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Sample records for strait islander health

  1. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  2. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

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    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  3. What constitutes 'support' for the role of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child health workforce?

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    Watson, Karen; Young, Jeanine; Barnes, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    As well as providing primary health care services, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers are known to significantly contribute to the overall acceptability, access and use of health services through their role of cultural brokerage in the communities within which they work. As such they are uniquely positioned to positively influence health improvements for this vulnerable population. This study sought to identify key areas that both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous health professionals working within Indigenous communities felt were important in providing support for their roles. This group of workers require support within their roles particularly in relation to cultural awareness and capability, resource provision, educational opportunities, collaboration with colleagues and peers, and professional mentorship.

  4. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

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    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  5. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

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    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

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    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  7. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  8. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

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    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  10. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  11. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

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    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  12. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

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    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  13. Healthy imaginations: a social history of the epidemiology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

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    Brough, M

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to imagine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health without the powerful descriptors of epidemiology. The statistical imagery of numerical tables, pie charts, and bar graphs have become a key element in the public presentation of Indigenous public health issues. Such quantitative measurements of health draw on the authority of neutral, objective science and are thus rarely questioned in terms of their social meaning. This paper traces the history of this imagery through the 20th century, providing a social account of epidemiological description. Historical notions such as social Darwinism, assimilation, and dangerous other are all seen to be woven into the epidemiological text. The enormous rise in the epidemiological description of Indigenous health problems in recent years needs to be analyzed as a social phenomenon and, in particular, as an aspect of emerging forms of governmentality. Finally, it is argued that such analyses are needed in order to promote an anthropology of epidemiology and to avoid limiting medical anthropology to applications within epidemiology.

  14. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers.

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    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Singer, Judy

    2017-05-29

    In Australia, mental health services are undergoing major systemic reform with eMental Health (eMH) embedded in proposed service models for all but those with severe mental illness. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers have been targeted as a national priority for training and implementation of eMH into service delivery. Implementation studies on technology uptake in health workforces identify complex and interconnected variables that influence how individual practitioners integrate new technologies into their practice. To date there are only two implementation studies that focus on eMH and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. They suggest that the implementation of eMH in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations may be different from the implementation of eMH with allied health professionals and mainstream health services. The objective of this study is to investigate how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers in one regional area of Australia used eMH resources in their practice following an eMH training program and to determine what types of eMH resources they used. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. Interviews were co-conducted by one indigenous and one non-indigenous interviewer. A sample of transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed by each interviewer and then peer reviewed. Consensus codes were then applied to all transcripts and themes identified. It was found that 9 of the 16 service providers were implementing eMH resources into their routine practice. The findings demonstrate that participants used eMH resources for supporting social inclusion, informing and educating, assessment, case planning and management, referral, responding to crises, and self and family care. They chose a variety of types of eMH resources to use with their clients, both culturally

  15. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

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    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  16. Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting

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    Audra de Witt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes.MethodsAboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific, and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii advise how this information was obtained.ResultsTen primary health care centers (PHCCs across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8, searching paper records (n = 1, and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1. Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers

  17. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

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    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  18. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

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    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  19. Standardised alcohol screening in primary health care services targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

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    Islam, M Mofizul; Oni, Helen T; Lee, K S Kylie; Hayman, Noel; Wilson, Scott; Harrison, Kristie; Hummerston, Beth; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-03-29

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) around Australia have been asked to standardise screening for unhealthy drinking. Accordingly, screening with the 3-item AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) tool has become a national key performance indicator. Here we provide an overview of suitability of AUDIT-C and other brief alcohol screening tools for use in ACCHSs. All peer-reviewed literature providing original data on validity, acceptability or feasibility of alcohol screening tools among Indigenous Australians was reviewed. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes and integrate results. Three screening tools-full AUDIT, AUDIT-3 (third question of AUDIT) and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener) have been validated against other consumption measures, and found to correspond well. Short forms of AUDIT have also been found to compare well with full AUDIT, and were preferred by primary care staff. Help was often required with converting consumption into standard drinks. Researchers commented that AUDIT and its short forms prompted reflection on drinking. Another tool, the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), jointly screens for alcohol, drug and mental health risk, but is relatively long (13 items). IRIS has been validated against dependence scales. AUDIT, IRIS and CAGE have a greater focus on dependence than on hazardous or harmful consumption. Detection of unhealthy drinking before harms occur is a goal of screening, so AUDIT-C offers advantages over tools like IRIS or CAGE which focus on dependence. AUDIT-C's brevity suits integration with general health screening. Further research is needed on facilitating implementation of systematic alcohol screening into Indigenous primary healthcare.

  20. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Strategy 2015

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    Education Council, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…

  1. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

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    Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). Objective The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. Methods A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Results Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers’ lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource

  2. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

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    Erika Langham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial and emotional wellbeing (SEWB is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS.MethodsCross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1 SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2 concern regarding SEWB, (3 actions in response to concern, and (4 follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening.ResultsThe largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by

  3. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; McCalman, Janya; Matthews, Veronica; Bainbridge, Roxanne Gwendalyn; Nattabi, Barbara; Kinchin, Irina; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs) undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS. Cross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1) SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2) concern regarding SEWB, (3) actions in response to concern, and (4) follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening. The largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases. Our findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by dedicated SEWB funding, and training for health

  4. Substance use disorders among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody: a public health opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Ed; Davidson, Fiona; Andersen, Kimina; Kinner, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence, type, and mental health correlates of substance use disorders in a large sample of incarcerated Indigenous Australians. Methods An epidemiological survey of the mental health of Indigenous people in custody in the state of Queensland, Australia was conducted using culturally informed methods. The prevalence, type and mental health correlates of substance use disorders were determined using a diagnostic interview and questionnaire. Results In a sample of ...

