commun.

  5. An exploration of student perceptions of the risks and protective ...

    opperwjj

    uantwerpen.be. ..... creates (Corwin & Olafson, 1993; Schechter, Brunelli, Cunningham, Brown & Baba, 2002). Though issues of ..... system: data from the Teddy Bear Clinic. In L. Richter, A, ... Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(2), 127–143. Krueger, R.A. ...

  6. Reference: 279 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Full Text Available ork, N.Y.) Bandyopadhyay Anindita|Blakeslee Joshua|Gaxiola Roberto|Gilroy Simon|Khodakovskaya Mariya|Krizek ...Beth|Li Jisheng|Murphy Angus S|Peer Wendy Ann|Richards Elizabeth L|Richter Gregory|Titapiwantakun Boosaree|Undurraga Soledad|Yang Haibing

  7. Activation of mTor Signaling by Gene Transduction to Induce Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System Following Neural Injury

    2014-03-01

    association with transported herpes simplex virus particles.11 In this study, we tested the efficacy of these axon-targeting motifs to target the fluorophore...Richter D, Kindler S. Identification of a cis-acting dendritic targeting element in the mRNA encoding the alpha subunit of Ca2þ /calmodulin-dependent

  8. Symposium in honour of Ugo Amaldi's 60th birthday

    Myatt, Gerald; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Matthiae, Giorgio; Richter, Burton; Wiik, Bjørn Haavard; Winter, Klaus; CERN. Geneva

    1994-12-07

    Ugo Amaldi,a man of science , G Myattpp total cross section, G Matthiae Neutrino physics, K Winter DELPHI & LEP physics, G Kalmus Supersymmetry, J EllisElectron-proton physics, B WiikLinear colliders, B Richter Closing address, C Llewellyn Smith -

  9. Gerhard Richter’s Critical Artistic Strategies: Politics, Terrorism and War

    Van Schepen Randall K.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes two artistic strategies employed by Gerhard Richter to deal with painful recent cultural memory. Two works in particular reveal the relative success of Richter’s varied artistic strategies addressing contemporary political events: 18. Oktober 1977 (1988 and War Cut (2004. In his series of paintings on the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, Richter effectively employs his “photopainting” style to address the profoundly disturbing deaths of the Baader-Meinhof group in the 1970s. Richter chose mundane photographic sources for his imagery, denying a hierarchy of “correct” memories of the events and turning photographic indexicality against itself by employing a painterly medium, tinged with nostalgia, to represent it. Richter’s photopaintings of Baader-Meinhof thus use the “factual” nature of the photograph while also utilizing an elegiac painterly mist through which an indistinct emotional memory of the past seems to emerge. Richter’s blurring of images can thus be understood as a fulcrum on which the undecidability of history itself must be represented. Richter constructs War Cut (2004, on the other hand, as a work and aesthetic experience decidedly at odds with the iconicity of his Baader-Meinhof images by employing arbitrariness and conceptual abstraction.

  10. Use of X-Ray Diffraction, Molecular Simulations, and Spectroscopy to Determine the Molecular Packing in a Polymer-Fullerene Bimolecular Crystal

    2012-09-05

    Richter , M. F. Toney , M. Heeney , I. McCulloch , ACS Nano 2009 , 3 , 780 . [ 19 ] H. W. Spiess , Macromolecules 43 , 5479 . [ 20 ] K...Schmidt-Rohr , H. W. Spiess , Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers , Academic Press , London 1994 . [ 21 ] C. Yang , J. G. Hu

  11. Author Details

    Richter, M. Vol 103, No 4 (2013) - Articles Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  12. Author Details

    Abstract PDF · Vol 16, No 4 (2013) - Articles Using a Locum Tenens in a Private Practice Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 4 (2014) - Articles Reformation from criminal to lawyer: is such redemption possible? Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 6 (2014) - Articles Defamation on facebook: Isparta V Richter 2013 6 SA 529 (GP) Abstract PDF.

  13. TJOG Vol 25 No 2.cdr

    Some other emergency contraceptive preparations which do not contain norethisterone such as Postinor-2. 5,6. (Gedeon Richter) and Norlevo (Cipla) have. A study was therefore undertaken to form. investigate into the use of Primolut N Tablet. Clients who called at the pharmacy as a pre-coital contraceptive by women in.

  14. Jak to bylo s fúzí - část čtvrtá

    Řípa, Milan

    Leden (2016) Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Fusion * Argentina * Ronald Richter * Proyecto Huemu Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/1771-jak-to-bylo-s-fuzi-cast-ctvrta

  15. Non extensivity and frequency magnitude distribution of earthquakes

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Posadas, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Starting from first principles (in this case a non-extensive formulation of the maximum entropy principle) and a phenomenological approach, an explicit formula for the magnitude distribution of earthquakes is derived, which describes earthquakes in the whole range of magnitudes. The Gutenberg-Richter law appears as a particular case of the obtained formula. Comparison with geophysical data gives a very good agreement

  16. Download this PDF file

    chifaou.amzat

    Natal. Tawanda Makusha* ... 9. Makusha.pmd. 17/12/2012, 18:02. 127. Page 2. 128. Africa Development, Vol. XXXVII, No. 3, 2012 ... Page 3. 129. Makusha, Richter and Bhana: Children's Experiences of Support Received mothers and fathers ...

  17. The Forgotten Disaster Victim: Reducing Responder Injury

    2017-03-01

    Approved by: Anke Richter Thesis Advisor Michael Petrie EMS Bureau, County of Monterey Second Reader Erik Dahl Associate Chair for Instruction...RESPONDERS IN DISASTERS .............20 1. Oklahoma City Bombing .............................................................20 2. World Trade Center...Categories, 2008–2014..................................................................................................19 Figure 4. Oklahoma City Bombing

  18. Stand and individual tree growth response to treatments in young natural hardwoods

    Daniel J. Robison; Tracy San Filipo; Charlie Lawrence III; Jamie L. Schuler; Bryan J. Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Young even-aged upland Piedmont mixed hardwood and pine stands were treated with a variety of fertilizer and release (competition control) treatments. The sites studied are on the NC State University Hill Demonstration Forest in central North Carolina, and are characterized by formerly highly eroded agricultural sites (Richter et al. 2000) now in their third rotation...

  19. The creation of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission

    Marzorati, Zulema del V.

    2000-01-01

    After a mention to the Argentine regulation of 1945 concerning the export of uranium ores and a short description of the 'Richter affair', the decree 10936 of 1950, that creates the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) , is analyzed. The activities of the CNEA between the years 1952 - 1955 are also outlined

  20. 76 FR 64076 - Performance Review Board (PRB)

    2011-10-17

    ..., Chief Financial Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office. John B. Owens II, Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office. Bernard J. Knight Jr., General Counsel, United States... Trademark Office. Patricia M. Richter, Chief Administrative Officer, United States Patent and Trademark...

  1. 75 FR 63147 - Performance Review Board (PRB)

    2010-10-14

    .... Patricia M. Richter, Chief Administrative Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office. Robert L..., Commissioner for Trademarks, United States Patent and Trademark Office. Anthony P. Scardino, Chief Financial Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office. John B. Owens II, Chief Information Officer, United...

  2. Haiti and the Earthquake: Examining the Experience of Psychological Stress and Trauma

    Risler, Ed; Kintzle, Sara; Nackerud, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of…

  3. ARTICLES / SAGGI

    laws and take measures to deal with the growing influx of foreigners. ... gained major visibility in the Italian literary context. ... foreign-born writers who write in Italian and by Italian writers who .... Richter notes that the “increasing circulation of subjects in intercultural .... The city becomes the refraction of global processes of.

  4. Organic Molecules and Water in the Inner Disks of T Tauri Stars

    2011-05-11

    603 Knez, C., et al. 2007, BAAS , 211, 5005 Kruger, A. J., Richter, M. J., Carr, J. S., Najita, J. R., Doppmann, G. W., & Seifahrt, A. 2011, ApJ, 729...Close, L. M., Hinz, P. M., Hoffmann, W. F., Greene, T. P., Males, J. R., & Beck , T. L. 2010, ApJ, 711, 1280 Tappe, A., Lada, C. J., Black, J. H

  5. 76 FR 59773 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    2011-09-27

    ... habitat areas we are proposing, including managing for the potential effects of climate change, and (d... recent taxonomic treatment for reptiles and amphibians is dusky gopher frog (Crother et al. 2003, p. 197..., abandoned mammal burrows, and holes in and under old stumps (Richter et al. 2001, p. 318). Frequent fires...

  6. Rahvusvaheline mees Maximilian Schell / Jüri Laulik

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2008-01-01

    Filmirežissöörist Maximilian Schellist ja tema filmidest "Jalakäija" ("Der Fussgänger" : Šveitsi - Saksamaa - Iisrael, 1973) ja "Kohtunik ja tema timukas" ("Der Richter und sein Henker" : Šveits - Saksamaa, 1975)

  7. Dvě výročí Ronalda Richtra – rodáka ze Sokolova

    Řípa, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 23 (2011), s. 28-28 ISSN 0040-1064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * Huemul Project * Juan Peron * Matterhorn * Dmitrij Sacharov * Jevgenij Tamm * Lyman Spitzer * Ronald Richter Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Correlation between hydrocarbon reservoir properties and induced seismicity in the Netherlands

    Eijs, R.M.H.E. van; Mulders, F.M.M.; Nepveu, M.; Kenter, C.J.; Scheffers, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes induced by gas production are a social concern in the Netherlands. Over the last two decades, a total of about 350 such earthquakes have been recorded, with magnitudes ranging up to 3.5 on Richter's scale. The new Dutch mining law prescribes the operators to give a quantitative

  9. Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent – will ...

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... focus of recent debate around ethical issues relating to the standard of care and ... Forty-one key words relevant to computer terminology and concepts required to gain informed consent for a .... patients did not understand the meaning of the word 'consent' and .... [24] Lindegger and Richter[25] looked at.

  10. Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the ...

    On 8 October 2005, an earthquake registering 7.6 on the Richter scale struck northeast Pakistan. Although concentrated in a small area, the damage was severe. At least 73 000 people were killed, 70 000 were injured, and 2.8 million were left homeless and susceptible to further injury. So far, little attention has been paid to ...

  11. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 12, No 2 (1956)

    H . W . Hertzberg , Die Bücher Josua, Richter, Ruth übe rs etzt und erk lárt . Das Alte Testament Deutsch, Teilband 9. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck u. Ruprecht. 1953. S.281 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Gemser, 80-81 ...

  12. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 32 (2010)

    Of Nigerians, albinos, satanists and anecdotes: A critical review of the HSRC report on human trafficking · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Gould, M Richter, I Palmery, 37-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2010/v0i32a883 ...

  13. Seismotektonik dan Potensi Kegempaan Wilayah Jawa

    A. Soehaimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20085A seismogenetic study shows the Jawa Island Arc and its subduction zone system belong to a highly active seismotectonic arc unit (west Jawa and Sumatera and an active seismotectonic arc unit (western part of West Jawa – Central Jawa – East Jawa. In general, these regions are part of the Indonesian Earthquake Hazard Zones No. VI, VII, VII and IX. The regions are characterized by the presence of rare earthquake of magnitude > 8.5 Richter Scale (western part of Java, frequent magnitude of 7 Richter Scale and common 5 - 6 Richter Scale (Southern part of Java. The potential hazardous earthquake in Jawa that is > 5,6 Richter Scale of magnitude and shallow depth (< 30 km is due to a subduction zone earthquake. Epicenter distance, magnitude, geological site conditions, population, and infrastructure are the index of earthquake hazard and risk in these regions. The earthquake hazard mitigation programme in the near future is a risk assesment based on macro and microzonation of earthquake hazard and risk. These macrozonation and microzonation assessments are essentially needed for provinces, districts, and cities.    

  14. Etiologies et pronostic des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder: étude transversale sur 171 patients

    Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Habou, Oumarou; Magagi, Amadou; Maazou, Halidou; Adamou, Mansour; Harouna, Yacouba

    2016-01-01

    L’occlusion intestinale aigue (OIA) mécanique, représente l’une des pathologies les plus fréquentes en chirurgie digestive d’urgence. L’objectif de cette étude était de décrire les aspects étiologiques et pronostiques des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder (HNZ), Niger. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale sur 24 mois (Janvier 2013 à Décembre 2014) ayant inclus tous les patients opérés pour OIA. Les occlusions intestinales mécaniques représentaient 24,50% (n=171) des urgences chirurgicales digestives (n=622). L’âge médian était à 25 ans (extrêmes: 1 jour et 95 ans). Le sexe ratio était à 3,5 en faveur des hommes. Les enfants représentaient 38,60% (n=66). Le siège de l’obstacle était sur le grêle dans 60,82% (n=104), colique dans 21,63%(n=37) et mixte dans 17,54% (n=30). Le mécanisme par strangulation constituait 88,89% (n=152) dont les hernies étranglées avec 49,70% (n=85) et les invaginations intestinales aigues avec 19,88% (n=34) des patients. Les malformations ano-rectales et les tumeurs constituaient les principales étiologies par obstruction avec respectivement 7,02% (n=12) et 3,51% (n=6). Une résection intestinale était faite dans 52 cas (30,41%). Les complications septiques prédominaient (n=39/53), dont la suppuration pariétale (n=23). Le séjour moyen était de 7,82 jours. La mortalité globale était 11,70% (n=20). Celle-ci était corrélée statistiquement à la nécrose intestinale (p=0,01) et au retard d’admission (p=0,04). Les étiologies des OIA sont multiples et dominées par les hernies étranglées. La morbi-mortalité élevée qu’elles entrainent pourrait être évitée par la prise en charge précoce avant l’installation d’une nécrose intestinale. PMID:27800103

  15. Cours Sécurité : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine session le 21 octobre 2010. 12 places disponibles. Ce cours concerne toutes les personnes appelées à réaliser des manutentions manuelles dans le cadre de leurs activités. Contenu du cours : Théorie - Présentation des objectifs du programme ; - L'accident du travail (définition, coûts) ; - Statistiques CNAM ; - Notion d'anatomie (mécanique humaine) ; - Les différentes pathologies (lumbago, sciatique, hernie discale) ; - Discussion sur les problèmes particuliers rencontrés dans la vie courante. Pratique - Les efforts mécaniques sur la colonne dus aux mauvaises postures ; - Les principes de base de l'utilisation de la mécanique humaine ; - Exercices pratiques d'application (sur objets divers standards) ; - Prises de vues au caméscope des positions de chacun. Pour vous inscrire : https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/TRN?new=YES&...

  16. CT EVALUATION OF AZYGOESOPHAGEAL RECESS IN ADULTS

    Kulamani Sahoo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Azygoesophageal recess (AER is right posterior mediastinal recess . Knowledge of normal radiologic appearance and manifestations of disease in AER can facilitate the detection and diagnosis of many intrathoracic diseases ranging from infective processes to tumors involving mediastinum, lung/pleura, lymphatic system, upper gastrointestinal system (esophagus & stomach & cardio - vascular system. Aim of this study was to investigate various intrathoracic pathologies, altering the configuration of AER on CT in adults & to find out any significance with various disease processes. This study was carried out in CT center, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Krishna Institute of medical sciences, Karad from October 2012 - September 2014. CT thorax of 156 patients was studied for configuration of AER irrespective of pathology. In this study , configuration of AER was altered in descending order with pathologies belonging to following systems: Respiratory system (Lung parenchyma pathologies causing volume loss of right lower lobe particularly Koch’s , UIP , Malignancy , Pleural pathologies (Secondary more common than Primary >Lymphatic system(secondary subcarinal lymph node more common than Primary Lymphoma >Cardio - vascular system(Cardiomegaly particularly Left atrial enlargement >Gastrointestinal system ( hiatus herni a & esophageal Cancer > Mediastinum ( Koch’s of dorsal spine with paraspinal abscess.

  17. The comparison of upper endoscopy and scintigraphy results in the diagnostics of duodenogastric reflux

    Leja, M.; Lejnieks, A.; Pokrotnieks, J.; Sosare, L.; Reinholds, E.; Brezinskis, G.; Aboltins, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of upper endoscopy in respect to the symptoms potentially indicative for duodenogastric reflux (DGR) have been compared to the results obtained by a scintigraphic method, elaborated by the group of the authors. Altogether 89 patients (48 women, 41 men) have been studied. For the analysis of signs indicative for functional disturbances of the upper digestive symptoms (status of the lower esophageal sphincter, gastric tone, presence of bile in the gastric content, status of the pyloric sphincter, influx of the duodenal content observed during the upper endoscopy, presence of the bile in the duodenum) the maximum accepted interval between the two investigations was 24 hours, while 1 month interval was accepted for the evaluations of structural changes (esophagitis, presence of hiatal hernis, gastritis and duodenitis, deformation of the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. No statistically significant correlations has been found between any of the above mentioned parameters at upper endoscopy and the presence or absence of DGR as determined by the scintigraphic method. If a influx of the duodenal content into the stomach during the upper endoscopy, this could be considered as a specific indicator (specificity - 91,3%0, while the sensitivity (16,7%) is very low. There has been a trend to decreased DGR in patients with an atrophic gastritis, still this correlation was not statistically significant. The conclusion is made that the intubation of the stomach during the upper endoscopy could be causative for artificial DGR therefore leading to incorrect data interpretation and hyper diagnostics. (authors)

  18. HÉRNIA INGUINAL EM CÃES - RELATO DE 26 CASOS

    Alceu Gaspar Raiser

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1983 a dezembro de 1993 o autor reduziu vinte seis hérnias inguinais em cães. Os animais fizeram parte da casuística do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Foi efetuado estudo baseado nos dados do Serviço de Estatística do HCV e nos registros feitos nas fichas individuais de cada animal. A freqüência de hérnias em pequenos animais no HCV, neste período, foi de 3,97%. Destas 11,17% foram inguinais. A prevalência foi maior em cadelas, não sendo detectada em gatos. O conteúdo herniário mais encontrado foi o ligamento redondo e corno uterino. A técnica operatória adotada não deixou qualquer complicação pós-operatória.

  19. Reparo de grandes hérnias ostomais com permanência do estoma, utilizando tela de polipropileno

    Fernando Antônio Bohrer Pitrez

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a experiência dos autores na correção de grandes hérnias ostomais , apresentando os resultados obtidos através da utilização de técnica preconizada pelo serviço. MÉTODO: Foram analisados , retrospectivamente , seis casos de grandes hérnias ostomais (>10cm, no período de 1982 a 1999, sendo dois pacientes do sexo masculino e quatro do feminino, com média etária de 60 anos. Foram observadas duas hérnias paraostomais e quatro hérnias periostomais. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes foram submetidos à técnica preconizada pelos autores, com uso de tela de polipropileno e permanência do estoma, outros três pacientes foram submetidos à correção das hérnias com mudança do local da ostomia. Não houve recorrência na amostra estudada após acompanhamento que variou de um a cinco anos. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica proposta possibilita a manutenção da ostomia em seu sítio primário, reforça a parede, previne a recidiva herniária e o prolapso da ostomia.

  20. Hérnia perineal primária: relato de caso Primary perineal hernia: case report

    Hernán Augusto Centurión Sobral

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As hérnias perineais primárias resultam de um defeito no assoalho pélvico que permite a passagem de conteúdo abdominal para a região pelve-perineal. É uma enfermidade rara, tendo sido descritos menos de cem casos até hoje. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente jovem com queixa recente de tumoração glútea dolorosa que, mesmo após o exame físico e tomográfico, não teve sua etiologia esclarecida. Foi então submetida à ressecção cirúrgica da lesão via perineal, quando se confirmou tratar-se de saco herniário isquiorretal esquerdo transpondo defeito no músculo elevador do ânus. Evoluiu sem intercorrências no pósoperatório e sem indícios de recidiva.Primary perineal hernias result from a defect in the pelvic floor. It is a rare disease, having been described less than one hundred cases until today. We present a case of a young patient with recent complaint of painful gluteal tumor that even after the physical examination and CT did not clarified its etiology. She was submitted to a perineal resection of the lesion that confirmed being a hernia. She is going well without recurrence.

  1. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  2. Earthquake at 40 feet

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  3. Fundamental questions of earthquake statistics, source behavior, and the estimation of earthquake probabilities from possible foreshocks

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the probability that an ML 4.8 earthquake, which occurred near the southern end of the San Andreas fault on 24 March 2009, would be followed by an M 7 mainshock over the following three days vary from 0.0009 using a Gutenberg–Richter model of aftershock statistics (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989) to 0.04 using a statistical model of foreshock behavior and long‐term estimates of large earthquake probabilities, including characteristic earthquakes (Agnew and Jones, 1991). I demonstrate that the disparity between the existing approaches depends on whether or not they conform to Gutenberg–Richter behavior. While Gutenberg–Richter behavior is well established over large regions, it could be violated on individual faults if they have characteristic earthquakes or over small areas if the spatial distribution of large‐event nucleations is disproportional to the rate of smaller events. I develop a new form of the aftershock model that includes characteristic behavior and combines the features of both models. This new model and the older foreshock model yield the same results when given the same inputs, but the new model has the advantage of producing probabilities for events of all magnitudes, rather than just for events larger than the initial one. Compared with the aftershock model, the new model has the advantage of taking into account long‐term earthquake probability models. Using consistent parameters, the probability of an M 7 mainshock on the southernmost San Andreas fault is 0.0001 for three days from long‐term models and the clustering probabilities following the ML 4.8 event are 0.00035 for a Gutenberg–Richter distribution and 0.013 for a characteristic‐earthquake magnitude–frequency distribution. Our decisions about the existence of characteristic earthquakes and how large earthquakes nucleate have a first‐order effect on the probabilities obtained from short‐term clustering models for these large events.

  4. Questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence in older adults

    Kalisch, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Tobias Kalisch1, Julia Richter3, Melanie Lenz1, Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth2, Izabela Kolankowska2, Martin Tegenthoff1, Hubert R Dinse21Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, 2Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Department of Theoretical Biology, 3Faculty of Psychology, Department of Methods, Diagnostics and Evaluation, Ruhr-University Bochum, GermanyBackground: Gerontological research aims at understanding factors that are crucial for mediating “succe...

  5. Renforcement de la résilience des collectivités de montagne ...

    Un puissant séisme de magnitude 7,8 sur l'échelle de Richter a frappé le centre du Népal le 25 avril 2015, causant plus de 8 700 pertes de vie et plus de 22 000 blessés. Des centaines de milliers de maisons ont été réduites en ruines, quelque 15 000 immeubles gouvernementaux et 288 797 immeubles résidentiels ont ...

  6. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 2001

    2001-01-01

    and massive concrete slabs with protruding steel segments were partially hidden by an overgrowth of vegetation . The three-story structure, which was...terms of the job you get afterward. Capt Bill Kale came to AFIT from Lajes Field, Azores, where he was the base architect with the 65th CES. Q. Why did...meet Air Force civil engineer needs. Speaking of AFIT � Capt Manuel Fernandez Capt Bill Kale Capt Laurie Richter Interviews with current and former

  7. Reframing the photograph: confronting the Nazi past through artistic performance strategies since the 1960s

    Allwork, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    Working in a period when the western modernist focus on the originality of the artist, painterly form and composition had given way to more post Duchampian practices such as reappropriation, performance and the role of the spectator in creating artistic meaning, this paper will focus on works by Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer and Gustav Metzger. This paper will evaluate how these artists perform the photograph in three divergent yet distinctly post-Duchampian ways in order to articulate chall...

  8. The Exploitation of the Electric Contributions in Infrared Power Generation

    2016-02-02

    temperature, i.e., cook food and heat-up beverages . Similarly, through laser radiation it is possible to increase temperature, even with na...2015. [13] C.-P. Richter, S. Rajguru, R. Stafford, and S. R. Stock, Radiant energy during infrared neural stimulation at the target structure, Proc...Currie). -> Lodging and food for G. Scarel’s travel to NRL on August 17-19, 2015: $ 655.82 (•) Miscellaneous: —> Bruker HeNe laser module to support

  9. Response of mycorrhizal grapevine to Armillaria mellea inoculation: disease development and polyamines.

    Nogales, A. (Amaia); Aguirreolea, J. (Jone); Santa-Maria, E. (Eva); Camprubi, A. (Amalia); Calvet, C. (Cinta)

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted with the vine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch. x Vitis rupestris L.) in order to assess whether the colonisation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) can delay the disease development in plants inoculated with the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) Kummer, and to elucidate if the levels of polyamines (PAs) are modified in response to G. intraradices, A. mellea or by the dual infection. Four treatments were consi...

  10. 1983 Borah Peak earthquake and INEL structural performance

    Gorman, V.W.; Guenzler, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    At 8:06 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time on October 28, 1983 an earthquake registering 7.3 on the Richter Magnitude scale occurred about 30 km northwest of the town of Mackay, in central Idaho. This report describes the event and associated effects and the responses of facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), located approximately 100 km. from the epicenter, to ground motion. 21 references, 36 figures, 5 tables

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Composites Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    2008-12-10

    silicon or silicon dioxide in polypropylene . 50 THz NDE is also being proposed as a method of inspecting the adhesive bond- line of space...weave the overlapping pattern used in the composite. The polyimide resin is added and permeates throughout the individual glass fiber strands. The...dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.590301 65. Rutz, F., Hasek, T., Koch, M., Richter, H., Ewert, U. (2006). Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers

  12. US Cub Scouts visit CERN

    2001-01-01

    A group of young American Cub Scouts from Den 10, Pack 130 (based in Geneva) at the Microcosm last Saturday. On their trip to CERN, which included the first Visits Service tour of the ATLAS construction site, the scouts were able to satisfy most of the requirements for the Cub Scout engineering badge. From left to right: Edouard Vincent, Ariel Litke, Alexander Richter, Antoine Vidal de Saint Phalle, Jason Iredale and Daniel Reghelini.

  13. 1959 - 1969 Ten years in the life of a machine

    1969-01-01

    Operation and development of the PS have brought a dramatic improvement in its capabilities. This article describes the years of getting to know the machine and of developing its potential, picking out some major landmarks on the way. The article was put together with the help of P.H. Standley (PS Division Head), C.S. Taylor (Linac), G. Plass, W. Richter (Mam Ring), M. Georgijevic (Power Supply), J.H.B. Madsen (Operation), and G.L. Munday (Experimental Areas).

  14. The moment magnitude Mw and the energy magnitude Me: common roots and differences

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude Mw and energy magnitude Me is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for Mw and Me calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M0 and radiated seismic energy ES, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg?Richter magnit...

  15. Dégradation de l'environnement, marginalisation sociale et ...

    6 sur l'échelle de Richter a frappé le nord-est du Pakistan. La région touchée était peu étendue, mais d'importants dommages ont été causés : au moins 73 000 personnes ont péri, 70 000 ont été blessées et 2,8 millions ont perdu leur foyer, ...

  16. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gom?s, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake ...

  17. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  18. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Piontek Marlena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  19. Management Consultancy As Practice: A Study Of The Duality Of The Management Consultants' Role

    Hartley, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    The central question addressed in this research is: “How do practicing management consultants cope with the duality of their role?” Management consultants are often responsible for internal business leadership roles as well as developing business, people and knowledge alongside client delivery (Richter et al., 2008). The research sought to understand the nature of the potentially conflicting demands of their client-facing and consultancy-facing roles on management consultants, how conflicts a...

  20. A Comparative Study of Various Electric Propulsion Systems and their Impact on a Nominal Ship Design

    1987-06-01

    Permanent Magnet Motors ," Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., 1983. 20. Marshall, McMurray, Richter, Webster, and...December 1977. 21. Triezenbarg, Greene, Hannan, and Dvorsky, "Study of Permanent Magnet Motors for Naval Propulsion," Westinghcuse Research Report 80=9B2...34 Paper 71 CP 155-PWR, IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, February 1971. 34. Ireland, James R., Ceramic Permanent - Magnet Motors , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968. 206

  1. Monthly Report No. 7/2008

    Leon Podkaminer; Sandor Richter; Marton Szabó

    2008-01-01

    Hungarian agriculture - starting the fifth year within the European Union (by M. Szabó, pp. 1-7) Keywords agriculture, international trade Countries covered Hungary Topics Agriculture and Food Industry; International Trade and Competitiveness Migration from and to Hungary (by S. Richter, pp. 8-15) Keywords migration, labour force Countries covered Hungary Topics Labour and Migration The international role of the euro prospects of dethroning the dollar as the leading international currency sti...

  2. Events and incidents in 2011; Hendingar og uhell i 2011

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    11. March 2011 Japan was hit by an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale.The earthquake was followed by a massive tsunami. In all four Japanese nuclear power plants were affected of these events. The nuclear plant Fukushima Daiichi was hit hardest. In addition to Fukushima accident, 2011 was a year with several events, bow fires at nuclear waste facilities, icebreakers and submarines, which NRPA had to deal with. (eb)

  3. The Fukushima-incident; Fukushima-ulykken

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    11. March 2011 Japan was hit by an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale.The earthquake was followed by a massive tsunami. In all four Japanese nuclear power plants were affected of these events. The nuclear plant Fukushima Daiichi was hit hardest. As the Secretariat for the Crisis Committee for Nuclear Preparedness NRPA followed the situation in Japan closely. In retrospect, the NRPA shared experiences from the Chernobyl accident with Japan. (eb)

  4. Defense Standardization Program Journal. July/December 2010

    2010-12-01

    benefited both DoD and SC7. About the Authors Karen Richter is a senior analyst and project leader with the Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division... benefits of a proactive parts management approach. Among the accomplishments in this area are presentations at PSMC conferences: de- velopment of a...of a part’s authenticity. I A franchisee ! distributor has a contractual agreement with the OCM to buy, stock, repackage, sell, and distribute its

  5. Reinnervation of Paralyzed Muscle by Nerve-Muscle-Endplate Band Grafting

    2015-10-01

    Antoniadis G, Braun V, Rath SA, Richter HP. Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma. J Neurosurg...achieved by end-to-end approximation: review of 2,181 nerve lesions . Microsurgery. 1993;14(4):244- 246. 18 25. McAllister RM, Gilbert SE, Calder JS...innervation through irreparable damage to its nerve . DNI has been used for selective reinnervation of paralyzed laryngeal and facial muscles [15,16] as well

  6. Some comments on the Shiva spaceframe earthquake damage

    Hurley, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    On January 24, 1980, at 11:00 a.m., an earthquake, measuring 5.5 on the Richter scale, shook the Livermore Valley. There were three very pronounced shocks, the first at 5.5 followed by two, one at 5.2 and the other at 4.8, on the Richter scale. The Shiva spaceframe was shaken out of alignment. Shiva consists of two frames, a laser frame and a target frame. Components on each frame stayed within alignment with respect to each other, but the target frame moved with respect to the laser frame. Shearing of the seismic anchor bolts on the target frame was responsible for this misalignment. This was the third in a series of earthquakes for Shiva, the first occurring on June 20, 1977 at a magnitude of 4.7 on the Richter scale and an epicenter 2 miles away. The second quake was on August 6, 1979, with a magnitude of 5.9 and the epicenter 60 miles away. There was no damage or misalignment due to these first two earthquakes. The third however, severely tested the Shiva system and will be the subject of this report. Accelerometers were not in operation on the system so we do not know what the acceleration forces were. Our subsequent investigation, however, gives us some indication of these forces

  7. Perineal hernia in sheep containing pregnancy uterus / Hérnia perineal em ovino com útero gravídico como conteúdo

    Augusto José Savioli de Almeida Sampaio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herniations and eventrations are ordinary events of buiatric clinic. Umbilical and inguinal hernias are well described, but perineal hernias in small ruminant animals are not so mentioned. Even though being the perineal hernia more common in cats and dogs, it might be occasionally observed in pregnant sheep close to delivery, being the gravid uterus rarely as content. The present study describes the event of perineal hernia with gravid uterus as content in a sheep of approximately one year old with no breed defined with a pregnancy period about 120 days. The adopted procedure included surgical reduction of the hernia, but without the closure of the hernial ring. The animal presented excellent recovery without post-surgery complications. Herniações e eventrações são ocorrências comuns na clinica buiátrica. Hérnia umbilical e inguino-escrotal são bem descritas, porém hérnias perineais em pequenos ruminantes são pouco relatadas. Apesar de a hérnia perineal ser mais comum em cães e gatos, pode ser ocasionalmente observada em ovelhas gestantes próximas ao parto sendo que raramente apresenta o útero como conteúdo. O presente relato descreve a ocorrência de hérnia perineal com útero gravídico como conteúdo em uma ovelha de aproximadamente um ano de idade sem raça definida com tempo de gestação aproximado de 120 dias. A terapêutica adotada incluiu a redução cirúrgica da hérnia, porém, sem a síntese do anel herniário. O animal apresentou excelente recuperação sem complicações pós-operatórias.

  8. Cultural noise and the night-day asymmetry of the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian Station

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2018-01-01

    Mazzarella and Scafetta (2016) showed that the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian station from 1999 to 2014 suggests a higher nocturnal seismic activity. However, this station is located at about 50 m from the main road to the volcano's crater and since 2009 its seismograms also record a significant diurnal cultural noise due mostly to tourist tours to Mt. Vesuvius. Herein, we investigate whether the different seismic frequency between day and night times could be an artifact of the peculiar cultural noise that affects this station mostly from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm from spring to fall. This time-distributed cultural noise should evidently reduce the possibility to detect low magnitude earthquakes during those hours but not high magnitude events. Using hourly distributions referring to different magnitude thresholds from M = 0.2 to M = 2.0, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency diagram applied to the day and night-time sub-catalogs and Montecarlo statistical modeling, we demonstrate that the day-night asymmetry persists despite an evident disruption induced by cultural noise during day-hours. In particular, for the period 1999-2017, and for earthquakes with M ≥ 2 we found a Gutenberg-Richter exponent b = 1.66 ± 0.07 for the night-time events and b = 2.06 ± 0.07 for day-time events. Moreover, we repeat the analysis also for an older BKE catalog covering the period from 1992 to 2000 when cultural noise was not present. The analysis confirms a higher seismic nocturnal activity that is also characterized by a smaller Gutenberg-Richter exponent b for M ≥ 2 earthquakes relative to the day-time activity. Thus, the found night-day seismic asymmetric behavior is likely due to a real physical feature affecting Mt. Vesuvius.

  9. An experimental study on counter current flow limitation in annular narrow gaps with large diameter

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Lee, Sung Jin; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Sun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The present study intends to carry out CCFL experiment with the same gap size as the CHFG facility and suggest an empirical correlation in order to provide basic information useful to development of an empirical critical-power correlation. The present facility consists of water accumulator tank, test section, DC pump, air regulator, valves and sensors. Air and water are used as working fluids. The experiments are carried out at the atmospheric pressure. Differential pressure between the gap ends, liquid and gas phase flow rates, temperature, lower plenum pressure are measured.Measured values are expressed in terms of Wallis' parameter using gap size as a characteristic length. There is a big difference between the present experimental results and the Koizumi et al.'s results, but the present experimental results are very similar to the Richter et al.'s results. The present results agree well with the Osakabe and Kawasaki's results. In comparison of present experiments with the Koizumi et al.'s experiments, gap thickness is similar, but the diameter of the present is bigger than that of Koizumi et al.'s experiments. In comparison of present experiments with the Richter et al.'s experiments, diameter is similar, but the gap thickness of the present is smaller than that of Richter et al.'s experiments. It is judged from these results that correlation development on CCFL to consider gap thickness is reasonable at similar condition of diameter.The developed correlation will be used to develop the CHFG model. 36 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  10. Valencia-Madrid / Jaan Elken

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Jaan Elken oli Erasmuse programmi raames külalisloengutel Valencia polütehnilises instituudis. Valencia arhitektuurist, muuseumidest, näitusest "Valencia 09. Confines/Passages of Contemporary Arts" Valencia Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis, festivalist "PhotoEspana (PHE 09)" Madridis, saksa maalikunstniku näitusest "Gerhard Richter. Fotografias pintadas" ("Maalitud fotod"). Lühidalt hispaania skulptori Juan Muñoze näitusest Hispaania rahvusmuuseumi Reina Sofia kaasaegse kunsti keskuses, prantsuse maalikunstniku Henri Matisse'i näitusest Thyssen-Bornemiszas, hispaania maalikunstniku Joaquín Sorolla näitusest Prado muuseumis

  11. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  12. 'Universal' Distribution of Interearthquake Times Explained

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a simple theory for the 'universal' scaling law previously reported for the distributions of waiting times between earthquakes. It is based on a largely used benchmark model of seismicity, which just assumes no difference in the physics of foreshocks, mainshocks, and aftershocks. Our theoretical calculations provide good fits to the data and show that universality is only approximate. We conclude that the distributions of interevent times do not reveal more information than what is already known from the Gutenberg-Richter and the Omori power laws. Our results reinforce the view that triggering earthquakes by other earthquakes is a key physical mechanism to understand seismicity

  13. Structural performance of the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake

    Guenzler, R.C.; Gorman, V.W.

    1985-01-01

    The 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake (7.3 Richter magnitude) was the largest earthquake ever experienced by the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Reactor and plant facilities are generally located about 90 to 110 km (60 miles) from the epicenter. Several reactors were operating normally at the time of the earthquake. Based on detailed inspections, comparisons of measured accelerations with design levels, and instrumental seismograph information, it was concluded that the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake created no safety problems for INEL reactors or other facilities. 10 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  14. A new dataset of Wood Anderson magnitude from the Trieste (Italy) seismic station

    Sandron, Denis; Gentile, G. Francesco; Gentili, Stefania; Rebez, Alessandro; Santulin, Marco; Slejko, Dario

    2014-05-01

    The standard torsion Wood Anderson (WA) seismograph owes its fame to the fact that historically it has been used for the definition of the magnitude of an earthquake (Richter, 1935). With the progress of the technology, digital broadband (BB) seismographs replaced it. However, for historical consistency and homogeneity with the old seismic catalogues, it is still important continuing to compute the so called Wood Anderson magnitude. In order to evaluate WA magnitude, the synthetic seismograms WA equivalent are simulated convolving the waveforms recorded by a BB instrument with a suitable transfer function. The value of static magnification that should be applied in order to simulate correctly the WA instrument is debated. The original WA instrument in Trieste operated from 1971 to 1992 and the WA magnitude (MAW) estimates were regularly reported in the seismic station bulletins. The calculation of the local magnitude was performed following the Richter's formula (Richter, 1935), using the table of corrections factor unmodified from those calibrated for California and without station correction applied (Finetti, 1972). However, the WA amplitudes were computed as vector sum rather than arithmetic average of the horizontal components, resulting in a systematic overestimation of approximately 0.25, depending on the azimuth. In this work, we have retrieved the E-W and N-S components of the original recordings and re-computed MAW according to the original Richter (1935) formula. In 1992, the WA recording were stopped, due to the long time required for the daily development of the photographic paper, the costs of the photographic paper and the progress of the technology. After a decade of interruption, the WA was recovered and modernized by replacing the recording on photographic paper with an electronic device and it continues presently to record earthquakes. The E-W and N-S components records were memorized, but not published till now. Since 2004, next to the WA (few

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  16. Focus on focusing

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  17. From the Proton Synchroton to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Prévessin BE Auditorium , Kjell Johnssen Auditorium in Building 30, Room 40-S2-A01, and via webcast. Confirmed Speakers include: Prof. Jack Steinberger, Dr. Guenther Plass, Prof. Emilio Picasso, Dr. Steve Myers, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, Prof. Burton Richter, Dr. Lyndon Evans, Prof. Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Prof. Leon Lederman, Prof. Jim Cronin, Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Prof. Jerome Friedman, Prof. Frank Wilczek, Prof. Martinus Veltman, Prof. Gerardus 't Hooft, Prof. David Gross, Prof. Samuel Ting, Prof. Steven Weinberg (via teleconference) --- Contact: Directorate.Office@cern.ch

  18. Iroquois Confederacy’s Experiences with Centerifugal and Centripetal Forces: A Historical Analysis

    2007-06-15

    times of great sickness. As noted by a Jesuit missionary, Father Jean de Lamberville, the greatest converts “has been among the sick.”42 The...Charles T. Gehring, and William A. Starna (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996), 46. 37Pierre Millet , “Letter from Father Millet to Reverend...272. 46Richter, “Cultural Brokers,” American History, 48. 47Jean De Lamberville, “Of the Mission of Saint Jean Baptiste at Onnontague – 1674,” in

  19. Development of methodology to assess application of practical elimination for nuclear power plants

    Jung, J.; Sivekumar, D.; Thambirasa, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is presented as the primary case study for the topic of practical elimination. A decision matrix was created to assess whether practical elimination has been achieved or not. Public acceptance is included as a factor in practical elimination. An evaluation of an underground High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor was performed, where it was determined that a greater than 10 earthquake on the Richter scale is practically eliminated, but can easily be overturned based on public acceptance. A plane crash scenario was also practically eliminated. The gap analysis performed concluded that the developed decision matrix requires reworking. (author)

  20. GIS Based Study on Seismicity of Makran over 100 Years

    Mubarik Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes in Makran have a history of 600 years (1483-2015. The new ventures of development, urbanization, mining, and exploration for hydrocarbons in Makran region demand recent studies on seismicity. The major tectonic earthquakes are although infrequent in Makran, but are responsible for generating tsunami in coastal areas of Pakistan and Iran and have a long tail of aftershocks of shallow to deep focal depths. The oceanic part of Arabian plate which is underthrusting Eurasian plate (northwards, contributes a major share in producing seismicity of low magnitude (ML 6 on Richter scale has a relation with the rotation of moon (lunar dates in Makran.

  1. Produção e certificação de mudas de videira na França 1: situação Atual da Produção

    REGINA, MURILLO DE ALBUQUERQUE

    2002-01-01

    A França é o principal país produtor de mudas de videira, enxertando anualmente 270 milhões de mudas. Neste país, o programa de certificação de mudas alcança mais de 90% do material produzido, e, para tanto, a área utilizada de matrizes de porta-enxertos e produtoras atinge 3.454 ha. As principais cultivares multiplicadas, em ordem decrescente, são Merlot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, e os principais porta-enxertos o SO4, 110 Richter, 3309 Couderc, 41 B e 140 Ruggieri. Os perce...

  2. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun

    1998-01-01

    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  3. Unified scaling law for earthquakes in Crimea and Northern Caucasus

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    This study continues detailed investigations on the construction of regional charts of the parameters of the generalized Guttenberg-Richter Law, which takes into account the properties of the spatiotemporal seismic energy scaling. We analyzed the parameters of the law in the vicinity of the intersections of morphostructural lineaments in Crimea and Greater Caucasus. It was shown that ignoring the fractal character of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the southern part of the Russian Federation can lead to significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in the largest cities of the region.

  4. Reply [to Comment on Earthquake precursors: Banished forever?] Comment: Unpredictability of earthquakes-Truth or fiction?

    Gusev, Alexander

    I agree with many of C. Lomnitz's points. I only wish to add that by the word “paradigm” I mean the entity as T. Kuhn defines it in The Nature of Scientific Revolutions, that is, a belief system considered as the truth by a scientific community for a certain amount of time. Kuhn's idea of scientific progress is by radical paradigm shifts. Earthquake prediction (EP) is a good example. It was a nonscience in 1960, and C. Richter warned every student in his Elementary Seismology that it is “a marsh light,” appealing to one from the darkness but leading those who respond to the swamp.

  5. O mito do duplo em retratos

    Cesaro, Patrícia Souza Silva

    2012-01-01

    O mito do duplo faz parte de um conjunto de mitos dos mais antigos, que permeiam o imaginário do homem desde a sua própria existência. Tem por principais manifestações os casos de sósias, gêmeos idênticos, o ver a si mesmo em outro, a dualidade. O termo consagrado para designar o duplo, cunhado pelo escritor alemão Jean-Paul Richter, é doppelgänger, e significa aquele que caminha ao lado, o companheiro de estrada. Tem a ver com uma experiência de si na alteridade. Alguns exempl...