  5. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  6. Antenatal emotional wellbeing screening in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra; Nagel, Tricia; Rumbold, Alice; Connors, Christine; Matthews, Veronica; Boyle, Jacqueline; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which antenatal emotional wellbeing (EW) assessments are undertaken in primary health care (PHC) centres and factors associated with completion of EW screening. Medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 PHC centres in five states (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were audited. Overall, 85% of the women were Aboriginal. The proportion of women with documented screening for EW varied from 5 to 38% between states (mean 17%). Aboriginal women were four times more likely (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.46-6.92) to not be screened for antenatal EW than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginality, lack of counselling on financial support were independently linked with no screening of EW. Provision of training for health service providers and further research on appropriate screening tools for Aboriginal women are needed to help redress this gap.

  7. Creating walking tracks to success: A narrative analysis of AustralianAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ stories ofsuccess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Foster, Kim; Usher, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of morbidity and mortality thanother Australians. One proposed strategy to improve this situation is to increase the participation ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses, inthe health workforce. Although the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students under-taking tertiary nursing courses have increased, completion rates have not kept pace. The study aimedto describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ experiences of enablers for successfulcourse completion and to develop a narrative of student experience. A qualitative study using a strengths-based approach with a narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data was conducted across fourschools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Eight final-year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursingstudents volunteered to participate in the study. A collective story with the overarching plotline Creatingwalking tracks to success was developed. Six threads of experience emerged: Making a difference, Valu-ing Indigeneity, Healing strength of connections, Resisting racism, Embracing support, and perseveringtowards completion. Key success factors included resilient attributes, building supportive connectionsand having positive expectations of the future, along with sustained institutional support from Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander nurse academics and clinicians. Development of tailored resilience-buildingtraining for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students and appointment of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander academics in Schools of Nursing that include such students may facilitate futuresuccessful completions in other programs.

  8. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  9. Using systems thinking and the Intervention Level Framework to analyse public health planning for complex problems: Otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D

    2018-01-01

    Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty

  10. Visibility in health statistics: a population data linkage study more accurately identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Births in Victoria, Australia, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ritte

    2017-04-01

    This is the first time that the VPDC and RBDM birth data were linked in Victoria. The matched birth information established a more complete population profile of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. These data will provide a more accurate baseline to enhance the Victorian and Australian governments’ ability to plan services, allocate resources and evaluate funded activities aimed at eliminating disparity experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it has established a more accurate denominator from which to calculate Aboriginal infant mortality rates for Victoria, Australia. *Until 2009, the mother’s Indigenous identification only was recorded in the VPDC

  11. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  12. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  13. A comparison of dietary estimates from the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey to food and beverage purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Wycherley, Thomas; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-12-01

    We compared self-reported dietary intake from the very remote sample of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (VR-NATSINPAS; n=1,363) to one year of food and beverage purchases from 20 very remote Indigenous Australian communities (servicing ∼8,500 individuals). Differences in food (% energy from food groups) and nutrients were analysed using t-test with unequal variance. Per-capita energy estimates were not significantly different between the surveys (899 MJ/person/day [95% confidence interval -152,1950] p=0.094). Self-reported intakes of sugar, cereal products/dishes, beverages, fats/oils, milk products/dishes and confectionery were significantly lower than that purchased, while intakes of meat, vegetables, cereal-based dishes, fish, fruit and eggs were significantly higher (pfood and nutrient availability in this population longitudinally; however, further evidence is needed on approaches to estimate wastage and foods sourced outside the store. There is potential for these data to complement each other to inform nutrition policies and programs in this population. © 2017 Menzies School of Health Research.

  14. Needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in Australian residential aged-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Nicole J

    2011-08-01

    This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based practice guidelines to support the care needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in residential aged-care facilities. A systematic literature review was undertaken. An electronic search of online databases and subsequent manual retrieval process was undertaken to identify relevant reports and studies that explored interventions for care of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person. Very limited published material identified strategies necessary within residential aged care. Sixty-seven articles were considered for inclusion, and a subsequent review resulted in 34 being included due to direct alignment with the study aim. Strategies recommended within the review cover areas such as care, communication, palliative care, activities and the environment. Care for an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person in an Australian residential aged-care facility requires a collaborative and individual approach. Cultural safety principles should be maintained across a culturally competent workforce. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in care is a significant experience that should not be considered 'routine' as there is much to consider in the care of this person and their community. © 2011 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  15. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  16. Food and nutrition programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Gleeson, Deborah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-09-19

    Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why. Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool. Results Twelve papers reporting 11 reviews were identified. Two reviews were rated high quality, three were rated medium and six were rated low quality. The reviews demonstrated that a positive effect on nutrition and chronic disease indicators can be a result of: 1) incorporating nutrition and breastfeeding advice into maternal and child health care services; and 2) multifaceted community nutrition programs. The evidence suggests that the most important factor determining the success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander food and nutrition programs is community involvement in (and, ideally, control of) program development and implementation. Conclusions Community-directed food and nutrition programs, especially those with multiple components that address the underlying causes of nutrition issues, can be effective in improving nutrition-related outcomes. What is known about the topic? More effective action is urgently required in order to reduce the unacceptable health inequalities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Food insecurity and nutrition-related chronic conditions are responsible for a large proportion of the ill health experienced by Australia's First Peoples. What does this paper add? This narrative overview of 11 reviews published between 2005 and 2015 provides a synthesis of the current evidence for improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition

  17. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Matthews

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded.MethodsWe undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012–2014. Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded.ResultsApproximately 23% (n = 478 of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99% were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0–86%. Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4–82.4; p < 0.001. Eleven percent (n = 53 of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16. Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor

  18. Responses of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health-Care Services to Continuous Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Woods, Cindy E; Matthews, Veronica; Thompson, Sandra C; Schierhout, Gill; Mitropoulos, Maxwell; Patrao, Tania; Panzera, Annette; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous primary health-care (PHC) services participating in continuous quality improvement (CQI) cycles show varying patterns of performance over time. Understanding this variation is essential to scaling up and sustaining quality improvement initiatives. The aim of this study is to examine trends in quality of care for services participating in the ABCD National Research Partnership and describe patterns of change over time and examine health service characteristics associated with positive and negative trends in quality of care. PHC services providing care for Indigenous people in urban, rural, and remote northern Australia that had completed at least three annual audits of service delivery for at least one aspect of care (n = 73). Longitudinal clinical audit data from use of four clinical audit tools (maternal health, child health, preventive health, Type 2 diabetes) between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed. Health center performance was classified into six patterns of change over time: consistent high improvement (positive), sustained high performance (positive), decline (negative), marked variability (negative), consistent low performance (negative), and no specific increase or decrease (neutral). Backwards stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between health service characteristics and positive or negative trends in quality of care. Trends in quality of care varied widely between health services across the four audit tools. Regression analyses of health service characteristics revealed no consistent statistically significant associations of population size, remoteness, governance model, or accreditation status with positive or negative trends in quality of care. The variable trends in quality of care as reflected by CQI audit tools do not appear to be related to easily measurable health service characteristics. This points to the need for a deeper or more nuanced understanding of factors that moderate the

  19. Driving culture change to empower the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child and Youth Health (ATSIHW) workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: ATSIHW face significant unique workforce challenges which hinder efforts to improve health for their communities.Practice change: Extensive consultation led to the Qld Child and Youth Clinical Network (QCYCN) establishing a statewide governance model to drive workforce culture change.Aim: To empower ATSIHW to drive change within their workforce & lead an integrated cultural shift toward respect & equity, enabling better health outcomes for ATSI communities.Targeted stake...

  20. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  1. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  2. Deadly progress: changes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult daily smoking, 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lovett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Reducing tobacco use in this population is a public health priority. Precise monitoring of smoking prevalence trends is central to implementation and evaluation of effective tobacco control. The way in which trends are reported influences understanding of the extent of progress, with potential implications for policy. Our objective was to quantify absolute changes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult (≥18 years old daily tobacco smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2015, including comparisons with the total Australian population, and by age, sex and remoteness. Methods: We analysed multiple nationally representative surveys of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and total Australian, population conducted from 2004 to 2015. Aligned with strength-based approaches, we applied a progress frame, focusing on absolute differences in smoking prevalence within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Results: The prevalence of current daily smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults nationally was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.9, 52.2 in 2004–05 and 41.4% (95% CI 39.1, 43.6 in 2014–15, representing an absolute prevalence decrease of 8.6 percentage points (95% CI 5.5, 11.8 over the past decade. This is comparable with the 6.8 percentage point (95% CI 5.6, 7.9 decrease in smoking prevalence in the total Australian population over the same period, from 21.3% in 2004–05 (95% CI 20.5, 22.0 to 14.5% in 2014–15 (95% CI 13.6, 15.4. Particular success in reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smoking was observed among younger age groups, with a decrease of 13.2 percentage points for 18–24-year-olds (95% CI 5.9, 20.4, 9.0 percentage points for 25–34-year-olds (95% CI 2.7, 15.3 and 8.7 percentage points for 35–44-year-olds (95% CI 2.6, 14.8. Smoking

  3. Using Indigenist and Indigenous methodologies to connect to deeper understandings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Elaine; Davy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a common description makes measuring the concept of quality of life (QoL) a challenge. Whether QoL incorporates broader social features or is attributed to health conditions, the diverse range of descriptions applied by various disciplines has resulted in a concept that is multidimensional and vague. The variety of theoretical conceptualisations of QoL confounds and confuses even the most astute. Measuring QoL in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is even more challenging. Instruments commonly developed and used to measure QoL are often derived from research methodologies shaped by Western cultural perspectives. Often they are simply translated for use among culturally and linguistically diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This has implications for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations whose perceptions of health are derived from within their specific cultures, value systems and ways of knowing and being. Interconnections and relationships between themselves, their communities, their environment and the natural and spiritual worlds are complex. The way in which their QoL is currently measured indicates that very little attention is given to the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' beliefs or the ways in which those beliefs shape or give structure and meaning to their health and their lives. The use of Indigenist or Indigenous methodologies in defining what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples believe gives quality to their lives is imperative. These methodologies have the potential to increase the congruency between their perceptions of QoL and instruments to measure it.