  6. Evaluation of Androgen Receptor Function in Prostate Cancer Prognosis and Therapeutic Stratification

    2015-12-01

    evaluated for DNA meth - ylation. Patient matched non-adjacent normal epithelial cells Figure 1. (A) schematic representation of the PMEPA1 gene structure...reduced or lost expression of PMEPA1 in CaP. The results presented here demonstrate that promoter meth - ylation is a major mechanism involved in...c-Myc-p21 Cip1 signaling pathway. J Pathol 2011; 223:683- 94; PMID:21341270; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ path.2834 21. Richter E, Masuda K, Cook C

  7. Elastic enhancement factor in the 11B(p,n0)11C reaction at Ep=14.3 MeV

    Hussein, M.S.; Pessoa, E.F.; Schelin, H.R.; Carlson, B.V.; Douglas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The elastic enhancement factor in charge exchange reactions proceeding via the compound nucleus, predicted to attain the value of 2 in the weak isospin mixing regime by Harney, Weidenmuller and Richter five years ago, is tested here in the system 11 B(p,n) 11 C at = 14.3 MeV. Both the DWBA and Hauser-Feshbach calculations employed in the analysis are used in a way which physically simulates a two coupled-channels model. Our results show an enhancement factor larger than 1 indicating that isospin is mainly conserved in this reaction. (Author) [pt

  8. Stanford survives 7.1 shock

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-12-15

    The Monday morning of 16 October looked like the start of a quiet week at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). After a successful six-month physics run, the SLC Stanford Linear Collider was shut down to begin scheduled upgrades and the installation of two vertex detectors for the Mark II detector. Then at 5.04 p.m. the next day, the Earth's crust had had enough. A major earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale rocked the San Francisco Bay Area from an epicentre along the wicked San Andreas Fault in the Southern Santa Cruz mountains.

  9. Environmental controls for the precipitation of different fibrous calcite cement fabrics

    Ritter, Ann-Christine; Wiethoff, Felix; Neuser, Rolf D.; Richter, Detlev K.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Abiogenic calcite cements are widely used as climate archives. They can yield information on environmental change and climate dynamics at the time when the sediment was lithified in a (marine) diagenetic environment. Radiaxial-fibrous (RFC) and fascicular-optic fibrous (FOFC) calcite cements are two very common and similar pore-filling cement fabrics in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic carbonate rocks (Richter et al., 2011) and in Holocene Mg-calcitic speleothems (Richter et al., 2015). Both fabrics are characterised by distinct crystallographic properties. Current research has shown that these fabrics are often underexplored and that a careful combination of conservative and innovative proxies allows for a better applicability of these carbonate archives to paleoenvironmental reconstructions (Ritter et al., 2015). A main uncertainty in this context is that it is still poorly understood which parameters lead to the formation of either RFC or FOFC and if differential crystallographic parameters affect proxy data from these fabrics. This study aims at a better understanding of the environmental factors that may control either RFC or FOFC precipitation. Therefore, suitable samples (a stalagmite and a Triassic marine cement succession), each with clearly differentiable layers of RFC and FOFC, were identified and analysed in high detail using a multi-proxy approach. Detailed thin section and cathodoluminescence analysis of the samples allowed for a precise identification of layers consisting solely of either RFC or FOFC. Isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) as well as trace elemental compositions have been determined and the comparison of data obtained from these different carbonate archives sheds light on changes in environmental parameters during RFC or FOFC precipitation. References: Richter, D.K., et al., 2011. Radiaxial-fibrous calcites: A new look at an old problem. Sedimentary Geology, 239, 26-36 Richter, D.K., et al., 2015. Radiaxial-fibrous and fascicular-optic Mg-calcitic cave

  10. Focus on focusing

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  11. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    2017-06-30

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  12. Stanford survives 7.1 shock

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The Monday morning of 16 October looked like the start of a quiet week at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). After a successful six-month physics run, the SLC Stanford Linear Collider was shut down to begin scheduled upgrades and the installation of two vertex detectors for the Mark II detector. Then at 5.04 p.m. the next day, the Earth's crust had had enough. A major earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale rocked the San Francisco Bay Area from an epicentre along the wicked San Andreas Fault in the Southern Santa Cruz mountains

  13. Discovery of massive neutral vector mesons

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Personal accounts of the discovery of massive neutral vector mesons (psi particles) are given by researchers S. Ting, G. Goldhaber, and B. Richter. The double-arm spectrometer and the Cherenkov effect are explained in a technical note, and the solenoidal magnetic detector is discussed in an explanatory note for nonspecialists. Reprints of three papers in Physical Review Letters which announced the discovery of the particles are given: Experimental observation of a heavy particle J, Discovery of a narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation, and Discovery of a second narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation. A discussion of subsequent developments and scientific biographies of the three authors are also presented. 25 figures

  14. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    Erica DeMilio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  15. On the structure of self-affine convex bodies

    Voynov, A S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We study the structure of convex bodies in R{sup d} that can be represented as a union of their affine images with no common interior points. Such bodies are called self-affine. Vallet's conjecture on the structure of self-affine bodies was proved for d = 2 by Richter in 2011. In the present paper we disprove the conjecture for all d≥3 and derive a detailed description of self-affine bodies in R{sup 3}. Also we consider the relation between properties of self-affine bodies and functional equations with a contraction of an argument. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  16. Diversity in Action workshop | 5 May | Technoparc Business Centre

    CERN Diversity Office

    2015-01-01

    Get an insight into diversity, develop greater sensitivity to differences, acquire new tools to recognise and overcome unconscious biases.   Diversity in Action workshop 5th edition in English Tuesday, 5 May 2015 8:30 a.m. - 12 p.m. Technoparc Business Centre – Saint-Genis-Pouilly Registration and more information on the workshop: http://cern.ch/diversity/in-action On 5 May at 2 p.m., Alan Richter will also lead a forum for discussion  on the topic of “Respect in the workplace”. More information here.  

  17. Entre a abstração e a imagem realista: pintura no limite

    Fátima Junqueira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este texto pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre a pintura contemporânea, que se destaca por ficar no limite entre dois conceitos clássicos da arte moderna: "figurativo" e "abstrato". O artigo baseia-se em autores da teoria da arte moderna (como Clement Greenberg e Leo Steinberg da filosofia (como Jacques Rancière, da teoria da arte contemporânea (como Anne Cauquelin e nos escritos do pintor alemão Gerhard Richter.

  18. Coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with antecedent chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Rehan, Hinna; Alsubaie, Maha; Al Atwi, Nasser; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Alshieban, Saeed; Almughairi, Areej

    2018-03-11

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia are the most common types of adult leukemia. However, it is rare for the same patient to suffer from both. Richter's transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is frequently observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Purine analog therapy and the presence of trisomy 12, and CCND1 gene rearrangement have been linked to increased risk of Richter's transformation. The coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the same patient is extremely rare, with only nine reported cases. Here, we describe the first reported case of concurrent chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a background of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A 60-year-old Saudi man known to have diabetes, hypertension, and chronic active hepatitis B was diagnosed as having Rai stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with trisomy 12 and rearrangement of the CCND1 gene in December 2012. He required no therapy until January 2016 when he developed significant anemia, thrombocytopenia, and constitutional symptoms. He received six cycles of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, after which he achieved complete remission. One month later, he presented with progressive leukocytosis (mostly neutrophilia) and splenomegaly. Fluorescence in situ hybridization from bone marrow aspirate was positive for translocation (9;22) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected BCR-ABL fusion gene consistent with chronic myeloid leukemia. He had no morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the time. Imatinib, a first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was started. Eight months later, a screening imaging revealed new liver lesions, which were confirmed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, progressive leukocytosis and splenomegaly caused by emerging chronic myeloid leukemia can be easily overlooked. It is unlikely that chronic myeloid

  19. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  20. Seismic experience in power and industrial facilities as it relates to small magnitude earthquakes

    Swan, S.W.; Horstman, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    The data base on the performance of power and industrial facilities in small magnitude earthquakes (M = 4.0 - 5.5) is potentially very large. In California alone many earthquakes in this magnitude range occur every year, often near industrial areas. In 1986 for example, in northern California alone, there were 76 earthquakes between Richter magnitude 4.0 and 5.5. Experience has shown that the effects of small magnitude earthquakes are seldom significant to well-engineered facilities. (The term well-engineered is here defined to include most modern industrial installations, as well as power plants and substations.) Therefore detailed investigations of small magnitude earthquakes are normally not considered worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to review the tendency toward seismic damage of equipment installations representative of nuclear power plant safety systems. Estimates are made of the thresholds of seismic damage to certain types of equipment in terms of conventional means of measuring the damage potential of an earthquake. The objective is to define thresholds of damage that can be correlated with Richter magnitude. In this manner an earthquake magnitude might be chosen below which damage to nuclear plant safety systems is not considered credible

  1. Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Negi, M.S.; Ramola, R.C.; Choubey, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

  2. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  3. Forum | Accelerating respect @ CERN | 5 May | Council Chamber

    2015-01-01

    Forum for discussion: Accelerating respect @ CERN - What does this mean in our daily working lives?   Tuesday, 5 May at 2 p.m. Council Chamber Join our forum for discussion on the topic of “Respect in the workplace” where Alan Richter will be leading a discussion on the relationship between respect and trust, including some recent research on trust, and exploring the role of unconscious bias, how respect is differently interpreted across cultures, and the connection between respect, listening, and the appreciative inquiry process. Alan Richter is the president of QED Consulting, a 26-year-old company based in New York. He has consulted to organisations in the areas of leadership, values, culture and change and is a recognised pioneer in global diversity and international ethics. He has worked with CERN, NASA, the UN and many global companies and leading universities around the world. He has a Ph.D. in Philosophy from London University, and a Master’s degree fro...

  4. The North African Middle Stone Age and its place in recent human evolution.

    Scerri, Eleanor M L

    2017-05-01

    The North African Middle Stone Age (NAMSA, ∼300-24 thousand years ago, or ka) features what may be the oldest fossils of our species as well as extremely early examples of technological regionalization and 'symbolic' material culture (d'Errico, Vanhaeren, Barton, Bouzouggar, Mienis, Richter, Hublin, McPherron, Louzouet, & Klein, ; Scerri, ; Richter, Grün, Joannes-Boyau, Steele, Amani, Rué, Fernandes, Raynal, Geraads, Ben-Ncer Hublin, McPherron, ). The geographic situation of North Africa and an increased understanding of the wet-dry climatic pulses of the Sahara Desert also show that North Africa played a strategic role in continental-scale evolutionary processes by modulating human dispersal and demographic structure (Drake, Blench, Armitage, Bristow, & White, ; Blome, Cohen, Tryon, Brooks, & Russell, ). However, current understanding of the NAMSA remains patchy and subject to a bewildering array of industrial nomenclatures that mask underlying variability. These issues are compounded by a geographic research bias skewed toward non-desert regions. As a result, it has been difficult to test long-established narratives of behavioral and evolutionary change in North Africa and to resolve debates on their wider significance. In order to evaluate existing data and identify future research directions, this paper provides a critical overview of the component elements of the NAMSA and shows that the timing of many key behaviors has close parallels with others in sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Guidelines for research reports: an application of CONSORT 2010 statements].

    Ziegler, A; König, I R

    2011-02-01

    Reporting guidelines are not only useful for authors in compiling complete and transparent reports but they can use also be used by readers for the critical appraisal of the study. In this study, we apply the CONSORT 2010 reporting guideline to illustrate its value as the first step in the critical appraisal. We have applied the checklist of the CONSORT 201 statement to the publication of Richter et al. [7]. This has been done by both authors independently. We report for each item of the 25 item checklist whether it was adequately reported, and we comment on each item. The paper of Richter et al. does not comply with the CONSORT 2010 checklist and the CONSORT extension for summaries in all items. The most important reporting guidelines are now available in German (https://www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/toc/dmw/104011). They are useful for authors of research articles to compile complete and transparent reports. Readers can use items of these reporting guidelines for judging the quality of a published study. To this end, there is a need to distinguish between reporting quality and the quality of a specific study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes. Large earthquakes

    Lavenda, B. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy); Cipollone, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). National Centre for Research on Thermodynamics

    2000-06-01

    A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershocks sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Frechet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions show that self-similar power laws are transformed into non scaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Frechet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same catalogue of Chinese earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Frechet distribution. Earthquake temperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  7. Two new species and new records of Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    Saito, Tomomi; Anker, Arthur

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of the spongicolid shrimp genus Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected recently in Australia and Japan. Type specimens of Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. were collected on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, whereas type specimens of Microprosthema pallidum sp. nov. were collected on a coral reef off Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. and M. pallidum sp. nov. differ from all other species of the genus by a combination of morphological characters, including the gill-exopod formulae, and by their diagnostic colour patterns. This study increases the total number of species described in the genus Microprosthema to 16, nine of them in the Indo-West Pacific. In addition, new records are provided for M. lubricum Saito & Okuno, 2011 (Guam), M. plumicorne (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Mariana and Marshall Islands, French Polynesia), M. scabricaudatum (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Glorieuses and Tuamotu Islands), and M. validum Stimpson, 1860 (Red Sea, Madagascar, Singapore, French Polynesia), significantly extending their previously known distribution ranges. 

  8. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  9. From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider: 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    Directorate Office

    As a new era in particle physics approaches with the start of the LHC, a symposium to commemorate many significant events that have marked high-energy physics in the past 50 years will be held at CERN on 3-4 December 2009. The list of confirmed distinguished speakers reads like the Who’s Who of particle physics of the second half of the 20th Century, including the Nobel Laureates James Cronin, Jerome Friedman, Sheldon Glashow, David Gross, Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Leon Lederman, Burton Richter, Carlo Rubbia, Jack Steinberger, Samuel Ting, Martinus Veltman, Stephen Weinberg and Frank Wilczek. They will share with us memories of several landmark events that, over the past 50 years, have shaped our field of science. These events include the discovery of the J/ψ particle by Richter and Ting in the 1970s; the work of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg on the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interactions; the discovery of fundamental asymmetries in the K-meson sector by Cronin and Fitch...

  10. Earthquake safety program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Freeland, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Within three minutes on the morning of January 24, 1980, an earthquake and three aftershocks, with Richter magnitudes of 5.8, 5.1, 4.0, and 4.2, respectively, struck the Livermore Valley. Two days later, a Richter magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred, which had its epicenter about 4 miles northwest of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Although no one at the Lab was seriously injured, these earthquakes caused considerable damage and disruption. Masonry and concrete structures cracked and broke, trailers shifted and fell off their pedestals, office ceilings and overhead lighting fell, and bookcases overturned. The Laboratory was suddenly immersed in a site-wide program of repairing earthquake-damaged facilities, and protecting our many employees and the surrounding community from future earthquakes. Over the past five years, LLNL has spent approximately $10 million on its earthquake restoration effort for repairs and upgrades. The discussion in this paper centers upon the earthquake damage that occurred, the clean-up and restoration efforts, the seismic review of LLNL facilities, our site-specific seismic design criteria, computer-floor upgrades, ceiling-system upgrades, unique building seismic upgrades, geologic and seismologic studies, and seismic instrumentation. 10 references

  11. Primary perineal posterior hernia: an abdominoperineal approach for mesh repair of the pelvic floor Hérnia perineal posterior primária: um acesso abdômino-perineal para o reforço do assoalho pélvico com tela

    Mara R. Salum

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous development of perineal hernias is a very rare condition and many techniques have been described for repairing the floor defect. The authors describe the use of a combined approach in the surgical treatment of primary perineal hernias, by reconstructing the muscle pelvic floor and restoring the rectum to its sacral position with mesh repair. The case of one patient with a huge primary perineal hernia is reported, with clinical manifestations of progressive bulging in the buttock area, obstipation and fecal incontinence. Long-term follow-up has shown no recurrence of the condition and normal bowel function. It is concluded that primary perineal hernia can be repaired by a combined surgical approach, by using prosthetic material.O desenvolvimento espontâneo de hérnia perineal representa uma condição patológica muito rara.Várias técnicas têm sido descritas para a correção da falha no assoalho muscular pélvico. Os autores descrevem um acesso cirúrgico combinado para o tratamento das hérnias perineais primárias, pela reconstrução do assoalho pélvico muscular e reposicionamento do reto com reforço utilizando-se tela. O caso de uma paciente com uma volumosa hérnia na região perineal, caracterizada como primária, é relatado, evidenciando-se manifestações clínicas de aumento progressivo do saco herniário, dificuldades para evacuar e incontinência fecal. O seguimento clínico a longo prazo, após a correção cirúrgica, demonstrou que não houve recidiva da hérnia, normalizando-se a função intestinal. Conclui-se que as hérnias perineais primárias podem ser tratadas por este acesso combinado, utilizando-se próteses.

  12. Herniorrafia perineal, ressecção de cisto prostático e criptorquidectomia vídeolaparoscópicas por único acesso em cão Perineal vídeolaparoscopic, prostatic cystic resection, and cryptorchidectomy in a dog under unique access

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve a realização de criptorquectomia, ressecção de cisto prostático e herniorrafia perineal vídeolaparoscópicas em um cão da raça Collie que apresentou recidiva dos sinais clínicos após redução cirúrgica convencional. Pela cirurgia laparoscópica, com três portais retroumbilicais, localizou-se um testículo intrabdominal, que foi removido após a aplicação de clipes de titânio no mesórquio e nos vasos testiculares. Verificou-se também a presença de um cisto prostático que foi drenado por punção transparietal com agulha e, em seguida, realizaram-se a ressecção da parede e omentopexia na cavidade cística. Na avaliação da cavidade pélvica, verificou-se que o tamanho do defeito herniário permitia ser manejado por laparoscopia. Aplicou-se uma sutura intracorpórea no padrão colchoeiro abrangendo músculo coccígeo e elevador do ânus. O procedimento total durou aproximadamente 140 minutos, não havendo complicações. Conclui-se que a cirurgia laparoscópica pode ser empregada no tratamento de cisto prostático e na herniorrafia perineal de cães.This research describes the cyst resection of the prostate, perineal hernia and laparoscopic criptorquidectomia of a Collie dog, which showed clinical signs of recurrence after conventional hernia surgery. By mean three retroumbilical portals,an intraabdominal testicle was located through laparoscopic surgery. It was removed after the application of titanium clips in mesorquio and pots testicules. A prostate cyst was noticed that was drained by puncture with a transparietal needle. An incision was made in the wall and omentopexia of the cystic cavity was performed. In the evaluation of the pelvic cavity, it was found that the hernial defect was small and could be managed by laparoscopy. An intracorporeal suturing pattern was applied which covered the coccygeal muscle and lifted the anus. The entire procedure took about 140 minutes, with no complications

  13. New approach on seismic hazard isoseismal map for Romania

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Cioflan, Carmen Ortanza; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The seismicity of Romania comes from the energy that is released by crustal earthquakes, which have a depth not more than 40 km, and by the intermediate earthquakes coming from Vrancea region (unique case in Europe) with a depth between 60 and 200 km. The authors developed the concept of 'control earthquake' and equations to obtain the banana shape of the attenuations curves of the macroseimic intensity I (along the directions defined by azimuth Az), in the case of a Vrancea earthquake at a depth 80 < x < 160 km. There were used deterministic and probabilistic approaches, linear and nonlinear ones. The final map is in MMI intensity (isoseismal map) for maximum possible Vrancea earthquake with Richter magnitude, MGR 7.5. This will avoid any drawbacks to civil structural designers and to insurance companies which are paying all damages and life loses in function of earthquake intensity. (authors)

  14. [Fatal diseases and "imaginary" suffering. "Hypochondria" and "consumption" in the correspondence between Jean Paul and Johann Bernhard Hermann, with a perspective on Jean Paul's literature and aesthetics].

    Meier, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The German writerJean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) and his friendJohann Bernhard Hermann (1761-1790) became acquainted with the thoughts of late Enlightenment at the University of Leipzig. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being. Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" (1793).

  15. Investigation of obstacles against effective crisis management in earthquake

    Mahmood Nekoei-Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Floods, hurricanes, landslides, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes are events that a large group of people on earth are affected. In December 2003, the residents of Bam, Iran experienced an earthquake that measured 6.6 on the Richter scale and destroyed more than 90% of the city. The purpose of this study was to investigate obstacles against effective crisis management with considering service received by individuals in the Bam earthquake. In this study, domestic journals, foreign dissertations in Persian bases such as Google scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, SID and in English bases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar were used. The results of this study showed that there were many problems in various aspects of planning including: lack of coherent programs, lack of attention to the needs of health care, poor coordination between agencies and organizations and lack of appropriate training of volunteers and people.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of tornado statistics in comparison to earthquakes: intensity and temporal behaviour

    L. Schielicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tornadoes and earthquakes are characterised by a high variability in their properties concerning intensity, geometric properties and temporal behaviour. Earthquakes are known for power-law behaviour in their intensity (Gutenberg–Richter law and temporal statistics (e.g. Omori law and interevent waiting times. The observed similarity of high variability of these two phenomena motivated us to compare the statistical behaviour of tornadoes using seismological methods and quest for power-law behaviour. In general, the statistics of tornadoes show power-law behaviour partly coextensive with characteristic scales when the temporal resolution is high (10 to 60 min. These characteristic scales match with the typical diurnal behaviour of tornadoes, which is characterised by a maximum of tornado occurrences in the late afternoon hours. Furthermore, the distributions support the observation that tornadoes cluster in time. Finally, we shortly discuss a possible similar underlying structure composed of heterogeneous, coupled, interactive threshold oscillators that possibly explains the observed behaviour.

  17. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat

    Garetto, L P; Richter, Erik; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity......Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle...... was still observed in perfused muscle; however, glucose utilization was also increased in the absence of added insulin (1.5 vs. 4.2 mumol X g-1 X h-1). In contrast 2.5 h after the run, muscle glycogen had returned to near preexercise values, and only the insulin-induced increase in glucose utilization...

  18. Introduction

    Baumert, Nicolas; Guichard-Anguis, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Le séisme du 11 mars 2011 qui a frappé le Japon a provoqué une catastrophe majeure dont les images, largement diffusées dans les médias, ont rappelé par la violence de l’aléa (évalué à 9 sur l’échelle de Richter), la vulnérabilité des sociétés humaines face à l’enchainement des risques naturels et humains. À la succession de destructions ayant fait près de 20 000 victimes, et à l’accident nucléaire de la centrale de Fukushima n° 1 près d’Iwaki, s’est ajoutée une crise alimentaire sévère qui a...

  19. Unexpected uterine leiomyosarcoma during laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Brink Laursen, Jacob; Istre, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) have been the subject of much discussion because of cases in which suspected benign leiomyomas have been power morcellated and subsequently have proven to be LMS. Some of these cases have received public attention and have led to the U.S. Food and Drug...... Administration (FDA) issuing a warning against uncontained power morcellation. Case: A 45-year-old woman had a symptomatic uterine fibroid with heavy menstrual bleeding, and incontinence caused by pressure from the fibroid. She had previously received 6 months of treatment with Esmya® (Gedeon Richter, Budapest......, Hungary; ulipristal acetate; UPA), and her symptoms were reduced. However, subsequently in September 2015, she was then admitted to the gynecologic department of a hospital because she had increased pain. A high level of C-reactive protein was found, and necrosis of the fibroid was assumed...

  20. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow. PMID:24406467

  1. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  2. 2016-2017 Update of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    With a reported Richter magnitude (ML) of 4.8, the January 12, 2016 earthquake near Fox Creek is the largest event in Alberta during the past decade. This event led to the suspension of a nearby hydraulic fracturing well, in compliance with the provincial "traffic-light" protocol. In previous study, we examine the hypocenter location and focal mechanism of this earthquake, and the results support an anthropogenic origin. Since then (until August 2017), no event reached ML=4, while several ML>3 events occurred in the Fox Creek area. Their focal mechanisms are consistent with the ones from previous events that were induced by hydraulic fracturing, suggesting a strike-slip mechanism with either N-S or E-W trending fault. In 2017, the near-source station (distance Fox Creek region.

  3. First evidence for correlations between electron fluxes measured by NOAA-POES satellites and large seismic events

    Battiston, Roberto; Vitale, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We present the result for the search of correlations between the precipitation of low energy electrons (E>0.3MeV) trapped within the Van Allen Belts and earthquakes with magnitude above 5 Richter scale. We used the electron data measured by the NOAA POES 15,16,17 and 18 satellites collected during a period of 13 years, corresponding to about 18 thousands M>5 earthquakes registered in the NEIC catalog of the U.S. Geological Survey. We defined Particle Burst (PB) the fluctuations of electrons counting rate having a probability −6 of being a statistical fluctuation. The observed correlation involves about 1.410 −3 of the earthquakes in that period of time. It provides the first statistically convincing evidence for the existence of a detectable coupling mechanism between the lithosphere and the magnetosphere having well defined time characteristics

  4. Learning from Local Wisdom: Friction Damper in Traditional Building

    Pudjisuryadi P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is situated in the so called “Ring of Fire” where earthquake are very frequent. Despite of all the engineering effort, due to the March 28, 2005 strong earthquake (8.7 on Richter scale a lot of modern buildings in Nias collapsed, while the traditional Northern Nias house (omohada survived without any damage. Undoubtedly many other traditional buildings in other area in Indonesia have survived similar earthquake. Something in common of the traditional building are the columns which usually are not fixed on the ground, but rest on top of flat stones. In this paper some traditional building are subjected to non linear time history analysis to artificial earthquake equivalent to 500 years return period earthquake. This study shows that apparently the columns which rest on top of flat stone acts as friction damper or base isolation. The presence of sliding at the friction type support significantly reduces the internal forces in the structure.

  5. Detection of Hodgkin Transformation in a Case of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by PET/CT

    Sabire Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter’s transformation (RT represents the development of high grade lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL. CLL/SLL may convert also to Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the so-called Hodgkin’s variant of Richter transformation. Histopathological proof is needed to confirm a definitive diagnosis. Patients with RT generally have a poor prognosis, with prompt recognition optimise clinical management. Whole-body PET scan with 18F-FDG can be used for detection of RT of CLL/SLL. We describe the case of 64-year-old woman with CLL/SLL who developed Hodgkin lymphoma detected with PET/CT.

  6. Collaborative Research: failure of RockMasses from Nucleation and Growth of Microscopic Defects and Disorder

    Klein, William [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Over the 21 years of funding we have pursued several projects related to earthquakes, damage and nucleation. We developed simple models of earthquake faults which we studied to understand Gutenburg-Richter scaling, foreshocks and aftershocks, the effect of spatial structure of the faults and its interaction with underlying self organization and phase transitions. In addition we studied the formation of amorphous solids via the glass transition. We have also studied nucleation with a particular concentration on transitions in systems with a spatial symmetry change. In addition we investigated the nucleation process in models that mimic rock masses. We obtained the structure of the droplet in both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. We also investigated the effect of defects or asperities on the nucleation of failure in simple models of earthquake faults.

  7. Synchronization and desynchronization in the Olami-Feder-Christensen earthquake model and potential implications for real seismicity

    S. Hergarten

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Olami-Feder-Christensen model is probably the most studied model in the context of self-organized criticality and reproduces several statistical properties of real earthquakes. We investigate and explain synchronization and desynchronization of earthquakes in this model in the nonconservative regime and its relevance for the power-law distribution of the event sizes (Gutenberg-Richter law and for temporal clustering of earthquakes. The power-law distribution emerges from synchronization, and its scaling exponent can be derived as τ = 1.775 from the scaling properties of the rupture areas' perimeter. In contrast, the occurrence of foreshocks and aftershocks according to Omori's law is closely related to desynchronization. This mechanism of foreshock and aftershock generation differs strongly from the widespread idea of spontaneous triggering and gives an idea why some even large earthquakes are not preceded by any foreshocks in nature.

  8. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future.

  9. A model of characteristic earthquakes and its implications for regional seismicity

    López-Ruiz, R.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Regional seismicity (i.e. that averaged over large enough areas over long enough periods of time) has a size-frequency relationship, the Gutenberg-Richter law, which differs from that found for some seismic faults, the Characteristic Earthquake relationship. But all seismicity comes in the end from...... active faults, so the question arises of how one seismicity pattern could emerge from the other. The recently introduced Minimalist Model of Vázquez-Prada et al. of characteristic earthquakes provides a simple representation of the seismicity originating from a single fault. Here, we show...... that a Characteristic Earthquake relationship together with a fractal distribution of fault lengths can accurately describe the total seismicity produced in a region. The resulting earthquake catalogue accounts for the addition of both all the characteristic and all the non-characteristic events triggered in the faults...

  10. Seismic activity in Ghana: past, present and future

    P. E. Amponsah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Though Ghana is far away from the major earthquake zones of the world, it is prone to earthquake disaster. Ghana has records of damaging earthquakes dating as far back as 1615. The last three major events occurred in 1862, 1906 and 1939. This paper presents the main historical and current instrumental recorded earthquakes of Ghana and the steps being taken to mitigate the negative effects of such disastrous occurrences in the country. The discussion is based on historical and current data obtained from the seismological observatories in Accra and Kukurantumi. Historical earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.0 and current local tremors with magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.8 on the Richter scale have been recorded since the establishment of the seismograph stations.

  11. The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory - Overview

    Malecki, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: ATLAS Experiment Laboratory has been created by physicists and engineers preparing a research programme and detector for the LHC collider. This group is greatly supported by members of other Departments taking also part (often full time) in the ATLAS project. These are: J. Blocki, J. Godlewski, Z. Hajduk, P. Kapusta, B. Kisielewski, W. Ostrowicz, E. Richter-Was, and M. Turala. Our ATLAS Laboratory realizes its programme in very close collaboration with the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Technology of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. ATLAS, A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS Collaboration groups about 1700 experimentalists from about 150 research institutes. This apparatus, a huge system of many detectors, which are technologically very advanced, is going to be ready by 2005. With the start of the 2 x 7 TeV LHC collider ATLAS and CMS (the sister experiment at LHC) will begin their fascinating research programme at beam energies and intensities which have never been exploited. (author)

  12. Diversity in Action | Interactive Workshop | 4 July

    2013-01-01

    Come and take part in an interactive workshop organised by the CERN Diversity Programme designed to creatively explore the meaning of diversity and share your experience of working with differences at CERN.   Thursday 4 July 2013 – 1.30 p.m. - 5.30 p.m. Pump Hall - Building 216-R-401 "Diversity in Action" is an interactive half-day workshop designed to creatively explore the meaning and importance of diversity at CERN, in support of the Organization’s value of “appreciating differences, fostering equality and promoting collaboration”. Using participative multi-media methods, this innovative workshop will provide participants with insights into diversity, help them to develop greater sensitivity to differences, explore ways to recognise and overcome biases and thereby strengthen our tradition of inclusiveness at CERN. Alan Richter, Ph. D., is the president of QED Consulting, a 25-year-old company based in New York. He has consulted to org...

  13. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Athar, M; Shakoor, A; Muhammad, G; Sarwar, M N; Chaudhry, N I

    1996-01-01

    A total of 29 peafowl (Pavo cristatus), rectified surgically for infraorbital abscesses (n = 22), lacerated wounds (n = 4), and fractures of tibia (n = 2) and radius (n = 1), were anaesthetized by the intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride (Inj. Calypsol, Gedeon Richter, Hungary) in a dose of 15 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10 mg + 5 mg + 5 mg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min. No premedication was undertaken in any of the birds. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds gained their feet completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was markedly depressed (8-10/min) and the respiratory pattern was deep abdominal. Only a slight increase was observed in the heart rate. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was also noticed in some of the birds (n = 3). Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.

  14. Katedralskolen i Transformation

    2016-01-01

    stadig mulige byggefelter, hvis anvendelse kan ommøblere funktioner, så det imødekommer nye undervisningsformer og det sociale liv vi har i dag. En ny tilbygning står på skolens ønskeliste. Således er skolen i fortsat transformation. I tegninger og modeller fremviser udstillingen konkurrenceforslag til...... nye tilbygninger til Katedralskolen, der fortsætter traditionen om transformation og som fortsætter fortætning af skolen og dermed af byen. Byggeprogrammet er blevet diskuteret på baggrund af brugerinterviews af Katedralskolens lærere og elever. Arkitekter fra Arkitekttegnestuen Kjær & Richter i...

  15. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  16. Citogenética e biologia molecular em leucemia linfocítica crônica

    Chauffaille,Maria de Lourdes L. F.

    2005-01-01

    O estudo das alterações cromossômicas em LLC é importante no auxílio ao diagnóstico, quando da identificação de doença clonal e no diagnóstico diferencial com outras linfoproliferações; no acompanhamento evolutivo ao permitir a detecção de alterações adicionais; na escolha terapêutica, como, por exemplo, na presença de del(17p) que confere resistência à terapia; no monitoramento do tratamento, ao permitir a avaliação de doença residual ou no diagnóstico da transformação (Síndrome de Richter)....

  17. An Investigation of Seismicity for Western Anatolia

    Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the seismicity of western Anatolia limited with the coordinates of 36degree-40degreeN, 26degree-32degreeE, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I0 3 6.0 corresponding to MS 3 5.0) and the instrumental period until 2005 (MS 3 4.0) have been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 13 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. Computations from a and b parameters and seismic risk and recurrence period for each sub-regions have showed that subregions 1 and 8 (Balikesir and Izmir-Sakiz Island), where have the lowest b values, have the highest risks and the shortest recurrence periods

  18. Verivärskeid elamusi igale maitsele / Marianne Kõrver

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade 10. PÖFFi võistlusprogrammist. PÖFFi filme: "Meeletu" (rezh. Elmo Nüganen), "TumeSininePeaaeguMust" (rezh. Daniel Sanchez Arevalo), "Taksitermia" (rezh. György Palfi), "Eravaldus" (rezh. Joachim Lafosse), "Lahtikistud mees" (rezh. Aku Louhimies), "Rõhkkonnad" (rezh. Nuri Bilge Ceylan), "Reekviem" (rezh. Hans-Christian Schmid), "Väikesed punased lilled" (rezh. Zhang Yuan), "Sündroomid ja sajand" (režissöör Apichatpong Weerasethakul), "Mängides ohvrit" (rezh. Kirill Serebrennikov), "Et taevasse pääseda, tuleb kõigepealt surra" (rezh. Djamshed Usmonov), "Pojad" (rezh. Erik Strand Richter), "Maximo Oliverose õitseaeg" (rezh. Auraeus Solito), "Kelner" (rezh. Alex van Warmerdam), "Tagasinõudja" (rezh. Slawomir Fabick), "Mehed tööl" (rezh. Mani Haghighi), "4,6 miljardit aastat armastust" (rezh. Takashi Miike), "Sina oled mina" (rezh. Kristijonas Vildziunas)

  19. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster.

    McLaughlin, P D

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout.

  20. Fracture processes studied in CRESST

    Astroem, J.; Proebst, F.; Di Stefano, P.C.F.; Stodolsky, L.; Timonen, J.; Bucci, C.; Cooper, S.; Cozzini, C.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Kraus, H.; Marchese, J.; Meier, O.; Nagel, U.; Ramachers, Y.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Uchaikin, S.; Zerle, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of running of the CRESST dark matter search with sapphire crystals as detectors, an unexpectedly high rate of signal pulses appeared. Their origin was finally traced to fracture events in the sapphire due to the very tight clamping of the detectors. During extensive runs the energy and time of each event was recorded, providing large data sets for such phenomena. We believe this is the first time that the energy release in fracture has been accurately measured on a microscopic event-by-event basis. The energy distributions appear to follow a power law, dN/dE∝E -β , similar to the Gutenberg-Richter power law for earthquake magnitudes, and after appropriate translation, with a similar exponent. In the time domain, the autocorrelation function shows time correlations lasting for substantial parts of an hour. Some remarks are made concerning the possible role of such mechanical stress release processes in the noise of sensitive cryodetectors

  1. Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping

    Toyomasu, Takanori

    1991-12-01

    We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)

  2. Fukushima. Five years on - FAQs

    2016-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, at 2:46 p.m. local time (6.46 a.m. CET), an earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the east coast of Japan. The quake caused a tsunami, with waves as high as 38 metres, which led to large-scale flooding and destruction of roads, the power supply and other infrastructure along Japan's eastern seaboard. The earthquake and tsunami also struck several nuclear power plants. Fukushima Daiichi sustained the worst damage, triggering a chain of events which led to core meltdown, major hydrogen explosions and massive releases of radiation. Below, the Oeko-Institut answers the key questions about the disaster's timeline, latest assessments of the events, and the current situation in Fukushima.

  3. Identification and characterization of two dermorphins from skin extracts of the Amazonian frog Phyllomedusa bicolor.

    Mignogna, G; Severini, C; Simmaco, M; Negri, L; Erspamer, G F; Kreil, G; Barra, D

    1992-05-11

    Skin extracts of South American hylid frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae contain dermorphins and deltorphins, opioid heptapeptides highly selective for either mu or delta receptors. In all these peptides, a D-amino acid is present in the second position. The structure of the precursors for Ala-deltorphins was recently deduced from cloned cDNAs derived from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor (Richter et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4836-4839). From the amino acid sequence of these precursors, the existence of three peptides related to dermorphin could be predicted. From methanol extracts of skin of Ph. bicolor we have isolated two of these peptides, [Lys7]dermorphin-OH and [Trp4,Asn7]dermorphin-OH. The biological activity of these new dermorphins and their amidated counterparts is presented.

  4. Effect of slip-area scaling on the earthquake frequency-magnitude relationship

    Senatorski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    The earthquake frequency-magnitude relationship is considered in the maximum entropy principle (MEP) perspective. The MEP suggests sampling with constraints as a simple stochastic model of seismicity. The model is based on the von Neumann's acceptance-rejection method, with b-value as the parameter that breaks symmetry between small and large earthquakes. The Gutenberg-Richter law's b-value forms a link between earthquake statistics and physics. Dependence between b-value and the rupture area vs. slip scaling exponent is derived. The relationship enables us to explain observed ranges of b-values for different types of earthquakes. Specifically, different b-value ranges for tectonic and induced, hydraulic fracturing seismicity is explained in terms of their different triggering mechanisms: by the applied stress increase and fault strength reduction, respectively.

  5. Estimating of seismic return periods in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    Flores R, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The study of seismic risk in the site of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant and surroundings was made considering the different periods of seismic return and the probability of occurrence in distinct time intervals (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 years) starting with the distribution of first type of extreme values of Gumbel (G1), the value used for the assessment of lifetime of lump was 50 years, and the rest of the periods are used to evaluate temporary nuclear cemeteries, it is to say for reducing the radioactivity of burned fuel assemblies. The seismic data belongs to the seismicity catalog (1920-1982) elaborated around the site, which average magnitude was 5 in the Richter Scale and are considered as shallow and are located in the Continental crust of North American shelf, and are induced by the pressure of the cocos shelf, being 36 % of the seismic movements of intermediate value and two seismic movements of deep value. (Author)

  6. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors; Sitios para emplazamientos de reactores nucleares

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  7. Three-dimensional cellular automata as a model of a seismic fault

    Gálvez, G; Muñoz, A

    2017-01-01

    The Earth's crust is broken into a series of plates, whose borders are the seismic fault lines and it is where most of the earthquakes occur. This plating system can in principle be described by a set of nonlinear coupled equations describing the motion of the plates, its stresses, strains and other characteristics. Such a system of equations is very difficult to solve, and nonlinear parts leads to a chaotic behavior, which is not predictable. In 1989, Bak and Tang presented an earthquake model based on the sand pile cellular automata. The model though simple, provides similar results to those observed in actual earthquakes. In this work the cellular automata in three dimensions is proposed as a best model to approximate a seismic fault. It is noted that the three-dimensional model reproduces similar properties to those observed in real seismicity, especially, the Gutenberg-Richter law. (paper)

  8. Fukushima. Five years on - FAQs; 5 Jahre Fukushima - Fragen und Antworten

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    On 11 March 2011, at 2:46 p.m. local time (6.46 a.m. CET), an earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the east coast of Japan. The quake caused a tsunami, with waves as high as 38 metres, which led to large-scale flooding and destruction of roads, the power supply and other infrastructure along Japan's eastern seaboard. The earthquake and tsunami also struck several nuclear power plants. Fukushima Daiichi sustained the worst damage, triggering a chain of events which led to core meltdown, major hydrogen explosions and massive releases of radiation. Below, the Oeko-Institut answers the key questions about the disaster's timeline, latest assessments of the events, and the current situation in Fukushima.

  9. Direct measurement of the free energy of aging hard sphere colloidal glasses.

    Zargar, Rojman; Nienhuis, Bernard; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2013-06-21

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The difference between glasses and liquids is believed to be caused by very large free energy barriers for particle rearrangements; however, so far it has not been possible to confirm this experimentally. We provide the first quantitative determination of the free energy for an aging hard sphere colloidal glass. The determination of the free energy allows for a number of new insights in the glass transition, notably the quantification of the strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the free energy. A study of the local minima of the free energy reveals that the observed variations are directly related to the rearrangements of the particles. Our main finding is that the probability of particle rearrangements shows a power law dependence on the free energy changes associated with the rearrangements similar to the Gutenberg-Richter law in seismology.

  10. Long-term earthquake forecasts based on the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS model for short-term clustering

    Jiancang Zhuang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which is used for describing the features of short-term clustering of earthquake occurrence, this paper presents some theories and techniques related to evaluating the probability distribution of the maximum magnitude in a given space-time window, where the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitude distribution cannot be directly applied. It is seen that the distribution of the maximum magnitude in a given space-time volume is determined in the longterm by the background seismicity rate and the magnitude distribution of the largest events in each earthquake cluster. The techniques introduced were applied to the seismicity in the Japan region in the period from 1926 to 2009. It was found that the regions most likely to have big earthquakes are along the Tohoku (northeastern Japan Arc and the Kuril Arc, both with much higher probabilities than the offshore Nankai and Tokai regions.

  11. Relationship between the frequency magnitude distribution and the visibility graph in the synthetic seismicity generated by a simple stick-slip system with asperities.

    Luciano Telesca

    Full Text Available By using the method of the visibility graph (VG the synthetic seismicity generated by a simple stick-slip system with asperities is analysed. The stick-slip system mimics the interaction between tectonic plates, whose asperities are given by sandpapers of different granularity degrees. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the typical seismological parameter, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Between the b-value of the synthetic seismicity and the slope of the least square line fitting the k-M plot (relationship between the magnitude M of each synthetic event and its connectivity degree k a close linear relationship is found, also verified by real seismicity.

  12. Fracking and labquakes

    Baró, Jordi; Planes, Antoni; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Vives, Eduard

    2016-12-01

    Local fracture events (or labquakes) during compression of shale rocks have been studied by acoustic emission. They are assumed to simulate quakes induced by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) or other water injection activities. Results are compared with those obtained during compression of porous Vycor glass, which are known to display statistical features very similar to those characterising natural earthquakes. Our acoustic emission results show that labquake energies are power law distributed, which is consistent with recent statistical analysis of fracking-/water injection-induced quakes. The data confirm a Gutenberg-Richter behaviour with exponents larger than the exponents characterising the energy distribution of natural earthquakes. In contrast to natural earthquakes, labquakes in shales do not show time correlations, which indicates that the probability of aftershocks is smaller than in the natural scenario (e.g. during Californian earthquakes).

  13. Automated radon-thoron monitoring for earthquake prediction research

    Shapiro, M.H.; Melvin, J.D.; Copping, N.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Whitcomb, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an automated instrument for earthquake prediction research which monitors the emission of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) from rock. The instrument uses aerosol filtration techniques and beta counting to determine radon and thoron levels. Data from the first year of operation of a field prototype suggest an annual cycle in the radon level at the site which is related to thermoelastic strains in the crust. Two anomalous increases in the radon level of short duration have been observed during the first year of operation. One anomaly appears to have been a precursor for a nearby earthquake (2.8 magnitude, Richter scale), and the other may have been associated with changing hydrological conditions resulting from heavy rainfall

  14. Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4

    Van Gils, J.M.; Leydecker, G.

    1991-01-01

    The catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4 contains some 20 000 seismic events that happened in member countries of the European Communities, Switzerland and Austria. It was prepared on the basis of already existing national catalogues and includes historical data as well as present-day data. All historical data are harmonized as far as possible to the same intensity scale (MSK-scale) to make them suitable for computerization. Present-day data include instrumental and macroseismic data. Instrumental data are expressed in terms of magnitude (Richter scale) while macroseismic data are given in intensities. Compilation of seismic data can provide a basis for statistically supported studies of site selection procedures and the qualitative assessment of seismic risks. Three groups of seismic maps illustrate the content of the catalogue for different time periods and different intensities

  15. A common mode of origin of power laws in models of market and earthquake

    Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2007-07-01

    We show that there is a common mode of origin for the power laws observed in two different models: (i) the Pareto law for the distribution of money among the agents with random-saving propensities in an ideal gas-like market model and (ii) the Gutenberg-Richter law for the distribution of overlaps in a fractal-overlap model for earthquakes. We find that the power laws appear as the asymptotic forms of ever-widening log-normal distributions for the agents’ money and the overlap magnitude, respectively. The identification of the generic origin of the power laws helps in better understanding and in developing generalized views of phenomena in such diverse areas as economics and geophysics.

  16. ABC crescent. Energy concept with active storage system for a Hamburg office building; ABC - Bogen. Energiekonzept mit Aktivspeichersystem fuer ein Buerohaus in Hamburg

    Stoll, J. [HL-Technik AG, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Future Building Designs, Thermische Bauphysik-Bauklimatik

    1999-07-01

    This new multifunctional building will house a shopping mall and offices. Natural ventilation is favoured as far as possible. Technical facilities were minimised in order to save resources and reduce the operating cost. The architectural design was to be as functional as possible. [German] Mit dem ABC-Bogen in Hamburg entsteht in unmittelbarer Naehe zum Gaensemarkt ein multifunktionales Gebaeude mit Passagen, Laeden und Bueros - ein neuer Akzent in der Hamburger Innenstadt. Das grosszuegig verglaste Gebaeude sollte nach den Zielen der Hamburger Architekten BRT - Bothe, Richter, Teherani und der Projektentwicklung (SF-Bau Projektentwicklung GmbH, NL Hamburg) soweit wie moeglich natuerlich gelueftet werden. Die gebaeudetechnische Ausruestung der Bueros war zur Ressourcenschonung und Begrenzung der Betriebskosten auf ein Mindestmass zu beschraenken. Bei der Fassadengestaltung sollten funktionelle Aspekte absoluten Vorrang haben. (orig.)

  17. Good quality Vitis RNA obtained from an adapted DNA isolation protocol

    Isabel Baiges

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a woody plant, whose high carbohydrate and phenolic compound contents usually interferes with nucleic acid isolation. After we tried several protocols for isolating RNA from the Vitis rootstock Richter- 110 (R-110 with little or no success, we adapted a method reported to be satisfactory for grapevine DNA isolation, to extract RNA. With slight protocol modifications, we succeeded to obtain polysaccharide- and phenolic-free RNA preparations from all vegetative tissues, without excessive sample handling. RNA isolated by the reported method permitted to obtain highly pure mRNA (messenger RNA to construct a cDNA (complementary DNA library and allowed gene transcription analysis by reverse Northern, which guarantees RNA integrity. This method may also be suitable for other plant species with high polysaccharide or phenolic contents.

  18. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A.

    2014-10-01

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  19. Seismic fault analysis of Chicoutimi region

    Woussen, G.; Ngandee, S.

    1996-01-01

    On November 25, 1988, an earthquake measuring 6.5 on the Richter Scale occurred at a depth of 29 km in Precambrian bedrock in the Saguenay Region (Quebec). Given that the seismic event was located near a major zone of normal faults, it is important to determine if the earthquake could be associated with this large structure or with faults associated with this structure. This is discussed through a compilation and interpretation of structural discontinuities on key outcrops in the vicinity of the epicenter. The report is broken in four parts. The first part gives a brief overview of the geology in order to provide a geologic context for the structural measurements. The second comprises an analysis of fractures in each of the three lithotectonic units defined in the first part. The third part discusses the data and the fourth provides a conclusion. 30 refs., 53 figs

  20. Nobel drawings

    Michel Blanc

    2009-01-01

    1. The Universe in One Drawing (G. Smoot Physics 2006) 2. Superfluid Properties (R. Richardson Physics 1996) 3. The Asymptotic Freedom of the Quark (David Gross, Physics 2004) 4. Understanding Superfluidity (Anthony Legget, Physics 2003) 5. Taming Infinities (G. 't Hooft, Physics 1999) 6. Homo Diagrammaticus (M. Veltman, Physics 1999) 7. A Tale Of Two Liquids (D. Osheroff, Physics 1996) 8. Wire Proliferation (G. Charpak, Physics 1992) 9. High Temperature Superconductivity (G. Bednorz, Physics 1987) 10. Atomic Cuisine (courtesy of C. Rubbia, Physics 1984) 11. Colliding Charm (S. Ting, Physics 1976) 12. The Bubble Chamber ( D. Glaser, Physics 1960) 13. The Narrow Resonance of the J-Psi (B. Richter, Physics 1976) 14. Stochastic Cooling (S. Van der Meer, Physics 1984) 15. The Good Anomaly (J Steinberger, Physics 1988) 16. Quark Somewhere on the White Paper (R. Taylor, Physics 1990) 17. The Tau of Particle Physics (M. Perl, 1995) 18. NMR Spectroscopy (K. Wuethrich, Chemistry 2002) 19. Coherent States (R....

  1. Environmental management and emergency preparedness plan for Tsunami disaster along Indian coast

    P Chandramohan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Tsunami generated by the submarine earthquake in Andaman Sea with the magnitude of 9.2 Richter scale triggered the worst destruction, widespread inundation and extensive damage in terms of life and property along the Tamil Nadu coast and Andaman Nicobar Group of Islands. The shoreline features like dunes, vegetation and steepness of beaches played vital role in attenuating the impact of Tsunami from destruction. While the low-level Marina beach experienced minimum inundation, the coast between Adyar and Cooum was inundated heavily. As the present generation of India was not aware of Tsunami, the emergency plan and preparedness were zero and so the loss of human life was huge. In this article, the authors describe the Tsunami occurred in India on 26 December 2004 and its impacts on morphology. The appropriate Emergency Preparedness plan and the Disaster Management Plan in case of reoccurrence of such natural disaster are discussed.

  2. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  3. Underestimation of Microearthquake Size by the Magnitude Scale of the Japan Meteorological Agency: Influence on Earthquake Statistics

    Uchide, Takahiko; Imanishi, Kazutoshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnitude scales based on the amplitude of seismic waves, including the Japan Meteorological Agency magnitude scale (Mj), are commonly used in routine processes. The moment magnitude scale (Mw), however, is more physics based and is able to evaluate any type and size of earthquake. This paper addresses the relation between Mj and Mw for microearthquakes. The relative moment magnitudes among earthquakes are well constrained by multiple spectral ratio analyses. The results for the events in the Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture areas of Japan imply that Mj is significantly and systematically smaller than Mw for microearthquakes. The Mj-Mw curve has slopes of 1/2 and 1 for small and large values of Mj, respectively; for example, Mj = 1.0 corresponds to Mw = 2.0. A simple numerical simulation implies that this is due to anelastic attenuation and the recording using a finite sampling interval. The underestimation affects earthquake statistics. The completeness magnitude, Mc, for magnitudes lower than which the magnitude-frequency distribution deviates from the Gutenberg-Richter law, is effectively lower for Mw than that for Mj, by taking into account the systematic difference between Mj and Mw. The b values of the Gutenberg-Richter law are larger for Mw than for Mj. As the b values for Mj and Mw are well correlated, qualitative argument using b values is not affected. While the estimated b values for Mj are below 1.5, those for Mw often exceed 1.5. This may affect the physical implication of the seismicity.

  4. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  6. Earthquake hazard analysis for the different regions in and around Ağrı

    Bayrak, Erdem, E-mail: erdmbyrk@gmail.com; Yilmaz, Şeyda, E-mail: seydayilmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: bayrak@ktu.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    We investigated earthquake hazard parameters for Eastern part of Turkey by determining the a and b parameters in a Gutenberg–Richter magnitude–frequency relationship. For this purpose, study area is divided into seven different source zones based on their tectonic and seismotectonic regimes. The database used in this work was taken from different sources and catalogues such as TURKNET, International Seismological Centre (ISC), Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for instrumental period. We calculated the a value, b value, which is the slope of the frequency–magnitude Gutenberg–Richter relationship, from the maximum likelihood method (ML). Also, we estimated the mean return periods, the most probable maximum magnitude in the time period of t-years and the probability for an earthquake occurrence for an earthquake magnitude ≥ M during a time span of t-years. We used Zmap software to calculate these parameters. The lowest b value was calculated in Region 1 covered Cobandede Fault Zone. We obtain the highest a value in Region 2 covered Kagizman Fault Zone. This conclusion is strongly supported from the probability value, which shows the largest value (87%) for an earthquake with magnitude greater than or equal to 6.0. The mean return period for such a magnitude is the lowest in this region (49-years). The most probable magnitude in the next 100 years was calculated and we determined the highest value around Cobandede Fault Zone. According to these parameters, Region 1 covered the Cobandede Fault Zone and is the most dangerous area around the Eastern part of Turkey.

  7. Essstörungen als Bewältigungsversuch Eating Disorders as Coping Method

    Bärbel Wardetzki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie Richter untersucht die Lebensgeschichten von Frauen mit verschiedenen Essstörungen wie Magersucht, Ess-Brech-Sucht, Esssucht und deren Mischformen. Sie rückt damit die Perspektive der Betroffenen ins Zentrum ihrer Analyse. Anhand von vier ausgewählten „Eckfällen“ arbeitet sie die Vorgeschichte, den Störungsverlauf und die Bewältigungsversuche als Prozessstrukturen heraus. Ihr Resümee: Essstörungen erscheinen als ungeeignete Bewältigungsversuche individueller Problemlagen. Statt Probleme zu lösen, werden diese, bedingt durch ein problematisches Verhältnis zum eigenen Körper, über ein gestörtes Essverhalten ausgetragen. Wenn es den Betroffenen gelingt, ihre vorhandenen Ressourcen zu aktivieren und die Aufmerksamkeit vom problematischen Essverhalten abzuziehen, haben sie eine realistische Chance, die Essstörung zu überwinden.Stefanie Richter examines the life stories of women with different eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and their combination. She places the perspective of those affected in the center of her analysis. She utilizes four representative cases and elaborates on the prior history, the course of the illness, and the attempts at overcoming the illness as structures of the process. Because of the existing problematic relationship to the body, problems are not solved but instead are carried out through a disturbed eating habit. When those affected are able to activate the resources available to them and to detach themselves from concentrating on problematic eating habits, they have a realistic chance of overcoming the eating disorder.

  8. Assessment of HAV and HEV Seroprevalence in Children Living in Post-Earthquake Camps from Duezce, Turkey

    Sencan, Irfan; Sahin, Idris; Kaya, Demet; Oksuz, Sukru; Yildirim, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalance of enterically transmitted hepatitis among children living in post-earthquake camps, and to assess the efficacy of the measurements during and after the disaster in Duezce and Golyaka. In the second half of 1999, North-western Turkey, was struck by two massive earthquakes in less than 3months. The first, on 17 August 1999, involving Golyaka, was struck, measuring between 7.4 and 7.8 on the Richter scale. Irregularity about providing clean water and necessary sanitary facilities were observed after the first earthquake because of confusion. The second quake, on 12 November 1999, which rated 7.2 on the Richter scale, shook Duezce. Necessary precautions were applied rapidly at the second quake about shelter, clean drinking water, food and control of distribution of the aids by government and civil aid organisations. Anti-HEV(IgG) and anti-HAV(IgG) antibodies were determined in 476 sera of the children who was living in six camps. HAV prevalence of the children who were living in Duezce and Golyaka temporary houses was 44.4 and 68.8% respectively, OR: 0.37, CI 95%: 0.22-0.61, p=0.0005. HEV prevalence of the children was 4.7 and 17.2% respectively, OR: 0.24, CI 95%: 0.11-0.51, p=0.0007. In conclusion, HAV and HEV prevalence of children were lower than that in endemic areas but higher than that in developed countries. This study has pointed out the importance of providing urgent need of the sufficient sanitary facilities after disasters for preventing or reducing the incidence of enterically transmitted hepatitis, especially in the regions which were at risk for various disasters. Essential precautions such as providing clean water and food supply must be taken and an emergency action plan for preventing the infectious disease must be prepared before disasters such as earthquakes

  9. Videira 'Syrah' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em ciclo de inverno no sul de Minas Gerais

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos sobre as características agronômicas, ecofisiológicas e qualitativas da videira 'Syrah' manejada por meio da técnica da dupla poda. As videiras foram enxertadas nos porta-enxertos 'SO4', '110 Richter' e '1103 Paulsen', e sustentadas em sistema espaldeira sem irrigação. Foram avaliadas as características ecofisiológicas, de produção e de composição físico-química das bagas maduras em três safras (2007, 2008 e 2010. Os porta-enxertos não exerceram influência sobre o potencial hídrico de base, que apresentou valores próximos a -0,2 MPa, o que indica que não houve restrição hídrica no solo ao final da maturação (junho. Também não houve diferença significativa quanto à produção. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' conferiu menor vigor, menor taxa fotossintética e melhores resultados de maturação, para as safras com menores precipitações. Os porta-enxertos '110 Richter' e 'SO4' apresentaram maior vigor nas condições meteorológicas de 2010 e as maiores taxas fotossintéticas para o mesmo período. As condições meteorológicas tiveram efeito significativo na maturação tecnológica e fenólica, com os melhores resultados para os anos mais secos. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' fornece melhor equilíbrio entre vigor e produção, o que aumenta a qualidade da uva.

  10. Fractals and Forecasting in Earthquakes and Finance

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    It is now recognized that Benoit Mandelbrot's fractals play a critical role in describing a vast range of physical and social phenomena. Here we focus on two systems, earthquakes and finance. Since 1942, earthquakes have been characterized by the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, which in more recent times is often written as a moment-frequency power law. A similar relation can be shown to hold for financial markets. Moreover, a recent New York Times article, titled "A Richter Scale for the Markets" [1] summarized the emerging viewpoint that stock market crashes can be described with similar ideas as large and great earthquakes. The idea that stock market crashes can be related in any way to earthquake phenomena has its roots in Mandelbrot's 1963 work on speculative prices in commodities markets such as cotton [2]. He pointed out that Gaussian statistics did not account for the excessive number of booms and busts that characterize such markets. Here we show that both earthquakes and financial crashes can both be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model, involving the presence of a classical limit of stability, or spinodal. These metastable systems are characterized by fractal statistics near the spinodal. For earthquakes, the independent ("order") parameter is the slip deficit along a fault, whereas for the financial markets, it is financial leverage in place. For financial markets, asset values play the role of a free energy. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In the case of financial models, the probabilities are closely related to implied volatility, an important component of Black-Scholes models for stock valuations. [2] B. Mandelbrot, The variation of certain speculative prices, J. Business, 36, 294 (1963)

  11. Eventração diafragmática congênita complicada por hérnia interna em lactente: uma rara combinação

    Willy Marcus Gomes França

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A eventração diafragmática (ED é um evento raro, caracterizado pela elevação anormal do diafragma. Em casos congênitos, ocorre defeito na muscularização do diafragma no período embrionário, o que afeta sua fixação e leva ao deslocamento do hemidiafragma enfraquecido para o tórax. Por outro lado, a hérnia diafragmática congênita (HDC decorre da falha de fusão das membranas pleuroperitoneais, resultando em um defeito diafragmático que permite a herniação visceral. Ao contrário da HDC, que apresenta maior gravidade, a ED congênita pode ser assintomática. Objetivo: Relatar um caso incomum de eventração diafragmática congênita complicada por hérnia interna. Metodologia: Informações obtidas pelo acompanhamento da paciente em enfermaria do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba (CHS, análise do prontuário e revisão de literatura. Relato do caso: Lactente feminina de 53 dias de vida, referenciada à Emergência Pediátrica do CHS por vômitos, gemência, irritação e diminuição da aceitação do leite materno há 2 dias. Ao exame: mau estado geral; ausculta cardíaca em hemitórax direito, pulsos finos; ausculta pulmonar rude e diminuída em hemitórax esquerdo (HTE; abdome globoso, distendido, com edema de parede abdominal. A radiografia revelou a presença de alças intestinais em HTE, além de grande distensão das alças de delgado, com discreto edema de parede em algumas delas, sugerindo quadro obstrutivo e provável hérnia diafragmática. Durante a cirurgia, foram observadas alças de delgado em saco herniário eventrado no HTE, formando uma eventração diafragmática, onde haviam encarceradas alças de jejuno e íleo, comprometendo alça de íleo terminal, de aspecto necrótico por uma extensão de 10 cm. O tratamento cirúrgico foi curativo e a paciente recebeu alta após 14 dias. Conclusão: A eventração diafragmática congênita é diagnóstico diferencial com HDC, e sua correção cir

  12. Colopexia e deferentopexia associadas à omentopexia no tratamento da hérnia perineal em cães: um estudo de trinta casos Colopexy and deferentopexy associated with omentopexy in the treatment of perineal hernia in dogs: Study of thirty cases

    Mario Jorge Melhor Heine D'Assis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido propostas para correção da hérnia perineal em cães e, independentemente do método utilizado, o risco cirúrgico relacionado ao estado clínico e à idade do animal deve ser sempre considerado. O comprometimento do trato urinário e/ou digestório é frequente, e o paciente geriátrico pode apresentar problemas múltiplos que afetam consideravelmente sua tolerância à anestesia, à cirurgia e a infecções. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o emprego da colopexia e da deferentopexia associadas à omentopexia como terapêutica cirúrgica alternativa em 30 cães idosos, comprometidos sistemicamente, portadores de hérnia perineal e anomalia retal concomitante. A análise dos casos permitiu verificar que a associação de procedimentos possibilitou a inspeção e avaliação dos órgãos abdominais, particularmente os implicados como conteúdo herniário; a restauração do formato linear do colo distal, reduzindo seu diâmetro e favorecendo o retorno à função normal; fixação eficaz e segura no reposicionamento cranial da próstata e bexiga, evitando posteriores deslocamentos caudais; e satisfatória reparação tecidual e oclusão do defeito no diafragma pélvico. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que a técnica cirúrgica proposta tem significativo valor terapêutico quando empregada em portadores de hérnia perineal e saculação retal concomitante.Several surgical techniques have been proposed for perineal hernia correction in dogs and regardless of the used method the surgical risk related to clinical status and animal age should always be considered, since the involvement of the urinary tract and/or digestive tract is frequent and the geriatric patient can present multiple problems that significantly affect their tolerance to anesthesia, surgery and infections. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the use of colopexy and deferentopexy associated with omentopexy as surgical alternative in

  13. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake

  14. Statistical physics, seismogenesis, and seismic hazard

    Main, Ian

    1996-11-01

    The scaling properties of earthquake populations show remarkable similarities to those observed at or near the critical point of other composite systems in statistical physics. This has led to the development of a variety of different physical models of seismogenesis as a critical phenomenon, involving locally nonlinear dynamics, with simplified rheologies exhibiting instability or avalanche-type behavior, in a material composed of a large number of discrete elements. In particular, it has been suggested that earthquakes are an example of a "self-organized critical phenomenon" analogous to a sandpile that spontaneously evolves to a critical angle of repose in response to the steady supply of new grains at the summit. In this stationary state of marginal stability the distribution of avalanche energies is a power law, equivalent to the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude law, and the behavior is relatively insensitive to the details of the dynamics. Here we review the results of some of the composite physical models that have been developed to simulate seismogenesis on different scales during (1) dynamic slip on a preexisting fault, (2) fault growth, and (3) fault nucleation. The individual physical models share some generic features, such as a dynamic energy flux applied by tectonic loading at a constant strain rate, strong local interactions, and fluctuations generated either dynamically or by fixed material heterogeneity, but they differ significantly in the details of the assumed dynamics and in the methods of numerical solution. However, all exhibit critical or near-critical behavior, with behavior quantitatively consistent with many of the observed fractal or multifractal scaling laws of brittle faulting and earthquakes, including the Gutenberg-Richter law. Some of the results are sensitive to the details of the dynamics and hence are not strict examples of self-organized criticality. Nevertheless, the results of these different physical models share some

  15. LASSCI2009.2: layered earthquake rupture forecast model for central Italy, submitted to the CSEP project

    Francesco Visini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP selected Italy as a testing region for probabilistic earthquake forecast models in October, 2008. The model we have submitted for the two medium-term forecast periods of 5 and 10 years (from 2009 is a time-dependent, geologically based earthquake rupture forecast that is defined for central Italy only (11-15˚ E; 41-45˚ N. The model took into account three separate layers of seismogenic sources: background seismicity; seismotectonic provinces; and individual faults that can produce major earthquakes (seismogenic boxes. For CSEP testing purposes, the background seismicity layer covered a range of magnitudes from 5.0 to 5.3 and the seismicity rates were obtained by truncated Gutenberg-Richter relationships for cells centered on the CSEP grid. Then the seismotectonic provinces layer returned the expected rates of medium-to-large earthquakes following a traditional Cornell-type approach. Finally, for the seismogenic boxes layer, the rates were based on the geometry and kinematics of the faults that different earthquake recurrence models have been assigned to, ranging from pure Gutenberg-Richter behavior to characteristic events, with the intermediate behavior named as the hybrid model. The results for different magnitude ranges highlight the contribution of each of the three layers to the total computation. The expected rates for M >6.0 on April 1, 2009 (thus computed before the L'Aquila, 2009, MW= 6.3 earthquake are of particular interest. They showed local maxima in the two seismogenic-box sources of Paganica and Sulmona, one of which was activated by the L'Aquila earthquake of April 6, 2009. Earthquake rates as of August 1, 2009, (now under test also showed a maximum close to the Sulmona source for MW ~6.5; significant seismicity rates (10-4 to 10-3 in 5 years for destructive events (magnitude up to 7.0 were located in other individual sources identified as being capable of such

  16. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    A. O. Öncel

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  17. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  18. Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website

    Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Although effects of rotational motions due to earthquakes have long been observed (e. g., Mallet, 1862), nevertheless Richter (1958, p. 213) stated that: 'Perfectly general motion would also involve rotations about three perpendicular axes, and three more instruments for these. Theory indicates, and observation confirms, that such rotations are negligible.' However, Richter provided no references for this claim. Seismology is based primarily on the observation and modeling of three-component translational ground motions. Nevertheless, theoretical seismologists (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980, 2002) have argued for decades that the rotational part of ground motions should also be recorded. It is well known that standard seismometers are quite sensitive to rotations and therefore subject to rotation-induced errors. The paucity of observations of rotational motions is mainly the result of a lack, until recently, of affordable rotational sensors of sufficient resolution. Nevertheless, in the past decade, a number of authors have reported direct observations of rotational motions and rotations inferred from rigid-body rotations in short baseline accelerometer arrays, creating a burgeoning library of rotational data. For example, ring laser gyros in Germany and New Zealand have led to the first significant and consistent observations of rotational motions from distant earthquakes (Igel et al., 2005, 2007). A monograph on Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects was published recently as well by Teisseyre et al. (2006). Measurement of rotational motions has implications for: (1) recovering the complete ground-displacement history from seismometer recordings; (2) further constraining earthquake rupture properties; (3) extracting information about subsurface properties; and (4) providing additional ground motion information to earthquake engineers for seismic design. A special session on Rotational Motions in Seismology was convened by H

  19. Major earthquakes of the past decade (2000-2010): a comparative review of various aspects of management.

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000-2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter's) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter's). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD prevalence was highest in Iran. Respiratory infection was

  20. Time-Independent Annual Seismic Rates, Based on Faults and Smoothed Seismicity, Computed for Seismic Hazard Assessment in Italy

    Murru, M.; Falcone, G.; Taroni, M.; Console, R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015 the Italian Department of Civil Protection, started a project for upgrading the official Italian seismic hazard map (MPS04) inviting the Italian scientific community to participate in a joint effort for its realization. We participated providing spatially variable time-independent (Poisson) long-term annual occurrence rates of seismic events on the entire Italian territory, considering cells of 0.1°x0.1° from M4.5 up to M8.1 for magnitude bin of 0.1 units. Our final model was composed by two different models, merged in one ensemble model, each one with the same weight: the first one was realized by a smoothed seismicity approach, the second one using the seismogenic faults. The spatial smoothed seismicity was obtained using the smoothing method introduced by Frankel (1995) applied to the historical and instrumental seismicity. In this approach we adopted a tapered Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b-value fixed to 1 and a corner magnitude estimated with the bigger events in the catalogs. For each seismogenic fault provided by the Database of the Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), we computed the annual rate (for each cells of 0.1°x0.1°) for magnitude bin of 0.1 units, assuming that the seismic moments of the earthquakes generated by each fault are distributed according to the same tapered Gutenberg-Richter relation of the smoothed seismicity model. The annual rate for the final model was determined in the following way: if the cell falls within one of the seismic sources, we merge the respective value of rate determined by the seismic moments of the earthquakes generated by each fault and the value of the smoothed seismicity model with the same weight; if instead the cells fall outside of any seismic source we considered the rate obtained from the spatial smoothed seismicity. Here we present the final results of our study to be used for the new Italian seismic hazard map.

  1. 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) can identify chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.) stage A et stage B patients; La tomographie par emission de positons au 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose (TEP-FDG) permet d'identifier les stades A et B des leucemies lymphoides chroniques (LLC)

    Berthelot, C.; Vervueren, L.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Truchan-Graczyk, M.; Genevieve, F.; Ifrah, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service d' Hematologie, 49 - Angers (France); Poirier, A.L. [BEC, centre Paul-Papin, 49 -Angers (France); Artur-Guillemette, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiologie, 49 - Angers (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: There is no data in the literature concerning the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.), except for the diagnosis of Richter's transformations. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of F.D.G.-PET in C.L.L. stages A and B. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients (61 {+-} 9 years; 11 women, 24 men; 8 B and 27 A) have benefited of a F.D.G.-PET scan at baseline, for example, before an eventual treatment. F.D.G.-PET scans were analyzed visually and the maximum values of the Standardised Uptake Value (S.U.V.{sub max}) were measured in the main lymph nodes areas. The ability of F.D.G.-PET to differentiate stages A and B patients was evaluated by Student's tests and Receiver Operating Characteristics (R.O.C.) analysis. Results All patients with a normal F.D.G.-PET (n = 18) were stages A. The remaining 17 patients (9 A and 8 B) showed hyper metabolisms in nodal areas above (n = 17) and below (n = 9) the diaphragm, and no visceral involvement. The lymph nodes hyper metabolisms were always bilateral, and of low intensity (= mediastinum; 9 A), or of higher intensity (= liver, 8 B). The S.U.V.{sub max} of stage B (n = 8) were significantly higher than those of the 27 stages A, in all lymph nodes areas except in mediastinum. The highest intensity of F.D.G. uptake was observed in axillary area in stages B patients (S.U.V.max = 2.74 {+-} 1.03). An axillary S.U.V.{sub max} of 1.33 is the most suitable value for the discrimination between stages A and B patients (R.O.C.; AUC = 0.968; sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.91). Conclusion Lymph nodes hyper metabolisms are constant in the B stage, and more intense than in stage A. These anomalies are always bilateral, unlike what is observed in Richter's transformation. The intensity of axillary lymph nodes F.D.G. uptake can distinguish C.L.L. stages A and B. (authors)

  2. Silencing Agrobacterium oncogenes in transgenic grapevine results in strain-specific crown gall resistance.

    Galambos, A; Zok, A; Kuczmog, A; Oláh, R; Putnoky, P; Ream, W; Szegedi, E

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine rootstock transformed with an Agrobacterium oncogene-silencing transgene was resistant to certain Agrobacterium strains but sensitive to others. Thus, genetic diversity of Agrobacterium oncogenes may limit engineering crown gall resistance. Crown gall disease of grapevine induced by Agrobacterium vitis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes serious economic losses in viticulture. To establish crown gall-resistant lines, somatic proembryos of Vitis berlandieri × V. rupestris cv. 'Richter 110' rootstock were transformed with an oncogene-silencing transgene based on iaaM and ipt oncogene sequences from octopine-type, tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid pTiA6. Twenty-one transgenic lines were selected, and their transgenic nature was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These lines were inoculated with two A. tumefaciens and three A. vitis strains. Eight lines showed resistance to octopine-type A. tumefaciens A348. Resistance correlated with the expression of the silencing genes. However, oncogene silencing was mostly sequence specific because these lines did not abolish tumorigenesis by A. vitis strains or nopaline-type A. tumefaciens C58.

  3. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  4. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011. METHODS: Surface electrocardiograms of 12 patients with PTSD admitted to Van Erciş State Hospital (Van, Turkey) from February 2012 to May 2012 were examined. Psychiatric interviews of the sex and age matched control subjects, who had experienced the earthquake, confirmed the absence of any known diagnosable psychiatric conditions in the control group. RESULTS: A wide range of electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters, such as P-wave dispersion, QT dispersion, QT interval, Tpeak to Tend interval, intrinsicoid deflection durations and other traditional parameters were similar in both groups. There was no one with an abnormal P wave axis, short or long PR interval, long or short QT interval, negative T wave in lateral leads, abnormal T wave axis, abnormal left or right intrinsicoid deflection duration, low voltage, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left posterior hemiblock, left or right axis deviation, left ventricular hypertrophy, right or left atrial enlargement and pathological q(Q) wave in either group. CONCLUSION: The study showed no direct effect of earthquake related PTSD on surface ECG in young patients. So, we propose that PTSD has no direct effect on surface ECG but may cause electrocardiographic changes indirectly by triggering atherosclerosis and/or contributing to the ongoing atherosclerotic process. PMID:23538549

  5. Postinor -- the unique method of emergency contraception developed in Hungary.

    Camp, S

    1995-08-01

    In Hungary, an important form of emergency contraception (EC) is the pill containing 0.75 mg levonorgestrel, which is marketed by Gedeon Richter under the name Postinor in four-pill packages. Women are instructed to take one pill within an hour of any unprotected act of intercourse, up to four pills per month. The nature of the administration requires that women be in possession of the pills before they need them, and, while Postinor is marketed as an EC, the target market is young, unmarried women who experience infrequent intercourse. When it was first offered a decade ago, Postinor gained widespread use in place of contraception. The product was overused and there was a backlash in the medical community. Thus, the manufacturer changed its packaging instructions and removed the original 10-pill package from the market. While the price of the drug is considered prohibitive for use by adolescents, more than three million pills were sold in the past three years in Hungary and more than 60 million pills were sold in over 20 countries. Clinical studies show a failure rate of less than 1% and relatively few side effects (10-20% nausea and 20-40% bleeding) if not more than four pills per month are used. The World Health Organization is currently conducting trials to compare use of Postinor with the Yuzpe method. Results of these trials will be available in 1996.

  6. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Tempranillo' by deviation from optimum percentage method

    Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia-Escudero, E.

    2014-06-01

    Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain), to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. 'Tempranillo' grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR) methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of 'Tempranillo' grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue. (Author)

  7. Radiological surveillance in Mexico, derived of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant; Vigilancia radiologica en Mexico, derivado del accidente en la central nuclear de Fukushima Daiichi

    Aguirre G, J.; Nohpal J, X., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Departamento de Vigilancia Radiologica, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    March 11, 2011 an earthquake of 9.0 grades in the Richter scale, originated in the coast of Tohoku, Japan, in the Pacific Ocean gave origin to a tsunami that caused an accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Due to this accident, derived of the loss of the reactor cooling system, as well as of the prolonged absence of alternating and direct current, radiological protection actions were realized without being able to avoid the liberation of radioactive material to the atmosphere and ocean. The radiological impact of these liberations, not only in Japan but around the world, mainly in the north hemisphere of the Earth, was analyzed by means of environmental dose measurements and radionuclide concentrations in soil and water, among others. In the Mexico case, air samples data were obtained, as well as environmental dose celerity and full-length counts of the people coming from Japan near the disaster area. The present work contains the obtained results of the realized measurements in Mexico, same that have been used to make a summary and analysis of the dispersion in the environment in several countries of the world. (Author)

  8. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors of PTSD: 18 months after Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan.

    Naeem, Farooq; Ayub, Muhammad; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Khalid, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Waheed, Waquas; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed

    2011-04-01

    On average in a year 939 earthquakes of a magnitude between 5 and 8 on the Richter scale occur around the world. In earthquakes developing countries are prone to large-scale destruction because of poor structural quality of buildings, and preparedness for earthquakes. On 8th October 2005, a major earthquake hit the remote and mountainous region of northern Pakistan and Kashmir. We wanted to find out the rate of PTSD in a randomly selected sample of participants living in earthquake area and the correlates of the PTSD. The study was conducted 18 months after the earthquake. We selected a sample of men and women living in the houses and tents for interviews. Using well established instruments for PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity we gathered information from over 1200 people in face to face interviews. We gathered information about trauma exposure and loss as well. 55.2% women and 33.4% men suffered from PTSD. Living in a joint family was protective against the symptoms of PTSD. Dose of exposure to trauma was associated with the symptoms of PTSD. Living in a tent was associated with general psychiatric morbidity but not with PTSD. We used questionnaire instead of interviews to detect the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. The symptoms of PTSD are common 18 months after the earthquake and they are specifically associated with the dose of trauma exposure. This may have implications for rehabilitation of this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global and Country-Level Fragility to Major Disruptions in Crop Production

    Puma, M. J.; Wada, Y.; Chon, S. Y.; Cook, B. I.; Nordbotten, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New food polices are needed to mitigate vulnerabilities in the global food system to unexpected and severe production losses. The starting point for developing such policies is the ability to quantify the potential range of food and economic losses associated with major food-production shocks. Although individual major shock events are unpredictable, it is possible to quantify the relative vulnerabilities of the global food system as a whole and of individual countries within the system to production shocks. Here we combine a scale for food disruptions, which links the magnitude for a production shock with the corresponding short-term food and economic losses for that event (analogous to the well-known Richter magnitude scale for earthquakes), with country-level food system metrics. We demonstrate the value of our approach using the recent El Niño event of 2015-2016. Ultimately, these metrics can be used as part of efforts to develop national and global level food policies to prepare for and mitigate possible food-supply disruptions.

  10. CD38 is a signaling molecule in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Deaglio, Silvia; Capobianco, Andrea; Bergui, Luciana; Dürig, Jan; Morabito, Fortunato; Dührsen, Ulrich; Malavasi, Fabio

    2003-09-15

    The prognosis for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is generally less favorable for those expressing CD38. Our working hypothesis is that CD38 is not merely a marker in B-CLL, but that it plays a receptor role with pathogenetic potential ruling the proliferation of the malignant clone. CD38 levels were generally low in the patients examined and monoclonal antibody (mAb) ligation was inefficient in signaling. Other cellular models indicated that molecular density and surface organization are critical for CD38 functionality. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced a marked up-modulation and surface rearrangement of CD38 in all the patients studied. On reaching a specific expression threshold, CD38 becomes an efficient receptor in purified B-CLL cells. Indeed, mAb ligation is followed by Ca2+ fluxes and by a markedly increased proliferation. The unsuitability of CD38 to perform as a receptor is obviated through close interaction with the B-cell-receptor (BCR) complex and CD19. On mAb binding, CD38 translocates to the membrane lipid microdomains, as shown by a colocalization with the GM1 ganglioside and with CD81, a raft-resident protein. Finally, CD38 signaling in IL-2-treated B-CLL cells prolonged survival and induced the appearance of plasmablasts, providing a pathogenetic hypothesis for the occurrence of Richter syndrome.

  11. Practical exercises in diversity

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 4 July, the Bulletin took part in an interactive workshop in the framework of the CERN Diversity programme. And it was time very well spent. Read on…   Discussion on the theme "unconscious bias". The participants begin to gather in the Pump Room (Building 2016) around 1.30 p.m. With name-tags stuck to our chests, we take our places at Table 7, which we now realise we selected for ourselves at random. Some people have already arrived, and after some tentative, courteous introductions, the atmosphere at the “sevens table” begins to warm up. A few minutes later, the workshop begins. Alan Richter, CEO of HR consultancy firm QED Consulting is the Master of Ceremonies. First exercise, “the circle”, or how to prove that diversity starts right under your nose. Skiers to the left, non-skiers to the right. The overwhelming majority are skiers. How do the non-skiers feel about finding themselves in the minority? Uncomfortable? Exc...

  12. Analysis of the 2005-2016 Earthquake Sequence in Northern Iran Using the Visibility Graph Method

    Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Telesca, Luciano

    2017-11-01

    We present an analysis of the seismicity of northern Iran in the period between 2005 and 2016 using a recently introduced method based on concepts of graph theory. The method relies on the inter-event visibility defined in terms of a connectivity degree parameter, k, which is correlated with the earthquake magnitude, M. Previous studies show that the slope m of the line fitting the k- M plot by the least squares method also observes a relationship with the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter law, thus rendering the graph analysis useful to examine the seismicity of a region. These correlations seem to hold for the analysis of relatively small sequences of earthquakes, offering the possibility of studying seismicity parameters in time. We apply this approach to the case of the seismicity of northern Iran, using an earthquake catalog for the tectonic seismic regions of Azerbaijan, Alborz, and Kopeh Dagh. We use results drawn for this region with the visibility graph approach in combination with results from other similar studies to further improve the universal relationship between m and b, and show that the visibility graph approach can be considered as a valid alternative for analyzing regional seismicity properties and earthquake sequences.

  13. Distribution of the largest aftershocks in branching models of triggered seismicity: Theory of the universal Baath law

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Baath's law. Our theory shows that Baath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars ±0.1 for Baath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Baath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent α and the branching ratio n: 0.9 < or approx. α≤1 and 0.8 < or approx. n≤1. We propose a method for measuring α based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the 'second Baath law for foreshocks': the probability that a main earthquake turns out to be the foreshock does not depend on its magnitude ρ

  14. Foreshock and aftershocks in simple earthquake models.

    Kazemian, J; Tiampo, K F; Klein, W; Dominguez, R

    2015-02-27

    Many models of earthquake faults have been introduced that connect Gutenberg-Richter (GR) scaling to triggering processes. However, natural earthquake fault systems are composed of a variety of different geometries and materials and the associated heterogeneity in physical properties can cause a variety of spatial and temporal behaviors. This raises the question of how the triggering process and the structure interact to produce the observed phenomena. Here we present a simple earthquake fault model based on the Olami-Feder-Christensen and Rundle-Jackson-Brown cellular automata models with long-range interactions that incorporates a fixed percentage of stronger sites, or asperity cells, into the lattice. These asperity cells are significantly stronger than the surrounding lattice sites but eventually rupture when the applied stress reaches their higher threshold stress. The introduction of these spatial heterogeneities results in temporal clustering in the model that mimics that seen in natural fault systems along with GR scaling. In addition, we observe sequences of activity that start with a gradually accelerating number of larger events (foreshocks) prior to a main shock that is followed by a tail of decreasing activity (aftershocks). This work provides further evidence that the spatial and temporal patterns observed in natural seismicity are strongly influenced by the underlying physical properties and are not solely the result of a simple cascade mechanism.

  15. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  16. Self-organization of spatio-temporal earthquake clusters

    S. Hainzl

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automaton versions of the Burridge-Knopoff model have been shown to reproduce the power law distribution of event sizes; that is, the Gutenberg-Richter law. However, they have failed to reproduce the occurrence of foreshock and aftershock sequences correlated with large earthquakes. We show that in the case of partial stress recovery due to transient creep occurring subsequently to earthquakes in the crust, such spring-block systems self-organize into a statistically stationary state characterized by a power law distribution of fracture sizes as well as by foreshocks and aftershocks accompanying large events. In particular, the increase of foreshock and the decrease of aftershock activity can be described by, aside from a prefactor, the same Omori law. The exponent of the Omori law depends on the relaxation time and on the spatial scale of transient creep. Further investigations concerning the number of aftershocks, the temporal variation of aftershock magnitudes, and the waiting time distribution support the conclusion that this model, even "more realistic" physics in missed, captures in some ways the origin of the size distribution as well as spatio-temporal clustering of earthquakes.

  17. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant

    Flores R, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  18. Monitoring the West Bohemian earthquake swarm in 2008/2009 by a temporary small-aperture seismic array

    Hiemer, Stefan; Roessler, Dirk; Scherbaum, Frank

    2012-04-01

    The most recent intense earthquake swarm in West Bohemia lasted from 6 October 2008 to January 2009. Starting 12 days after the onset, the University of Potsdam monitored the swarm by a temporary small-aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance. The purpose of the installation was a complete monitoring of the swarm including micro-earthquakes ( M L 0.0). In the course of this work, the main temporal features (frequency-magnitude distribution, propagation of back azimuth and horizontal slowness, occurrence rate of aftershock sequences and interevent-time distribution) of the recent 2008/2009 earthquake swarm are presented and discussed. Temporal changes of the coefficient of variation (based on interevent times) suggest that the swarm earthquake activity of the 2008/2009 swarm terminates by 12 January 2009. During the main phase in our studied swarm period after 19 October, the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases from 1.2 to 0.8. This trend is also reflected in the power-law behavior of the seismic moment release. The corresponding total seismic moment release of 1.02×1017 Nm is equivalent to M L,max = 5.4.

  19. PREFACE: Soil Change Matters 2014

    2015-07-01

    The opinions expressed and arguments employed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its Member countries. The Workshop was sponsored by the OECD Co-operative Research Programme on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, whose financial support made it possible for eight of the invited speakers to participate in the Workshop. We would like to thank the Organising Committee, the Scientific Committee and the financial support from the conference sponsors and funding from the Government of Victoria that allowed the success of the Soil Change Matters Workshop. Organising Committee (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources unless otherwise noted): • Richard MacEwan (Convenor) • Jennifer Alexander • Helaina Black (James Hutton Institute, UK) • Doug Crawford • Phil Dyson (North Central CMA) • Jane Fisher • Gemma Heemskerk • Jonathan Hopley • Pauline Mele • Rebecca Mitchell • David Rees • Dugal Wallace • Dale Webster Scientific Committee (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources unless otherwise noted): • Mr Richard MacEwan • Dr Dominique Arrouays (National Institute of Agronomic Research, France) • Helaina Black (James Hutton Institute, UK) • Mr Doug Crawford • Dr Ben Marchant (Geoscience, UK) • Dr Pauline Mele • Dr Budiman Minasny (University of Sydney, NSW) • Professor Dan Richter (Duke University, USA) • Mr Nathan Robinson Thanks are given to the authors and to the anonymous referees for the papers included here.

  20. Severity scale for incidents and accidents in French nuclear power plant

    Dupuis, M.C.; Guimbail, H.; Debes, M.; Roels, C.