  4. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... may contact the City of Vallejo via the same telephone number to schedule drawspan operation. (b) The...

  5. Self-management programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with chronic conditions: A rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ellie; Lawn, Sharon; Oster, Candice; Morello, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Review the evidence for the effectiveness of chronic condition self-management programs applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Methods A rapid review methodology was followed to develop an evidence summary from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Results Only seven peer-reviewed studies were identified. The evidence indicated that group programs, particularly the Stanford Program, and structured individual chronic condition self-management programs were of good quality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, although these need to be integrated into practice in order to see the greatest benefits. The Flinders Program showed promise as a standardised program with content designed specifically with and for these populations. Numerous grey literature sources were identified, many using strong participatory approaches developed locally within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. However, few of these programs have been subject to rigorous evaluation. Discussion Despite the significant focus on chronic condition self-management programs to help address the burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, few studies exist that have been properly evaluated. The Closing the Gap Principles developed by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare offer important guidance for how to proceed to maximise engagement, cultural appropriateness and ownership of program initiatives.

  6. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and

  7. Hypertension: high prevalence and a positive association with obesity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth in far north Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Danielle; Raulli, Alexandra; Pratt, Rohan; Fagan, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and other chronic disease risks are common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults but there is little evidence regarding the epidemiology of these risk factors during adolescence. This study examines the prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years living in remote Indigenous communities in north Queensland. In so doing, it aims to better inform the approach to cardiovascular disease in this population. This is a descriptive study that retrospectively examines health service data from a program of community screening, the Young Persons Check (YPC). Participants were 1,883 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years who attended for a YPC in 11 remote communities in north Queensland between March 2009 and April 2011. Overall, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was 34.0%; stage I hypertension was 17.7% and stage II hypertension was 3.3%. The prevalence of elevated waist circumference was 47.6%, overweight or obesity 45.9%, elevated triglycerides 18.3%, decreased HDL 54.8% and proteinuria 24.3%. The prevalence of hypertension (stage I or II) among Torres Strait Islander males was 34.1%, Aboriginal males 26.9%, Torres Strait Islander females 12.6% and Aboriginal females 13.0%. Hypertension was associated with sex (males) (OR= 4.37, p<0.000), overweight (OR=2.46, p<0.000), obesity (OR=4.59, p<0.000) and elevated triglycerides (OR=2.38, p<0.000). Pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk in this population is highly prevalent. Hypertension was particularly prevalent among male participants. The results reiterate the importance of early life experience in cardiovascular disease prevention. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander casemix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D A; Murray, J M; Cleary, M I; Brewerton, R E

    1998-10-19

    With increasing implementation of casemix-based funding for hospitals, quantitative data were needed to confirm the clinical impression that treating Aboriginal (compared with non-Aboriginal) inpatients consumes significantly more resources. Utilisation data, collected over a three-month period in 10 hospitals, were used to determine a cost per inpatient episode, which was grouped according to AN-DRG-3 to give a cost per AN-DRG for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) patients and non-ATSI patients. ATSI patients had consistently longer average length of stay and significant variation in relative frequency of admissions, compared with non-ATSI patients, with higher prevalences of infectious diseases. Degenerative and neoplastic conditions were more common in non-ATSI patients. There were significant differences in casemix-adjusted costs per patient episode (ATSI, $1856; non-ATSI, $1558; P < 0.001). Our study has quantified differential resource consumption between two Australian populations, and highlights the need for recognition of some hospitals' atypical populations and special funding requirements.

  9. Personal attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Bennet, Pele T; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters and assess how they are associated with quitting, and to compare these attitudes with those of smokers in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers and 78 recent quitters from April 2012 to October 2013. Personal attitudes towards smoking and quitting, wanting to quit, and attempting to quit in the past year. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely than daily smokers in the general Australian population to report enjoying smoking (65% v 81%) and more likely to disagree that smoking is an important part of their life (49% v 38%); other attitudes were similar between the two groups. In the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample, non-daily smokers generally held less positive attitudes towards smoking compared with daily smokers, and ex-smokers who had quit within the past year reported positive views about quitting. Among the daily smokers, 78% reported regretting starting to smoke and 81% reported spending too much money on cigarettes, both of which were positively associated with wanting and attempting to quit; 32% perceived smoking to be an important part of their life, which was negatively associated with both quit outcomes; and 83% agreed that smoking calms them down when stressed, which was not associated with the quitting outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers were less likely than those in the general population to report positive reasons to smoke and held similar views about the negative aspects, suggesting that factors other than personal attitudes may be responsible for the high continuing smoking rate in this population.

  10. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  11. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  12. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszka, Stefanie; Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-09-19

    Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies, implementation planning and organizational and government

  13. Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the ‘Defying the Odds’ study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra; Ball, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The ‘Defying the Odds’ study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0–5 years. Methods and analysis The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000–2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the

  14. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking epidemic: what stage are we at, and what does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Lovett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, and there is considerable potential for change. Understanding the epidemic stage may provide insight into probable trends in smoking-attributable mortality, and inform program and policy development. Tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians has declined substantially, accompanied by declining tobacco-related cardiovascular mortality. Based on the available evidence, we expect tobacco-related cancer mortality to remain high, but peak within the next decade; however, there is a critical need for improved evidence to make an accurate assessment. The continuation and expansion of comprehensive tobacco reduction measures is expected to further decrease tobacco use. Health gains will be observed over both the short and long term.

  15. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-10-13

    Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ

  16. Effective Behaviour Management Strategies for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Linda L.; Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified…

  17. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  18. VET Retention in Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the research project "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners" by John Guenther et al. on behalf of Ninti One Limited. The project examines five unique and successful vocational education and training (VET) programs in remote areas and identifies how…

  19. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  20. Research methods of Talking About The Smokes: an International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Briggs, Viki L; Couzos, Sophia; Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Panaretto, Kathryn S; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To describe the research methods and baseline sample of the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project. The TATS project is a collaboration between research institutions and Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs) and their state and national representative bodies. It is one of the studies within the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, enabling national and international comparisons. It includes a prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers; a survey of non-smokers; repeated cross-sectional surveys of ACCHS staff; and descriptions of the tobacco policies and practices at the ACCHSs. Community members completed face-to-face surveys; staff completed surveys on paper or online. We compared potential biases and the distribution of variables common to the main community baseline sample and unweighted and weighted results of the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). The baseline survey (Wave 1) was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 35 locations (the communities served by 34 ACCHSs and one community in the Torres Strait), and 645 staff in the ACCHSs. Sociodemographic and general health indicators, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. The main community baseline sample closely matched the distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in the weighted NATSISS by age, sex, jurisdiction and remoteness. There were inconsistent differences in some sociodemographic factors between our sample and the NATSISS: our sample had higher proportions of unemployed people, but also higher proportions who had completed Year 12 and who lived in more advantaged areas. In both surveys, similar percentages of smokers reported having attempted to quit in the past year, and daily smokers reported similar numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The

  1. Do competing demands of physical illness in type 2 diabetes influence depression screening, documentation and management in primary care: a cross-sectional analytic study in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhout, Gill; Nagel, Tricia; Si, Damin; Connors, Christine; Brown, Alex; Bailie, Ross

    2013-06-06

    Relatively little is known about how depression amongst people with chronic illness is identified and managed in diverse primary health care settings. We evaluated the role of complex physical needs in influencing current practice of depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescriptions during a 12-month period, among adults with Type 2 diabetes attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care health centres in Australia. We analysed clinical audit data from 44 health centres participating in a continuous quality improvement initiative, using previously reported standard sampling and data extraction protocols. Eligible patients were those with Type 2 diabetes with health centre attendance within the past 12 months. We compared current practice in depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescription between patients with different disease severity and co-morbidity. We used random effects multiple logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and for clustering by health centre. Among the 1174 patients with diabetes included, median time since diagnosis was 7 years, 19% of patients had a co-existing diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease and 1/3 had renal disease. Some 70% of patients had HbAc1>7.0%; 65% had cholesterol >4.0 mmol1-1 and 64% had blood pressure>130/80 mmHg. Documentation of screening for depression and of diagnosed depression were low overall (5% and 6% respectively) and lower for patients with renal disease (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.31 and AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.75), and for those with poorly controlled disease (HbA1c>7.00 (AOR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.68 and AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30 to 84)). Screening for depression was lower for those on pharmaceutical treatment for glycaemic control compared to those not on such treatment. Antidepressant prescription was not associated with level of diabetes control or disease severity. Background levels of

  2. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  3. The Strong Family Program: an innovative model to engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and Elders with reproductive and sexual health community education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, P; Botfield, J R; Ritter, T; Wicks, J; Brassil, A

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Aboriginal youth in Australia often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (family violence) and poorer reproductive and sexual health than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. To address some of the disparities, the Strong Family Program was developed to deliver reproductive and sexual health education to Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. Methods Development of the program was based on an extensive consultation process with Aboriginal communities. It was implemented in three communities, with two groups from each hosting Aboriginal youth and Elders in a yarning circle within the culturally respectful frameworks of 'men and boys'' and 'women and girls'' business. An evaluation was conducted to measure reproductive and sexual health knowledge and attitude changes upon program completion, using pre- and post-program surveys and yarning (focus group discussions). Results Program participants comprised 48 females and 28 males. Overall, mean knowledge and attitude scores improved upon completion of the program (from 77% to 82% and from 4.15 to 4.32 out of 5, respectively). Among participants aged 20 years and under (the youngest participant was 13 years), there was an increase in knowledge (P=0.034); among participants aged over 20 years (the oldest participant was 78 years), there was an increase in positive attitudes (P=0.001). Participants perceived the information provided to be useful and relevant, with many reporting improved knowledge and attitudes around rights and respectful relationships. Conclusions Reproductive and sexual health education in Aboriginal communities should be based on community consultations and carried out within a culturally appropriate framework to promote greater success. Continued implementation of the Strong Family Program will promote increased understanding of respectful relationships and improved health outcomes for Aboriginal young people. So what? The Strong Family Program was based on an extensive