    1988-10-01

    All countries operating nuclear power stations have developed systems for declaring and analyzing incidents occurring when the stations are in service. These systems, are inevitably extensive and complex, as the search for perfection in terms of operating safety leads not only to identification and analysis of incidents which are evidenced by their consequences, but also to identification of all those other incidents which have not had repercussions, but which nevertheless constitute precursor events for more serious situations. For example in France, a system based on safety significance criteria has been in service since the early 1980s, and is applied and operated by EDF and the safety authorities. While experts obtain maximum benefit from this system, public opinion and the relay points constituted by the media are somewhat at a loss, being unable to discriminate in the mass of non-hierarchized information which may come their way, between what is genuinely important and what is less important or even totally unimportant. For this reason, the CSSIN recommended examination of a severity scale, simple to understand and easy to use, which could be employed to classify all incidents and which could become, in due course, as familiar to all of us as the Richter seismic scale is today. We will now examine the composition of this scale, applied on an experimental basis by the Minister for Industry for a period of about one and a half years, as from 20th April 1988

  1. Study of time dynamics of seismicity for the Mexican subduction zone by means of the visibility graph method.

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Flores, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    By using the method of the visibility graph (VG), five magnitude time series extracted from the seismic catalog of the Mexican subduction zone were investigated. The five seismic sequences represent the seismicity which occurred between 2005 and 2012 in five seismic areas: Guerrero, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Jalisco and Michoacan. Among the five seismic sequences, the Jalisco sequence shows VG properties significantly different from those shown by the other four. Such a difference could be inherent in the different tectonic settings of Jalisco with respect to those characterizing the other four areas. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the more typical seismological characteristics (b-value and a-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law). The present study was supported by the Bilateral Project Italy-Mexico "Experimental Stick-slip models of tectonic faults: innovative statistical approaches applied to synthetic seismic sequences", jointly funded by MAECI (Italy) and AMEXCID (Mexico) in the framework of the Bilateral Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation PE 2014-2016

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  3. International scaling of nuclear and radiological events

    Wang Yuhui; Wang Haidan

    2014-01-01

    Scales are inherent forms of measurement used in daily life, just like Celsius or Fahrenheit scales for temperature and Richter for scale for earthquakes. Jointly developed by the IAEA and OECD/NEA in 1990, the purpose of International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) is to help nuclear and radiation safety authorities and the nuclear industry worldwide to rate nuclear and radiological events and to communicate their safety significance to the general public, the media and the technical community. INES was initially used to classify events at nuclear power plants only. It was subsequently extended to rate events associated with the transport, storage and use of radioactive material and radiation sources, from those occurring at nuclear facilities to those associated with industrial use. Since its inception, it has been adopted in 69 countries. Events are classified on the scale at seven levels: Levels 1-3 are called 'incidents' and Levels 4-7 'accidents'. The scale is designed so that the severity of an event is about ten times greater for each increase in level on the scale. Events without safety significance are called 'deviations' and are classified Below Scale/Level 0. INES classifies nuclear and radiological accidents and incidents by considering three areas of impact: People and the Environment; Radiological Barriers and Control; Defence-in-Depth. By now, two nuclear accidents were on the highest level of the scale: Chernobyl and Fukumashi. (authors)

  4. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  5. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  6. The impact of a and b value uncertainty on loss estimation in the reinsurance industry

    R. Streit

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the reinsurance industry different probabilistic models are currently used for seismic risk analysis. A credible loss estimation of the insured values depends on seismic hazard analysis and on the vulnerability functions of the given structures. Besides attenuation and local soil amplification, the earthquake occurrence model (often represented by the Gutenberg and Richter relation is a key element in the analysis. However, earthquake catalogues are usually incomplete, the time of observation is too short and the data themselves contain errors. Therefore, a and b values can only be estimated with uncertainties. The knowledge of their variation provides a valuable input for earthquake risk analysis, because they allow the probability distribution of expected losses (expressed by Average Annual Loss (AAL to be modelled. The variations of a and b have a direct effect on the estimated exceeding probability and consequently on the calculated loss level. This effect is best illustrated by exceeding probability versus loss level and AAL versus magnitude graphs. The sensitivity of average annual losses due to different a to b ratios and magnitudes is obvious. The estimation of the variation of a and b and the quantification of the sensitivity of calculated losses are fundamental for optimal earthquake risk management. Ignoring these uncertainties means that risk management decisions neglect possible variations of the earthquake loss estimations.

  7. Die Tötung des Unschuldigen, insbesondere im Krieg: Schuld und Nutzenargumente in der thomistischen Morallehre des 16. Jahrhunderts

    Harald Maihold

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Darf man einen Unschuldigen töten? Mit dieser heute noch aktuellen Frage hatten sich bereits die Theologen und Juristen im Spanien des 16. Jahrhunderts auseinanderzusetzen: Darf der Richter im Prozess aufgrund falscher Zeugen wider besseres Wissen einen Unschuldigen zum Tode verurteilen? Ist eine christliche Stadt zur Tötung oder Auslieferung eines Predigers an einen heidnischen Tyrannen berechtigt, wenn davon ihre Existenz abhängt? Muss sich der Prediger von sich aus für das Gemeinwesen opfern? Der Beitrag zeigt, wie neben das „strafrechtliche“ Schuldmodell, wonach der Unschuldige keinen Nachteil verdient und nicht getötet werden darf, in der Spanischen Spätscholastik ein stärker auf Nutzenargumente, insbesondere das Gemeinwohl, abstellendes Utilitätsmodell tritt, das die Tötung des Unschuldigen aus schuldfremden Gründen erlaubt. Damit geht ein Wandel des Staatsverständnisses einher – weg vom Gottesstaat hin zum irdischen Machtstaat, der das Leben seiner Bürger für das Gemeinwesen opfert.

  8. Numerical modeling of block structure dynamics: Application to the Vrancea region and study of earthquakes sequences in the synthetic catalogs

    Soloviev, A.A.; Vorobieva, I.A.

    1995-08-01

    A seismically active region is represented as a system of absolutely rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The interaction of the blocks along the fault planes and with the underlying medium is viscous-elastic. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of boundary blocks and the underlying medium. When for some part of a fault plane the stress surpasses a certain strength level a stress-drop (''a failure'') occurs. It can cause a failure for other parts of fault planes. The failures are considered as earthquakes. As a result of the numerical simulation a synthetic earthquake catalogue is produced. This procedure is applied for numerical modeling of dynamics of the block structure approximating the tectonic structure of the Vrancea region. By numerical experiments the values of the model parameters were obtained which supplied the synthetic earthquake catalog with the space distribution of epicenters close to the real distribution of the earthquake epicenters in the Vrancea region. The frequency-magnitude relations (Gutenberg-Richter curves) obtained for the synthetic and real catalogs have some common features. The sequences of earthquakes arising in the model are studied for some artificial structures. It is found that ''foreshocks'', ''main shocks'', and ''aftershocks'' could be detected among earthquakes forming the sequences. The features of aftershocks, foreshocks, and catalogs of main shocks are analysed. (author). 5 refs, 12 figs, 16 tabs

  9. Numerical Modeling of 3D Seismic Wave Propagation around Yogyakarta, the Southern Part of Central Java, Indonesia, Using Spectral-Element Method on MPI-GPU Cluster

    Sudarmaji; Rudianto, Indra; Eka Nurcahya, Budi

    2018-04-01

    A strong tectonic earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 Richter scale has been occurred in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 26, 2006. The earthquake has caused severe damage in Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The understanding of seismic response of earthquake among ground shaking and the level of building damage is important. We present numerical modeling of 3D seismic wave propagation around Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java using spectral-element method on MPI-GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computer cluster to observe its seismic response due to the earthquake. The homogeneous 3D realistic model is generated with detailed topography surface. The influences of free surface topography and layer discontinuity of the 3D model among the seismic response are observed. The seismic wave field is discretized using spectral-element method. The spectral-element method is solved on a mesh of hexahedral elements that is adapted to the free surface topography and the internal discontinuity of the model. To increase the data processing capabilities, the simulation is performed on a GPU cluster with implementation of MPI (Message Passing Interface).

  10. Use of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Tools for Seismic Hazard Assessment for Shallow Oilfields and its Impact on the Settlements at Masjed-i-Soleiman Area, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Hojjat Ollah Safari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Masjed-i-Soleiman (MIS is situated in the northern part of the Dezful embayment, which is in the Zagros fold–thrust belt with high seismic activities. MIS faces a shallow buried anticline, formed by the shallowest oilfield with a thick gas cap. The cap rocks of this oilfield are highly fractured, which has resulted in leakages from the gas cap. In this paper, we have used remote sensing techniques and image interpretation for the identification of the Niayesh, Lahbari, Andika and MIS fault zones in the studied area. Further, the study exploited seismic potential mapping using the remote sensing techniques. The relationships between the structural controls and localized gas leakage are assessed within the GIS environment. Additionally, field observation data corroborated that the leakages (and seepages are smashed within the intersection of Niayesh and MIS fault zone, which belongs to the high fractured hinge zone of the MIS anticline. As a result, the reactivation of these active faults may cause large earthquakes with a maximum magnitude of between 6.23 < Ms < 7.05 (Richter scale and maximum horizontal acceleration 0.26 < a < 0.55 g. Finally, the authors concluded that this anticipated earthquake may cause large scale fracturing of cap rocks, releasing a large volume of H2S gas from the uppermost layer of the reservoir.

  11. Optimasi parameter neural network pada data time series

    Muzakir Hi Sultan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gempa bumi merupakan suatu pergerakan tanah yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba hingga menimbulkan getaran, besarnya kekuatan gempa dapat mengakibatkan bencana baik kerusakan maupun korban jiwa. Untuk mengantisipasi bencana yang akan datang maka diperlukan suatu model khususnya untuk meramalkan besarnya kekuatan gempa. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan model ARIMA dan model kombinasi dari Neural Network-Algoritma Genetik (NN-GA untuk memprediksi rata-rata kekuatan gempa bumi setiap bulan khususnya yang terjadi di wilayah Maluku Utara. Data yang digunakan adalah data kekuatan gempa berdasarkan skala richter yang diperoleh dari Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG kota Ternate. Sebagai input pada model ARIMA dan NN-GA digunakan rata-rata kekuatan gempa bumi 36 bulan dan rata-rata kekuatan gempa 36 bulan berikutnya digunakan sebagai target untuk prediksi. Untuk meng-update parameter (bobot dari Neural Network digunakan metode Gradient Descent dan untuk mendapatkan parameter yang lebih optimal pada layer Output, maka di diterapkan Algoritma Genetik. Hasil peramalan dari kedua model kemudian dibandingkan dan model terbaik ditentukan dari nilai Mean square Error (MSE yang terkecil. dari hasil peramalan dengan model ARIMA diperoleh MSE sebesar 1.0125, sedangkan pada model NN-GA diperoleh MSE sebesar 0.9196. Nilai tersebut, menunjukkan bahwa model NN-GA lebih baik dari model ARIMA untuk peramalan rata-rata kekuatan gempa bumi beberapa bulan ke depan

  12. [Enzyme inductive effect of zixoryn (3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethyl-benzhydrol) in neonatal jaundice].

    Korányi, G; Boross, G

    1985-02-01

    Zixoryn, (3-trifluoromethyl-alfa-aethyl-benzhydrole) is a new product of the Hungarian Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It induces the mixed function oxydase enzyme system of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver and has no other pharmacological effects. We have studied the effect of Zixoryn on early hyperbilirubin-aemia. 42 neonates were studied, 21 of them were randomly assigned to be treated and the others served as control group Zixoryn treatment consisted of drops containing 10 mg Zixoryn per ml in a single 20 mg/kg body weight dose through a gastric tube. Results are summarized in Fig. 2. It shows the mean se bi levels during the first six days of life. It is remarkable that the decline of se bi level was much faster in the treated than in the control group. On the third day the difference between the two groups was significant. We may conclude that after Zixoryn administration the se bi level of otherwise healthy newborns decreased significantly faster than that of untreated neonates. No side-effects what so ever were observed. The administration is easy, a single oral dose has a satisfactory effect.

  13. Study of observed microearthquakes at Masada Deep Borehole

    Hofstetter, A.; Malin, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seismological measurements, conducted at great depths of several hundred of meters or even a few km, can provide useful information that one cannot get while conducting the measurements on the surface. We take advantage of Masada Deep borehole (MDBI), an abandoned oil well, for the installation of a seismometer at a large depth of 1,256 m (1,516 bsl). The station is located in the near vicinity of the East Masada fault, part of the Western Boundary Fault of the Dead Sea basin. We present seismic observations of microearthquakes which occurred along the Dead Sea fault (DSF). Many of them were not recorded by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN). The quiet site of the station has an obvious advantage in detection and identification of earthquakes and explosions. For example, the station detects about 30% more quarry explosions as compared to observations of the ISN. We demonstrate that borehole seismograms are clearer than the on-surface observations of nearby seismometer. We lowered the magnitude scale of observed events down to about M≈-3. Many of the earthquakes, sometimes clusters, occurred underneath the MDBI at depths of 10-25 km, having special signature. Using the cross-correlation technique we present several series of seismic activity either underneath the station or along the DSF. Frequency-magnitude relationship, known also as Gutenberg-Richter relationship, is somewhat higher than the determined value for the whole Dead Sea Fault.

  14. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  15. The Lowell Observatory Navajo-Hopi Astronomy Outreach Program

    Herrmann, K. A.; Hunter, D. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Johnson, M.; Schindler, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an overview of the Lowell Observatory Navajo-Hopi Astronomy Outreach Program, which is modeled after the ASP's Project ASTRO (Richter & Fraknoi 1994). Since 1996, our missions have been (1) to use the inherent excitement about the night sky to help teachers get Navajo and Hopi students excited about science and education, and (2) to help teachers of Navajo and Hopi students learn about astronomy and hands-on activities so that they will be better able to incorporate astronomy in their classrooms. Lowell astronomers pair up for a school year with an elementary or middle school (5th-8th grade) teacher and make numerous visits to their teachers' classes, partnering with the educators in leading discussions linked with hands-on activities. Lowell staff also work with educators and amateur astronomers to offer evening star parties that involve the family members of the students as well as the general community. Toward the end of the school year, teachers bring their classes to Lowell Observatory. The classes spend some time exploring the Steele Visitor Center and participating in tours and programs. They also voyage to Lowell's research facility in the evening to observe at two of Lowell's research telescopes. Furthermore, we offer biennial teacher workshops in Flagstaff to provide teachers with tools, curricula materials, and personalized training so that they are able to include astronomy in their classrooms. We also work with tribal educators to incorporate traditional astronomical knowledge. Funding for the program comes from many different sources.

  16. Engineering Applications Using Probabilistic Aftershock Hazard Analyses: Aftershock Hazard Map and Load Combination of Aftershocks and Tsunamis

    Byunghyun Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Tohoku earthquake in 2011, we observed that aftershocks tended to occur in a wide region after such a large earthquake. These aftershocks resulted in secondary damage or delayed rescue and recovery activities. In addition, it has been reported that there are regions where the intensity of the vibrations owing to the aftershocks was much stronger than those associated with the main shock. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the seismic risk associated with aftershocks. We used the data regarding aftershocks that was obtained from the Tohoku earthquake and various other historically large earthquakes. We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the aftershocks using the Gutenberg–Richter law and the modified Omori law. Subsequently, we previously proposed a probabilistic aftershock occurrence model that is expected to be useful to develop plans for recovery activities after future large earthquakes. In this study, the probabilistic aftershock hazard analysis is used to create aftershock hazard maps. We propose a hazard map focusing on the probability of aftershocks on the scale of the main shock for use with a recovery activity plan. Following the lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we focus on the simultaneous occurrence of tsunamis and aftershocks just after a great subduction earthquake. The probabilistic aftershock hazard analysis is used to derive load combination equations of the load and resistance factor design. This design is intended to simultaneously consider tsunamis and aftershocks for tsunami-resistant designs of tsunami evacuation buildings.

  17. Geologic strip map along the Hines Creek Fault showing evidence for Cenozoic displacement in the western Mount Hayes and northeastern Healy quadrangles, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Hines Creek Fault and the adjacent Trident Glacier and McGinnis Glacier Faults to the north in the eastern Alaska Range, Alaska, reveals that these faults were active during the Cenozoic. Previously, the Hines Creek Fault, which is considered to be part of the strike-slip Denali Fault system (Ridgway and others, 2002; Nokleberg and Richter, 2007), was interpreted to have been welded shut during the intrusion of the Upper Cretaceous Buchanan Creek pluton (Wahrhaftig and others, 1975; Gilbert, 1977; Sherwood and Craddock, 1979; Csejtey and others, 1992). Our geologic mapping along the west- to west-northwest-striking Hines Creek Fault in the northeastern Healy quadrangle and central to northwestern Mount Hayes quadrangle reveals that (1) the Buchanan Creek pluton is truncated by the Hines Creek Fault and (2) a tectonic collage of fault-bounded slices of various granitic plutons, metagabbro, metabasalt, and sedimentary rock of the Pingston terrane occurs south of the Hines Creek Fault.

  18. Probabilistic Models For Earthquakes With Large Return Periods In Himalaya Region

    Chaudhary, Chhavi; Sharma, Mukat Lal

    2017-12-01

    Determination of the frequency of large earthquakes is of paramount importance for seismic risk assessment as large events contribute to significant fraction of the total deformation and these long return period events with low probability of occurrence are not easily captured by classical distributions. Generally, with a small catalogue these larger events follow different distribution function from the smaller and intermediate events. It is thus of special importance to use statistical methods that analyse as closely as possible the range of its extreme values or the tail of the distributions in addition to the main distributions. The generalised Pareto distribution family is widely used for modelling the events which are crossing a specified threshold value. The Pareto, Truncated Pareto, and Tapered Pareto are the special cases of the generalised Pareto family. In this work, the probability of earthquake occurrence has been estimated using the Pareto, Truncated Pareto, and Tapered Pareto distributions. As a case study, the Himalayas whose orogeny lies in generation of large earthquakes and which is one of the most active zones of the world, has been considered. The whole Himalayan region has been divided into five seismic source zones according to seismotectonic and clustering of events. Estimated probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes have also been compared with the modified Gutenberg-Richter distribution and the characteristics recurrence distribution. The statistical analysis reveals that the Tapered Pareto distribution better describes seismicity for the seismic source zones in comparison to other distributions considered in the present study.

  19. The Changing Model of Soil

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  20. Impact of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus versus a mixed microbial inoculum on the transcriptome reprogramming of grapevine roots.

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Salvioli, Alessandra; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Gabelli, Giovanni; Paparelli, Eleonora; Marroni, Fabio; Bonfante, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Grapevine, cultivated for both fruit and beverage production, represents one of the most economically important fruit crops worldwide. With the aim of better understanding how grape roots respond to beneficial microbes, a transcriptome sequencing experiment has been performed to evaluate the impact of a single arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae) versus a mixed inoculum containing a bacterial and fungal consortium, including different AM species, on Richter 110 rootstock. Results showed that the impact of a single AM fungus and of a complex microbial inoculum on the grapevine transcriptome differed. After 3 months, roots exclusively were colonized after the F. mosseae treatment and several AM marker genes were found to be upregulated. The mixed inoculum led only to traces of colonization by AM fungi, but elicited an important transcriptional regulation. Additionally, the expression of genes belonging to categories such as nutrient transport, transcription factors, and cell wall-related genes was significantly altered in both treatments, but the exact genes affected differed in the two conditions. These findings advance our understanding about the impact of soil beneficial microbes on the root system of a woody plant, also offering the basis for novel approaches in grapevine cultivation.

  1. Scaling and universality in the human voice.

    Luque, Jordi; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2015-04-06

    Speech is a distinctive complex feature of human capabilities. In order to understand the physics underlying speech production, in this work, we empirically analyse the statistics of large human speech datasets ranging several languages. We first show that during speech, the energy is unevenly released and power-law distributed, reporting a universal robust Gutenberg-Richter-like law in speech. We further show that such 'earthquakes in speech' show temporal correlations, as the interevent statistics are again power-law distributed. As this feature takes place in the intraphoneme range, we conjecture that the process responsible for this complex phenomenon is not cognitive, but it resides in the physiological (mechanical) mechanisms of speech production. Moreover, we show that these waiting time distributions are scale invariant under a renormalization group transformation, suggesting that the process of speech generation is indeed operating close to a critical point. These results are put in contrast with current paradigms in speech processing, which point towards low dimensional deterministic chaos as the origin of nonlinear traits in speech fluctuations. As these latter fluctuations are indeed the aspects that humanize synthetic speech, these findings may have an impact in future speech synthesis technologies. Results are robust and independent of the communication language or the number of speakers, pointing towards a universal pattern and yet another hint of complexity in human speech. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Das Recht vor seinem Gesetz: Franz Kafka zur (Un‐Möglichkeit einer Selbstreflexion des Rechts / The Law before its Law: Franz Kafka on the (Im‐Possibility of Law’s Self‐Reflection

    Gunther Teubner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellen wir uns vor, der Mann vom Lande in Kafkas Parabel „Vor dem Gesetz“ sei nicht, wie es in der vorschnellen Rollenfixierung zahlreicher Kafka‐Interpretationen heißt, das menschliche Individuum, das der Gewalt der institutionalisierten Gesetzlichkeit (der Macht, der Moral, der Religion etc. ausgeliefert ist. Er sei stattdessen ein Richter „vom Lande“, einer der draußen im Lande einen Rechtsfall nach Recht und Gesetz zu behandeln hat und der nun in seinen Entscheidungsqualen mit dem Gesetz nicht zu Recht kommt. Let us imagine that the man from the country in Kafka’s parable “Before the law” is not the human individual who has been delivered up to the force of institutionalised legalism (power, morality, religion etc, as we find in numerous Kafka interpretations with their somewhat over‐hasty role fixation. Let us suppose instead that he is a judge “from the country”, who – back there, in the country – has to deal with a legal case according to the law, and who now, in the torment of decision‐making, cannot find what is right according to the law.

  3. Development of a seismic source model for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland: the view from PEGASOS Expert Group 4 (EG1d)

    Wiemer, S.; Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a seismogenic source model for site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at the sites of Swiss nuclear power plants. Our model is one of four developed in the framework of the PEGASOS project; it contains a logic tree with nine levels of decision-making. The two primary sources of input used in the areal zonation developed by us are the historical and instrumental seismicity record and large-scale geological/rheological units. From this, we develop a zonation of six macro zones, refined in a series of seven decision steps up to a maximum of 13 zones. Within zones, activity rates are either assumed homogeneous or smoothed using a Gaussian kernel with width of 5 or 15 km. To estimate recurrence rate, we assume a double truncated Gutenberg-Richter law, and consider five models of recurrence parameters with different degrees of freedom. Models are weighted in the logic tree using a weighted Akaike score. The maximum magnitude is estimated following the EPRI approach. We perform extensive sensitivity analyses in rate and hazard space in order to assess the role of de-clustering, the completeness model, quarry contamination, border properties, stationarity, regional b-value and magnitude-dependent hypocentral depth. (author)

  4. Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Richter, Johannes M; Branchi, Federico; Valduga de Almeida Camargo, Franco; Zhao, Baodan; Friend, Richard H; Cerullo, Giulio; Deschler, Felix

    2017-08-29

    In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid perovskites, the cooling of such thermal carrier distributions occurs on timescales of about 300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial build-up of the thermal distribution proved difficult to resolve with pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution, both in time and pump energy. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution to directly observe the carrier interactions that lead to a thermal carrier distribution. We find that thermalization occurs dominantly via carrier-carrier scattering under the investigated fluences and report the dependence of carrier scattering rates on excess energy and carrier density. We extract characteristic carrier thermalization times from below 10 to 85 fs. These values allow for mobilities of 500 cm 2  V -1  s -1 at carrier densities lower than 2 × 10 19  cm -3 and limit the time for carrier extraction in hot carrier solar cells.Carrier-carrier scattering rates determine the fundamental limits of carrier transport and electronic coherence. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution, Richter and Branchi et al. extract carrier thermalization times of 10 to 85 fs in hybrid perovskites.

  5. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

  6. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC's seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility's structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a open-quotes reality basisclose quotes for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures

  7. Acoustic emission energy b-value for local damage evaluation in reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loadings

    Sagasta, Francisco; Zitto, Miguel E.; Piotrkowski, Rosa; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Suarez, Elisabet; Gallego, Antolino

    2018-03-01

    A modification of the original b-value (Gutenberg-Richter parameter) is proposed to evaluate local damage of reinforced concrete structures subjected to dynamical loads via the acoustic emission (AE) method. The modification, shortly called energy b-value, is based on the use of the true energy of the AE signals instead of its peak amplitude, traditionally used for the calculation of b-value. The proposal is physically supported by the strong correlation between the plastic strain energy dissipated by the specimen and the true energy of the AE signals released during its deformation and cracking process, previously demonstrated by the authors in several publications. AE data analysis consisted in the use of guard sensors and the Continuous Wavelet Transform in order to separate primary and secondary emissions as much as possible according to particular frequency bands. The approach has been experimentally applied to the AE signals coming from a scaled reinforced concrete frame structure, which was subjected to sequential seismic loads of incremental acceleration peak by means of a 3 × 3 m2 shaking table. For this specimen two beam-column connections-one exterior and one interior-were instrumented with wide band low frequency sensors properly attached on the structure. Evolution of the energy b-value along the loading process accompanies the evolution of the severe damage at the critical regions of the structure (beam-column connections), thus making promising its use for structural health monitoring purposes.

  8. Ombud’s Corner: Respect@CERN - the discussion has started…

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    The on-going campaign Respect@CERN was re-launched this year on Tuesday 5 May with a discussion forum led by Alan Richter, an expert consultant in ethics and diversity. Seeing so many colleagues in the Council Chamber for this kick-off event was a clear indication of interest in the topic as well as a willingness to engage in promoting a respectful workplace. Now, the discussion continues through the dedicated website.   “Accelerating Respect @ CERN” was the thought-provoking title of the kick-off event of our campaign and, indeed, the speaker presented several ways of achieving workplace respect with a selection of models that provided us with a springboard for the conversation to start. Participants were invited through an interactive survey to consider four of the building blocks that serve to shape a respectful working place: swift and deep trust; awareness of possible unconscious bias; awareness of cultural differences in ways to address conflict; and an appreciative...

  9. Conceptual models of microseismicity induced by fluid injection

    Baro Urbea, J.; Lord-May, C.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Joern, D.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in the pore pressure due to fluid invasion are accountable for microseismic activity recorded in geothermal systems and during hydraulic fracturing operations. To capture this phenomenon on a conceptual level, invasion percolation models have been suggested to represent the flow network of fluids within a porous media and seismic activity is typically considered to be directly related to the expansion of the percolated area. Although such models reproduce scale-free frequency-magnitude distributions, the associated b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation do not align with observed data. Here, we propose an alternative conceptual invasion percolation model that decouples the fluid propagation from the microseismic events. Instead of a uniform pressure, the pressure is modeled to decay along the distance from the injection site. Wet fracture events are simulated with a stochastic spring block model exhibiting stick-slip dynamics as a result of the variations of the pore pressure. We show that the statistics of the stick-slip events are scale-free, but now the b-values depend on the level of heterogeneity in the local static friction coefficients. Thus, this model is able to reproduce the wide spectrum of b-values observed in field catalogs associated with fluid induced microseismicity. Moreover, the spatial distribution of microseismic events is also consistent with observations.

  10. A large-scale soil-structure interaction experiment: Design and construction

    Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.; Stepp, J.C.; Wall, I.B.; Lin, E.; Cheng, S.C.; Lee, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the design and construction phase of the Large-Scale Soil-Structure Interaction Experiment project jointly sponsored by EPRI and Taipower. The project has two objectives: 1. to obtain an earthquake database which can be used to substantiate soil-structure interaction (SSI) models and analysis methods; and 2. to quantify nuclear power plant reactor containment and internal components seismic margin based on earthquake experience data. These objectives were accomplished by recording and analyzing data from two instrumented, scaled down, reinforced concrete containment structures during seismic events. The two model structures are sited in a high seismic region in Taiwan (SMART-1). A strong-motion seismic array network is located at the site. The containment models (1/4- and 1/12-scale) were constructed and instrumented specially for this experiment. Construction was completed and data recording began in September 1985. By November 1986, 18 strong motion earthquakes ranging from Richter magnitude 4.5 to 7.0 were recorded. (orig./HP)

  11. Numeric kinetic energy operators for molecules in polyspherical coordinates

    Sadri, Keyvan; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Generalized curvilinear coordinates, as, e.g., polyspherical coordinates, are in general better adapted to the resolution of the nuclear Schrödinger equation than rectilinear ones like the normal mode coordinates. However, analytical expressions of the kinetic energy operators (KEOs) for molecular systems in polyspherical coordinates may be prohibitively complicated for large systems. In this paper we propose a method to generate a KEO numerically and bring it to a form practicable for dynamical calculations. To examine the new method we calculated vibrational spectra and eigenenergies for nitrous acid (HONO) and compare it with results obtained with an exact analytical KEO derived previously [F. Richter, P. Rosmus, F. Gatti, and H.-D. Meyer, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6072 (2004)]. In a second example we calculated π→π* photoabsorption spectrum and eigenenergies of ethene (C 2 H 4 ) and compared it with previous work [M. R. Brill, F. Gatti, D. Lauvergnat, and H.-D. Meyer, Chem. Phys. 338, 186 (2007)]. In this ethene study the dimensionality was reduced from 12 to 6 by freezing six internal coordinates. Results for both molecules show that the proposed method for obtaining an approximate KEO is reliable for dynamical calculations. The error in eigenenergies was found to be below 1 cm −1 for most states calculated.

  12. Scaling laws and indications of self-organized criticality in urban systems

    Chen Yanguang; Zhou Yixing

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of urban systems has been considered to exhibit some form of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the literature. This paper provides further mathematical foundations and empirical evidences to support the supposition. The hierarchical structure of systems of cities can be formulated as three exponential functions: the number law, the population size law, and the area law. These laws are identical in form to the Horton-Strahler laws of rivers and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes. From the exponential functions, three indications of SOC are also derived: the frequency-spectrum relation indicting the 1/f noise, the power laws indicating the fractal structure, and the Zipf's law indicating the rank-size distribution. These mathematical models form a set of scaling laws for urban systems, as demonstrated in the empirical study of the system of cities in China. The fact that the scaling laws of urban systems bear an analogy to those on rivers and earthquakes lends further support to the notion of possible SOC in urban systems

  13. Field investigation of mining-induced seismicity on local geohydrology

    Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Philip, J.; Blake, W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydraulic response of the rock mass due to earthquakes is one of the concerns in the assessment of the long-term performance of a repository. Studies performed by other researchers indicated no systematic difference between natural earthquakes and mining-induced seismic events. The purpose of this field study at the Lucky Friday Mine is intended to obtain a better understanding regarding the local geohydrologic changes due to mining-induced seismicity and to evaluate analytical methods for simulation of these changes. Three saturated zones with faults and vein features were packed-off along a borehole drilled at approximately 20 degrees downward in a southerly direction from a depth about 1,737 m (5,700 ft) below surface for water pressure monitoring. The response of water pressure change to mine seismicity is found to be more pronounced in Zone 3, which contains the Lucky Friday Main Vein, than Zone 2, with the South Control Fault, and Zone 1, with the associated fractures parallel to the South Control Fault. The maximum observed pressure increase in Zone 3 was about 1.53 x 10 -2 MPa (2.22 psi) due to a seismic event of Richter drops in Zone 1 resulting from a number of seismic events are suspected to be related to slips along the associated fractures of the South Control Fault, or the South Control Fault itself, which initiated the seismic events. Water pressure increase in Zone 3 was found to be a function of event magnitude and distance

  14. Reaching for Success: Picasso’s Rise in the Market (The First Two Decades

    Enrique Mallen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the exhibitions of Picasso’s works in the first two decades of his artistic career, as well as the dealers and collectors who came into contact with them. It describes the relationship between Picasso and his first dealers, Pere Manyach, Berthe Weill, Clovis Sagot, Père Soulier, Ambroise Vollard, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Georg Caspari, L. W. Guthier, Hans Goltz, Heinrich Thannhauser, Otto Feldmann, Alfred Flechtheim, Emil Richter, Gottfried Tanner, Michael Brenner, R. J. Coady, Léonce Rosenberg, Paul Rosenberg, etc.; as well as his first collectors, Leo and Gertrude Stein, Olivier Sainsère, Joachim Gasquet, Wilhelm Uhde, Herman Rupf, Vincenc Kramář, Frank Stoop, Hugo Perls, Edwin Suermondt, Dr. Paul Ferdinand Schmidt, Princess Mechtilde Lichnowsky, Henry Simms, Ludwig and Rosy Fischer, Professor Wilhelm Kreis, Adolf Erblösch, Justin K. Thannhauser, Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin, Ivan A. Morosov, etc. It also identifies all important Picasso expositions in this time period and how those dealers and collectors were involved in their arrangement. The information provided here has been excerpted from an exhaustive study of the critical literature on Pablo Picasso, as well as from published exhibition catalogues.

  15. Multiscale spatial and temporal estimation of the b-value

    García-Hernández, R.; D'Auria, L.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the spatial and temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value is of great importance in different seismological applications. One of the problems affecting its estimation is the heterogeneous distribution of the seismicity which makes its estimate strongly dependent upon the selected spatial and/or temporal scale. This is especially important in volcanoes where dense clusters of earthquakes often overlap the background seismicity. Proposed solutions for estimating temporal variations of the b-value include considering equally spaced time intervals or variable intervals having an equal number of earthquakes. Similar approaches have been proposed to image the spatial variations of this parameter as well.We propose a novel multiscale approach, based on the method of Ogata and Katsura (1993), allowing a consistent estimation of the b-value regardless of the considered spatial and/or temporal scales. Our method, named MUST-B (MUltiscale Spatial and Temporal characterization of the B-value), basically consists in computing estimates of the b-value at multiple temporal and spatial scales, extracting for a give spatio-temporal point a statistical estimator of the value, as well as and indication of the characteristic spatio-temporal scale. This approach includes also a consistent estimation of the completeness magnitude (Mc) and of the uncertainties over both b and Mc.We applied this method to example datasets for volcanic (Tenerife, El Hierro) and tectonic areas (Central Italy) as well as an example application at global scale.

  16. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  17. Haití o Waslala: en los límites del colapso

    Daniel García González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2010, un terremoto de 7 grados en la escala de Richter con epicentro a 12 km de Puerto Príncipe, la capital de Haití, dejó sin hogar a un millón de personas, más cientos de miles de muertos y heridos, causando una de las catástrofes humanitarias más graves de la historia. Los terremotos y tormentas, el monocultivo, la guerra, el pago de la deuda, la deforestación y las nuevas deudas se conjugan dejando un país empobrecido, desgastado y exangüe. Las ayudas y la cooperación extranjera hoy también se organizan para rescatar a Haití. Pero, ¿Puede Haití emanciparse?, ¿es Haití rescatable?, ¿es Haití un “Estado fallido” o será un “Estado imposible”?

  18. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106  variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions. 

  19. Chest injuries associated with earthquakes: an analysis of injuries sustained during the 2008 Wen-Chuan earthquake in China.

    Hu, Jia; Guo, Ying-Qiang; Zhang, Er-Yong; Tan, Jin; Shi, Ying-Kang

    2010-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the patterns, therapeutic modalities, and short-term outcomes of patients with chest injuries in the aftermath of the Wen-Chuan earthquake, which occurred on May 12, 2008 and registered 8.0 on the Richter scale. Of the 1522 patients who were referred to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from May 12 to May 27, 169 patients (11.1%) had suffered major chest injuries. The type of injury, the presence of infection, Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS 2005), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), treatment, and short-term outcome were all documented for each case. Isolated chest injuries were diagnosed in 129 patients (76.3%), while multiple injuries with a major chest trauma were diagnosed in 40 patients (23.7%). The mean AIS and the median NISS of the hospitalized patients with chest injuries were 2.5 and 13, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% (5 patients). Most of the chest injuries were classified as minor to moderate trauma; however, coexistent multiple injuries and subsequent infection should be carefully considered in medical response strategies. Coordinated efforts among emergency medical support groups and prior training in earthquake preparedness and rescue in earthquake-prone areas are therefore necessary for efficient evacuation and treatment of catastrophic casualties.

  20. After Chernobyl

    Wirth, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP) [de

  1. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Corrective Action Unit 92 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report for the Period January 2000-December 2000

    Traynor, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The Area 6 Decontamination Pond, Corrective Action Unit 92, was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP, 1995]) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (NDEP, 1996) on May 11, 1999. Historically the Decontamination Pond was used for the disposal of partially treated liquid effluent discharged from the Decontamination Facility (Building 6-05) and the Industrial Laundry (Building 6-07) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1996). The Decontamination Pond was constructed and became operational in 1979. Releases of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have not been discharged to the Decontamination Pond since 1988 (DOE/NV, 1996). The pipe connecting the Decontamination Pond and Decontamination Facility and Industrial Laundry were cut and sealed at the Decontamination Pad Oil/Water Separator in 1992. The Decontamination Pond was closed in place by installing a RCRA cover. Fencing was installed around the periphery to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring at the site consists of quarterly inspections of the RCRA cover and fencing, and a subsidence survey. Additional inspections are conducted if: Precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period, or An earthquake occurs with a magnitude exceeding 4.5 on the Richter scale within 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) of the closure

  2. When the earth shudders

    Maltese, G.

    The enormous damage that can be caused by earthquakes (500,000 deaths in Tangshan, China, 1976) makes the art and science of earthquake predicting one of the principal objectives of modern geophysics. In this review of the state-of-the-art in earthquake predicting, brief notes are given on several topics: plate tectonics theory, geographic distribution of earthquakes, elastic potential energy storage of rocks, seismic wave typology, comparison of Mercalli and Richter scales, pre-warning signs in nature (strange behaviour of animals, preliminary reduction of seismic wave velocity, variations in local micro-seismicity and physical properties of rocks, etc.), comparison of earthquake energy release models, historical origin of the science of earthquake predicting, implication of fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models to probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, the time element in prediction making, analysis of examples of correct predictions, pattern recognition instrumentation, earthquake intensity control through fluid injection, correlations between water reservoir level and seismicity, the creation of government programs for the monitoring of the earth's crust and seismic data acquisition, comparison of earthquake prediction and preparedness approaches in Japan and the USA.

  3. On the long-term seismic hazard analysis in the Zhangjiakou Penglai seismotectonic zone, China

    Fu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Guiping

    2004-10-01

    The Zhangjiakou-Penglai seismotectonic zone (ZPSZ) lies in the northern part of North China and extends along the Zhangjiakou-Beijing-Tianjin-Bohai Bay-Penglai-Yellow Sea. It is about 900 km long and some 250 km wide in a northwest direction. The great Sanhe-Pinggu ( MS=8.0) earthquake occurred on September 1679 and the Tangshan ( MS=7.8) earthquake on July 1976 caused serious economic and life losses. According to some differences in crust structure and regional tectonic stress field, the ZPSZ is divided into western and eastern segment by the 117°E line for study on long-term seismic hazard analysis. An analysis of Gutenberg-Richter's empirical relation of earthquake-frequency and time process of historic and recent earthquakes along the eastern and western segments shows that the earthquake activity obeys a Poisson process, and these calculations indicate that the earthquake occurrence probability of MS=6.0-6.9 is 0.77-0.83 in the eastern segment and the earthquake occurrence probability of MS=7.0-7.9 is 0.78-0.80 in the western segment of the ZPSZ during a period from 2005 to 2015.

  4. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds

  5. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation

  6. Sensitivity to Regional Earthquake Triggering and Magnitude-Frequency Characteristics of Microseismicity Detected via Matched-Filter Analysis, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Boese, C. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Warren-Smith, E.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismicity recorded since 2008 by the Southern Alps Microseismicity Borehole Array (SAMBA) and other predominantly short-period seismic networks deployed in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveals distinctive patterns of triggering in response to regional seismicity (magnitudes larger than 5, epicentral distances of 100-500 km). Using matched-filter detection methods implemented in the EQcorrscan package (Chamberlain et al., in prep.), we analyze microseismicity occurring in several geographically distinct swarms in order to examine the responses of specific microearthquake sources to earthquakes of different sizes occurring at different distances and azimuths. The swarms exhibit complex responses to regional seismicity which reveal that microearthquake triggering in these cases involves a combination of extrinsic factors (related to the dynamic stresses produced by the regional earthquake) and intrinsic factors (controlled by the local state of stress and possibly by hydrogeological processes). We find also that the microearthquakes detected by individual templates have Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency characteristics. Since the detected events, by design, have very similar hypocentres and focal mechanisms, the observed scaling pertains to a restricted set of fault planes.

  7. Time-predictable model application in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of faults in Taiwan

    Yu-Wen Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the probability distribution function relating to the recurrence interval and the occurrence time of the previous occurrence of a fault, a time-dependent model of a particular fault for seismic hazard assessment was developed that takes into account the active fault rupture cyclic characteristics during a particular lifetime up to the present time. The Gutenberg and Richter (1944 exponential frequency-magnitude relation uses to describe the earthquake recurrence rate for a regional source. It is a reference for developing a composite procedure modelled the occurrence rate for the large earthquake of a fault when the activity information is shortage. The time-dependent model was used to describe the fault characteristic behavior. The seismic hazards contribution from all sources, including both time-dependent and time-independent models, were then added together to obtain the annual total lifetime hazard curves. The effects of time-dependent and time-independent models of fault [e.g., Brownian passage time (BPT and Poisson, respectively] in hazard calculations are also discussed. The proposed fault model result shows that the seismic demands of near fault areas are lower than the current hazard estimation where the time-dependent model was used on those faults, particularly, the elapsed time since the last event of the faults (such as the Chelungpu fault are short.

  8. An Investigation on Borojerd as a Vulnerable Area against Earthquake, a Case Study of Borojerd Houses

    Seyed Jalalaldin Faraji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available - Iran is one of the countries which is always struck by quake and its location on HimalayanAlpine belt has enhanced this condition such that in the previous century it has experienced more than 130 quakes with magnitude 7.5 in Richter scale. This phenomenon is not destructive in itself but lack of structures’ tolerance against forces caused by quake devastates and ruins them for different reasons. Iran is one of the ten natural disaster-prone countries and it is known as the sixth earthquake stricken country which causes high death toll. Based on this, urban security has great importance in this land. In this regard, this study has used a survey and analytical method based on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Borojerd houses with the aim of identifying the amount of vulnerability using national statistics and random sampling. The results of this study indicated that seismic risk is high in Borojerd and confirmed low level of material resistance and high density of families in houses and lack of facilities and important services like hospitals, fire-fighting and rescue centers in critical situation.

  9. Long Range Effect of The M7.8 April 2015 Nepal Earth Quake on the Deep Groudwater Outflow in a Thousand-Mile-Away Geothermal Field in Southern China's Guangdong

    Lu, G.; Yu, S.; Xu, F.; Wang, X.; Yan, K.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Deep ground waters sustain high temperature and pressure and are susceptible to impact from an earthquake. How an earthquake would have been associated with long-range effect on geological environment of deep groundwater is a question of interest to the scientific community and general public. The massive Richter 8.1 Nepal Earthquake (on April 25, 2015) provided a rare opportunity to test the response of deep groundwater systems. Deep ground waters at elevated temperature would naturally flow to ground surface along preferential flow path such as a deep fault, forming geothermal water flows. Geothermal water flows are susceptible to stress variation and can reflect the physical conditions of supercritical hot water kilometers deep down inside the crust. This paper introduces the monitoring work on the outflow in Xijiang Geothermal Field of Xinyi City, Guangdong Province in southern China. The geothermal field is one of typical geothermal fields with deep faults in Guangdong. The geothermal spring has characteristic daily variation of up to 72% in flow rate, which results from being associated with a north-south run deep fault susceptible to earthquake event. We use year-long monitoring data to illustrate how the Nepal earthquake would have affected the flows at the field site over 2.5 thousand kilometers away. The irregularity of flow is judged by deviation from otherwise good correlation of geothermal spring flow with solid earth tidal waves. This work could potentially provide the basis for further study of deep groundwater systems and insight to earthquake prediction.

  10. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  11. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant; Estimacion de periodos de retorno sismico en la PNLV

    Flores R, J.H

    1992-01-15

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  12. Characterizing Aftershock Sequences of the Recent Strong Earthquakes in Central Italy

    Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Nekrasova, Anastasia K.

    2017-10-01

    The recent strong earthquakes in Central Italy allow for a comparative analysis of their aftershocks from the viewpoint of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter relationship making use of naturally fractal distribution of earthquake sources of different size in a seismic region. In particular, we consider aftershocks as a sequence of avalanches in self-organized system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere, each aftershock series characterized with the distribution of the USLE control parameter, η. We found the existence, in a long-term, of different, intermittent levels of rather steady seismic activity characterized with a near constant value of η, which switch, in mid-term, at times of transition associated with catastrophic events. On such a transition, seismic activity may follow different scenarios with inter-event time scaling of different kind, including constant, logarithmic, power law, exponential rise/decay or a mixture of those as observed in the case of the ongoing one associated with the three strong earthquakes in 2016. Evidently, our results do not support the presence of universality of seismic energy release, while providing constraints on modelling seismic sequences for earthquake physicists and supplying decision makers with information for improving local seismic hazard assessments.

  13. Micromechanics and statistics of slipping events in a granular seismic fault model

    Arcangelis, L de [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Aversa (Italy); Ciamarra, M Pica [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Lippiello, E; Godano, C, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The stick-slip is investigated in a seismic fault model made of a confined granular system under shear stress via three dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations. We study the statistics of slipping events and, in particular, the dependence of the distribution on model parameters. The distribution consistently exhibits two regimes: an initial power law and a bump at large slips. The initial power law decay is in agreement with the the Gutenberg-Richter law characterizing real seismic occurrence. The exponent of the initial regime is quite independent of model parameters and its value is in agreement with experimental results. Conversely, the position of the bump is solely controlled by the ratio of the drive elastic constant and the system size. Large slips also become less probable in absence of fault gouge and tend to disappear for stiff drives. A two-time force-force correlation function, and a susceptibility related to the system response to pressure changes, characterize the micromechanics of slipping events. The correlation function unveils the micromechanical changes occurring both during microslips and slips. The mechanical susceptibility encodes the magnitude of the incoming microslip. Numerical results for the cellular-automaton version of the spring block model confirm the parameter dependence observed for size distribution in the granular model.

  14. After Chernobyl. Is oblivion reigning again. Nach Tschernobyl. Regiert wieder das Vergessen

    Wirth, H.J. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Psychosomatische Medizin) (ed.)

    1989-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident mobilized profound anxieties in many people, which subsequently were repressed again and played down with the aid of the known psychological mechanisms. The authors trace the anxiety, and the resistance against it, and pose the question of whether we are at all capable of learning to think along new lines. From the contents: 10 theses on Chernobyl 1986 (Anders, G.); Anxiety, apathy and new thinking (Richter, H.-E.); On the Germans' particular way of dealing with existential threats (Wirth, H.-J.); Appeasement and delusion - small and big flights from powerlessness (Leithaeuser, T.); Socio-psychological theses on the consequences of nuclear energy (Clemenz, M.); Psychological arguments in the discussion about Chernobyl (Kettner, M.); Relationship between fear and technology (Brede, K.); Inhumanity of technology (Spangenberg, N.); Psychology of nuclear addiction (Bauriedl, T.); Nature or technology - search of the wizard's apprentice for lost salvation (Bastian, T./Hilger, M.); Living under a nuclear threat - significance of existential fear experienced during childhood (Boehnke, K., et al.); Survey of, and psychoanalytical reflections on, poisoned childhood (Petri, H.); On knowing, feeling, and experience after Chernobyl (Thiel, W.); Sociopsychological aspects of the staging of politics as a state spectacle fit for the media (Fuechner, H.). (orig./HP).

  15. Mapping the b-values along the Longmenshan fault zone before and after the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China, MS 8.0 earthquake

    Y. Z. Zhao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution, which is assumed to be related to stress heterogeneity or asperities, was mapped along the Longmenshan fault zone which accommodated the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, MS 8.0 earthquake. Spatial distributions of b-value before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively, were compared with the slip distribution of the mainshock. It is shown that the mainshock rupture nucleated near to, but not within, the high-stress (low b-value asperity in the south part of the Longmenshan fault, propagating north-eastward to the relatively low stress (high b-value region. Due to the significant difference between the rupture process results from different sources, the comparison between slip distribution and pre-seismic b-value distribution leads to only conclusion of the rule-of-thumb. The temporal change of b-value before the mainshock shows a weak trend of decreasing, being hard to be used as an indicator of the approaching of the mainshock. Distribution of b-values for the aftershocks relates the termination of the mainshock rupture to the harder patch along the Longmenshan fault to the north.

  16. USGS Online Short-term Hazard Maps: Experiences in the First Year of Implementation

    Gerstenberger, M. C.; Jones, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    In May of 2005, following review by the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, the USGS launched a website that displays the probability of experiencing Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the next 24 hours. With a forecast based on a relatively simple application of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and the modified Omori law, the maps are primarily aimed at providing information related to aftershock hazard. Initial response to the system has been mostly positive but has required an effort toward public education. Particularly, it has been difficult to communicate the important difference between a probabilistic forecast and a binary earthquake "prediction". Even with the familiar use of probabilities in weather maps and recent use of terms such as Modified Mercalli Intensity, these, and other terms, are often misunderstood by the media and public. Additionally, the fact that our methodology is not targeted at large independent events has sometimes been difficult to convey to scientists as well as the public. Initial interest in the webpages has been high with greater than 700,000 individual visits between going live in late May, 2005 and the end of June, 2005. This accounts for more than 1/3 of the visits to the USGS-Pasadena webpages in that period. Visits have declined through July and August, but individual daily visits average around 3,000/day.

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-02-01

    Northeast India region is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. Events data for the period 1897-2010, used in this study has been largely compiled from global ISC, NEIC and GCMT databases. Historical seismicity catalogue of Gupta et al (1986) and some events data from the bulletins of India Meteorological Department are also used. Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to M w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978-2006 have been derived. An Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) relationship has also been obtained for scaling of intensity estimates to M w,NEIC using 126 global intensity events with intensity VI or greater during the period 1975-2010. Magnitude of completeness and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameter values have been determined for the declustered homogenized catalogue pertaining to four different time periods namely, 1897-1963, 1964-1990, 1964-2000 and 1964-2010. The M c and ` b' values are observed to decrease and increase, respectively, with addition of newer data with time. The study region has been subdivided into nine seismogenic zones keeping in view the spatial variations in earthquake occurrence and prevalent tectonics. M c, ` b' and ` a' values have been estimated with respect to each zone, and the variations in the values of these parameters have been analysed.

  18. Isospin excitation of nucleus in 42,44,48Ca (p,n)42,44,48Sc

    Suzuki, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    To obtain information of (p,n) reaction of heavy nucleus in 100 MeV or less, 42,44,48 Ca(p,n) 42,44,48 Sc was observed on the Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center in Tohoku University. The experimental results showed that 7, 8 and 10 spin parities were determined for 42 Sc, 44 Sc and 48 SC, respectively. It was the first determination of one and two negative parity transition of 42 Sc and 48 Sc,respectively, by (p,n) reaction. The full space wave function made by 0f1p shell effective interaction by Richter,et al is good accuracy and reliability. On the (p,n) reaction at E p =35 MeV, the transition matrix elements of 42 Ca, 44 Ca and 48 Ca were derived. On the experiment of 42 Ca(p,n) 42 Sc at E p 2 on energy was agreed with the calculation results by Franey and Love. The nuclear structure of 42 Ca was thought to show more stronger U(4) symmetry, because strong GT transition at T=1 was not observed, which was expected by j-j bonding shell model calculation. (S.Y.)

  19. Preliminary Magnitude of Completeness Quantification of Improved BMKG Catalog (2008-2016) in Indonesian Region

    Diantari, H. C.; Suryanto, W.; Anggraini, A.; Irnaka, T. M.; Susilanto, P.; Ngadmanto, D.

    2018-03-01

    We present a magnitude of completeness (Mc) quantification based on BMKG improved earthquake catalog which generated from Ina-TEWS seismograph network. The Mc quantification can help us determine the lowest magnitude which can be recorded perfectly as a function of space and time. We use the BMKG improved earthquake catalog from 2008 to 2016 which has been converted to moment magnitude (Mw) and declustered. The value of Mc is computed by determining the initial point of deviation patterns in Frequency Magnitude Distribution (FMD) chart following the Gutenberg-Richter equations. In the next step, we calculate the temporal variation of Mc and b-value using maximum likelihood method annually. We found that the Mc value is decreasing and produced a varying b-value. It indicates that the development of seismograph network from 2008 to 2016 can affect the value of Mc although it is not significant. We analyze temporal variation of Mc value, and correlate it with the spatial distribution of seismograph in Indonesia. The spatial distribution of seismograph installation shows that the western part of Indonesia has more dense seismograph compared to the eastern region. However, the eastern part of Indonesia has a high level of seismicity compared to the western region. Based upon the results, additional seismograph installation in the eastern part of Indonesia should be taken into consideration.

  20. Innovative techniques to analyze time series of geomagnetic activity indices

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic storms are undoubtedly among the most important phenomena in space physics and also a central subject of space weather. The non-extensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced, as an effective complexity measure for the analysis of the geomagnetic activity Dst index. The Tsallis entropy sensitively shows the complexity dissimilarity among different "physiological" (normal) and "pathological" states (intense magnetic storms). More precisely, the Tsallis entropy implies the emergence of two distinct patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a higher degree of organization, and (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a lower degree of organization. Other entropy measures such as Block Entropy, T-Complexity, Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Entropy verify the above mentioned result. Importantly, the wavelet spectral analysis in terms of Hurst exponent, H, also shows the existence of two different patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian persistent behavior (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian anti-persistent behavior. Finally, we observe universality in the magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics, on a basis of a modified form of the Gutenberg-Richter law for the Tsallis statistics. This finding suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series further supports the aforementioned proposal.

  1. Development of a seismic source model for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland: the view from PEGASOS Expert Group 4 (EG1d)

    Wiemer, S. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Museum of Natural History, Dept. of Volcanology and Geophysics, Madrid (Spain); Burg, J.-P. [Institute of Geology, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    We present a seismogenic source model for site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at the sites of Swiss nuclear power plants. Our model is one of four developed in the framework of the PEGASOS project; it contains a logic tree with nine levels of decision-making. The two primary sources of input used in the areal zonation developed by us are the historical and instrumental seismicity record and large-scale geological/rheological units. From this, we develop a zonation of six macro zones, refined in a series of seven decision steps up to a maximum of 13 zones. Within zones, activity rates are either assumed homogeneous or smoothed using a Gaussian kernel with width of 5 or 15 km. To estimate recurrence rate, we assume a double truncated Gutenberg-Richter law, and consider five models of recurrence parameters with different degrees of freedom. Models are weighted in the logic tree using a weighted Akaike score. The maximum magnitude is estimated following the EPRI approach. We perform extensive sensitivity analyses in rate and hazard space in order to assess the role of de-clustering, the completeness model, quarry contamination, border properties, stationarity, regional b-value and magnitude-dependent hypocentral depth. (author)

  2. Preliminary geological study in kabupaten Pamekasan area to support the selection of candidate site of nuclear desalination plant

    Ngadenin; Lilik Subiantoro; Kurnia Setiawan Widana

    2014-01-01

    The area around the southern coast Pamekasan is one of the candidates for the alternatives location of nuclear desalination plant site. In 1949 around Sampang Madura ever tectonic earthquake measuring 5 on the Richter scale with its epicenter on land. Tectonic earthquake with epicenter on land is likely related to the presence of active faults on the Madura island. Location prospective nuclear desalination plant site should be away or free of active faults. The study aimed to obtain geological information and find out the characteristics of tectonics including active fault to support site studies of nuclear desalination plant on the island of Madura. The method used is the geological mapping scale, 1 : 50,000. Lithology in the area along the south coast district Pamekasan is alluvium Holocene age and conglomerate units of Pleistocene age. There were no indications of active faults in the region. Candidates site at this location is less attractive in terms of geotechnical foundation as can be ascertained bedrock will be found sufficient in that building construction will require expensive. (author)

  3. Tidal controls on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Ide, S.; Yabe, S.; Tanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes is a long-standing issue in seismology. Except in some special cases, a causal relationship between seismicity and the phase of tidal stress has been rejected on the basis of studies using many small events. However, recently discovered deep tectonic tremors are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with the relationship being governed by a nonlinear law according to which the tremor rate increases exponentially with increasing stress; thus, slow deformation (and the probability of earthquakes) may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here, we show the influence of tidal stress on seismicity by calculating histories of tidal shear stress during the 2-week period before earthquakes. Very large earthquakes tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress, but this tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. Rather, we found that tidal stress controls the earthquake size-frequency statistics; i.e., the fraction of large events increases (i.e. the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the tidal shear stress increases. This correlation is apparent in data from the global catalog and in relatively homogeneous regional catalogues of earthquakes in Japan. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. Our findings indicate that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. This finding has clear implications for probabilistic earthquake forecasting.

  4. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  6. Gender differences in the relationship between maladaptive behaviours and post-traumatic stress disorder. A study on 900 L’Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors.

    Liliana eDell'Osso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviours and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviours and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3 were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self Report (TALS-SR.Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behaviour prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behaviour among PTSD survivors. In the latter, significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviours among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviours among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  7. Perceived risk of nuclear and hydro electrical power generation in Colombia

    Munera, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report deals with the estimation of risk factors of hydro plants and the perception of risks and benefits of nuclear, hydropower and coal by a selected part of the public. Historical data (1922 - 1979) on occurrence of earthquakes in Colombia demonstrate high seismicity (3,489 incidents) for the country in total and also for areas where the majority of hydro projects are to be located. Model-based calculations of regional probabilities for earthquakes at prospective dam-sites with a magnitude of 7 (Richter scale) or larger resulted in p=0.038/year for a 50 year recurrence period for high and p=0.0004/year for low seismicity areas. Attitudes towards three energy systems were elicited from 130 university students and graduates with a questionnaire based on a psychometric model. Generally attitudes were most favourable towards hydro, less favourable towards coal and more critical towards nuclear. Nuclear is perceived to have economic advantages, but to pose environmental, individual and societal risks. Respondents PRO and CON nuclear agree on the lack of risk from hydropower

  8. TAUOLA for simulation of tau decay and production: perspectives for precision low energy and LHC applications

    Was, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The status of Monte Carlo system for the simulation of τ-lepton production and decay in high-energy accelerator experiments is reviewed. Since the previous τ-lepton conference in 2008 some practical modifications have been introduced: (i) For the TAUOLA Monte Carlo generator of τ-lepton decays, automated and simultaneous use of many versions of form-factors for the calculation of optional weights for fits was developed and checked to work in the Belle and BaBar software environment. Work on alternative parametrizations of hadronic decays is advanced. (ii) the TAUOLA universal interface based on HepMC (the C++ event record) is now public. A similar interface for PHOTOS is now also public. (iii) Extension of the PHOTOS Monte Carlo for QED bremsstrahlung in decays featuring kernels based on complete first order matrix element are gradually becoming widely available thanks to properties of the new, HepMC based interface. (iv) Systematic tests of the programs with the help of MC-TESTER are now available for FORTRAN and C++ users. The results presented here illustrate the status of the projects performed in collaboration with Nadia Davidson, Piotr Golonka, Gizo Nanava, Tomasz Przedzinski, Olga Shekhovtsova, Elzbieta Richter-Was, Pablo Roig, Qingjun Xu and others.

  9. SUL TERREMOTO PROFONDO DELLE ISOLE EOLIE DEL 23 NOVEMBRE 1954

    ANTONINO GIRLANDA

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available È accertato che la zona del basso Tirreno, comprendente il gruppo
    delle Eolie con l'isola di Ustica e parzialmente limitata dall'arco tracciato
    dalla costa occidentale della Calabria e dalla costa settentrionale
    della Sicilia, è anche sede di centri sismici profondi. Dagli studi microsismici
    fino ad oggi eseguiti risulterebbe che tali centri, la cui profondità
    è compresa tra 200 e 300 km., si dispongono lungo un arco
    parallelo all'arco costituito dall'Appennino calabro-campano, cioè lungo
    la fascia vulcanica attiva che comprende l'Etna, lo Stromboli ed
    il Vesuvio.
    Alcune caratteristiche della zona (vulcanismo attivo o recentemente
    spento, notevoli profondità marine, anomalia isostatica positiva
    la rendono, sotto certi aspetti, somigliante ad alcuni tratti dell'arco
    circnm-pacifico, che, secondo l'elaborazione statistica di Gutenberg e
    Richter (11, è sede del 90r/c ca. dei terremoti con profondità compresa
    tra 60 e 300 km.

  10. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors.

    Dell'osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. 900 residents of the town of L'Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  11. [Comment on “Should Memphis build for California's earthquakes?”] from S.E. Hough

    Hough, Susan E.

    The recent article by Seth Stein, Joseph Tomasello, and Andrew Newman raised thought-provoking questions about one of the most vexing open issues in hazard assessment in the United States: the hazard posed by ostensibly infrequent, large, mid-continental earthquakes. Many of the technical issues raised by this article are addressed by A. D. Frankel in the accompanying comment. I concur with this, and will only address and/or elaborate on a few additional issues here: (1) Detailed paleoseismic investigations have shown that the New Madrid region experienced sequences of large earthquakes around 900 and 1450 A.D.in addition to the historic events in 1811-1812. With a repeat time on the order of 400-500 years, these cannot be considered infrequent events. Paleoseismic investigations also reveal evidence that the prehistoric “events” were also sequences of two to three large earthquakes with a similar overall distribution of liquefaction in the greater New Madrid region as produced by the 1811-1812 sequence [Tuttle et al., 2002]. And if, as evidence suggests, the zone produces characteristic earthquakes, one will not see a commensurate rate of moderate events, as would be the case if seismicity followed the Gutenburg-Richter distribution.

  12. Plasmon-enhanced absorption in a metal nanoparticles and photosynthetic molecules hybrid system

    Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Photosystem I from cyanobacteria is one of nature's most efficient light harvesting complexes, converting light energy into electronic energy with a quantum yield of 100% and an energy yield about 58%. It is very attractive to the nanotechnology community because of its nanoscale dimensions and excellent optoelectronic properties. This protein has the potential to be utilized in devices such as solar cells, electric switches, photo-detectors, etc. However, there is one limiting factor for potential applications of a single monolayer of these photosynthetic proteins. One monolayer absorbs less than 1% of sunlight's energy, despite their excellent optoelectronic properties. Recently, experiments [1] have been conducted to enhance light absorption with the assistance of metal nanoparticles as artificial antenna for the photosystem I. Here, we present a theoretical description of the strong plasmon-assisted interactions between the metal nanoparticles and the optical dipoles of the reaction centers observed in the experiments. The resonance and off-resonance plasmon effects enhance the electromagnetic fields around the photosystem-I molecules and, in this way, lead to enhanced absorption. [4pt] [1] I. Carmeli, I. Lieberman, L. Kraversky, Zhiyuan Fan, A. O. Govorov, G. Markovich, and S. Richter, submitted.

  13. Synergistic Smart Fuel For In-pile Nuclear Reactor Measurements

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Ali; Steven L . Garrett

    2013-10-01

    In March 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale struck Japan with its epicenter on the northeast coast, near the Tohoku region. In addition to the immense physical destruction and casualties across the country, several nuclear power plants (NPP) were affected. It was the Fukushima Daiichi NPP that experienced the most severe and irreversible damage. The earthquake brought the reactors at Fukushima to an automatic shutdown and because the power transmission lines were damaged, emergency diesel generators (EDGs) were activated to ensure that there was continued cooling of the reactors and spent fuel pools. The situation was being successfully managed until the tsunami hit about forty-five minutes later with a maximum wave height of approximately 15 m. The influx of water submerged the EDGs, the electrical switchgear, and dc batteries, resulting in the total loss of power to the reactors.2 At this point, the situation became critical. There was a loss of the sensors and instrumentation within the reactor that could have provided valuable information to guide the operators to make informed decisions and avoid the unfortunate events that followed. In the light of these events, we have developed and tested a potential self-powered thermoacoustic system, which will have the ability to serve as a temperature sensor and can transmit data independently of electronic networks. Such a device is synergistic with the harsh environment of the nuclear reactor as it utilizes the heat from the nuclear fuel to provide the input power.

  14. Sismos y lluvias, factores detonantes de deslizamientos de laderas en las regiones montañosas de Puebla, México

    Oscar A. Cuanalo C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Puebla ubicado en el centro de la República Mexicana, se ve afectado por sismos producto de la actividad a lo largo del Cinturón Volcánico Mexicano que tienen impacto en el centro y sur del estado, además de lluvias intensas en las regiones montañosas ubicadas al Norte y Nororiente del mismo, originadas por los huracanes y tormentas tropicales procedentes del Golfo de México. El escenario anterior ofrece peculiaridades de tipo geomorfológico y meteorológico que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas, los cuales han causado considerables daños económicos y lamentables pérdidas humanas. En este artículo se describe brevemente las características geomorfológicas del estado de Puebla, considerando su clima, el cual tiene impacto en la meteorización de las rocas que conforman la región montañosa; además se incluye su historia sismológica en los últimos 100 años, para eventos mayores de 6° Richter, y las lluvias torrenciales de 1999 y 2005 que han desencadenado deslizamientos de laderas

  15. Mycobacterium alsense sp. nov., a scotochromogenic slow grower isolated from clinical respiratory specimens.

    Tortoli, Enrico; Richter, Elvira; Borroni, Emanuele; Cabibbe, Andrea M; Capitolo, Eleonora; Cittaro, Davide; Engel, Regina; Hendricks, Oliver; Hillemann, Doris; Kristiansen, Jette E; Mariottini, Alessandro; Schubert, Sabine; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    The name 'Mycobacterium alsiense', although reported in 2007, has not been validly published. Polyphasic characterization of three available strains of this species led us to the conclusion that they represent a distinct species within the genus Mycobacterium. The proposed novel species grows slowly and presents pale yellow-pigmented colonies. Differentiation from other mycobacteria is not feasible on the basis of biochemical and cultural features alone while genetic analysis, extended to eight housekeeping genes and one spacer region, reveals its clear distinction from all other mycobacteria. Mycobacterium asiaticum is the most closely related species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences (similarity 99.3 %); the average nucleotide identity between the genomes of the two species is 80.72 %, clearly below the suggested cut-off (95-96 %). The name Mycobacterium alsense sp. nov. is proposed here for the novel species and replaces the name 'M. alsiense', ex Richter et al. 2007, given at the time of isolation of the first strain. The type strain is TB 1906T ( = DSM 45230T = CCUG 56586T).

  16. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Corrective Action Unit 92 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report for the Period January 2000-December 2000

    J. L. Traynor

    2001-03-01

    The Area 6 Decontamination Pond, Corrective Action Unit 92, was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP, 1995]) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (NDEP, 1996) on May 11, 1999. Historically the Decontamination Pond was used for the disposal of partially treated liquid effluent discharged from the Decontamination Facility (Building 6-05) and the Industrial Laundry (Building 6-07) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1996). The Decontamination Pond was constructed and became operational in 1979. Releases of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have not been discharged to the Decontamination Pond since 1988 (DOE/NV, 1996). The pipe connecting the Decontamination Pond and Decontamination Facility and Industrial Laundry were cut and sealed at the Decontamination Pad Oil/Water Separator in 1992. The Decontamination Pond was closed in place by installing a RCRA cover. Fencing was installed around the periphery to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring at the site consists of quarterly inspections of the RCRA cover and fencing, and a subsidence survey. Additional inspections are conducted if: Precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period, or An earthquake occurs with a magnitude exceeding 4.5 on the Richter scale within 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) of the closure.

  17. Study of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes in South America by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Zverev, A. T.; Malinnikov, V. A.

    The region between Southern Peru and Northern Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in South America. This is caused by a constant subduction of the South American Plate, converging with the Nazca Plate in the extreme North of Chile. We used the 15 and 30 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER (VNIR and SWIR) instrument onboard the Terra satellite to study changes in the geological faults close to earthquake epicenters in southern Peru. Visible and infrared spectral bands were analysed using “The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis” (LESSA) software package to examine changes in the lineament features and stripe density fields caused by seismic activity. We used the satellite images 128 and 48 days before and 73 days after a 5.2 Richter scale magnitude earthquake. The fact that the seasonal variations in the South of Peru and North of Chile are very small, and the vegetation is very limited, allowed us to establish substantial changes in the lineament and the stripe density field features. We develop a methodology that allows to evaluate the seismic risk in this region for the future.

  18. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  19. Comment on: Measurement of the force exerted on the surface of an object immersed in a plasma. Eur. Phys. J. D 69: 91 (2015), DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2015-50743-2

    Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko V.

    2015-10-01

    Surfaces exposed to a plasma experience a certain pressure that pushes them away from the volume. This effect has been investigated experimentally in a recent article by Thomas Trottenberg, Thomas Richter, and Holger Kersten from Kiel University/Germany [Eur. Phys. J. D 69, 91 (2015)]. The experimental results are impressive and have actually drawn the attention of the community to an interesting question which so far has been largely ignored. In addition to their experimental results the Kiel group proposes also a rough concept in order to explain their findings which provides certainly a basic qualitative understanding of the physical processes involved. However, on a closer inspection the picture developed so far is not entirely satisfying and the problem seems to require a more fundamental approach. This comment shows that the effect of the wall pressure can be described exactly using only analytical methods. The physical situation is analyzed by three different approaches. First, the simple case of only one spatial dimension is presented in detail. Second, the case of spherical symmetry is analyzed by some simplifying assumptions in order to investigate the effect of higher dimensionality. Third, a formal derivation for arbitrary geometry is given. This general result includes the one-dimensional case but does not allow a convenient connection between the pressures at the wall and in the center. Finally, the results are summarized and some conclusions are drawn.

  20. Technical report: serial collections of placentomes during parturition in cattle and subsequent reproductive performance.

    McNeel, Anthony K; Ondrak, Jeff D; Cushman, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Placental separation is a complex physiological event in reproductive physiology and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. When comparing different experiments the timing of tissue collections is a significant consideration due to the variability in time between fetal expulsion and expulsion of the placenta (30 min to >24 h). This makes comparison of tissues samples across animals difficult and supports the need for serial tissue collections within animal. Additionally, the instrument most commonly used, a modified Richter-Resinsinger effeminator, for placentome collections is difficult to obtain and there are no data in the literature record regarding subsequent reproductive performance of animals subjected placentome collections. To facilitate continued research into the physiology behind placental separation, we designed an instrument from readily available components and performed serial transvaginal placentome collections in cattle. Three placentomes at 2-h intervals were collected after expulsion of the calf in 18 multiparous cows. There was no incidence of mortality and all cows resumed estrous after the procedure. Neither time from placentome collection nor age had a significant effect on pregnancy status at diagnosis (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate the viability of and utility of this device for collecting multiple placentomes in cattle.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Trad, Henrique Simão; Schmidt, André

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility

  2. INVESTIGATION OF b-VALUE VARIATIONS IN THE AFRICAN AND PARTS OF EURASIAN PLATES

    Awoyemi, M. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous earthquakes have occurred along the collision zones of the African and parts of Eurasian plates. Some of these earthquakes along these zones have generated tsunamis. To mitigate this hazard, knowledge of b-values of the Gutenberg – Richter relation for tectonic earthquakes in the African and parts of Eurasian plates is essential. The temporal variations of b-values were evaluated using sliding time windows with each window containing a total of 100 events with a view to utilizing the results as a precursor for the earthquake occurrence. The spatial variation of b-values of the study area was also delineated by dividing it into grids and calculating the b-values for each grid using constant radius and constant number of events. Results obtained from the temporal variation of b-values showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred when the b-values were low while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred when the b-values were high throughout the study period. The results of the spatial distribution of b-values also showed that earthquakes of large magnitudes occurred in areas of low b-values while earthquakes of small magnitudes occurred in areas of high b-values. The study therefore concluded that the temporal and spatial variations of b-values might be considered as a precursor for earthquake prediction.

  3. Perbandingan Energi Gempa Bumi Utama dan Susulan (Studi Kasus : Gempa Subduksi Pulau Sumatera dan Jawa

    Andrean V.H Simanjuntak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is located on the third meeting of the active tectonic world plates which are Eurasian Indian - Australia and the Pacific Plate. This condition makes Indonesia as a tectonically active area with seismicity level or pattern of high seismicity. Occurrence of devastating earthquake followed by aftershocks of earthquakes, often increase the level of social unrest. The purpose of this study is calculate the energy of devastating earthquakes and followed by aftershocks, so it can be compared to the amount of energy released by both of them. By obtaining these comparisons, the study is based on scientific studies can be used as a reference in providing information on the possible impact of an occurrence of the earthquake and its aftershocks. Empirical formula of Guttenberg- Richter was used to calculate the energy value, historical data with aftershock earthquakes was obtained from ISC (International Seismological Center for five major earthquakes are Bengkulu, Pangandaran, Simeulue, West Sumatra, and Tasikmalaya earthquake. Earthquake aftershocks taken within three months after a major earthquake. From analysis and energy calculations of earthquake aftershocks of a major earthquake with a magnitude of five large, energy-earthquake aftershocks ranging from 0.1% to 33%, with a random pattern. By comparing the energy aftershocks of earthquakes, the results are generally 10%, it is estimated that the earthquake with strike-slip mechanism having earthquake aftershocks with a total energy is less than 10%. While earthquakes with earthquake aftershocks have thrust mechanism with a total energy of more than 10%.

  4. Earthquake in Japan: The IAEA mission gives its report

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Following the seism that occurred on the 16. july 2007 in Japan (magnitude 6.6 on Richter scale), an IAEA mission has inspected the nuclear power plant of Kashiwazaki Kariwa at the beginning of August. The mission has estimated that the safety of the installation has been provided during and after the earthquake, in spite of the fact that the earthquake has gone past the seism level taken as reference in the conception of the nuclear facility. The systems and the components were in a better state that it could be imagined after a such earthquake. The release have been under the authorised thresholds. At the moment of the seism, three reactors were running on the seven ones of the nuclear power plant, and stopped automatically. The unit 2 that started up, has also stopped automatically. The reactors 1, 5 and 6 were stopped for maintenance. Water poured out coming from the spent fuel storage pool because of the earth tremors. It was picked and thrown out by the release pipe to the sea without notable impact on environment ( volume 1.2 m 3 ). One hundred of containers was overturned. Traces of iodine, chromium 51 and cobalt 60 have been found in the ventilation filters ( reactor 7) these elements have been released in atmosphere in very low quantities. (N.C.)

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  6. Anisotropy in Fracking: A Percolation Model for Observed Microseismicity

    Norris, J. Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking), using high pressures and a low viscosity fluid, allow the extraction of large quantiles of oil and gas from very low permeability shale formations. The initial production of oil and gas at depth leads to high pressures and an extensive distribution of natural fractures which reduce the pressures. With time these fractures heal, sealing the remaining oil and gas in place. High volume fracking opens the healed fractures allowing the oil and gas to flow to horizontal production wells. We model the injection process using invasion percolation. We use a 2D square lattice of bonds to model the sealed natural fractures. The bonds are assigned random strengths and the fluid, injected at a point, opens the weakest bond adjacent to the growing cluster of opened bonds. Our model exhibits burst dynamics in which the clusters extend rapidly into regions with weak bonds. We associate these bursts with the microseismic activity generated by fracking injections. A principal object of this paper is to study the role of anisotropic stress distributions. Bonds in the y-direction are assigned higher random strengths than bonds in the x-direction. We illustrate the spatial distribution of clusters and the spatial distribution of bursts (small earthquakes) for several degrees of anisotropy. The results are compared with observed distributions of microseismicity in a fracking injection. Both our bursts and the observed microseismicity satisfy Gutenberg-Richter frequency-size statistics.

  7. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant; Estimacion de periodos de retorno sismico en la PNLV

    Flores R, J H

    1992-01-15

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  8. Report on correlation between radon outgassing and aftershocks activity along the Bam Fault in Kerman province of Iran

    Nabipour, Jamshid Soltani [Bio-Nuclear and Medical Radiation Engineering Department, Parand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com [Cellular and Molecular Gerash Research Center, Gerash University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    After the Earthquake in Bam in December 26, 2003, a team was dispatched to this area to monitor the relationship between Variation in the Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration and the magnitude of aftershocks. Meteorological parameters such as air pressure, temperature and humidity were measured. Radon concentration at depth of 90 cm of soil was also measured using AlphaGuard (Model 2000PRO) in 10 minutes periods. The measurement site was near the fault location and the radon concentration was systemically measured for a period of three months. A correlation between radon concentration and the available aftershocks data is discussed. More than 150 small to moderate aftershocks with a magnitude ranging from M=2.1 to 6.5 in scale of Richter occurred in the region during the period of this study at the various distances (below 20 km of epicenter) from the radon monitoring sites. When the magnitude of aftershocks increased, variations of radon concentration could be observed more clearly. (author)

  9. Members of the LHC Resources Review Boards

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Members of the LHCRRB visiting Point 2, hosting the ALICE experiment From l. to r. : W. Korda, Head of the VIP Office; P. Rimmer, CERN public relations, J. Seed, Member of the LHCRRB, J.-P. Revol, ALICE CERN Team Leader; J. Bartke, Member of the LHCRRB; F. Suransky, Member of the LHCRRB; J. Schukraft, Spokesperson, ALICE experiment and S. Molinari, VIP Office. Photo 02: Members of the LHC Resources Review Boards visiting the ALICE magnet at Point 2. L. to. r.: O. Dines-Hansen, H. Boggild, S. Irgens-Jensens, H.A. Gustafsson Photo 03: Members of the LHCRRB visiting Point 2, hosting the ALICE experiment From l. t to r.: J.Richter, Member of the LHCRRB; H. Gutbrod, Deputy Spokesperson, ALICE experiment; G. Paic, ALICE experiment; D. Muller, Member of the LHCRRB; P. Brau-Munzinger, ALICE experiment; R. Santo, Member of the LHCRRB, A. Van Rijn, Member of the LHCRRB; J. Engelen, Member of the LHCRRB.

  10. Current knowledge of the Tardigrada of Svalbard with the first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet (High Arctic

    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first investigations of the tardigrades of Svalbard took place in the early 20th century and 30 papers on the subject have been published to date. In this article, we summarize available information on the distribution of tardigrades in this Arctic archipelago with remarks on the dubious species and records. Additionally, we examined 28 new moss, lichen and soil samples collected from the islands of Nordaustlandet, Edgeøya and Prins Karls Forland. These samples yielded 324 specimens, 15 exuvia and 132 free-laid eggs belonging to 16 limnoterrestrial species (Heterotardigrada and Eutardigrada. These include five first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet, eight new records for Edgeøya and four for Prince Karls Forland. The most dense population of tardigrades was found in a sample with 253 specimens/10 g of dry material and the least dense population in a sample with three specimens/10 g of dry material. The most frequently recorded species in samples collected in this study were Testechiniscus spitsbergensis Scourfield, 1897, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi Murray, 1907, and M. islandicus islandicus Richters, 1904. This article also provides the first ever scanning electron microscope photomicrographs of Tenuibiotus voronkovi Tumanov, 2007.

  11. Constraining the Long-Term Average of Earthquake Recurrence Intervals From Paleo- and Historic Earthquakes by Assimilating Information From Instrumental Seismicity

    Zoeller, G.

    2017-12-01

    Paleo- and historic earthquakes are the most important source of information for the estimationof long-term recurrence intervals in fault zones, because sequences of paleoearthquakes cover more than one seismic cycle. On the other hand, these events are often rare, dating uncertainties are enormous and the problem of missing or misinterpreted events leads to additional problems. Taking these shortcomings into account, long-term recurrence intervals are usually unstable as long as no additional information are included. In the present study, we assume that the time to the next major earthquake depends on the rate of small and intermediate events between the large ones in terms of a ``clock-change'' model that leads to a Brownian Passage Time distribution for recurrence intervals. We take advantage of an earlier finding that the aperiodicity of this distribution can be related to the Gutenberg-Richter-b-value, which is usually around one and can be estimated easily from instrumental seismicity in the region under consideration. This allows to reduce the uncertainties in the estimation of the mean recurrence interval significantly, especially for short paleoearthquake sequences and high dating uncertainties. We present illustrative case studies from Southern California and compare the method with the commonly used approach of exponentially distributed recurrence times assuming a stationary Poisson process.

  12. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  13. Analysis of soft-sediment deformation structures in Neogene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Çaybağı Formation, Eastern Turkey

    Koç Taşgin, Calibe; Türkmen, İbrahim

    2009-06-01

    During the Neogene, both strike-slip and extensional regimes coexisted in eastern Turkey and, a number of fault-bounded basins associated with the East Anatolian Fault System developed. The Çaybağı Formation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) deposited in one of these basins consists of fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in conglomerates, medium- to coarse-grained tuffaceous sandstones and claystones: folded structures (slumps, convolute laminations, and simple recumbent folds), water-escape structures (intruded sands, internal cusps, interpenetrative cusps and sand volcanoes), and load structures (load casts, pseudonodules, flame structures, and pillow structures). These structures are produced by liquefaction and/or fluidization of the unconsolidated sediments during a seismic shock. Consequently, the existence of seismically-induced deformation structures in the Çaybağı Formation and the association with a Neogene intraformational unconformity, growth faults, and reverse faults in the Çaybağı basin attest to the tectonic activity in this area during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. The East Anatolian Fault System, in particular the Uluova fault zone, is the most probable seismogenic source. Earthquakes with a magnitude of over 5 in the Richter scale can be postulated.

  14. News from the world

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This document gathers short notices concerning the nuclear industry. Among them we find the following ones. A nuclear power plant will be built in Bulgaria by a Russian company, the plant is due to operate in 2013. An IAEA expert team has visited the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa site, a Japanese nuclear power plant involving 7 reactors and that underwent a severe earthquake in July 2007 (6.8 grades on the Richter scale). It appears that no major damage occurred on the reactors and that the various infra-structures involved in nuclear safety behaved better than expected. Kazakhstan has increased its uranium production by 25% to reach 6637 tonnes of extracted uranium. The Konrad well situated on the site of the ancient iron mines of Salzgitter, has been agreed by German authorities for the storage of radioactive wastes of low or intermediate level. The equipping works will last 4 years and the storage will begin in 2013. An opinion poll made in Sweden shows that almost half of the population support the construction of new nuclear power plants while Sweden is due to decommission all of its reactors within 20 years. The Russian authorities have announced the creation of a university dedicated to nuclear engineering. India has joined the international cooperation around the Jules Horowitz reactor (RJH reactor). China has become a full-fledged member of the Generation IV forum. American authorities have given their green light for a cooperation with Turkey on civil nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  15. Variation of radon concentration in Guwahati, Assam due to six earthquakes (Magnitude >5) occurred in N.E. India: a comparative study with baseline disparity

    Laskar, I.; Goswami, A.K.; Chetry, G.; Roy, U.C.; Mahanta, Kashyap; Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Das; Laskar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Six earthquakes (M>5) have occurred in N.E. India within a time span of forty two days from August 11, 2009 to September 21, 2009. The minimum and maximum values of magnitudes of these earthquakes are 5.0 and 6.3 respectively in Richter Scale (RS). The origins of these earthquakes are reported to be Indo-Myanmar border, Sonitpur dist of Assam and neighboring Bhutan (USGS report). We, in our lab in Guwahati, Assam, have observed prominent radon peaks in the continuously monitored Alpha-GUARD, which can be regarded as precursor peaks for these earthquakes except the one that has origin in Bhutan. The post -effect of this earthquake was observed as a radon peak one day later. This may be due to the fact that the Bhutan tectonic plate and the tectonic plate on which Guwahati along with Shillong shield do not lie on the same plate. The extended part of the Kopili Fault has separated the Bhutan tectonic plate and makes the region more seismic. Continuous seven years GPS data analysis has given a remarkable depiction. The baseline analysis between IISC, Bangalore and some of our campaign mode GPS stations near Guwahati have made the picture clear. An analysis of available data is reported in this paper. (author)

  16. The blogosphere as an excitable social medium: Richter’s and Omori’s Law in media coverage

    Klimek, Peter; Bayer, Werner; Thurner, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    We study the dynamics of public media attention by monitoring the content of online blogs. Social and media events can be traced by the propagation of word frequencies of related keywords. Media events are classified as exogenous-where blogging activity is triggered by an external news item-or endogenous where word frequencies build up within a blogging community without external influences. We show that word occurrences exhibit statistical similarities to earthquakes. Moreover the size distribution of events scales with a similar exponent as found in the Gutenberg-Richter law. The dynamics of media events before and after the main event can be satisfactorily modeled as a type of process which has been used to understand fore-and aftershock rate distributions in earthquakes-the Omori law. We present empirical evidence that for media events of endogenous origin the overall public reception of the event is correlated with the behavior of word frequencies at the beginning of the event, and is to a certain degree predictable. These results imply that the process of opinion formation in a human society might be related to effects known from excitable media.

  17. Analysis of recorded earthquake response data at the Hualien large-scale seismic test site

    Hyun, C.H.; Tang, H.T.; Dermitzakis, S.; Esfandiari, S.

    1997-01-01

    A soil-structure interaction (SSI) experiment is being conducted in a seismically active region in Hualien, Taiwan. To obtain earthquake data for quantifying SSI effects and providing a basis to benchmark analysis methods, a 1/4-th scale cylindrical concrete containment model similar in shape to that of a nuclear power plant containment was constructed in the field where both the containment model and its surrounding soil, surface and sub-surface, are extensively instrumented to record earthquake data. In between September 1993 and May 1995, eight earthquakes with Richter magnitudes ranging from 4.2 to 6.2 were recorded. The author focuses on studying and analyzing the recorded data to provide information on the response characteristics of the Hualien soil-structure system, the SSI effects and the ground motion characteristics. An effort was also made to directly determine the site soil physical properties based on correlation analysis of the recorded data. No modeling simulations were attempted to try to analytically predict the SSI response of the soil and the structure. These will be the scope of a subsequent study

  18. Hemodiálisis en tiempo de terremoto informe desde la región del biobío-chile

    S.M. Carlos Zúñiga, Dr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El terremoto/tsunami grado 8,8 en la escala de Richter que afectó a nuestro país el 27 de febrero/2010, junto con provocar la pérdida de vidas humanas y cuantiosos daños materiales, dejó en evidencia la escasa preparación de la red de salud para enfrentar esta emergencia y especialmente lo relacionado con la terapia de diálisis. De los 1644 pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica en la Región del Bíobío, se registraron seis fallecidos (0,36% en el período post catástrofe inmediato. Hubo pocos casos de rabdomiolisis por aplastamiento con insuficiencia renal aguda, y ninguno requirió apoyo de diálisis. En el programa de peritoneodiálisis crónica ambulatoria no se reportaron casos de pacientes fallecidos. El presente informe reporta la situación de la terapia de diálisis y sus dificultades durante la catástrofe en la región, las acciones que contribuyeron a su rápida normalización y nuestras propuestas para elaborar en Chile un plan de diálisis en emergencias.