  4. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, pAboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recall of anti-tobacco advertising and information, warning labels and news stories in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Sarin, Jasmine; Wallace, Sharon; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe recall of anti-tobacco advertising (mainstream and targeted), pack warning labels, and news stories among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers, and to assess the association of these messages with attitudes that support quitting, including wanting to quit. A quota sampling design was used to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Frequency of recall of advertising and information, warning labels and news stories; recall of targeted and local advertising; attitudes about smoking and wanting to quit. More smokers recalled often noticing warning labels in the past month (65%) than recalled advertising and information (45%) or news stories (24%) in the past 6 months. When prompted, most (82%) recalled seeing a television advertisement. Just under half (48%) recalled advertising that featured an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person or artwork (targeted advertising), and 16% recalled targeted advertising from their community (local advertising). Frequent recall of warning labels, news stories and advertising was associated with worry about health and wanting to quit, but only frequent advertising recall was associated with believing that society disapproves of smoking. The magnitude of association with relevant attitudes and wanting to quit increased for targeted and local advertising. Strategies to tackle Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking should sustain high levels of exposure to anti-tobacco advertising, news stories and warning labels. More targeted and local information may be particularly effective to influence relevant beliefs and subsequently increase quitting.

  7. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  8. Origin and location of new Arctic islands and straits due to glacial recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wiesław; Ostafin, Krzysztof

    2018-03-29

    A total of 34 new islands (each 0.5 km 2 or above) have appeared due to recession of Arctic glaciers under climate warming since the 1960s. Analysis of maps and satellite images of the Arctic coasts has been a basic method of recognizing these islands. Their origin is the final stage of a process which began in the twentieth century. They appear only on the coasts where bedrock elevations above sea level are surrounded by depressions below this level, filled (at least from the landside) with glaciers. Their recession leads to flooding of the depressions by sea water, thus creating straits which separate the new islands from the mainland. Hence, such new islands appear only in Greenland and the European Arctic. Their ecosystems accommodate to new environmental conditions. In the near future, this process will be intensified in a situation of further warming.

  9. Measuring psychological distress in older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Australians: a comparison of the K-10 and K-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Williamson, Anna; Joshy, Grace; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    To assess the cross-cultural validity of two Kessler psychological distress scales (K-10 and K-5) by examining their measurement properties among older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and comparing them to those in non-Aboriginal individuals from NSW Australia. Self-reported questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study for 1,631 Aboriginal and 231,774 non-Aboriginal people were used to examine the factor structure, convergent validity, internal consistency and levels of missing data of K-10 and K-5. We found excellent agreement in classification of distress of Aboriginal participants by K-10 and K-5 (weighted kappa=0.87), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha K-10: 0.93, K-5: 0.88), and factor structures consistent with those for the total Australian population. Convergent validity was evidenced by a strong graded relationship between the level of distress and the odds of: problems with daily activities due to emotional problems; current treatment for depression or anxiety; and poor quality of life. K-10 and K-5 scales are promising tools for measuring psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 45 and over in research and clinical settings. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Odette R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  11. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  12. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  13. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  14. The Re-Creation and Resolution of the 'Problem' of Indigenous Education in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cross-Curriculum Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jacinta; Lowe, Kevin; Salter, Peta

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the 'problem' of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education represented in the Australian Curriculum's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures cross-curriculum priority. Looking beyond particular curriculum content, we uncover the policy discourses that construct (and reconstruct) the…

  15. Getting it Right: Study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Maree L.; Hackett, Maree L.; Farnbach, Sara

    2016-01-01

    for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 €...years of age......© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol...

  16. Transformation of tsunami waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. They propagate across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific tsunami waves. It has long been noted that the historical tsunami appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic tsunami was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical tsunami in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. Tsunami sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the tsunami, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands tsunamis in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.

  17. Mind the gap: What is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lee, K S Kylie; Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Scott; Freeburn, Bradley; Harrison, Kristie; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harms cause great concern to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Australia as well as challenges to policy makers. Treatment of alcohol use disorders forms one component of an effective public health response. While alcohol dependence typically behaves as a chronic relapsing condition, treatment has been shown to be both effective and cost-effective in improving outcomes. Provision of alcohol treatment services should be based on accurate assessment of treatment need. In this paper, we examine the likely extent of the gap between voluntary alcohol treatment need and accessibility. We also suggest potential approaches to improve the ability to assess unmet need. Existing methods of assessing the treatment needs of Indigenous Australians are limited by incomplete and inaccurate survey data and an over-reliance on existing service use data. In addition to a shortage of services, cultural and logistical barriers may hamper access to alcohol treatment for Indigenous Australians. There is also a lack of services funded to a level that allows them to cope with clients with complex medical and physical comorbidity, and a lack of services for women, families and young people. A lack of voluntary treatment services also raises serious ethical concerns, given the expansion of mandatory treatment programmes and incarceration of Indigenous Australians for continued drinking. The use of modelling approaches, linkage of administrative data sets and strategies to improve data collection are discussed as possible methods to better assess treatment need. [Brett J, Lee K, Gray D, Wilson S, Freeburn B, Harrison K, Conigrave K. Mind the gap: what is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:456-460]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  19. Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explain the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity is substantially higher among Australians of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between food insecurity and Aboriginal and Torres Islander status in the state of Victoria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected Victorians aged 18 years and older; including 339 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We categorised a respondent as food insecure, if in the previous 12 months, they reported having run out of food and not being able to afford to buy more. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, socioeconomic status (household income), lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity), social support (ability to get help from family, friends or neighbours), household composition (lone parent status, household with a child, and household size), and geographic location (rurality). Results Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (20.3%) were more likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (5.4%) to have experienced food insecurity; odds ratio (OR) = 4.5 (95% CI; 2.7-7.4). Controlling for age, SES, smoking, obesity and inability to get help from family or friends reduced the odds ratio by 38%; ORadjusted = 2.8 (1.6-5.0). Conclusions Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explained the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Victoria. Further research is needed to explain the disparity in food insecurity between the two populations in order to inform and guide corrective action. PMID:24924598

  20. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey, and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased

  1. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew; Chuter, Vivienne; Munteanu, Shannon; Hawke, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    diabetes related foot complication compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Evidence-based, culturally appropriate screening and intervention programs and improved access to effective health care services are required to prevent a widening of the gap in diabetes related foot complications between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians.