  19. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: aftershock sequences

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency law takes into account the minimum detectable magnitude, and treats aftershocks as if they were independent and identically distributed random events. A new magnitude-frequency relation is proposed which takes into account the magnitude of the main shock, and the degree to which aftershocks depend on the main shock makes them appear clustered. In certain cases, there can be two branches in the order-statistics of aftershock sequences: for energies below threshold, the Pareto law applies and the asymptotic distribution of magnitude is the double-exponential distribution, while energies above threshold follow a one-parameter beta distribution, whose exponent is the cluster dimension, and the asymptotic Gompertz distribution predicts a maximum magnitude. The 1957 Aleutian Islands aftershock sequence exemplifies such dual behavior. A thermodynamics of aftershocks is constructed on the analogy between the non-conservation of the number of aftershocks and that of the particle number in degenerate gases.

  20. Pushing the Volcanic Explosivity Index to its limit and beyond: Constraints from exceptionally weak explosive eruptions at Kīlauea in 2008

    Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Don; Rausch, J.; Carey, R.J.; Fagents, S.A.; Orr, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the mass, volume, and dispersal of the deposits of very small and/or extremely weak explosive eruptions is difficult, unless they can be sampled on eruption. During explosive eruptions of Halema‘uma‘u Crater (Kīlauea, Hawaii) in 2008, we constrained for the first time deposits of bulk volumes as small as 9–300 m3 (1 × 104 to 8 × 105 kg) and can demonstrate that they show simple exponential thinning with distance from the vent. There is no simple fit for such products within classifications such as the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). The VEI is being increasingly used as the measure of magnitude of explosive eruptions, and as an input for both hazard modeling and forecasting of atmospheric dispersal of tephra. The 2008 deposits demonstrate a problem for the use of the VEI, as originally defined, which classifies small, yet ballistic-producing, explosive eruptions at Kīlauea and other basaltic volcanoes as nonexplosive. We suggest a simple change to extend the scale in a fashion inclusive of such very small deposits, and to make the VEI more consistent with other magnitude scales such as the Richter scale for earthquakes. Eruptions of this magnitude constitute a significant risk at Kīlauea and elsewhere because of their high frequency and the growing number of “volcano tourists” visiting basaltic volcanoes.

  1. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2018-03-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  2. Geologic map of Harrat Hutaymah, with petrologic classification and distribution of ultramafic inclusions, Saudi Arabia

    Thornber, Carl R.

    1990-01-01

    This map shows detailed geology of the Quaternary and Tertiary volcanic deposits that comprise Harrat Hutaymah and an updated and generalized compilation of the underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic basement rocks. Quaternary alluvial cover and details of basement geology (that is, faults, dikes, and other features) are not shown. Volcanic unit descriptions and contact relations are based upon field investigation by the author and on compilation and revision of mapping Kellogg (1984; northern half of area) and Pallister (1984; southern half of area). A single K-Ar date of 1.80 ± 0.05 Ma for an alkali olivine basalt flow transected by the Al Hutaymah tuff ring (Pallister, 1984) provides the basis for an estimated late Tertiary to Quaternary age range for all harrat volcanic units other than unit Qtr (tuff reworked during Quaternary age time). Contact relations and unit descriptions for the basement rocks were compiled from Pallister (1984), Kellogg (1984 and 1985), DuBray (1984), Johnson and Williams (1984), Vaslet and others (1987), Cole and Hedge (1986), and Richter and others (1984). All rock unit names in this report are informal and capitalization follows Saudi Arabian stratigraphic nomenclature (Fitch, 1980). Geographic information was compiled from Pallister (1984), Kellogg (1984), and Fuller (in Johnson and Williams, 1984) and from field investigation by the author in 1986. The pie diagrams on the map show the distribution and petrology of ultramafic xenoliths of Harrat Hutaymah. The pie diagrams are explained by a detailed classification of ultramafic xenoliths that is introduced in this report.

  3. FUKUSHIMA – 25 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL

    Jan Grzesik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers health risk of Japanese population and neighboring countries being the consequence of the major accident (level 7 on INES scale in Fukushima Dai-ichi I nuclear power station. On March 11 an earthquake of magnitude 9 on Richter scale, off the Pacific coast of the Japanese main land, caused a massive tsunami that crippled the cooling systems at the nuclear plant. That led to reactor meltdowns, hydrogen explosions, and major release of radioactive material into the air. To enable a better understanding of the different and severe consequences of the accident, the article describes the physical background of functioning of nuclear reactors, the hypothetical reasons of damages and interference of their operations, the mechanism of releasing radioactive pollutants into the atmosphere and the consequences for the population living in the area, on which radioactive fallout is observed The accident in Fukushima is remarkable because for the first time considerable amounts of plutonium isotope 239Pu were released into the environment. The author presents his negative opinion concerning the prospect that nuclear power stations will be 100% failure-free and will be totally safe for human population. The Fukushima nuclear disaster is the third major accident known in the history of nuclear power plants caused or enabled by man. Attention is also paid to phenomenon of lobbing pro existence and development of nuclear power. It is motivated by selfish corporation interest in which representatives of scientific community, industrial corporations and military bodies play a significant role.

  4. Segmentation and Classification of Nepal Earthquake Induced Landslides Using SENTINEL-1 Product

    Kunwar, Saket

    2016-06-01

    On April 26, 2015, an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 on the Richter scale occurred, with epicentre at Barpak (28°12'20''N,84°44'19''E), Nepal. Landslides induced due to the earthquake and its aftershock added to the natural disaster claiming more than 9000 lives. Landslides represented as lines that extend from the head scarp to the toe of the deposit were mapped by the staff of the British Geological Survey and is available freely under Open Data Commons Open Database License(ODC-ODbL) license at the Humanitarian Data Exchange Program. This collection of 5578 landslides is used as preliminary ground truth in this study with the aim of producing polygonal delineation of the landslides from the polylines via object oriented segmentation. Texture measures from Sentinel-1a Ground Range Detected (GRD) Amplitude data and eigenvalue-decomposed Single Look Complex (SLC) polarimetry product are stacked for this purpose. This has also enabled the investigation of landslide properties in the H-Alpha plane, while developing a classification mechanism for identifying the occurrence of landslides.

  5. Demo-application of shape memory alloy devices: the rehabilitation of the S. Giorgio Church bell tower

    Indirli, Maurizio; Castellano, Maria G.; Clemente, Paolo; Martelli, Alessandro

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the rehabilitation of the S. Giorgio Church Bell-Tower (Trignano, Municipality of S. Martino in Rio, Reggio Emilia, Italy), completed in September 1999. This masonry building, seriously damaged by the earthquake of October 15th 1996 which struck the Reggio Emilia and Modena Districts, Italy), was investigated by the authors immediately after the seismic event, as other ancient Cultural Heritage Structures (CUHESs) in the same area. In the past, seismic events have visited substantial destruction that translates into a significant loss of architectural heritage. The most common solution traditionally used to enhance the CUHESs seismic behaviour is the introduction of localized reinforcements, usually Traditional Steel Ties (TSTs), increasing stability and ductility. Anyway, in many cases said reinforcement techniques, often too invasive, proved to be inadequate to prevent collapse. For these reasons, the Bell-Tower intervention applies Innovative Antiseismic Techniques (IATs) by the use of superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Devices (SMADs), a technology developed after a large amount of theoretical studies, numerical analyses and test campaigns. The SMADs, which can be considered a powerful tool with respect to the traditional methods, provide acceleration reduction, force limitation and energy dissipation. Furthermore, they are characterized by low invasivity and complete reversibility. When another earthquake occurred on June 18th 2000, with the same epicenter and a comparable Richter Magnitudo, the Bell-Tower, subjected to a new investigation, showed no damage of any type. Thus, the new seismic event has been the best verification of the retrofit intervention.

  6. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    Wolfheimer, Felix; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated

  7. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    Wolfheimer, Felix [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfheimer@temf.de; Gjonaj, Erion [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated.

  8. Annual report on the KSRS seismic array operation

    Jun, Myung-Soon; Jeon, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Ik-Bum [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Wonju KSRS (PS31) is one of the primary seismic stations under the IMS of CTBT. Korean NDC has been transmitting real time seismic data to IDC successfully during 1999. We have installed four elements seismo-acoustic array KISS(Korea Infrasound and Seismic Station) to detect and identify the seismic events in and around the Korean peninsula as a joint cooperation between KIGAM and SMU(Southern Methodist University). Continuous data from KSRS, KISS and other stations were automatically detected and analyzed using KEMS(Korea Earthquake Monitoring System) at KIGAM. KEMS has automatically detected and analyzed 1943 events between 1998.12.10 and 1999.12.22 and 876 events were reviewed by analyst and listed. Some electric poles used for data transmission inside the KSRS were eliminated and replaced to radio transmission. To increase the accuracy of earthquake observation velocity structure under the Korean peninsula was studied. To develop the Magnitude scale in Korea, the same approach which Richter applied in USA, 1935, was studied using Korean data. (author). 23 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  9. S-08: Kronik Pelvik Ağrı Sebebi Olarak İliopsoas Sendromu: Bir Kadın Futbolcuda Tanıda Gecikmenin ve Başarılı Tedavisinin Tartışılması

    Şeyhmus Kaplan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMAÇ Bu olgudaki amacımız bir kadın futbolcuda kronik pelvik ağrı sebebi olarak tespit edilen, egzersiz ve kinesiotape uygulaması ile başarılı tedavi edilen iliopsoas sendromu olgusunu sunmak ve tanıdaki gecikmenin sebeplerini tartışmaktır.OLGUSon 1 yıldır sağ kasık bölgesinde ağrı şikayeti olan 26 yaşında, 8 yıldır aktif futbol sporu yapan bayan hasta, çeşitli kliniklerde üreter taşı, inguinal herni, non-spesifik alt bel ağrısı ve osteitis pubis ön tanıları ile değerlendirilmiş. Yapılan muayene, laboratuvar ve görüntüleme incelemelerinde ağrıyı açıklayacak bir sorun tespit edilmemiş. Son olarak jinekoloji kliniğinde kronik pelvik ağrı tanısı konarak, analjezik ve oral kontraseptif tedavi denenmiş. Verilen tedaviye cevap vermeyen hasta, spor hekimliği bölümüne refere edilmiş. Hastada tek taraflı (sağ kasık ağrısı, uzun süre oturduktan sonra kalktığında dik olabilmede zorluk ve bazen bu şikayetlerine eklenen alt bel ağrısı yakınmaları vardı. Bilateral alt ekstemite kuvvet muayenesi, tendon refleksleri normal olarak tespit edildi. Muayene bulguları: sağ iliopsoas kas trasesinde insersiyoya yakın bölgede derin palpasyonda hassasiyet, belde lordoz artışı, sol pelvik antero-superior tilt, sol kalçada piriformis trasesinde hassasiyet, sağda daha belirgin olmak üzere bilateral pozitif Thomas testi, sağ kalçada tüm yönlere doğru eklem hareket açıklığının son derecelerinde azalma. Kan, idrar, konvansiyonel grafi, USG ve MR incelemelerinde hastanın şikayetlerini açıklayacak patolojik bir sorun tespit edilemedi. İliopsoas sendromu tanısı konuldu. Tedavide günlük germe egzersizleri önerildi ve beşer gün aralarla kinesiotape uygulaması yapıldı (Resim 1. Ağrı düzeyi Vizüel Analog Skala (VAS skoru ile değerlendirildi. Dördüncü seanstan sonra ağrının tamamen ortadan kalkması ile tedavi sonlandırıldı. Tedavinin bitiminden üç ay sonra

  10. On the physical links between the dynamics of the Izu Islands 2000 dike intrusions and the statistics of the induced seismicity

    Passarelli, Luigi; Rivalta, Eleonora; Simone, Cesca; Aoki, Yosuke

    2014-05-01

    dike edges. We further investigate the distribution of the two main clusters we identify, i.e. strike-slip and oblique-normal mechanisms. We find that the strike-slip family obeys a Gutenberg-Richter law with a b-value close to one. The oblique-normal family of events deviates from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution and is slightly bimodal, with a marked roll-off on its right-hand tail suggesting a lack of large magnitude events (M>5.5). This set of events seems to collect earthquakes rupturing above the dike, similar to graben faulting events widely observed in volcanic areas during diking. A possible explanation of the anomalous frequency-magnitude distribution is that these earthquakes may be limited in size by the thickness of the layer where they nucleate, being spatially constrained between the dike upper edge and the Earth's surface.

  11. Mass movement-induced tsunamis: main effects during the Patagonian Fjordland seismic crisis in Aisén (45°25'S, Chile Tsunamis inducidos por movimientos en masa: principales efectos durante la crisis sísmica de la Patagonia Archipelágica en Aisén (45°25' S, Chile

    José Antonio Naranjo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The epicentre of the long-lasting seismic crisis started on the evening of January 22,2007 and it was located 20 km to the west of Puerto Chacabuco in the Patagonian fjordland, Chile (45°25'S. Approximately 7,000 events were recorded up to early May, four of which reached magnitudes greater than 5 (Richter, with local intensities up to VII in Puerto Chacabuco and Puerto Aisén and VI in Coihaique. The seismic swarm was located within the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ, which controls the emplacement of several monogenetic volcanic cones and larger stratovolcanoes. The January 23 (Ms 5,2 and April 1 (Ms 5,4 events caused minor damages in salmón industry installations near the epicentral zone, however the earthquake that oceurred at 13:54 hours (local time on April 21 (Mw 6,2 triggered various mass movements on the Fiordo Aisén slopes and generated tsunamis. Debris flows and tsunami waves caused the death of three people and the disappearance of seven, in addition to severe damages to the salmón industry installations. A similar phenomenon had oceurred in 1927, but then fewer people inhabited the área. Initially, confusión dominated the scientific coordination of the emergeney management due to seismic data misinterpretation.En la noche del 22 de enero de 2007 comenzó una crisis sísmica, cuyos epicentros se localizaron principalmente en el fiordo Aisén, a unos 20 km al noroeste de Puerto Chacabuco, en la zona archipelágica de Patagonia, en Chile (45°25'S. Hasta comienzos de mayo, los sismógrafos habían registrado cerca de 7.000 sismos, de los cuales cuatro habían sobrepasado la magnitud 5 (Richter, con intensidades locales de hasta VII en Puerto Chacabuco y Puerto Aisén y VI en Coihaique. El enjambre sísmico está asociado a estructuras geológicas de la Zona de Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui (ZFLO la cual, además, controla el emplazamiento de numerosos conos volcánicos, así como estratovolcanes mayores. Aunque los sismos del 23 de enero

  12. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Türker, Tuğba, E-mail: tturker@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon/Turkey (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: ybayrak@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı/Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn’t been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, M{sub S}=7.3 and 1897, M{sub S}=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for M{sub S} magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boğazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99

  13. Fracture and earthquake physics in a non extensive view

    Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) power law distribution has to be modified for large seismic moments because of energy conservation and geometrical reasons. Several models have been proposed, either in terms of a second power law with a larger b value beyond a crossover magnitude, or based on a magnidute cut-off using an exponential taper. In the present work we point out that the non extensivity viewpoint is applicable to seismic processes. In the frame of a non-extensive approach which is based on Tsallis entropy we construct a generalized expression of Gutenberg-Richter (GGR) law. The existence of lower or/and upper bound to magnitude is discussed and the conditions under which GGR lead to classical GR law are analysed. For the lowest earthquake size (i.e., energy level) the correlation between the different parts of elements involved in the evolution of an earthquake are short-ranged and GR can be deduced on the basis of the maximum entropy principle using BG statistics. As the size (i.e., energy) increases, long range correlation becomes much more important, implying the necessity of using Tsallis entropy as an appropriate generalization of BG entropy. The power law behaviour is derived as a special case, leading to b-values being functions of the non-extensivity parameter q. Furthermore a theoretical analysis of similarities presented in stress stimulated electric and acoustic emissions and earthquakes are discussed not only in the frame of GGR but taking into account a universality in the description of intrevent times distribution. Its particular form can be well expressed in the frame of a non extensive approach. This formulation is very different from an exponential distribution expected for simple random Poisson processes and indicates the existence of a nontrivial universal mechanism in the generation process. All the aforementioned similarities within stress stimulated electrical and acoustic emissions and seismicity suggests a

  14. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Türker, Tuğba; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn’t been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, M_S=7.3 and 1897, M_S=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for M_S magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boğazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99 with an earthquake

  15. Natural Time and Nowcasting Earthquakes: Are Large Global Earthquakes Temporally Clustered?

    Luginbuhl, Molly; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal clustering of large global earthquakes with respect to natural time, or interevent count, as opposed to regular clock time. To do this, we use two techniques: (1) nowcasting, a new method of statistically classifying seismicity and seismic risk, and (2) time series analysis of interevent counts. We chose the sequences of M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and M_{λ } ≥ 8.0 earthquakes from the global centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog from 2004 to 2016 for analysis. A significant number of these earthquakes will be aftershocks of the largest events, but no satisfactory method of declustering the aftershocks in clock time is available. A major advantage of using natural time is that it eliminates the need for declustering aftershocks. The event count we utilize is the number of small earthquakes that occur between large earthquakes. The small earthquake magnitude is chosen to be as small as possible, such that the catalog is still complete based on the Gutenberg-Richter statistics. For the CMT catalog, starting in 2004, we found the completeness magnitude to be M_{σ } ≥ 5.1. For the nowcasting method, the cumulative probability distribution of these interevent counts is obtained. We quantify the distribution using the exponent, β, of the best fitting Weibull distribution; β = 1 for a random (exponential) distribution. We considered 197 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and found β = 0.83 ± 0.08. We considered 15 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 8.0, but this number was considered too small to generate a meaningful distribution. For comparison, we generated synthetic catalogs of earthquakes that occur randomly with the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics. We considered a synthetic catalog of 1.97 × 10^5 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and found β = 0.99 ± 0.01. The random catalog converted to natural time was also random. We then generated 1.5 × 10^4 synthetic catalogs with 197 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 in each catalog and

  16. Abastecimiento de sangre durante desastres: la experiencia de Chile en 2010 Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010

    Marcela Vásquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de la gestión del abastecimiento y suministro de sangre durante desastres a partir de las experiencias de diversos eventos ocurridos principalmente en la primera década de este siglo, y en particular el terremoto grado 8,8 en la escala de Richter que afectó la zona centro sur de Chile el 27 de febrero de 2010. El objetivo fue proporcionar información que pueda ser útil para mejorar las estrategias y planes de respuesta durante potenciales desastres futuros. La información descriptiva sobre los procedimientos de respuesta se obtuvo mediante entre-vistas, reportes internos y la base de datos del sistema informático del Centro Productivo Regional de Sangre del Maule. Los resultados permiten concluir que para responder de manera eficiente y efectiva a las necesidades de sangre inmediatamente después de un desastre es de importancia clave tener un sistema centralizado de gestión que facilite el abastecimiento y el suministro de sangre y con-tar con personal voluntario competente en salud que esté dispuesto a acudir con celeridad durante estos eventos. Asimismo, se ha observado que durante dichas emergencias se produce un cambio en el perfil de quienes donan sangre. En Chile, por ejemplo, durante las dos semanas siguientes al terremoto la razón hombre/mujer en los donantes se invirtió, con 61,1% de participación por parte de las mujeres, quienes en la semana previa al evento representaban a solo 37%.A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from

  17. DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL DAN TEMPORAL PARAMETER SEISMOTEKTONIK SEBAGAI INDIKASI TINGKAT AKTIVITAS KEGEMPAAN DI WILAYAH PAPUA

    Supriyanto Rohadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zona subduksi megathrust merupakan wilayah potensial untuk terjadi gempabumi besar. Untuk memahami proses yang mengontrol gempabumi besar diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai bagaimana karakteristik pertemuan antar lempeng tektonik dan variasi kegempaan spasialnya. Gempabumi Papua 4 Januari 2009,  magnitudo 7,6 (katalog BMKG, merupakan contoh gempabumi pada zona megathrust. Mekanisme sumber gempabumi ini adalah patahan trusting di perbatasan lempeng sepanjang barat-laut pesisir pantai Papua. Wilayah Papua dikenal memiliki aktivitas kegempaan yang tinggi, sehingga diperlukan tindakan mitigasi terhadap bencana gempabumi. Salah satu usaha mitigasi bencana gempabumi adalah dengan memetakan wilayah rawan gempabumi. Pemetaan wilayah rawan gempabumi diantaranya dilakukan dengan memetakan variasi parameter seismotektonik dari relasi Gutenberg-Richter. Analisa parameter seismotektonik secara spasial dan temporal pada penelitian ini menggunakan data gempabumi dari katalog Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BKMG dan National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC, tahun 1973 - 2008, dengan batas 10° LS - 4° LU dan 130° BT -142° BT dengan magnitudo terkecil 2,9. Data gempabumi (Mw>6 yang berasal dari katalog BMKG mulai dari tahun 2009 hingga 2014 digunakan sebagai verifikasi. Dari analisis menggunakan software ZMAP diperoleh variasi nilai-b berkisar antara 0,5 – 1,5, variasi nilai-a berkisar antara 3,5-8,5, sedangkan periode ulang gempabumi dengan magnitudo 6,8 secara umum adalah berkisar antara 5-32 tahun.    Megathrust subduction zone is an area that potentially causes large earthquakes. To understanding the processes that control the massive earthquake requires a knowledge about the characteristics of the junction between the tectonic plates and spatial variations of the seismicity. Papua earthquake on January 4, 2009, with 7,6 magnitude(based on BMKG catalogue, is an example of an earthquake that occurred in that zone. The earthquake source

  18. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  19. Soils as records of past and present environments

    Sauer, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    This contribution reflects selected pedological concepts that are helpful for interpreting soil properties related to past and present environments. These concepts are illustrated by examples from various landscapes, and their combination finally leads to some further conclusions. The concept of Targulian and Gerasimova (2009) distinguishes soil system and soil body. Soil system is defined as "open multiphase system functioning in any solid-phase substrate at its interface with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota", and soil body as "solid-phase part of a soil system produced by its long-term functioning and composed of a vertical sequence of genetic horizons". Soil system functioning corresponds to the recent environmental factors and includes heat and moisture dynamics, biomass production, biogeochemical cycles, and other processes. In contrast, a soil body is a record of the long-term functioning of a soil system. It thus provides a record not only of the functioning of the soil system under the present environmental conditions but also under past, possibly different, conditions. Hence, Targulian and Goryachkin (2004) called it the "memory" of the landscape. Richter and Yaalon (2012) argued that most soils comprise both, features that developed under the present environmental conditions and features that reflect different conditions that the soils experienced in the past; they concluded that most soils are polygenetic. Although the current functioning of the soil system in the concept of Targulian and Gerasimova (2009) is mainly controlled by the present-day combination of environmental factors, it should be added that past processes also influence the soil system, because past processes changed the soil properties in a way that also the present-day functioning of the soil system is affected by these changes. Earlier, Yaalon (1971) had categorised soil properties according to the time-span required for their adjustment to the actual environment, distinguishing

  20. Ensayo en Lima (Perú de edificio de adobe sismorresistente construido con el sistema de albañilería integral

    Vega, S.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the Integral Masonry System (IMS developed in Europe under the “AllWall System” trade name for concrete or clay, block or brick masonry walls using just mortar. In this case the system is modified for an adobe block infill to allow the construction of earthquake resistant housing in developing countries. When adobe block is employed as an infill it is impossible to transfer the bond stresses of the reinforcement bars as these structures are not bonded with mortar and the reinforcement then has to transfer the stresses purely within the reinforcement. The truss-shaped reinforcement may intersect in the three spatial directions and allow the construction of reinforced walls and slabs. It is then only necessary to infill with locally made adobe blocks or flooring in order to provide sufficient rigidity to the structure. A two-storey, 6x6x6 m, adobe building employing the IMS system has been tested for earthquake resistance at half scale at the PCUP (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru in Lima in collaboration with the UPM (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid to test the viability of this new type of building construction for seismic areas in the Third World. The test results have shown that the IMS system with adobe block remained stable without significant cracking even under 130 mm displacement seismic movement, equivalent to 10.0 on the Richter magnitude scale.Este artículo presenta una aplicación del Sistema de Albañilería Integral (SAI, desarrollado en Europa bajo la marca “AllWall System” para muros de albañilería de ladrillo o bloque, cerámico o de hormigón, empleando sólo mortero. En este caso el sistema se modifica para adaptarlo al adobe y permitir la construcción de viviendas sismorresistentes en países en desarrollo.Cuando el relleno empleado es de adobe, es imposible transferir las tensiones de los refuerzos por adherencia de las barras debido a que estas estructuras carecen

  1. Amplitude and Recurrence Time of LP activity at Mt. Etna, Italy

    Cauchie, Léna; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Bean, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The manifestation of Long-Period (LP) activity is attested on many volcanoes worldwide and is thought to be associated with the resonant oscillations of subsurface, fluid-filled, cracks and conduits. Nonetheless the actual source mechanism that originates the resonance is still unclear. Different models have been proposed so far, including (i) fluid flow instabilities as periodic degassing and (ii) brittle failure in viscous magmas. Since LP activity usually precedes and accompanies volcanic eruption, the understanding of these sources is crucial for the hazard assessment and eruption early warning. The work is aimed at improving the understanding of the LP source mechanism through a statistical analysis of detailed LP catalogues. The behaviour of LP activity is compared with the empirical laws governing earthquakes recurrence (e.g., Gutenberg-Richter [GR] and Gamma-law distributions), in order to understand what relationships, if any, exist between these two apparently different earthquake classes. In particular, about 13000 events were detected on Mount Etna in August 2005 through a STA/LTA method. For this given period, the volcano does not present particular sign of unrest. The manifestation of the LP events is sustained in time over all the period of analysis. From the analysis of the directional properties, it turns out that the events of this first catalog propagate from 2 distinct sources . Furthermore, the events exhibit a high degree of waveform similarity, and provide a criterion for classification/source separation. The events were then grouped into families of comparable waveforms, resulting also in a separation for their source locations. We then used template signals of each family for a Matched-Filtering of the continuous data streams, in order to discriminate small-amplitude events previously undetected by the STA/LTA triggering method. This procedure allowed for a significant enrichment of the catalogues. The retrieved amplitude distributions

  2. Commentary on key aspects of fecal microbiota transplantation in small animal practice

    Chaitman J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Chaitman,1 Albert E Jergens,2 Frederic Gaschen,3 Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro,4 Stanley L Marks,5 Alicia G Marroquin-Cardona,4 Keith Richter,6 Giacomo Rossi,7 Jan S Suchodolski,8 J Scott Weese9 1Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists, New York, NY, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 3School of Veterinary Medicine, Lousiana State University, LA, USA; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico; 5Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, 6Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 8Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 9Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of dogs, cats, and other mammals including humans harbors millions of beneficial microorganisms that regulate and maintain health. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a procedure involving the administration of a fecal infusion from a healthy individual (donor to a patient with disease to help improve health. Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. Here, we outline key aspects of FMT in small animal practice. Keywords: microbiota, health, fecal microbiota transplantation, dysbiosis, enteropathogens, immune system

  3. Effects of the northern Ohio earthquake on the Perry nuclear power plant

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    On January 31, 1986 at 11:47 A.M. EST, a brief strong motion duration and shallow (10 km focal depth) earthquake with a 5.0 Richter magnitude occurred. Its epicenter was located near Leroy, Ohio which is south of Lake Erie, at a distance of approximately ten (10) miles from the Perry Nuclear Power Plant site at Perry, Ohio. The potential safety significance of the Leroy 1986 earthquake is that it produced a recorded component of earthquake motion zero period acceleration approximately equal to the 0.15g zero period ground acceleration defined as the Safe Shutdown Earthquake for the site. The Leroy 1986 earthquake is the first recorded instance in the U.S. of a nuclear power plant being subjected to some level of OBE exceedance. In general, the short duration and high frequency non-damaging character of the Leroy 1986 earthquake cannot be equated directly on the basis of peak ground acceleration alone with the longer duration, lower frequency content of earthquakes which are expected to do structural damage. However, all the available evidence suggests that the Leroy 1986 is not atypical of what might be expected earthquake activity in the area of the eastern U.S. with 1-10 year return periods. On this basis, it is essential that new methods be developed which properly characterized the damage potential of these types of earthquakes and not simply process the raw data associated with recorded peak acceleration as the basis of nuclear plant shutdown and potentially lengthly examination

  4. Variations and healing of the seismic velocity (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    Snieder, Roel

    2016-04-01

    Scattering of waves leads to a complexity of waveforms that is often seen by seismologists as a nuisance. And indeed, the complicated wave paths of multiple scattered waves makes it difficult to use these waves for imaging. Yet, the long wave paths of multiple scattered waves makes these waves an ideal tool for measuring minute velocity changes. This has led to the development of coda wave interferometry as a tool for measuring small velocity changes in the laboratory and with field data. Combined with the use of noise cross correlations - seismic interferometry - this method is even more useful because it follows for a quasi-continuous measurement of velocity changes. I will show examples of detecting velocity changes in the laboratory, the earth's near surface, and in engineered structures. Perhaps surprisingly, the seismic velocity is not constant at all, and varies with the seasons, temperature, precipitation, as the weather does. In addition, the seismic velocity usually drops as a result of deformation. Most of these changes likely occur in the near surface or the region of deformation, and a drawback of using strongly scattered waves is that it is difficult to localize the spatial area of the velocity change. I will present laboratory measurements that show that a certain spatial localization of the velocity change can be achieved. One of the intriguing observations is that after deformation the seismic velocity recovers logarithmically with time. The reason for this particular time-dependence is the presence of healing mechanisms that operate at different time scales. Since this is feature of many physical systems, the logarithmic healing is a widespread behavior and is akin in its generality to the Gutenberg-Richter law.

  5. Faults self-organized by repeated earthquakes in a quasi-static antiplane crack model

    D. Sornette

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a 2D quasi-static discrete crack anti-plane model of a tectonic plate with long range elastic forces and quenched disorder. The plate is driven at its border and the load is transferred to all elements through elastic forces. This model can be considered as belonging to the class of self-organized models which may exhibit spontaneous criticality, with four additional ingredients compared to sandpile models, namely quenched disorder, boundary driving, long range forces and fast time crack rules. In this 'crack' model, as in the 'dislocation' version previously studied, we find that the occurrence of repeated earthquakes organizes the activity on well-defined fault-like structures. In contrast with the 'dislocation' model, after a transient, the time evolution becomes periodic with run-aways ending each cycle. This stems from the 'crack' stress transfer rule preventing criticality to organize in favour of cyclic behaviour. For sufficiently large disorder and weak stress drop, these large events are preceded by a complex spacetime history of foreshock activity, characterized by a Gutenberg-Richter power law distribution with universal exponent B = 1±0.05. This is similar to a power law distribution of small nucleating droplets before the nucleation of the macroscopic phase in a first-order phase transition. For large disorder and large stress drop, and for certain specific initial disorder configurations, the stress field becomes frustrated in fast time: out-of-plane deformations (thrust and normal faulting and/or a genuine dynamics must be introduced to resolve this frustration.

  6. Geophysical analysis for the Ada Tepe region (Bulgaria) - case study

    Trifonova, Petya; Metodiev, Metodi; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Vatseva, Rumiana

    2013-04-01

    According to the current archeological investigations Ada Tepe is the oldest gold mine in Europe with Late Bronze and Early Iron age. It is a typical low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit and is hosted in Maastrichtian-Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault contact with underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Ada Tepe (25o.39'E; 41o.25'N) is located in the Eastern Rhodope unit. The region is highly segmented despite the low altitude (470-750 m) due to widespread volcanic and sediment rocks susceptible to torrential erosion during the cold season. Besides the thorough geological exploration focused on identifying cost-effective stocks of mineral resources, a detailed geophysical analysis concernig diferent stages of the gold extraction project was accomplished. We present the main results from the geophysical investigation aimed to clarify the complex seismotectonic setting of the Ada Tepe site region. The overall study methodology consists of collecting, reviewing and estimating geophysical and seismological information to constrain the model used for seismic hazard assessment of the area. Geophysical information used in the present work consists of gravity, geomagnetic and seismological data. Interpretation of gravity data is applied to outline the axes of steep gravity transitions marked as potential axes of faults, flexures and other structures of dislocation. Direct inverse techniques are also utilized to estimate the form and depth of anomalous sources. For the purposes of seismological investigation of the Ada Tepe site region an earthquake catalogue is compiled for the time period 510BC - 2011AD. Statistical parameters of seismicity - annual seismic rate parameter, ?, and the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter exponential relation for Ada Tepe site region, are estimated. All geophysical datasets and derived results are integrated using GIS techniques ensuring interoperability of data when combining, processing and visualizing obtained

  7. Increasing the Accuracy in the Measurement of the Minor Isotopes of Uranium: Care in Selection of Reference Materials, Baselines and Detector Calibration

    Poths, J.; Koepf, A.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    The minor isotopes of uranium (U-233, U-234, U-236) are increasingly useful for tracing a variety of processes: movement of anthropogenic nuclides in the environment (ref 1), sources of uranium ores (ref 2), and nuclear material attribution (ref 3). We report on improved accuracy for U-234/238 and U-236/238 by supplementing total evaporation protocol TIMS measurement on Faraday detectors (ref 4)with multiplier measurement for the minor isotopes. Measurement of small signals on Faraday detectors alone is limited by noise floors of the amplifiers and accurate measurement of the baseline offsets. The combined detector approach improves the reproducibility to better than ±1% (relative) for the U-234/238 at natural abundance, and yields a detection limit for U-236/U-238 of <0.2 ppm. We have quantified contribution of different factors to the uncertainties associated with these peak jumping measurement on a single detector, with an aim of further improvement. The uncertainties in the certified values for U-234 and U-236 in the uranium standard NBS U005, if used for mass bias correction, dominates the uncertainty in their isotopic ratio measurements. Software limitations in baseline measurement drives the detection limit for the U-236/U-238 ratio. This is a topic for discussion with the instrument manufacturers. Finally, deviation from linearity of the response of the electron multiplier with count rate limits the accuracy and reproducibility of these minor isotope measurements. References: (1) P. Steier et al(2008) Nuc Inst Meth(B), 266, 2246-2250. (2) E. Keegan et al (2008) Appl Geochem 23, 765-777. (3) K. Mayer et al (1998) IAEA-CN-98/11, in Advances in Destructive and Non-destructive Analysis for Environmental Monitoring and Nuclear Forensics. (4) S. Richter and S. Goldberg(2003) Int J Mass Spectrom, 229, 181-197.

  8. Multiple Spectral Ratio Analyses Reveal Earthquake Source Spectra of Small Earthquakes and Moment Magnitudes of Microearthquakes

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral studies for macroscopic earthquake source parameters are helpful for characterizing earthquake rupture process and hence understanding earthquake source physics and fault properties. Those studies require us mute wave propagation path and site effects in spectra of seismograms to accentuate source effect. We have recently developed the multiple spectral ratio method [Uchide and Imanishi, BSSA, 2016] employing many empirical Green's function (EGF) events to reduce errors from the choice of EGF events. This method helps us estimate source spectra more accurately as well as moment ratios among reference and EGF events, which are useful to constrain the seismic moment of microearthquakes. First, we focus on earthquake source spectra. The source spectra have generally been thought to obey the omega-square model with single corner-frequency. However recent studies imply the existence of another corner frequency for some earthquakes. We analyzed small shallow inland earthquakes (3.5 multiple spectral ratio analyses. For 20000 microearthquakes in Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture area, we found that the JMA magnitudes (Mj) based on displacement or velocity amplitude are systematically below Mw. The slope of the Mj-Mw relation is 0.5 for Mj 5. We propose a fitting curve for the obtained relationship as Mw = (1/2)Mj + (1/2)(Mjγ + Mcorγ)1/γ+ c, where Mcor is a corner magnitude, γ determines the sharpness of the corner, and c denotes an offset. We obtained Mcor = 4.1, γ = 5.6, and c = -0.47 to fit the observation. The parameters are useful for characterizing the Mj-Mw relationship. This non-linear relationship affects the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Quantitative discussions on b-values are affected by the definition of magnitude to use.

  9. Information theory applied to econophysics: stock market behaviors

    Vogel, Eugenio E.; Saravia, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    The use of data compressor techniques has allowed to recognize magnetic transitions and their associated critical temperatures [E.E. Vogel, G. Saravia, V. Cortez, Physica A 391, 1591 (2012)]. In the present paper we introduce some new concepts associated to data recognition and extend the use of these techniques to econophysics to explore the variations of stock market indicators showing that information theory can help to recognize different regimes. Modifications and further developments to previously introduced data compressor wlzip are introduced yielding two measurements. Additionally, we introduce an algorithm that allows to tune the number of significant digits over which the data compression is due to act complementing, this with an appropriate method to round off the truncation. The application is done to IPSA, the main indicator of the Chilean Stock Market during the year 2010 due to availability of quality data and also to consider a rare effect: the earthquake of the 27th of February on that year which is as of now the sixth strongest earthquake ever recorded by instruments (8.8 Richter scale) according to United States Geological Survey. Along the year 2010 different regimes are recognized. Calm days show larger compression than agitated days allowing for classification and recognition. Then the focus turns onto selected days showing that it is possible to recognize different regimes with the data of the last hour (60 entries) allowing to determine actions in a safer way. The "day of the week" effect is weakly present but "the hour of the day" effect is clearly present; its causes and implications are discussed. This effect also establishes the influence of Asian, European and American stock markets over the smaller Chilean Stock Market. Then dynamical studies are conducted intended to search a system that can help to realize in real time about sudden variations of the market; it is found that information theory can be really helpful in this respect.

  10. Impaired psychological recovery in the elderly after the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in Japan:a population-based study

    Someya Toshiyuki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 5.56 P.M. on the 23rd of October, 2004. The earthquake was followed by sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, which delayed reconstruction of community lifelines. Even one year after the earthquake, 9,160 people were living in temporary housing. Such a devastating earthquake and life after the earthquake in an unfamiliar environment should cause psychological distress, especially among the elderly. Methods Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 in 2,083 subjects (69% response rate who were living in transient housing five months after the earthquake. GHQ-12 was scored using the original method, Likert scoring and corrected method. The subjects were asked to assess their psychological status before the earthquake, their psychological status at the most stressful time after the earthquake and their psychological status at five months after the earthquake. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to reveal the factor structure of GHQ12. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between various background factors and GHQ-12 score and its subscale. Results GHQ-12 scores were significantly elevated at the most stressful time and they were significantly high even at five months after the earthquake. Factor analysis revealed that a model consisting of two factors (social dysfunction and dysphoria using corrected GHQ scoring showed a high level of goodness-of-fit. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age of subjects affected GHQ-12 scores. GHQ-12 score as well as its factor 'social dysfunction' scale were increased with increasing age of subjects at five months after the earthquake. Conclusion Impaired psychological recovery was observed even at five months after the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in the elderly. The elderly were more

  11. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?

    Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  12. Fluid-faulting evolution in high definition: Connecting fault structure and frequency-magnitude variations during the 2014 Long Valley Caldera, California earthquake swarm

    Shelly, David R.; Ellsworth, William L.; Hill, David P.

    2016-01-01

    An extended earthquake swarm occurred beneath southeastern Long Valley Caldera between May and November 2014, culminating in three magnitude 3.5 earthquakes and 1145 cataloged events on 26 September alone. The swarm produced the most prolific seismicity in the caldera since a major unrest episode in 1997-1998. To gain insight into the physics controlling swarm evolution, we used large-scale cross-correlation between waveforms of cataloged earthquakes and continuous data, producing precise locations for 8494 events, more than 2.5 times the routine catalog. We also estimated magnitudes for 18,634 events (~5.5 times the routine catalog), using a principal component fit to measure waveform amplitudes relative to cataloged events. This expanded and relocated catalog reveals multiple episodes of pronounced hypocenter expansion and migration on a collection of neighboring faults. Given the rapid migration and alignment of hypocenters on narrow faults, we infer that activity was initiated and sustained by an evolving fluid pressure transient with a low-viscosity fluid, likely composed primarily of water and CO2 exsolved from underlying magma. Although both updip and downdip migration were observed within the swarm, downdip activity ceased shortly after activation, while updip activity persisted for weeks at moderate levels. Strongly migrating, single-fault episodes within the larger swarm exhibited a higher proportion of larger earthquakes (lower Gutenberg-Richter b value), which may have been facilitated by fluid pressure confined in two dimensions within the fault zone. In contrast, the later swarm activity occurred on an increasingly diffuse collection of smaller faults, with a much higher b value.

  13. Effects of the South Hyogo earthquake on LNG facilities and damage prevention measures; Effets du tremblement de terre de Hyogo-Sud sur les installations GNL et mesures pour la prevention des degats

    Yoichi, Fuchimoto [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Dept. Production (Japan); Yukiyoshi, Hasegawa [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Senboku LNG Terminail (Japan); Ysuhiro, Ueno; Junji, Doi [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Engineering Dept. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The South Hyogo Earthquake that took place in the morning of January 17, 1995, at about 5:46 A.M. registered a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale with earthquake motion of 800 gal (horizontal) on the ground surface. It was the largest vertical-motion earthquake to hit a major urban area in modern days, and it struck the service area of Osaka Gas. The ground motion values monitored were 240 gal at the Senboku LNG Terminal and 189 gal at the Himeji LNG Terminal, but these terminals did not receive sufficient damage to affect their gas processing or supply functions. There were also seven gas holders operating in the worst hit area, where ground motion of 616 to 833 gal was recorded. However, these gas holders were also not damaged by the earthquake. These gas processing plants and supply facilities were constructed in compliance with the current seismic design standards, and they incorporate elastic design (capable of withstanding ground motion of 300 gal max.) in which due consideration is given to factors such as their importance and the ground characteristics. Although the South Hyogo Earthquake generated ground motion that far exceeded the design level of the gas holders, the facilities maintained their integrity without shape deformation, thus demonstrating their high level of earthquake resistance. For other gas processing facilities, Osaka Gas conducted evaluations of their resistance to an extremely large earthquake using the ultimate strength design method, and confirmed similar levels of earthquake resistance performance. According to the above examination results, it was found that design based on the current seismic design standards is capable of withstanding an earthquake of high magnitude. However, the current seismic design standards do not take into consideration earthquakes of an extremely high magnitude or specify the use of the ultimate strength design method. Therefore, The Japan Gas Association is currently examining standards that take those

  14. Produção e certificação de mudas de videira na França 1: situação Atual da Produção

    REGINA MURILLO DE ALBUQUERQUE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A França é o principal país produtor de mudas de videira, enxertando anualmente 270 milhões de mudas. Neste país, o programa de certificação de mudas alcança mais de 90% do material produzido, e, para tanto, a área utilizada de matrizes de porta-enxertos e produtoras atinge 3.454 ha. As principais cultivares multiplicadas, em ordem decrescente, são Merlot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, e os principais porta-enxertos o SO4, 110 Richter, 3309 Couderc, 41 B e 140 Ruggieri. Os percentuais atuais de pegamento da enxertia situam-se em torno de 58% (ano de 1999, oscilando de 45,2% para a variedade Pinot Noir até 58% para o Cabernet Sauvignon. Do total das mudas enxertadas, 90% são produzidas diretamente em canteiros para comercialização sob a forma de raiz nua, e os 10% restantes em vasos biodegradáveis. A quantidade de mudas enxertadas atingiu 270,4 milhões no ano de 2000, ultrapassando todos os valores produzidos na década de 90, e é considerada como limite para absorção do mercado. As exportações de mudas pela França atingiram o montante de 19,2 milhões de mudas, sendo Itália, Espanha, Portugal, Alemanha e Argentina os principais importadores.