  2. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Australians have a 3–6 fold increased likelihood of experiencing a diabetes related foot complication compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Evidence-based, culturally appropriate screening and intervention programs and improved access to effective health care services are required to prevent a widening of the gap in diabetes related foot complications between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians.

  3. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes

  4. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

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    Aspin Clive

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS. Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3 and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11 and family carers (N = 3. Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that

  5. Plain packaging implementation: perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Durkin, Sarah; Lovett, Ray

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings on perceptions of risk and prestige related to different cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian Capital Territory. We hypothesised that the changes would decrease perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others', and that 'some brands are more prestigious than others', and this would be stronger among participants aged ≤35 years, and among smokers compared with non-smokers. Participants completed the survey prior to packaging changes, and were followed up 12 months later (n=98). Repeated measures ANCOVAs assessed perception changes. Following plain packaging implementation, there was a significant reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others'. There was no overall change in perceptions of prestige. However, there was a significant interaction for age. Analyses indicated a reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more prestigious than others' among younger participants (p=0.05), but no change among older participants (p>0.20). There was no interaction for smoking status for perceptions of prestige, indicating smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions did not differ on this measure. These findings provide support for the packaging changes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Wide variation in absolute cardiovascular risk assessment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with Type 2 diabetes

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    Bhakti Ramesh Vasant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA is based on the combined effects of multiple risk factors and can identify asymptomatic individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate variations in the use of absolute CVRA in patients with diabetes at Indigenous community healthcare centres, and to identify patient and health centre characteristics that may contribute to this variation. Methods: Audits of clinical records of 1,728 patients with a known diagnosis of diabetes across 121 health centres over the period 2012–2014 were conducted as part of a large-scale continuous quality improvement program. Multilevel regression modelling was used to quantify variation in recording of CVRA attributable to health centre and patient characteristics. Results: The proportion of eligible patients with documented CVRA was 33% (n=574/1,728. The majority (95% of assessments were conducted in the Northern Territory (NT. Multilevel regression analysis showed health centre characteristics accounted for 70% of the variation in assessments in the NT. Government-operated health centres had 18.8 times the odds (95% CI 7.7–46.2 of recording CVRA delivery compared with other health centres. Conclusion: Health centres in the NT delivered the majority of absolute CVRA to Indigenous patients with diabetes in our study. Health systems factors that may have facilitated provision of CVRA in the NT include decision support tools and a reporting process for CVRA delivery. Implementation of similar systems in other jurisdictions may help improve CVRA delivery. Early identification and treatment of high risk individuals through wider use of CVRA may help reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians with diabetes.

  7. Study protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a 12-week physical activity and nutritional education program for overweight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cargo Margaret

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher prevalence and incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than non-Indigenous Australian women. Physical inactivity is a key modifiable risk factor for obesity and evidence shows that even modest reductions in waist circumference (WC have significant health benefits. Trialing physical activity programs in difficult-to-reach high risk groups, especially urban Indigenous Australians poses distinct implementation challenges. Methods/Design The trial objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured 12-week physical activity group program with nutritional advice. The design is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. This study protocol describes the implementation and evaluation of the program. Participants are randomised into either an intervention or waitlisted group. The waitlisted group have a 12 month waiting period before commencing the 12-week program. Participant data is collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, aged 18-64 years with a waist circumference greater than 80 centimetres residing in Adelaide. The primary outcome measure is WC change immediately post program from baseline. Secondary outcomes include short term and long term changes in WC, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (calculated HOMA, haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP. Behavioural and psychosocial surveys are administered to assess physical activity, dietary intake and the participant's motivation, self-efficacy and perceived social support for physical activity. Qualitative interviews focusing on participants' motivation, enablers and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity will be undertaken. Implementation fidelity and participation are also assessed. Discussion The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women's Fitness Program (WFP is designed

  8. Resting heart rate, physiological stress and disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: analysis from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alice; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Brown, Alex; Lawton, Paul D; Cass, Alan; Hoy, Wendy; O'Dea, Kerin; Maple-Brown, Louise J

    2016-02-11

    Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to long-term stress, which can manifest in individuals as physiological stress. The aim was to explore the relationship between low socioeconomic status and physiological stress in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Using data from the eGFR Study (a cross-sectional study of 634 Indigenous Australians in urban and remote areas of northern and central Australia), we examined associations between resting heart rate and demographic, socioeconomic, and biomedical factors. An elevated resting heart rate has been proposed as a measure of sustained stress activation and was used as a marker of physiological stress. Relationships were assessed between heart rate and the above variables using univariate and multiple regression analyses. We reported a mean resting heart rate of 74 beats/min in the cohort (mean age 45 years). On multiple regression analysis, higher heart rate was found to be independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity, being a current smoker, having only primary level schooling, higher HbA1c and higher diastolic blood pressure (model R(2) 0.25). Elevated resting heart rate was associated with lower socioeconomic status and poorer health profile in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Higher resting heart rate may be an indicator of stress and disadvantage in this population at high risk of chronic diseases.