  15. Long-term outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who discontinue ibrutinib.

    Jain, Preetesh; Thompson, Philip A; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jain, Nitin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Burger, Jan A; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William G

    2017-06-15

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in frontline and relapsed/refractory settings. The authors previously reported poor outcomes for patients who discontinued ibrutinib; however, long-term outcomes were not reported. Data from 320 patients who received ibrutinib on clinical studies between 2010 and 2015 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed. Long-term outcomes among patients with CLL after they discontinued ibrutinib were analyzed. Ninety of 320 patients (28%) who were treated on ibrutinib-based regimens discontinued ibrutinib. Of these, 80 had relapsed/refractory disease, and 10 were treatment-naive. The median time to discontinuation was 15 months (range, 1.2-54 months). After a median follow-up of 38 months after starting ibrutinib, 40 patients (44%) remained alive. Major reasons for ibrutinib discontinuation were intolerance (n = 29; 32%), miscellaneous (n = 28; 31%), progression (n = 19; 21%), and Richter transformation (RT) (n = 9; 10%). The median survival according to the reason for discontinuation was 33 months for ibrutinib intolerance, 11 months for miscellaneous causes, 16 months for progressive CLL, and 2 months for RT. Among the 19 patients who had progressive CLL, 42% responded to subsequent therapy. Ibrutinib discontinuation was observed during therapy. Patients with CLL who had disease transformation had especially poor outcomes, whereas those who developed progressive disease during ibrutinib therapy had a median survival of ibrutinib therapy is of critical importance. Cancer 2017;123:2268-2273. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  17. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  18. A moment in time: emergency nurses and the Canterbury earthquakes.

    Richardson, S; Ardagh, M; Grainger, P; Robinson, V

    2013-06-01

    To outline the impact of the Canterbury, New Zealand (NZ) earthquakes on Christchurch Hospital, and the experiences of emergency nurses during this time. NZ has experienced earthquakes and aftershocks centred in the Canterbury region of the South Island. The location of these, around and within the major city of Christchurch, was unexpected and associated with previously unknown fault lines. While the highest magnitude quake occurred in September 2010, registering 7.1 on the Richter scale, it was the magnitude 6.3 event on 22 February 2011 which was associated with the greatest injury burden and loss of life. Staff working in the only emergency department in the city were faced with an external emergency while also being directly affected as part of the disaster. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: This paper developed following interviews with nurses who worked during this period, and draws on literature related to healthcare responses to earthquakes and natural disasters. The establishment of an injury database allowed for an accurate picture to emerge of the injury burden, and each of the authors was present and worked in a clinical capacity during the earthquake. Nurses played a significant role in the response to the earthquakes and its aftermath. However, little is known regarding the impact of this, either in personal or professional terms. This paper presents an overview of the earthquakes and experiences of nurses working during this time, identifying a range of issues that will benefit from further exploration and research. It seeks to provide a sense of the experiences and the potential meanings that were derived from being part of this 'moment in time'. Examples of innovations in practice emerged during the earthquake response and a number of recommendations for nursing practice are identified. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Epioptics-8

    Cricenti, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Preface -- Ab-initio theories for the calculation of excited states properties / O. Pulci ... [et al.] -- Theory of surface second harmonic generation / W. Luis Mochán, Jesś A. Maytorena -- Exitation of multiple plasmon in optical second-harmonic generation / K. Pedersen, T. G. Pedersen, P. Morgen -- Non-linear optical probes of biological surfaces / Mischa Bonn, Volker Knecht, Michiel Müller -- Ab initio study of the Ge(111): Sn surface / Paola Gori, Olivia Pulci, Antonio Cricenti -- Lifetime of excited states / B. Hellsing -- Soliton dynamics in non-commensurate surface structure / Alexander S. Kovalev, Igor V. Gerasimchuk -- Raman scattering as an epioptic probe for low dimensional structures / E. Speiser, K. Fleischer, W. Richter -- Calculation of reflectance anisotropy for semiconductor surface exploration / W. G. Schmidt -- Molecular assembly at metal surfaces studied by reflection anisotropy spectroscopy / David S. Martin -- Study of solid/liquid interfaces by optical techniques / Y. Borensztein -- Surface preparation of Cu(110) for ambient environments / G. E. Isted, N. P. Blanchard, D. S. Martin -- Micro-radiographs stored in lithium fluoride films show strong optical contrast with no topographical contribution / A. Ustione ... [et al.] -- Metal nanofilms studied with infrared spectroscopy / Gerhard Fahsold, Andreas Priebe, Annemarie Pucci -- An AFM investigation of oligonucleotides anchored on an unoxidized crystalline silicon surface / G. Longo ... [et al.] -- A new approach to characterize polymeric nanofilters contamination using scanning near-field optical microscopy / C. Oliva ... [et al.] -- Magnetization reversal processes in Fe/NiO/Fe(001) trilayers studied by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect / P. Biagioni -- Laser-induced band bending variation for ZnTe (110)1x1 surface / S. D. Thorpe ... [et al.] -- Optical properties of materials in an undergraduate physics curriculum / Julio R. Blanco.

  20. A dense microseismic monitoring network in Korea for uncovering relationship between seismic activity and neotectonic features

    Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B. G.; Chung, T.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    A few tens of surface traces indicating movements in Quaternary were found in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Following both the geological and engineering definitions, those features are classified into "active", in geology, or "capable", in engineering, faults. On the other hand, the present-day seismicity of the region over a couple of thousand years is indistinguishable on the whole with the rest of the Korean Peninsula. It is therefore of great interest whether the present seismic activity is related to the neotectonic features or not. Either of conclusions is not intuitive in terms of the present state of seismic monitoring network in the region. Thus much interest in monitoring seismicity to provide an improved observation resolution and to lower the event-detection threshold has increased with many observations of the Quaternary faults. We installed a remote, wireless seismograph network which is composed of 20 stations with an average spacing of 10 km. Each station is equipped with a three-component Trillium Compact seismometer and Taurus digitizer. Instrumentation and analysis advancements are now offering better tools for this monitoring. This network is scheduled to be in operation over about one and a half year. In spite of the relatively short observation period, we expect that the high density of the network enables us to monitor seismic events with much lower magnitude threshold compared to the preexisting seismic network in the region. Following the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the number of events with low magnitude is logarithmically larger than that with high magnitude. Following this rule, we can expect that many of microseismic events may reveal behavior of their causative faults, if any. We report the results of observation which has been performed over a year up to now.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Considering an Active Leech River Fault

    Kukovica, J.; Molnar, S.; Ghofrani, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Leech River fault is situated on Vancouver Island near the city of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The 60km transpressional reverse fault zone runs east to west along the southern tip of Vancouver Island, dividing the lithologic units of Jurassic-Cretaceous Leech River Complex schists to the north and Eocene Metchosin Formation basalts to the south. This fault system poses a considerable hazard due to its proximity to Victoria and 3 major hydroelectric dams. The Canadian seismic hazard model for the 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) considered the fault system to be inactive. However, recent paleoseismic evidence suggests there to be at least 2 surface-rupturing events to have exceeded a moment magnitude (M) of 6.5 within the last 15,000 years (Morell et al. 2017). We perform a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for the city of Victoria with consideration of the Leech River fault as an active source. A PSHA for Victoria which replicates the 2015 NBCC estimates is accomplished to calibrate our PSHA procedure. The same seismic source zones, magnitude recurrence parameters, and Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are used. We replicate the uniform hazard spectrum for a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years for a 500 km radial area around Victoria. An active Leech River fault zone is then added; known length and dip. We are determining magnitude recurrence parameters based on a Gutenberg-Richter relationship for the Leech River fault from various catalogues of the recorded seismicity (M 2-3) within the fault's vicinity and the proposed paleoseismic events. We seek to understand whether inclusion of an active Leech River fault source will significantly increase the probabilistic seismic hazard for Victoria. Morell et al. 2017. Quaternary rupture of a crustal fault beneath Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. GSA Today, 27, doi: 10.1130/GSATG291A.1

  2. Application of underground microseismic monitoring for ground failure and secure longwall coal mining operation: A case study in an Indian mine

    Ghosh, G. K.; Sivakumar, C.

    2018-03-01

    Longwall mining technique has been widely used around the globe due to its safe mining process. However, mining operations are suspended when various problems arise like collapse of roof falls, cracks and fractures propagation in the roof and complexity in roof strata behaviors. To overcome these colossal problems, an underground real time microseismic monitoring technique has been implemented in the working panel-P2 in the Rajendra longwall underground coal mine at South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), India. The target coal seams appears at the panel P-2 within a depth of 70 m to 76 m. In this process, 10 to 15 uniaxial geophones were placed inside a borehole at depth range of 40 m to 60 m located over the working panel-P2 with high rock quality designation value for better seismic signal. Various microseismic events were recorded with magnitude ranging from -5 to 2 in the Richter scale. The time-series processing was carried out to get various seismic parameters like activity rate, potential energy, viscosity rate, seismic moment, energy index, apparent volume and potential energy with respect to time. The used of these parameters helped tracing the events, understanding crack and fractures propagation and locating both high and low stress distribution zones prior to roof fall occurrence. In most of the cases, the events were divided into three stage processes: initial or preliminary, middle or building, and final or falling. The results of this study reveal that underground microseismic monitoring provides sufficient prior information of underground weighting events. The information gathered during the study was conveyed to the mining personnel in advance prior to roof fall event. This permits to take appropriate action for safer mining operations and risk reduction during longwall operation.

  3. Earthquake Recurrence and the Resolution Potential of Tectono‐Geomorphic Records

    Zielke, Olaf

    2018-04-17

    A long‐standing debate in active tectonics addresses how slip is accumulated through space and time along a given fault or fault section. This debate is in part still ongoing because of the lack of sufficiently long instrumental data that may constrain the recurrence characteristics of surface‐rupturing earthquakes along individual faults. Geomorphic and stratigraphic records are used instead to constrain this behavior. Although geomorphic data frequently indicate slip accumulation via quasicharacteristic same‐size offset increments, stratigraphic data indicate that earthquake timing observes a quasirandom distribution. Assuming that both observations are valid within their respective frameworks, I want to address here which recurrence model is able to reproduce this seemingly contradictory behavior. I further want to address how aleatory offset variability and epistemic measurement uncertainty affect our ability to resolve single‐earthquake surface slip and along‐fault slip‐accumulation patterns. I use a statistical model that samples probability density functions (PDFs) for geomorphic marker formation (storm events), marker displacement (surface‐rupturing earthquakes), and offset measurement, generating tectono‐geomorphic catalogs to investigate which PDF combination consistently reproduces the above‐mentioned field observations. Doing so, I find that neither a purely characteristic earthquake (CE) nor a Gutenberg–Richter (GR) earthquake recurrence model is able to consistently reproduce those field observations. A combination of both however, with moderate‐size earthquakes following the GR model and large earthquakes following the CE model, is able to reproduce quasirandom earthquake recurrence times while simultaneously generating quasicharacteristic geomorphic offset increments. Along‐fault slip accumulation is dominated by, but not exclusively linked to, the occurrence of similar‐size large earthquakes. Further, the resolution

  4. Health Problems and Community Participation Issues in the Earthquake of 2012, East Azerbaijan Province

    Mohamad Mosaferi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Earthquake of East Azerbaijan with magnitude of 6.3 to 6.4 on the Richter scale, impressed the cities of Varzegan, Ahar and Heris on 11 August 2012 which left 306 victims and more than 8000 billion Rials cost, caused irreparable damages. Present study aims to investigate and present an analysis of relief performance and also health, environmental and safety aspects after earthquake. Material and Methods : Required data were gathered during the early days after earthquake via presence and observation in the affected areas. Besides, opinions of health experts were collected through interviews. The rest of required information was collected from websites and publications. Results : In the following days after the earthquake, coordination between government offices was at a low level and duties were not clear. Lack of correct statistics of permanent and non-permanent residents of villages caused many problems in the construction of new houses. A significant feature of recent earthquake was the approach of community participation; so that they personally distributed the humanitarian aids to the quake-hit areas instead of delivering aids through governmental offices which had its own advantages and disadvantages. Absence of specific responsible until a week after earthquake for the installation of sanitary toilets was a significant problem in the earthquake areas. Other problems included the difficulties associated with the distribution of tents, solid waste collection, distribution of excessive bottled water and its improper storage, and the disposal of demolition waste in the natural drainages. Conclusion : The situation after the earthquake indicates that despite the presence of government forces in the earthquake affected areas, there were obvious problems especially in field of sanitary which need an integrated planning for relief after earthquake.  ​

  5. Environment informatin systems. Data requests and acquisition of information acording to the theme environment and health; Umweltinformationssysteme. Datenanforderungen und Informationsgewinnung zum Themenbereich Umwelt und Gesundheit

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    Within the workshop of the working group 'Environmental Information System' of the specialized group 'Informatics in environmental protection' from 27th to 28th May, 2010, in Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Environment and health: Data for deeds (Hedi Schreiber); (2) Fundamental data to describe health-related environmental pollution of humans in Germany (Andre Conrad); (3) Noxen information system NIS - a material information system for the Public Health Service (Cerstin Finke); (4) Biocide portal ''Fly-swatter instead of spray can' (Gunnar Minx); (5) The web supported information portal nature protection and health (NatGesIS) in the Federal Office for Nature Conservation (Beate Job-Hoben); (6) The information system of ecologic building materials WECOBIS (Rainer Weidemann); (7) Integration of remote sensing data, geodata and health data in geographical information infrastructure for the prediction of environmentally influenced health hazards - EO2HEAVEN (Silke Richter); (8) Transnational data of the state of soil tools and requirements from the view of the Federal Environment Office (Falk Hilliges); (9) Information system for the monitoring of forests in Europa data management in the EU project FutMon (Friedhelm Hosenfeld); (10) Environmental performance and urban development - On the urban space distribution of health relevant environmental pollution in the region Berlin (Heinz-Josef Klimeczek); (11) InGrid {sup registered} - a software for the development of environmental information systems (Fred Kruse); (12) Linked environmental data (Maria Ruether); (13) HIPPOLYTOS - Intuitive, overlapping research of environmental data and geological data by means of semantic technologies (Gergely Lukacs); (14) Tool for a flexible data exchange between specialized information systems (Rene Poeschel); (15) A technical concept of research information systems of the EU project ICT-ENSURE (Richard Lutz).

  6. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages.

  7. Time series analysis of diverse extreme phenomena: universal features

    Eftaxias, K.; Balasis, G.

    2012-04-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. We suggest that earthquake, epileptic seizures, solar flares, and magnetic storms dynamics can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. A central property of aforementioned extreme events generation is the occurrence of coherent large-scale collective behavior with very rich structure, resulting from repeated nonlinear interactions among the corresponding constituents. Consequently, we apply the Tsallis nonextensive statistical mechanics as it proves an appropriate framework in order to investigate universal principles of their generation. First, we examine the data in terms of Tsallis entropy aiming to discover common "pathological" symptoms of transition to a significant shock. By monitoring the temporal evolution of the degree of organization in time series we observe similar distinctive features revealing significant reduction of complexity during their emergence. Second, a model for earthquake dynamics coming from a nonextensive Tsallis formalism, starting from first principles, has been recently introduced. This approach leads to an energy distribution function (Gutenberg-Richter type law) for the magnitude distribution of earthquakes, providing an excellent fit to seismicities generated in various large geographic areas usually identified as seismic regions. We show that this function is able to describe the energy distribution (with similar non-extensive q-parameter) of solar flares, magnetic storms, epileptic and earthquake shocks. The above mentioned evidence of a universal statistical behavior suggests the possibility of a common approach for studying space weather, earthquakes and epileptic seizures.

  8. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  9. Mental health problems among children one-year after Sichuan earthquake in China: a follow-up study.

    Mingxin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and middle schools there. The main purpose of the study was to provide a better understanding of mental health problems and associated risk factors among children after earthquake. METHOD: Three hundred and thirty grades 3-5 children completed the questionnaire of disaster -related experience and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A. The first survey was carried out six months after the earthquake, and the second one was carried out six months later. The measurements and methodology applied in the two sessions were identical. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of the problems at two time-points were 23.3% and 22.7% for anxiety, 14.5% and 16.1% for depression, and 11.2% and 13.4% for PTSD, respectively. Among demographic variables, no significant age difference existed, while it was found that 6 months after the earthquake, symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were significantly more common among students in grades 4 and 5 than those in grade 3, Initial exposure to death, bereavement and extreme fear were significant predictive factors for the occurrence of anxiety, depression and PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic mental health problems after natural disaster in children may have reached epidemic proportions and remain high for a long period. Psychologist and social workers should pay more attention to children who experienced more traumatic stresses and provide appropriate mental health interventions. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.

  10. Emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes

    Bernd Richter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Richter, Elizabeth Bandeira-Echtler, Karla Bergerhoff, Christian LerchCochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group, Department of General Practice, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, GermanyBackground: In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM there is a progressive loss of β-cell function. One new approach yielding promising results is the use of the orally active dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors. However, every new compound for T2DM has to prove long-term safety especially on cardiovascular outcomes.Objectives: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of sitagliptin and vildagliptin therapy on main efficacy parameters and safety.Selection criteria, data collection, and analysis: Randomized controlled clinical studies of at least 12 weeks’ duration in T2DM.Results: DPP-4 inhibitors versus placebo showed glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (A1c improvements of 0.7% versus placebo but not compared to monotherapy with other hypoglycemic agents (0.3% in favor of controls. The overall risk profile of DPP-4 inhibitors was low, however a 34% relative risk increase (95% confidence interval 10% to 64%, P = 0.004 was noted for all-cause infection associated with sitagliptin use. No data on immune function, health-related quality of life and diabetic complications could be extracted.Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibitors have some theoretical advantages over existing therapies with oral antidiabetic compounds but should currently be restricted to individual patients. Long-term data on cardiovascular outcomes and safety are needed before widespread use of these new agents.Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitors, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, systematic review, meta-analysis

  11. Diagnostic tests in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Hani de Ardila, Albis

    2009-01-01

    The true prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is difficult to establish despite that an estimated 11% of the U.S. population experiencing heartburn daily or 30% every three days (1), perhaps due to that the disease can cause many symptoms, both typical and atypical as heartburn or chest pain, among others. Multiple techniques for measuring reflux have been used, and many authors (1-3) have asked why this situation, possibly because the techniques measure and quantify the basic pathophysiologic problem disease, the time of exposure of the esophagus distal to the gastric juice, because the measures are quantitatively related to the degree of esophageal mucosal injury, or because the episodes of exposure to gastric juice correlated with the patient's symptoms. As said Richter (4) m any times these studies are unnecessary because the history is sufficiently revealing to identify the presence of GERD. But the clinician must decide which test you choose to carry a diagnosis of a reliable, timely and cost-effective . But we cannot rely on the presence of symptoms to diagnosis, because we incur the overdiagnosis in a considerable number of individuals, the sensitivity set for the typical symptoms as heartburn is 68% and specificity was 63% (2), which leads us to conclude that atypical symptoms should be investigated as they may relate to functional dyspepsia rather than GERD. It is also clear that the severity and frequency of symptoms in any way correlates with the presence or absence of esophagitis, patients with erosive esophagitis are more severe disease and increased risk of developing complications. The persistent exposure of the esophagus to gastric juice does not cause mucosal injury in all individuals, therefore, it is possible to define the disease by the presence of mucosal injury, while endoscopy is able to define the mucosal injury caused by the reflux can also lead to false conclusions, such as those patients with symptoms of GERD who have no

  12. Characteristics and damage investigation of the 1998 Papua New Guinea earthquake tsunami

    Matsuyama, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    On 17 July, 1998, an earthquake with moment magnitude Mw 7.1 (estimated by Harvard Univ.) occurred at 18:49 (local time) on the north west part of Papua New Guinea. Several minutes after the main shock, huge tsunami attacked the north coast of Sissano and Malol, where the coast is composed of straight beach with white sand, and about 7,000 people had lived in high floor wooden houses. Due to the tsunami, more than 2,000 people were killed. To investigate damage by the tsunami, a survey team of seven members was organized in Japan. The author took part in the survey team, which was headed by Prof. Kawata, of Kyoto University. We stayed in the Papua New Guinea from 30th July through 10th August 1998 to investigate the maximum water level, to interview the people about the phenomena caused by the earthquake and the tsunami, and to set three seismographs. These results imply that: (1) By main shock, an earthquake intensity of 6 on the Richter scale was felt in Sissano and Malol. In the coast area near Sissano and Malol, liquefaction took place. (2) More than 2,000 people were killed mainly due to the tsunami. (3) The maximum water level of the tsunami was about 15 m. (4) It seems that the tsunami caused not only by crustal movement, but also by other factors. This is suggested by the fact that the measured maximum water level was beyond 10 times larger than the estimated one, which was calculated by numerical simulation based on known fault parameters. It is highly probable that a submarine landslide was one of main factors which amplified the tsunami. (author)

  13. Adaptively smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts for Italy

    Yan Y. Kagan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al. [2007] and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We have estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog, and a longer instrumental and historic catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and reliable, we used small earthquakes of m ≥ 2.95 to reveal active fault structures and 29 probable future epicenters. By calibrating the model with these two catalogs of different durations to create two forecasts, we intend to quantify the loss (or gain of predictability incurred when only a short, but recent, data record is available. Both forecasts were scaled to five and ten years, and have been submitted to the Italian prospective forecasting experiment of the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP. An earlier forecast from the model was submitted by Helmstetter et al. [2007] to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM experiment in California, and with more than half of the five-year experimental period over, the forecast has performed better than the others.

  14. Impact of magnitude uncertainties on seismic catalogue properties

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Adamaki, A. K.; Roberts, R. G.; Gkarlaouni, C. G.; Paradisopoulou, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Catalogue-based studies are of central importance in seismological research, to investigate the temporal, spatial and size distribution of earthquakes in specified study areas. Methods for estimating the fundamental catalogue parameters like the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) b-value and the completeness magnitude (Mc) are well established and routinely applied. However, the magnitudes reported in seismicity catalogues contain measurement uncertainties which may significantly distort the estimation of the derived parameters. In this study, we use numerical simulations of synthetic data sets to assess the reliability of different methods for determining b-value and Mc, assuming the G-R law validity. After contaminating the synthetic catalogues with Gaussian noise (with selected standard deviations), the analysis is performed for numerous data sets of different sample size (N). The noise introduced to the data generally leads to a systematic overestimation of magnitudes close to and above Mc. This fact causes an increase of the average number of events above Mc, which in turn leads to an apparent decrease of the b-value. This may result to a significant overestimation of seismicity rate even well above the actual completeness level. The b-value can in general be reliably estimated even for relatively small data sets (N < 1000) when only magnitudes higher than the actual completeness level are used. Nevertheless, a correction of the total number of events belonging in each magnitude class (i.e. 0.1 unit) should be considered, to deal with the magnitude uncertainty effect. Because magnitude uncertainties (here with the form of Gaussian noise) are inevitable in all instrumental catalogues, this finding is fundamental for seismicity rate and seismic hazard assessment analyses. Also important is that for some data analyses significant bias cannot necessarily be avoided by choosing a high Mc value for analysis. In such cases, there may be a risk of severe miscalculation of

  15. Ergodicity and Phase Transitions and Their Implications for Earthquake Forecasting.

    Klein, W.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting earthquakes or even predicting the statistical distribution of events on a given fault is extremely difficult. One reason for this difficulty is the large number of fault characteristics that can affect the distribution and timing of events. The range of stress transfer, the level of noise, and the nature of the friction force all influence the type of the events and the values of these parameters can vary from fault to fault and also vary with time. In addition, the geometrical structure of the faults and the correlation of events on different faults plays an important role in determining the event size and their distribution. Another reason for the difficulty is that the important fault characteristics are not easily measured. The noise level, fault structure, stress transfer range, and the nature of the friction force are extremely difficult, if not impossible to ascertain. Given this lack of information, one of the most useful approaches to understanding the effect of fault characteristics and the way they interact is to develop and investigate models of faults and fault systems.In this talk I will present results obtained from a series of models of varying abstraction and compare them with data from actual faults. We are able to provide a physical basis for several observed phenomena such as the earthquake cycle, thefact that some faults display Gutenburg-Richter scaling and others do not, and that some faults exhibit quasi-periodic characteristic events and others do not. I will also discuss some surprising results such as the fact that some faults are in thermodynamic equilibrium depending on the stress transfer range and the noise level. An example of an important conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the statistical distribution of earthquake events can vary from fault to fault and that an indication of an impending large event such as accelerating moment release may be relevant on some faults but not on others.

  16. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake.

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. METHODS: Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25 assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS evaluated subjective social support. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.

  17. Reassessment of probabilistic seismic hazard in the Marmara region

    Kalkan, Erol; Gulkan, Polat; Yilmaz, Nazan; Çelebi, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the eastern coastline of the Marmara region (Turkey) witnessed increased seismic activity on the North Anatolian fault (NAF) system with two damaging earthquakes (M 7.4 Kocaeli and M 7.2 D??zce) that occurred almost three months apart. These events have reduced stress on the western segment of the NAF where it continues under the Marmara Sea. The undersea fault segments have been recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped scientists to understand the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which has remained a perplexing tectonic domain. On the basis of collected new data, seismic hazard of the Marmara region is reassessed using a probabilistic approach. Two different earthquake source models: (1) the smoothed-gridded seismicity model and (2) fault model and alternate magnitude-frequency relations, Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic, were used with local and imported ground-motion-prediction equations. Regional exposure is computed and quantified on a set of hazard maps that provide peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1.0 sec on uniform firm-rock site condition (760 m=sec average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m). These acceleration levels were computed for ground motions having 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 yr, corresponding to return periods of about 2475 and 475 yr, respectively. The maximum PGA computed (at rock site) is 1.5g along the fault segments of the NAF zone extending into the Marmara Sea. The new maps generally show 10% to 15% increase for PGA, 0.2 and 1.0 sec spectral acceleration values across much of Marmara compared to previous regional hazard maps. Hazard curves and smooth design spectra for three site conditions: rock, soil, and soft-soil are provided for the Istanbul metropolitan area as possible tools in future risk estimates.

  18. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  19. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  20. Mekanisme Gempa Vulkanik Gunung Talang Pasca Gempa Tektonik Mentawai Tahun 2007-2009, Sumatra Barat

    Estu Kriswati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.104The Mentawai tectonic earthquake (magnitude 6.8 on the Richter Scale on April 10, 2005 is assumed to trigger Talang volcanic activity that caused an eruption on April 12, 2005. Information on the source mechanism of volcanic earthquakes after the tectonic earthquake is expected to answer question of “Do tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano trigger its volcanic activities?” Epicenter distribution of the volcanic earthquakes between 2007 and 2009 shows a southeast – northwest pattern with dextral strike-slip fault and normal fault mechanisms. The data show that earthquake activities at the Talang Volcano were dominated by local structure movements influenced by regional tectonic movements. Between 2007 and 2009, there were three process stages related to magnitude 6 or larger tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano. First stage was a period before August 16, 2009. In this stage, volcanic fluids rose to the shallower chamber beneath the Talang Volcano. Second stage was a compressional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Mentawai tectonic earthquake on August 16, 2009 and activation of a fault that intersects the Volcano. The third stage was a compresional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Padang tectonic earthquake on September 30, 2009. In this stage, area fracturing was intensified, thereby the fracturing became more intensive. As the result, the accumulated volume and pressure of several tectonic earthquakes were released that caused an increase of eruption column soon after the tectonic earthquake.

  1. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  2. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  3. Predicting the Maximum Earthquake Magnitude from Seismic Data in Israel and Its Neighboring Countries.

    Last, Mark; Rabinowitz, Nitzan; Leonard, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores several data mining and time series analysis methods for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the next year based on the previously recorded seismic events in the same region. The methods are evaluated on a catalog of 9,042 earthquake events, which took place between 01/01/1983 and 31/12/2010 in the area of Israel and its neighboring countries. The data was obtained from the Geophysical Institute of Israel. Each earthquake record in the catalog is associated with one of 33 seismic regions. The data was cleaned by removing foreshocks and aftershocks. In our study, we have focused on ten most active regions, which account for more than 80% of the total number of earthquakes in the area. The goal is to predict whether the maximum earthquake magnitude in the following year will exceed the median of maximum yearly magnitudes in the same region. Since the analyzed catalog includes only 28 years of complete data, the last five annual records of each region (referring to the years 2006-2010) are kept for testing while using the previous annual records for training. The predictive features are based on the Gutenberg-Richter Ratio as well as on some new seismic indicators based on the moving averages of the number of earthquakes in each area. The new predictive features prove to be much more useful than the indicators traditionally used in the earthquake prediction literature. The most accurate result (AUC = 0.698) is reached by the Multi-Objective Info-Fuzzy Network (M-IFN) algorithm, which takes into account the association between two target variables: the number of earthquakes and the maximum earthquake magnitude during the same year.

  4. YaAn earthquake increases blood pressure among hospitalized patients.

    Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Hongyong; Zeng, Chunyu

    YaAn, a city in Sichuan province, China, was struck by a major earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale on April 20, 2013. This study sought to investigate the impact of YaAn earthquake on the blood pressure (BP) among hospitalized patients in the department of cardiology. We enrolled 52 hospitalized patients who were admitted to our hospital at least three days before the day of earthquake in 2013 (disaster group) as compared with 52 patients during April 20, 2014 (nondisaster group). BP was measured three times per day and the prescription of antihypertensive medicine was recorded. The earthquake induced a 3.3 mm Hg significant increase in the mean postdisaster systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the disaster group as compared with the nondisaster group. SBP at admission was positively associated with the elevated SBP in the logistic regression model (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.016-1.168, p = 0.015), but not other potential influencing factors, including antihypertensive medicine, sex, age, and body weight, excluding β-blockers. Patients with β-blockers prescription at the time of earthquake showed a blunt response to earthquake-induced SBP elevation than those who were taking other antihypertensive drugs (OR = 0.128, 95% CI: 0.019-0.876, p = 0.036). The YaAn earthquake induced significant increase in SBP even at a distance from the epicenter among hospitalized patients. The findings demonstrate that pure psychological components seem to be a cause of the pressor response and β-blockers might be better in controlling disaster-induced hypertension.

  5. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2006. Rock mechanics

    Mattila, J.

    2007-07-01

    Posiva Oy has operated a local microseismic at Olkiluto network since February 2002. During the monitoring in 2006, altogether 2041 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -1.1 to 3.1 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of the events are construction-related explosions but two of them are recorded as microearthquakes. Evidence of seismic activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been observed. The observed earthquakes that occurred in 2006 were small, with a magnitude of ML -0.6 and ML= -0.9. The earthquakes relate to small movements in brittle deformation zones OL-BFZ043 and OL-BFZ034. Estimated peak slip values of the earthquakes are 14 μm and 4 μm and the source radiuses 11 and 8 meters, respectively. The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Since then, altogether 22 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto. According to the time series of the GPS results, 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.23 mm/a ± 0.023 mm/a) (orig.)

  6. How complete is the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Catalog?

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre, in collaboration with the Global Earthquake Model effort, has released a new global earthquake catalog, covering the time period from 1900 through the end of 2009. In order to use this catalog for global earthquake studies, I determined the magnitude of completeness (Mc) as a function of time by dividing the earthquakes shallower than 60 km into 7 time periods based on major changes in catalog processing and data availability and applying 4 objective methods to determine Mc, with uncertainties determined by non-parametric bootstrapping. Deeper events were divided into 2 time periods. Due to differences between the 4 methods, the final Mc was determined subjectively by examining the features that each method focused on in both the cumulative and binned magnitude frequency distributions. The time periods and Mc values for shallow events are: 1900-1917, Mc=7.7; 1918-1939, Mc=7.0; 1940-1954, Mc=6.8; 1955-1963, Mc=6.5; 1964-1975, Mc=6.0; 1976-2003, Mc=5.8; and 2004-2009, Mc=5.7. Using these Mc values for the longest time periods they are valid for (e.g. 1918-2009, 1940-2009,…) the shallow data fits a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with b=1.05 and a=8.3, within 1 standard deviation, with no declustering. The exception is for time periods that include 1900-1917 in which there are only 33 events with M≥ Mc and for those few data b=2.15±0.46. That result calls for further investigations for this time period, ideally having a larger number of earthquakes. For deep events, the results are Mc=7.1 for 1900-1963, although the early data are problematic; and Mc=5.7 for 1964-2009. For that later time period, b=0.99 and a=7.3.

  7. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    Schubert, C. (I.V.I.C., Caracas (Venezuela)); Estevez, R. (Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)); Henneberg, H.G. (Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  8. Natural hazards and self-organized criticality

    Krenn, R.

    2012-01-01

    Several natural hazards exhibit power-law behavior on their frequency-size distributions. Self-organized criticality has become a promising candidate that could offer a more in-depth understanding of the origin of temporal and spatial scaling in dissipative nonequilibrium systems. The outcomes of this thesis are presented in three scientific papers followed by a concluding summary and an appendix.In paper (A) we present a semi-phenomenological approach to explain the complex scaling behavior of the Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model (DS-FFM) in two dimensions. We derive the scaling exponent solely from the scaling exponent of the clusters' accessible perimeter. Furthermore, the unusual transition to an exponential decay is explained both qualitatively and quantitatively. The exponential decay itself could be reproduced at least qualitatively. In paper (B) we extend the DS-FFM towards anthropogenic ignition factors. The main outcomes are an increase of the scaling exponent with decreasing lightning probability as well as a splitting of the partial frequency-size distributions of lightning induced and man made fires. Lightning is identified as the dominant mechanism in the regime of the largest fires. The results could be validated through an analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database.In paper (C) we obtain an almost complete theory of the Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model's complex spatio-temporal behavior. Synchronization pushes the system towards a critical state and generates the Gutenberg-Richter law. Desynchronization prevents the system from becoming overcritical and generates foreshocks and aftershocks. Our approach also provides a simple explanation of Omori's law. Beyond this, it explains the phenomena of foreshock migration and aftershock diffusion and the occurrence of large earthquakes without any foreshocks. A novel integer algorithm for the numerics is presented in appendix (A).(author) [de

  9. A study of the 10, 11B(p,n)10, 11C reactions between Ep=13,7 and 14,7 MeV

    Schelin, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Using time-of-flight facilities of the Sao Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator, absolute differential cross sections for the n 0 , n 1 , n 2 , n 3 , (n 4 +n 5 ), n 6 and n 7 groups for the reaction 11 B(p,n) 11 C and the n 0 and n 1 neutron groups for the reaction 10 B(p,n) 10 C have been measured at incident proton energies of 14.0, 14.3 and 14.6 MeV in the angular interval of 20 to 160 degrees. Excitation functions at θ lab =20 deg from Ep=13.7 to 14.7 MeV in intervals of 100 KeV were also measured. The theoretical analysis was conducted to determine relative contributions of the diret and compound nucleus processes in the differential cross sections. To this end, a two couple channel model model for the reactions was assumed. The DWBA model for the direct and the Hauser-Feshbch for the compound nucleus processes were in such a way as to simulate the exact coupled channels calculation through an appropriate choice of the absorption term W in the optical potential. The results indicate that about half of the cross section is due to the compound nucleus mechanism. The theoretical analysis aimed at obtaining the elastic enhancement factor for the channel 11 B(p,n 0 ) 11 C at Ep=14.3 MeV. This has been demonstrated to appear in compound nucleus charge reactions by Harney, Weidemueller and Richter and predicted to attain the value 2 when isospin is conserved. Our results show an enhancement factor larger than 1 indicating that isospin mixing is weak in this reaction. (Author) [pt

  10. Numerical modeling of possible lower ionospheric anomalies associated with Nepal earthquake in May, 2015

    Chakraborty, Suman; Sasmal, Sudipta; Basak, Tamal; Ghosh, Soujan; Palit, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ray, Suman

    2017-10-01

    We present perturbations due to seismo-ionospheric coupling processes in propagation characteristics of sub-ionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E), India. The study is done during and prior to an earthquake of Richter scale magnitude M = 7.3 occurring at a depth of 18 km at southeast of Kodari, Nepal on 12 May 2015 at 12:35:19 IST (07:05:19 UT). The recorded VLF signal of Japanese transmitter JJI at frequency 22.2 kHz (Lat. 32.08°N, Long. 130.83°E) suffers from strong shifts in sunrise and sunset terminator times towards nighttime starting from three to four days prior to the earthquake. The signal shows a similar variation in terminator times during a major aftershock of magnitude M = 6.7 on 16 May, 2015 at 17:04:10 IST (11:34:10 UT). These shifts in terminator times is numerically modeled using Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) Programme. The unperturbed VLF signal is simulated by using the day and night variation of reflection height (h‧) and steepness parameter (β) fed in LWPC for the entire path. The perturbed signal is obtained by additional variation of these parameters inside the earthquake preparation zone. It is found that the shift of the terminator time towards nighttime happens only when the reflection height is increased. We also calculate electron density profile by using the Wait's exponential formula for specified location over the propagation path.

  11. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  12. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  13. The Dependency of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment on Magnitude Limits of Seismic Sources in the South China Sea and Adjoining Basins

    Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zongchen; Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Peitao; Gao, Yi; Hou, Jingming; Shan, Di

    2017-06-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent small basins including Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea are commonly identified as tsunami-prone region by its historical records on seismicity and tsunamis. However, quantification of tsunami hazard in the SCS region remained an intractable issue due to highly complex tectonic setting and multiple seismic sources within and surrounding this area. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is performed in the present study to evaluate tsunami hazard in the SCS region based on a brief review on seismological and tsunami records. 5 regional and local potential tsunami sources are tentatively identified, and earthquake catalogs are generated using Monte Carlo simulation following the Tapered Gutenberg-Richter relationship for each zone. Considering a lack of consensus on magnitude upper bound on each seismic source, as well as its critical role in PTHA, the major concern of the present study is to define the upper and lower limits of tsunami hazard in the SCS region comprehensively by adopting different corner magnitudes that could be derived by multiple principles and approaches, including TGR regression of historical catalog, fault-length scaling, tectonic and seismic moment balance, and repetition of historical largest event. The results show that tsunami hazard in the SCS and adjoining basins is subject to large variations when adopting different corner magnitudes, with the upper bounds 2-6 times of the lower. The probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for specified return periods reveal much higher threat from Cotabato Trench and Sulawesi Trench in the Celebes Sea, whereas tsunami hazard received by the coasts of the SCS and Sulu Sea is relatively moderate, yet non-negligible. By combining empirical method with numerical study of historical tsunami events, the present PTHA results are tentatively validated. The correspondence lends confidence to our study. Considering the proximity of major sources to population-laden cities

  14. Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned?

    Faust, Dominik; Willkommen, Tobias; Yanes, Yurena; Richter, David; Zöller, Ludwig

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned? Dominik Faust, TU Dresden, Germany Tobias Willkommen, TU Dresden, Germany Yurena Yanes, CSIC Granada/Cincinatti, Spain/USA David Richter, TU Dresden, Germany Ludwig Zöller, Uni Bayreuth, Germany The northern part of Fuerteventura is characterized by large dune fields. We investigated dune-paleosol-sequences in four pits to establish a robust stratigraphy and to propose a standard section. An interaction of processes like dune formation, soil formation and redeposition of soils and sand are most important to understand the principles of landscape development in the study area. To our mind a process cycle seem to be important: First climbing-dunes are formed by sand of shelf origin. Then soil formation could have taken place. Soil and/or sand were then eroded and deposited at toe slope position. This material in turn is the source of new sand supply and dune formation. The described cycle may be repeated several times and this ping-pong-process holds on. The results are sections composed of dune layers, paleosols and colluvial material interbedded. Fundamental questions still remain unanswered: Is climate change responsable for changes in process combination (e.g. from dune formation to soil formation)? Or are these features due to divergence phenomenon, where different effects/results (dune and soils) may be linked to similar causes (here: climate)? Assuming that different features (soils and dunes) were formed under one climate, increasing soil forming intensity could be mainly a function of decreasing sand supply. This in turn could be caused by reduced sand production (s. ZECH et al. accepted). However geochemical data and mollusc assemblages point to changing environments in space and even climate modifications in time.

  15. Seismic dynamics in advance and after the recent strong earthquakes in Italy and New Zealand

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    We consider seismic events as a sequence of avalanches in self-organized system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere and characterize earthquake series with the distribution of the control parameter, η = τ × 10B × (5-M) × L C of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE (where τ is inter-event time, B is analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, and C is fractal dimension of seismic locus). A systematic analysis of earthquake series in Central Italy and New Zealand, 1993-2017, suggests the existence, in a long-term, of different rather steady levels of seismic activity characterized with near constant values of η, which, in mid-term, intermittently switch at times of transitions associated with the strong catastrophic events. On such a transition, seismic activity, in short-term, may follow different scenarios with inter-event time scaling of different kind, including constant, logarithmic, power law, exponential rise/decay or a mixture of those. The results do not support the presence of universality in seismic energy release. The observed variability of seismic activity in advance and after strong (M6.0+) earthquakes in Italy and significant (M7.0+) earthquakes in New Zealand provides important constraints on modelling realistic earthquake sequences by geophysicists and can be used to improve local seismic hazard assessments including earthquake forecast/prediction methodologies. The transitions of seismic regime in Central Italy and New Zealand started in 2016 are still in progress and require special attention and geotechnical monitoring. It would be premature to make any kind of definitive conclusions on the level of seismic hazard which is evidently high at this particular moment of time in both regions. The study supported by the Russian Science Foundation Grant No.16-17-00093.

  16. Testing the Predictive Power of Coulomb Stress on Aftershock Sequences

    Woessner, J.; Lombardi, A.; Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.

    2009-12-01

    Empirical and statistical models of clustered seismicity are usually strongly stochastic and perceived to be uninformative in their forecasts, since only marginal distributions are used, such as the Omori-Utsu and Gutenberg-Richter laws. In contrast, so-called physics-based aftershock models, based on seismic rate changes calculated from Coulomb stress changes and rate-and-state friction, make more specific predictions: anisotropic stress shadows and multiplicative rate changes. We test the predictive power of models based on Coulomb stress changes against statistical models, including the popular Short Term Earthquake Probabilities and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences models: We score and compare retrospective forecasts on the aftershock sequences of the 1992 Landers, USA, the 1997 Colfiorito, Italy, and the 2008 Selfoss, Iceland, earthquakes. To quantify predictability, we use likelihood-based metrics that test the consistency of the forecasts with the data, including modified and existing tests used in prospective forecast experiments within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Our results indicate that a statistical model performs best. Moreover, two Coulomb model classes seem unable to compete: Models based on deterministic Coulomb stress changes calculated from a given fault-slip model, and those based on fixed receiver faults. One model of Coulomb stress changes does perform well and sometimes outperforms the statistical models, but its predictive information is diluted, because of uncertainties included in the fault-slip model. Our results suggest that models based on Coulomb stress changes need to incorporate stochastic features that represent model and data uncertainty.

  17. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    Whitehead JC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne C Whitehead,1 Sara A Gambino,1 Jeffrey D Richter,2 Jennifer D Ryan1,3,41Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 2Independent Human Factors Consultant, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools.Methods: Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed.Results: Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition.Conclusion: The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training

  18. e-Círculo Literario aplicado en la clase de inglés. Una innovación educativa después del terremoto de 2016 en Ecuador

    Jhonny Saulo Villafuerte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el e-Círculo Literario (e-CL como innovación académica, y que parte del Círculo Literario convencional (CL, para lograr su adaptación técnica en una plataforma informática de fácil acceso, así como la transformación de una práctica oral en idioma inglés hacia la producción escrita. La metodología seleccionada recurre al enfoque de interacción social, en el cual 38 estudiantes universitarios participan en una intervención educativa a distancia, diseñada ad hoc por el equipo investigador. Desde la investigación cualitativa se aplican las técnicas: grupo focal, observación contextualizada y entrevista semiestructurada para medir la eficiencia de la herramienta digital. Los resultados demuestran alta factibilidad técnica del e-CL y su aporte al mejoramiento de los niveles de producción escrita en idioma inglés de los participantes, a pesar de encontrarse en condiciones adversas. Se concluye que la educación digital potencia las posibilidades de retomar la marcha cotidiana de actividades educativas de calidad dentro de escenarios afectados por desastres naturales. Además, el uso del e-Círculo Literario ha logrado reducir la exposición del alumnado a riesgos latentes en eventos de catástrofes, como el terremoto de 7.8 grados Richter acontecido en Ecuador el 16 de abril de 2016.

  19. Statistical equilibrium of copper in the solar atmosphere

    Shi, J. R.; Mashonkina, L.; Zhao, G.; Gehren, T.; Zeng, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for neutral copper in the one-dimensional solar atmospheres is presented for the atomic model, including 96 terms of Cu I and the ground state of Cu II. The accurate oscillator strengths for all the line transitions in model atom and photoionization cross sections were calculated using the R-matrix method in the Russell-Saunders coupling scheme. The main NLTE mechanism for Cu I is the ultraviolet overionization. We find that NLTE leads to systematically depleted total absorption in the Cu I lines and, accordingly, positive abundance corrections. Inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms produce minor effects on the statistical equilibrium of Cu I in the solar atmosphere. For the solar Cu I lines, the departures from LTE are found to be small, the mean NLTE abundance correction of ∼0.01 dex. It was found that the six low-excitation lines, with excitation energy of the lower level E exc ≤ 1.64 eV, give a 0.14 dex lower mean solar abundance compared to that from the six E exc > 3.7 eV lines, when applying experimental gf-values of Kock and Richter. Without the two strong resonance transitions, the solar mean NLTE abundance from 10 lines of Cu I is log ε ☉ (Cu) = 4.19 ± 0.10, which is consistent within the error bars with the meteoritic value 4.25 ± 0.05 of Lodders et al. The discrepancy between E exc = 1.39-1.64 eV and E exc > 3.7 eV lines can be removed when the calculated gf-values are adopted and a mean solar abundance of log ε ☉ (Cu) = 4.24 ± 0.08 is derived.

  20. Thioredoxin and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Regulation of Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis.

    Da, Qingen; Wang, Peng; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Ting; Jin, Honglei; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jinfa; Grimm, Bernhard; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2017-10-01

    In chloroplasts, thioredoxin (TRX) isoforms and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) act as redox regulatory factors involved in multiple plastid biogenesis and metabolic processes. To date, less is known about the functional coordination between TRXs and NTRC in chlorophyll biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential functions of TRX m and NTRC in the regulation of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. Silencing of three genes, TRX m1 , TRX m2 , and TRX m4 ( TRX ms ), led to pale-green leaves, a significantly reduced 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-synthesizing capacity, and reduced accumulation of chlorophyll and its metabolic intermediates in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). The contents of ALA dehydratase, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase, the I subunit of Mg-chelatase, Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (CHLM), and NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase were decreased in triple TRX m- silenced seedlings compared with the wild type, although the transcript levels of the corresponding genes were not altered significantly. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed a physical interaction between the TRX m isoforms and CHLM. 4-Acetoamido-4-maleimidylstilbene-2,2-disulfonate labeling showed the regulatory impact of TRX ms on the CHLM redox status. Since CHLM also is regulated by NTRC (Richter et al., 2013), we assessed the concurrent functions of TRX m and NTRC in the control of CHLM. Combined deficiencies of three TRX m isoforms and NTRC led to a cumulative decrease in leaf pigmentation, TBS intermediate contents, ALA synthesis rate, and CHLM activity. We discuss the coordinated roles of TRX m and NTRC in the redox control of CHLM stability with its corollary activity in the TBS pathway. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Building an Ensemble Seismic Hazard Model for the Magnitude Distribution by Using Alternative Bayesian Implementations

    Taroni, M.; Selva, J.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we show how we built an ensemble seismic hazard model for the magnitude distribution for the TSUMAPS-NEAM EU project (http://www.tsumaps-neam.eu/). The considered source area includes the whole NEAM region (North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas). We build our models by using the catalogs (EMEC and ISC), their completeness and the regionalization provided by the project. We developed four alternative implementations of a Bayesian model, considering tapered or truncated Gutenberg-Richter distributions, and fixed or variable b-value. The frequency size distribution is based on the Weichert formulation. This allows for simultaneously assessing all the frequency-size distribution parameters (a-value, b-value, and corner magnitude), using multiple completeness periods for the different magnitudes. With respect to previous studies, we introduce the tapered Pareto distribution (in addition to the classical truncated Pareto), and we build a novel approach to quantify the prior distribution. For each alternative implementation, we set the prior distributions using the global seismic data grouped according to the different types of tectonic setting, and assigned them to the related regions. The estimation is based on the complete (not declustered) local catalog in each region. Using the complete catalog also allows us to consider foreshocks and aftershocks in the seismic rate computation: the Poissonicity of the tsunami events (and similarly the exceedances of the PGA) will be insured by the Le Cam's theorem. This Bayesian approach provides robust estimations also in the zones where few events are available, but also leaves us the possibility to explore the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the magnitude distribution parameters (e.g. with the classical Metropolis-Hastings Monte Carlo method). Finally we merge all the models with their uncertainty to create the ensemble model that represents our knowledge of the seismicity in the

  2. A uniform seismological bulletin for the European - Mediterranean region

    Bossu, R.; Piedfroid, O.; Riviere, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this EU funded project is to develop means and tools to produce a homogeneous European-Mediterranean seismic bulletin that could serve as a reference. The 3 main objectives are 1) the definition of a unified magnitude scale for M > 3, 2) an improved location of events especially in border regions, 3) Improving rapid and regular data exchange within the European-Mediterranean region. The first step is to define an homogeneous and accurate magnitude estimation for the whole region of interest. Experience shows that the differences in the magnitudes reported by several institutes for a given event may vary up to 1.5 units. Three different magnitude computations are applied on a reference data set of well known events: a Lg waves coda magnitude, a Richter local magnitude and a moment magnitude scale. The comparison of the results is currently carried out. The algorithm associated to the selected magnitude will be implemented locally on a set of stations. New velocity models for border regions are developed from the analysis of the residuals of events recorded by permanent and temporary networks. The robustness and reliability of the 3D models versus 1D model have been evaluated. EMSC gathers via e-mail manually picked seismic phase arrival times with or without associated locations from about 50 seismological institutes of the European- Mediterranean region in a database. These bulletins are automatically merged by unique software. The number of processed events is about 2000 / month and should grow significantly with larger input from Middle East and Northern Africa. Events are then submitted to an automatic analysis of the location reliability, and, for dubious events, to a manual reprocessing. In order to improve data exchange, the installation of autoDRM systems is promoted. (authors)

  3. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e+e/sup /minus// collider

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e + e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z 0 resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e + e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Peran Pemerintah Dalam Menyelamatkan Naskah Kuno Minangkabau Pasca Gempa Pada Untuk Pelestarian Budaya Masyarakat Minangkabau

    Viola Dewi Putri Syarif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The manuscripts of Minangkabau has many content about society, lives, and rules, such as the story of the batle that happened at that time, infuential scholars, the natural disasters that have occurred,and traditional medicine,  all  of  it  be writen with  beautiful  handwriting letered Arabic and Malay. On September 30, 2009 an earthquake with a strength of 7.9 on the Richter scale destroyed half of West Sumatera regions, include the buildings of information centers,and the storage areas of ancient texts Minangkabau. That makes all of ancients texts lost and broken. These manuscripts are original publications and unparalleled. This research is to know how the government’s role in saving the post-earthquake  ancient  manuscripts,  for  cultural  preservation  society  of Minangkabau. This study is qualitative, using interview, observationand documentation.  This  study  shows  that  in  the  preservation  of  the collection of ancient manuscripts damaged after  the  earthquake, West Sumatera provincial government assisted by the National Library team in  repairing  damaged manuscripts  collection. National  library  team brings 17 boxes of ancient manuscripts Minangkabau to be treated. And to replace the lost collection, the government is conducting  a search of the ancient manuscripts in houses to the public because there are still many collection of ancient manuscripts held by the public.

  5. Terremoti in Cile. Storia e immaginazione intorno ad un evento apocalittico

    Claudia Borri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of historical sources chronicle the devastating earthquake that shook the country and destroyed Santiago in 1647, during Chile’s colonial period. More than a century after, Heinrich Kleist published Das Erdbeben in Chili (1811, a fictional relation about the same cataclysm that describes the fatal destiny of two lovers. Surviving the disaster, they are lynched in a church by the fanatic faithful because of their irregular union, that would have caused the wrath and the punishment of God. Kleist’s story is cited also in 8. 8: el miedo en el espejo. Una crónica del terremoto en Chile, an eyewitness account from Mexican writer Juan Villoro, who was in Santiago in 2010, when occurred a terrible earthquake that registered 8.8 on the Richter scale. The author not only describes the people’s reactions to event, but also finds in his experience the impetus for considering how someone who escapes death, having seen it up close, can continue to live. In this context uses the Kleist’s text as a springboard for philosophical reflection on man’s destiny. A apocalyptic disaster can have unexpected consequences depending on the time and place, but also by the interpreter of the facts: in the small and isolated environment of colonial Chile, the will to resist giving in to superstition and to struggle to go on living; in Kleist’s story, abandoning comforting illusions about nature and man’s destiny; in Villoro’s account, awareness that we cannot know how and when the end of the world will arrive, but it lies in wait for us.

  6. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 forecasting informed by b-value variability, in particular in assessing the significance of b-value variations identified by sample sizes with fewer than 200 events above the completeness threshold.

  7. Assessment of Quantitative Aftershock Productivity Potential in Mining-Induced Seismicity

    Kozłowska, Maria; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2017-03-01

    Strong mining-induced earthquakes exhibit various aftershock patterns. The aftershock productivity is governed by the geomechanical properties of rock in the seismogenic zone, mining-induced stress and coseismic stress changes related to the main shock's magnitude, source geometry and focal mechanism. In order to assess the quantitative aftershock productivity potential in the mining environment we apply a forecast model based on natural seismicity properties, namely constant tectonic loading and the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution. Although previous studies proved that mining-induced seismicity does not obey the simple power law, here we apply it as an approximation of seismicity distribution to resolve the number of aftershocks, not considering their magnitudes. The model used forecasts the aftershock productivity based on the background seismicity level estimated from an average seismic moment released per earthquake and static stress changes caused by a main shock. Thus it accounts only for aftershocks directly triggered by coseismic process. In this study we use data from three different mines, Mponeng (South Africa), Rudna and Bobrek (Poland), representing different geology, exploitation methods and aftershock patterns. Each studied case is treated with individual parameterization adjusted to the data specifics. We propose the modification of the original model, i.e. including the non-uniformity of M 0, resulting from spatial correlation of mining-induced seismicity with exploitation. The results show that, even when simplified seismicity distribution parameters are applied, the modified model predicts the number of aftershocks for each analyzed case well and accounts for variations between these values. Such results are thus another example showing that coseismic processes of mining-induced seismicity reflect features of natural seismicity and that similar models can be applied to study the aftershock rate in both the natural and the

  8. Modeling earthquake magnitudes from injection-induced seismicity on rough faults

    Maurer, J.; Dunham, E. M.; Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    It is an open question whether perturbations to the in-situ stress field due to fluid injection affect the magnitudes of induced earthquakes. It has been suggested that characteristics such as the total injected fluid volume control the size of induced events (e.g., Baisch et al., 2010; Shapiro et al., 2011). On the other hand, Van der Elst et al. (2016) argue that the size distribution of induced earthquakes follows Gutenberg-Richter, the same as tectonic events. Numerical simulations support the idea that ruptures nucleating inside regions with high shear-to-effective normal stress ratio may not propagate into regions with lower stress (Dieterich et al., 2015; Schmitt et al., 2015), however, these calculations are done on geometrically smooth faults. Fang & Dunham (2013) show that rupture length on geometrically rough faults is variable, but strongly dependent on background shear/effective normal stress. In this study, we use a 2-D elasto-dynamic rupture simulator that includes rough fault geometry and off-fault plasticity (Dunham et al., 2011) to simulate earthquake ruptures under realistic conditions. We consider aggregate results for faults with and without stress perturbations due to fluid injection. We model a uniform far-field background stress (with local perturbations around the fault due to geometry), superimpose a poroelastic stress field in the medium due to injection, and compute the effective stress on the fault as inputs to the rupture simulator. Preliminary results indicate that even minor stress perturbations on the fault due to injection can have a significant impact on the resulting distribution of rupture lengths, but individual results are highly dependent on the details of the local stress perturbations on the fault due to geometric roughness.

  9. Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study.

    Montazeri, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid; Omidvari, Sepideh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Ebadi, Mehdi; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad

    2005-01-11

    An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who

  10. A scenario-based procedure for seismic risk analysis

    Kluegel, J.-U.; Mualchin, L.; Panza, G.F.

    2006-12-01

    A new methodology for seismic risk analysis based on probabilistic interpretation of deterministic or scenario-based hazard analysis, in full compliance with the likelihood principle and therefore meeting the requirements of modern risk analysis, has been developed. The proposed methodology can easily be adjusted to deliver its output in a format required for safety analysts and civil engineers. The scenario-based approach allows the incorporation of all available information collected in a geological, seismotectonic and geotechnical database of the site of interest as well as advanced physical modelling techniques to provide a reliable and robust deterministic design basis for civil infrastructures. The robustness of this approach is of special importance for critical infrastructures. At the same time a scenario-based seismic hazard analysis allows the development of the required input for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as required by safety analysts and insurance companies. The scenario-based approach removes the ambiguity in the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) which relies on the projections of Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) equation. The problems in the validity of G-R projections, because of incomplete to total absence of data for making the projections, are still unresolved. Consequently, the information from G-R must not be used in decisions for design of critical structures or critical elements in a structure. The scenario-based methodology is strictly based on observable facts and data and complemented by physical modelling techniques, which can be submitted to a formalised validation process. By means of sensitivity analysis, knowledge gaps related to lack of data can be dealt with easily, due to the limited amount of scenarios to be investigated. The proposed seismic risk analysis can be used with confidence for planning, insurance and engineering applications. (author)

  11. Art Perception in the Museum: How We Spend Time and Space in Art Exhibitions.

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetics research aiming at understanding art experience is an emerging field; however, most research is conducted in labs without access to real artworks, without the social context of a museum and without the presence of other persons. The present article replicates and complements key findings of art perception in museum contexts. When observing museum visitors ( N  = 225; 126 female, M (age) = 43.3 years) while perceiving a series of six Gerhard Richter paintings of various sizes (0.26-3.20 sq. m) in a temporary art exhibition in January and February 2015 showing 28 paintings in total, we revealed patterns compatible to previous research. The mean time taken in viewing artworks was much longer than was mostly realized in lab contexts, here 32.9 s ( Mdn  = 25.4 s). We were also able to replicate visitors spending more time on viewing artworks when attending in groups of people. Additionally, we uncovered a close positive relationship ( r 2  = .929) between canvas size and viewing distance, ranging on average between 1.49 and 2.12 m ( M  = 1.72 m). We also found that more than half of the visitors returned to paintings, especially those people who had not previously paid too much attention at the initial viewing. After adding the times of returning viewers, each picture was viewed longer than had been estimated in previous research ( M  = 50.5 s, Mdn  = 43.0 s). Results are discussed in the context of current art perception theories, focusing on the need for the ecologically valid testing of artworks in aesthetics research.

  12. Art Perception in the Museum: How We Spend Time and Space in Art Exhibitions

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetics research aiming at understanding art experience is an emerging field; however, most research is conducted in labs without access to real artworks, without the social context of a museum and without the presence of other persons. The present article replicates and complements key findings of art perception in museum contexts. When observing museum visitors (N = 225; 126 female, M(age = 43.3 years while perceiving a series of six Gerhard Richter paintings of various sizes (0.26–3.20 sq. m in a temporary art exhibition in January and February 2015 showing 28 paintings in total, we revealed patterns compatible to previous research. The mean time taken in viewing artworks was much longer than was mostly realized in lab contexts, here 32.9 s (Mdn = 25.4 s. We were also able to replicate visitors spending more time on viewing artworks when attending in groups of people. Additionally, we uncovered a close positive relationship (r2 = .929 between canvas size and viewing distance, ranging on average between 1.49 and 2.12 m (M = 1.72 m. We also found that more than half of the visitors returned to paintings, especially those people who had not previously paid too much attention at the initial viewing. After adding the times of returning viewers, each picture was viewed longer than had been estimated in previous research (M = 50.5 s, Mdn = 43.0 s. Results are discussed in the context of current art perception theories, focusing on the need for the ecologically valid testing of artworks in aesthetics research.

  13. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  14. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  15. The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES): 20 Years of Nuclear Communication

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Today, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are celebrating the 20th anniversary of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Jointly developed by the IAEA and the NEA in 1990, in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the purpose of INES is to help nuclear and radiation safety authorities and the nuclear industry worldwide to rate nuclear and radiological events and to communicate their safety significance to the general public, the media and the technical community. INES has often been compared to other scales used to measure physical properties such as temperature - the Celsius, Kelvin or Fahrenheit scales - or rate events such as earthquakes - the Richter scale. Like these scales, INES also has a sound technical background and can be easily understood. INES was initially used to classify events at nuclear power plants only. It was subsequently extended to rate events occurring in any nuclear facility and during the transport of radioactive material, thus also covering events related to the overexposure of workers. Since 2008, INES has been extended to any event associated with the transport, storage and use of radioactive material and radiation sources, from those occurring at nuclear facilities to those associated with industrial use. More generally, INES has also become a crucial nuclear communications tool. Since its inception, it has been adopted in 69 countries, and an increasing number of countries have expressed their interest in using INES and have designated INES national officers. Over the years, national nuclear safety authorities have made growing use of INES, while the public and the media have become more familiar with the scale and its significance. This is where the true success of INES stands, having helped to foster transparency and provide a better understanding of nuclear-related events and activities. For a full description of the International Nuclear and

  16. Short- and Long-Term Earthquake Forecasts Based on Statistical Models

    Console, Rodolfo; Taroni, Matteo; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Marzocchi, Warner

    2017-04-01

    The epidemic-type aftershock sequences (ETAS) models have been experimentally used to forecast the space-time earthquake occurrence rate during the sequence that followed the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and for the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence. These forecasts represented the two first pioneering attempts to check the feasibility of providing operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) in Italy. After the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake the Italian Department of Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) for the development of the first official OEF in Italy that was implemented for testing purposes by the newly established "Centro di Pericolosità Sismica" (CPS, the seismic Hazard Center) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). According to the ICEF guidelines, the system is open, transparent, reproducible and testable. The scientific information delivered by OEF-Italy is shaped in different formats according to the interested stakeholders, such as scientists, national and regional authorities, and the general public. The communication to people is certainly the most challenging issue, and careful pilot tests are necessary to check the effectiveness of the communication strategy, before opening the information to the public. With regard to long-term time-dependent earthquake forecast, the application of a newly developed simulation algorithm to Calabria region provided typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term pseudo-periodicity and clustering of strong earthquakes, and a realistic earthquake magnitude distribution departing from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution in the moderate and higher magnitude range.

  17. Editorial "El Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad del Bío-Bío, a través de su revista Ingeniería Industrial, pone a disposición de investigadores, profesionales y estudiantes".

    Ivan Santelices Malfanti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad del Bío-Bío, a través de su  revista Ingeniería Industrial, pone a disposición de investigadores, profesionales y estudiantes este ejemplar, con el fin de presentar un conjunto de contenidos asociados a la disciplina en distintos ámbitos del saber, como son: modelos estadísticos aplicados, modelos de gestión, gestión del conocimiento en el sector servicios, toma de decisiones en equipos de trabajo, análisis de la cadena de suministros, algoritmos y heurísticas matemáticas, ergonomía industrial, entre otros. Es motivo de orgullo y celebración poder entregar nuestra revista dentro de los plazos establecidos, luego del terremoto-tsunami de 8.8º Richter del pasado 27 de febrero, uno de los sismos más grandes en la historia de la humanidad,  que afecto a la región y que impacto fuertemente a nuestro entorno más cercano. Lo anterior, necesariamente nos obliga a reflexionar sobre cuál es el rol del ingeniero industrial en estas circunstancias, ya que problemas de comunicaciones, desabastecimientos, seguridad, coordinación y distribución de ayudas, entre otros tantos que algunos autores agrupan en el concepto de Logística Humanitaria o Social, son temas que los Ingenieros no podemos dejar de lado por más que nos alejen del mundo empresarial o académico.

  18. TECHNICAL REPORT- SHELTERING, FROM RELIEF TO RECONSTRUCTION: One Year after the 2010 East Azerbaijan Province Earthquake

    Alireza Fallahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11th August 2012, at 16:53 and 17:04 (local times, two major earthquakes measuring 6.4 and 6.3 respectively on the Richter scale, hit the East Azerbaijan Province, in the North- West of Iran. Although the timing of these strong tremors meant that few residents were at home, approximately 250,000 people and 327 villages were affected by the resulting disaster. The main impacts were felt around the towns of Ahar, Varzaghan and Herees to the North-East of Tabriz, leaving more than 300 residents dead, 4500 injured and 72,000 with damaged or destroyed properties. Considering the climatic and topographic conditions of East Azerbaijan Province, the Housing Foundation of Iran (HF managed to mobilize and accelerate its activities to minimize the threats posed by the upcoming winter on the people affected by the earthquakes. Using the new concept of “transitional accommodation” in its reconstruction policy, earthquake survivors were initially provided with“  multi-functional units,” which sheltered them from the cold while permanent houses were being constructed. This technical report aims to review the shelter provision process, based on the author’s careful observations and qualitative data collected from the field, a year after the disasters. The report concludes that, although most families are now housed in their permanent shelters, a number of them are still struggling with recovery from the impact the disasters had on their lives. Despite this, great feats have been made in the reconstruction of public service facilities, social and cultural centers, site works and amenities, which are all in the process of being completed.

  19. A New Seismic Hazard Model for Mainland China

    Rong, Y.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.; Cheng, J.; Magistrale, H.; Shen, Z. K.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing a new seismic hazard model for Mainland China by integrating historical earthquake catalogs, geological faults, geodetic GPS data, and geology maps. To build the model, we construct an Mw-based homogeneous historical earthquake catalog spanning from 780 B.C. to present, create fault models from active fault data, and derive a strain rate model based on the most complete GPS measurements and a new strain derivation algorithm. We divide China and the surrounding regions into about 20 large seismic source zones. For each zone, a tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) magnitude-frequency distribution is used to model the seismic activity rates. The a- and b-values of the TGR distribution are calculated using observed earthquake data, while the corner magnitude is constrained independently using the seismic moment rate inferred from the geodetically-based strain rate model. Small and medium sized earthquakes are distributed within the source zones following the location and magnitude patterns of historical earthquakes. Some of the larger earthquakes are distributed onto active faults, based on their geological characteristics such as slip rate, fault length, down-dip width, and various paleoseismic data. The remaining larger earthquakes are then placed into the background. A new set of magnitude-rupture scaling relationships is developed based on earthquake data from China and vicinity. We evaluate and select appropriate ground motion prediction equations by comparing them with observed ground motion data and performing residual analysis. To implement the modeling workflow, we develop a tool that builds upon the functionalities of GEM's Hazard Modeler's Toolkit. The GEM OpenQuake software is used to calculate seismic hazard at various ground motion periods and various return periods. To account for site amplification, we construct a site condition map based on geology. The resulting new seismic hazard maps can be used for seismic risk analysis and management.

  20. Substantiation of strength of TVSA-ALPHA fuel assembly under dynamic seismic loads

    Tutnov, A.; Kiselev, A.; Kiselev, A.; Krutko, E.; Kiselev, I.; Samoilov, O.; Kaydalov, V.

    2009-01-01

    A special place in the substantiation of the safe operation of fuel assemblies is the assessment their operating capability under seismic loads, leading to short-term (several seconds or tens of seconds) the dynamic effects on the reactor core. The level of acceleration of various elements of the reactor installation can be higher than 1,5 g (g - acceleration of gravity) and depends on the height of these elements relatively the ground, which movement causes an earthquake. This dynamic load cause significant deformation of the active zones design element, in particular of the fuel assemblies (FA), which could lead to a contact (or impact) interaction between them. The report presents the results of studies of stress-strain state of FA of TVSA-ALPHA type under the influence of seismic loads of the 8th level on Richter scale using standard approach. According to a normative approach the natural frequencies and modes of FA are calculated in the preliminary stage. The obtained results are conservative from the point of view that in the real FA design the most loaded SG in the middle of the fuel assemblies are made in a combined with mixing grid variant, which are joint by a common rim. This increases the overall carrying capacity of SG as compared with the calculation SG model. It is also necessary to bear in mind that the dynamic (impact) loading the basic mechanical properties of the material may have a significant difference from static (standard) values. This refers in particular to the yield limit, the value of which can be several times higher than specified in the calculation

  1. Seismotectonics of the Taiwan Shoal region in the northeastern South China Sea: Insights from the crustal structure

    Wan, Kuiyuan; Sun, Jinlong; Xu, Huilong; Xie, Xiaoling; Xia, Shaohong; Zhang, Xiang; Cao, Jinghe; Zhao, Fang; Fan, Chaoyan

    2018-02-01

    A cluster of earthquakes occurred in the Taiwan Shoal region on the outer rise of the Manila Trench. Although most were of small to medium magnitudes, one strong earthquake occurred on September 16, 1994. Several previous studies have provided important information to progress our understanding of this single earthquake. However, little is currently known about the earthquake cluster, and it is necessary to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region to understand the mechanisms involved in controlling and generating it. This study presents a two-dimensional seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean-bottom seismograph (OBS) data, which exhibits a high-velocity anomaly flanked by low-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal. In this study, 765 earthquakes (Richter magnitude ML > 1.5) occurring between 1991 and 2015 were studied and analyses of earthquake epicenters, regional faults, and the crustal structure provides an improved understanding of the nature of active tectonics in this region. Results of analyses indicate firstly that the high-velocity area represents major asperities that correspond to the location of the earthquake cluster and where stress is concentrated. It is also depicted that the earthquake cluster was influenced by fault interactions. However, the September 1994 earthquake occurred independently of these seismic activities and was associated with reactivation of a preexisting fault. It is also determined that slab pull is resisted by the exposed precollision accretionary prism, and the resistive force is causing accumulation of inplane compressive-stress. This may trigger a future damaging earthquake in the Taiwan Shoal region.

  2. Arellano-Baeza, A.

    2008-05-01

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be estimated by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude > 4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  3. Use of high resolution satellite images for monitoring of earthquakes and volcano activity.

    Arellano-Baeza, Alonso A.

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be detected by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude ˜4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  4. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  5. Matlab GUI for a Fluid Mixer

    Barbieri, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The Test and Engineering Directorate at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center developed an interest to study the modeling, evaluation, and control of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) and gas hydrogen (GH2) mixer subsystem of a ground test facility. This facility carries out comprehensive ground-based testing and certification of liquid rocket engines including the Space Shuttle Main engine. A software simulation environment developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK (M/S) will allow NASA engineers to test rocket engine systems at relatively no cost. In the progress report submitted in February 2004, we described the development of two foundation programs, a reverse look-up application using various interpolation algorithms, a variety of search and return methods, and self-checking methods to reduce the error in returned search results to increase the functionality of the program. The results showed that these efforts were successful. To transfer this technology to engineers who are not familiar with the M/S environment, a four-module GUI was implemented allowing the user to evaluate the mixer model under open-loop and closed-loop conditions. The progress report was based on an udergraduate Honors Thesis by Ms. Jamie Granger Austin in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Tulane University, during January-May 2003, and her continued efforts during August-December 2003. In collaboration with Dr. Hanz Richter and Dr. Fernando Figueroa we published these results in a NASA Tech Brief due to appear this year. Although the original proposal in 2003 did not address other components of the test facility, we decided in the last few months to extend our research and consider a related pressurization tank component as well. This report summarizes the results obtained towards a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the evaluation and control of the hydrogen mixer subsystem model and for the pressurization tank each taken individually. Further research would combine the two

  6. Environment informatin systems. Data requests and acquisition of information acording to the theme environment and health; Umweltinformationssysteme. Datenanforderungen und Informationsgewinnung zum Themenbereich Umwelt und Gesundheit

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    Within the workshop of the working group 'Environmental Information System' of the specialized group 'Informatics in environmental protection' from 27th to 28th May, 2010, in Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Environment and health: Data for deeds (Hedi Schreiber); (2) Fundamental data to describe health-related environmental pollution of humans in Germany (Andre Conrad); (3) Noxen information system NIS - a material information system for the Public Health Service (Cerstin Finke); (4) Biocide portal ''Fly-swatter instead of spray can' (Gunnar Minx); (5) The web supported information portal nature protection and health (NatGesIS) in the Federal Office for Nature Conservation (Beate Job-Hoben); (6) The information system of ecologic building materials WECOBIS (Rainer Weidemann); (7) Integration of remote sensing data, geodata and health data in geographical information infrastructure for the prediction of environmentally influenced health hazards - EO2HEAVEN (Silke Richter); (8) Transnational data of the state of soil tools and requirements from the view of the Federal Environment Office (Falk Hilliges); (9) Information system for the monitoring of forests in Europa data management in the EU project FutMon (Friedhelm Hosenfeld); (10) Environmental performance and urban development - On the urban space distribution of health relevant environmental pollution in the region Berlin (Heinz-Josef Klimeczek); (11) InGrid {sup registered} - a software for the development of environmental information systems (Fred Kruse); (12) Linked environmental data (Maria Ruether); (13) HIPPOLYTOS - Intuitive, overlapping research of environmental data and geological data by means of semantic technologies (Gergely Lukacs); (14) Tool for a flexible data exchange between specialized information systems (Rene Poeschel); (15) A technical concept of research information systems of the EU project ICT-ENSURE (Richard

  7. 1/f and the Earthquake Problem: Scaling constraints that facilitate operational earthquake forecasting

    yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    The difficulty of forecasting earthquakes can fundamentally be attributed to the self-similar, or "1/f", nature of seismic sequences. Specifically, the rate of occurrence of earthquakes is inversely proportional to their magnitude m, or more accurately to their scalar moment M. With respect to this "1/f problem," it can be argued that catalog selection (or equivalently, determining catalog constraints) constitutes the most significant challenge to seismicity based earthquake forecasting. Here, we address and introduce a potential solution to this most daunting problem. Specifically, we introduce a framework to constrain, or partition, an earthquake catalog (a study region) in order to resolve local seismicity. In particular, we combine Gutenberg-Richter (GR), rupture length, and Omori scaling with various empirical measurements to relate the size (spatial and temporal extents) of a study area (or bins within a study area) to the local earthquake magnitude potential - the magnitude of earthquake the region is expected to experience. From this, we introduce a new type of time dependent hazard map for which the tuning parameter space is nearly fully constrained. In a similar fashion, by combining various scaling relations and also by incorporating finite extents (rupture length, area, and duration) as constraints, we develop a method to estimate the Omori (temporal) and spatial aftershock decay parameters as a function of the parent earthquake's magnitude m. From this formulation, we develop an ETAS type model that overcomes many point-source limitations of contemporary ETAS. These models demonstrate promise with respect to earthquake forecasting applications. Moreover, the methods employed suggest a general framework whereby earthquake and other complex-system, 1/f type, problems can be constrained from scaling relations and finite extents.; Record-breaking hazard map of southern California, 2012-08-06. "Warm" colors indicate local acceleration (elevated hazard

  8. Recurrent frequency-size distribution of characteristic events

    S. G. Abaimov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical frequency-size (frequency-magnitude properties of earthquake occurrence play an important role in seismic hazard assessments. The behavior of earthquakes is represented by two different statistics: interoccurrent behavior in a region and recurrent behavior at a given point on a fault (or at a given fault. The interoccurrent frequency-size behavior has been investigated by many authors and generally obeys the power-law Gutenberg-Richter distribution to a good approximation. It is expected that the recurrent frequency-size behavior should obey different statistics. However, this problem has received little attention because historic earthquake sequences do not contain enough events to reconstruct the necessary statistics. To overcome this lack of data, this paper investigates the recurrent frequency-size behavior for several problems. First, the sequences of creep events on a creeping section of the San Andreas fault are investigated. The applicability of the Brownian passage-time, lognormal, and Weibull distributions to the recurrent frequency-size statistics of slip events is tested and the Weibull distribution is found to be the best-fit distribution. To verify this result the behaviors of numerical slider-block and sand-pile models are investigated and the Weibull distribution is confirmed as the applicable distribution for these models as well. Exponents β of the best-fit Weibull distributions for the observed creep event sequences and for the slider-block model are found to have similar values ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 with the corresponding aperiodicities CV of the applied distribution ranging from 0.47 to 0.64. We also note similarities between recurrent time-interval statistics and recurrent frequency-size statistics.

  9. Structural constraints for proposed Fort Hancock low-level radioactive waste disposal site (NTP-S34), southern Hudspeth County, Texas

    Lemone, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Structural complexities reduce the homogeneity necessary for a site characterization model to an unacceptable level for performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal sites. The proposed site lies between the northern, stable Diablo platform and the southern, mobile Mesozoic Chihuahua tectonic belt. Structural movement along this interface has been active for the past 14,000 years. In addition, the area lies along the northern margin of the Permian Marfa basin and the northeastern margin of the deeply faulted Hueco bolson segment of the late Cenozoic Rio Grande rift system. Recent seismic activity with extensive surface rupture in Quitman Canyon (30 mi southeast of the site) is also documented from the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake (6.4 Richter scale). The site is underlain by either a thrust fault or the complex terminus of a Mesozoic thrust fault. This fault is a segment of the continuous thrust sheet extending from exposures in the Sierra Blanc area, 30 mi east (Devil Ridge fault), to the El Paso area west (Rio Grande fault). This segment of the Devil Ridge-Rio Grande thrust is documented by the Haymond Krupp No. 1 Thaxton wildcat drilled at Campogrande Mountain immediately south of the site. The recent rift fault scarp (Campo Grande) immediately south of the Thaxton well has a 17-mi surface trace and is, no doubt, related to the subsurface Clint fault to the west in the El Paso area. An additional complexity is the presence of a monoclinal flexure with a minimum of 900 ft of surface relief (2 mi northeast of NTP-S34). A 4.5-mi, east-west, down-to-the-south normal fault occurs near the top of the monocline with a small associated graben. These complexities seriously compromise the proposed Fort Hancock site

  10. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  11. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  12. Of overlapping Cantor sets and earthquakes: analysis of the discrete Chakrabarti-Stinchcombe model

    Bhattacharyya, Pratip

    2005-03-01

    We report an exact analysis of a discrete form of the Chakrabarti-Stinchcombe model for earthquakes (Physica A 270 (1999) 27), which considers a pair of dynamically overlapping finite generations of the Cantor set as a prototype of geological faults. In this model the nth generation of the Cantor set shifts on its replica in discrete steps of the length of a line segment in that generation and periodic boundary conditions are assumed. We determine the general form of time sequences for the constant magnitude overlaps and, hence, obtain the complete time-series of overlaps by the superposition of these sequences for all overlap magnitudes. From the time-series we derive the exact frequency distribution of the overlap magnitudes. The corresponding probability distribution of the logarithm of overlap magnitudes for the nth generation is found to assume the form of the binomial distribution for n Bernoulli trials with probability {1}/{3} for the success of each trial. For an arbitrary pair of consecutive overlaps in the time-series where the magnitude of the earlier overlap is known, we find that the magnitude of the later overlap can be determined with a definite probability; the conditional probability for each possible magnitude of the later overlap follows the binomial distribution for k Bernoulli trials with probability {1}/{2} for the success of each trial and the number k is determined by the magnitude of the earlier overlap. Although this model does not produce the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes, our results indicate that the fractal structure of faults admits a probabilistic prediction of earthquake magnitudes.

  13. Relating triggering processes in lab experiments with earthquakes.

    Baro Urbea, J.; Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Charalampidou, E. M.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Vives, E.; Dresen, G.

    2016-12-01

    Statistical relations such as Gutenberg-Richter's, Omori-Utsu's and the productivity of aftershocks were first observed in seismology, but are also common to other physical phenomena exhibiting avalanche dynamics such as solar flares, rock fracture, structural phase transitions and even stock market transactions. All these examples exhibit spatio-temporal correlations that can be explained as triggering processes: Instead of being activated as a response to external driving or fluctuations, some events are consequence of previous activity. Although different plausible explanations have been suggested in each system, the ubiquity of such statistical laws remains unknown. However, the case of rock fracture may exhibit a physical connection with seismology. It has been suggested that some features of seismology have a microscopic origin and are reproducible over a vast range of scales. This hypothesis has motivated mechanical experiments to generate artificial catalogues of earthquakes at a laboratory scale -so called labquakes- and under controlled conditions. Microscopic fractures in lab tests release elastic waves that are recorded as ultrasonic (kHz-MHz) acoustic emission (AE) events by means of piezoelectric transducers. Here, we analyse the statistics of labquakes recorded during the failure of small samples of natural rocks and artificial porous materials under different controlled compression regimes. Temporal and spatio-temporal correlations are identified in certain cases. Specifically, we distinguish between the background and triggered events, revealing some differences in the statistical properties. We fit the data to statistical models of seismicity. As a particular case, we explore the branching process approach simplified in the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. We evaluate the empirical spatio-temporal kernel of the model and investigate the physical origins of triggering. Our analysis of the focal mechanisms implies that the occurrence

  14. Seismic b-values and its correlation with seismic moment and Bouguer gravity anomaly over Indo-Burma ranges of northeast India: Tectonic implications

    Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Mahanta, Rinku; Borgohain, Jayanta Madhab

    2018-03-01

    b-value is one of the most significant seismic parameters for describing the seismicity of a given region at a definite time window. In this study, high-resolution map of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, seismic moment-release, Bouguer gravity anomaly and fault-plane solutions containing faulting styles are analyzed in the Indo-Burma ranges of northeast India using the unified and homogeneous part of the seismicity record in the region (January 1964-December 2016). The study region is subdivided into few square grids of geographical window size 1° × 1° and b-values are calculated in each square grid. Our goal is to explore the spatial correlations and anomalous patterns between the b-value and parameters like seismic moment release, Bouguer gravity anomaly and faulting styles that can help us to better understand the seismotectonics and the state of present-day crustal stress within the Indo-Burma region. Most of the areas show an inverse correlation between b-value and seismic moment release as well as convergence rates. While estimating the b-value as a function of depth, a sudden increase of b-value at a depth of 50-60 km was found out and the receiver function modeling confirms that this depth corresponds to the crust-mantle transition beneath the study region. The region is also associated with negative Bouguer gravity anomalies and an inverse relation is found between Gravity anomaly and b-value. Comparing b-values with different faulting styles, reveal that the areas containing low b-values show thrust mechanism, while the areas associated with intermediate b-values show strike-slip mechanism. Those areas, where the events show thrust mechanism but containing a strike-slip component has the highest b-value.

  15. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  16. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  17. Preearthquake anomalous ionospheric signatures observed at low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi, during the year 2015 to early 2016: Preliminary results

    Gupta, Sumedha; Upadhayaya, A. K.

    2017-08-01

    We have analyzed five major earthquake events measuring greater than 6 on Richter scale (M > 6) that occurred during the year 2015 to early 2016, affecting Indian region ionosphere, using F2 layer critical parameters (foF2, hmF2) obtained using Digisonde from a low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E, 19.2°N geomagnetic latitude, 42.4°N dip). Normal day-to-day variability occurring in ionosphere is segregated by calculating F2 layer critical frequency and peak height variations (ΔfoF2, ΔhmF2) from the normal quiet time behavior apart from computing interquartile range. We find that the ionospheric F2 region across Delhi by and large shows some significant perturbations 3-4 days prior to these earthquake events, resulting in a large peak electron density variation of 200%. These observed perturbations indicate towards a possibility of seismo-ionospheric coupling as the solar and geomagnetic indices were normally quiet and stable during the period of these events. It was also observed that the precursory effect of earthquake was predominantly seen even outside the earthquake preparation zone, as given by Dobrovolsky et al. (1979). The thermosphere neutral composition (O/N2) as observed by Global Ultraviolet Imager, across Delhi, during these earthquake events does not show any marked variation. Further, the effect of earthquake events on ionospheric peak electron density is compared to the lower atmosphere meteorological phenomenon of 2015 sudden stratospheric warming event.

  18. Limitation of secondary electron multiplier non-linearity on accurate U-Th isotopic determination by MC-ICP-MS

    Shen, C.; Wu, C.; Gallet, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Hsieh, Y.; Lin, K.

    2008-12-01

    Contemporary multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) with discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) can offer U-Th isotopic determinations with subpermil-permil- level precision in femtogram quantities. However, accurate isotopic measurement requires fully understanding SEM mass and intensity biases. In additional to dead-time effect, Richter et al (2001, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 206, 105-127) reported a nonlinearity on SEMs produced by ETP and MasCom for count rates > 20 thousand counts per second (cps). We evaluated the possible biases for ion beams of 500- 1,600,000 cps on a latest MasCom SEM, SEV TE-Z/17, with more effective ion optical acceptance area (>50%) and better peak shape than previous models, used in a MC-ICP-MS, Thermo Fisher NEPTUNE. With the retarding potential quadruple lens (RPQ) turned off, ion beam intensity can be biased by only dead- time effect, which can be precisely corrected online or offline. With the RPQ on, two additional biases, an exponential-like increase of ion beam intensity from 100-100,000 s cps and an apparent dead-time effect (-2 to 2 ns) at high count rates, are observed. They are likely caused by the slightly defocused ions with a wide kinetic energy spread of ~5 eV, 10 times worse than that with thermal source, passing through the RPQ lens to the SEM, which is installed behind the focal plane. Fortunately, the two biases, which are stable during the daily measurements with the same settings of inlet system, source lenses, zoom optics, and RPQ, can be corrected effectively offline to earn accurate U-Th isotopic measurement.

  19. A comparison of long-term changes in seismicity at The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso geothermal fields

    Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.; Borsa, Adrian A.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important source of renewable energy, yet its production is known to induce seismicity. Here we analyze seismicity at the three largest geothermal fields in California: The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso. We focus on resolving the temporal evolution of seismicity rates, which provides important observational constraints on how geothermal fields respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two components: (1) the interaction rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering and (2) the smoothly varying background rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We apply our methodology to compare long-term changes in seismicity to monthly records of fluid injection and withdrawal. At The Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection, with the mean rate increasing by approximately 50% and exhibiting strong seasonal fluctuations following construction of the Santa Rosa pipeline in 2003. In contrast, at both Salton Sea and Coso, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, though both experience short-term rate fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by geothermal plant operation. We also observe significant temporal variations in Gutenberg-Richter b value, earthquake magnitude distribution, and earthquake depth distribution, providing further evidence for the dynamic evolution of stresses within these fields. The differing field-wide responses to fluid injection and withdrawal may reflect differences in in situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, suggesting that a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic stressing controls seismicity within California's geothermal fields.

  20. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.