  9. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  10. Crustal Structure Picture of Deception Island [western Bransfield Strait] From Gravimetric and Magnetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, M.; Carbó, A.; Martín, Davila; Muñoz, A.; Agudo, L.

    Bransfield Strait constitutes a marginal basin that separates the South Shetland archipielago from the Antarctic Peninsula. Since the beginning of its geological record, due to the presence of several submarine and above sea surface volcanoes, eruptions could be appointed easily. All these aspects turn the area as one of the most active at Antarctic region. During 1999 austral summer a seismic crisis was developed. It caused the organisation of a geophysical campaign called DECVOL, where several Spanish scientific institutions participated. Along this, several kinds of studies were carried out. Onland: geodesic GPS and gravity measurements, sampling and gases analysis, continuous seismic recording and geomagnetic measurements. Additionally a geophysical marine campaign [inside and outside Deception island] was carried out. Bathymetry and geopotential information [earth gravity field and geomagnetis m data] were acquired. The multi-disciplinar campaign goal was to perform a fast geophysical evaluation of the volcanic risk. This aspect was important particularly, because the emplacement of Spanish and Argentinean semi -permanent stations around its inner bay. In this study, potential field data recorded along this cruise have been used, together with satellite borne altimetry derived data for gravity, seismic bibliography information of the area, and finally magnetic data compiled in previous campaigns, that were processed until homogeneity could be guaranteed. All these gives a deep detail vision of the structure of the crust at Deception surroundings. In this communication the Bouguer gravity anomaly and scalar magnetic maps are presented, compared and discussed, as well as three gravity and magnetic marine profiles are 2D 1/2 modelled.

  11. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  12. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards aboriginal australians and torres strait islanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Blick, J.; Dudgeon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude.Method:Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized...... order.The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head...... correlated with the IAT,(r=.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure....

  13. Determination of the seismic moment tensor for local events in the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of the analysis for a set of earthquakes recorded in the Bransfield Strait and the South Shetland Islands in the period 1997-1998, to determine focal mechanisms and source time functions. Events with magnitudes between 3 and 5.6 have been analysed, and the source parameters have been retrieved using a robust methodology (INPAR) that allows the reliable inversion of a limited number of noisy records. This methodology is particularly important in oceanic environments, where the presence of seismic noise and the small number of stations makes it difficult to analyse small magnitude events. (author)

  14. Culture Matters. Community Report. Reporting on a Research Project To Explore Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Vocational Education and Training for Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Matthew; Egg, Mez

    The factors leading to positive outcomes in vocational education and training (VET) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were examined through person-to-person and telephone interviews with indigenous Australian students and VET providers. The interviews focused on the following: the range of VET provision and the extent of its…

  15. Ngoelmun Yawar, Our Journey: The Transition and The Challenges for Female Students Leaving Torres Strait Island Communities for Boarding Schools in Regional Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobongie, Francis

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the transitional experiences and challenges faced by girls from the Torres Strait Islands when they leave individual communities to attend boarding school in regional Queensland. The paper presents original ethnographic research using a narrative enquiry approach, capturing stories as narrated by a broad cohort of girls from…

  16. What's in a Name?: Exploring the Implications of Eurocentric (Re)naming Practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nomenclature in Australian Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuffen, Sara; Cahir, Fred; Zeegers, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with knowledge of ways in which Eurocentric (re)naming practices inform contemporary pedagogical approaches, while providing understandings pertinent to the mandatory inclusion of the cross-curriculum priority area: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" (Australian…

  17. Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi

    2017-03-30

    This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.

  18. Development of a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework: A Shared Process to Guide Effective Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Brands

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders. The initiative was guided by three core principles: achieving policy-relevant evidence-based outcomes; engaging and maintaining trust with Indigenous Australians at every phase; and employing best-practice and appropriate research methods. Four components of research comprised the Framework development: evidence review; multifaceted stakeholder consultation and input; triangulation of findings; and direct stakeholder input in drafting and refining the Framework. The evidence review confirmed the increasing burden of cancer on Indigenous Australians, while stakeholder consultations facilitated comprehensive input from those with lived experience. The consultations revealed issues not identified in existing literature, and gave different emphases of priority, thus reinforcing the value of including stakeholder perspectives. This paper focuses primarily on documenting the methods used; findings are presented only in order to illustrate the results of the process. The published Framework is available at www.canceraustralia.gov.au; further description and analyses of findings from the consultations will be published elsewhere. The logistics inherent in large-scale consultation are considerable. However, the quality of data and the foundation for sustained partnership with stakeholders and knowledge translation vastly outweighed the challenges. The process of wide

  19. Improving the provision of pregnancy care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women: a continuous quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Rumbold, Alice R; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Bailie, Ross S; Boyle, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-24

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women are at greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes than non-Indigenous women. Pregnancy care has a key role in identifying and addressing modifiable risk factors that contribute to adverse outcomes. We investigated whether participation in a continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative was associated with increases in provision of recommended pregnancy care by primary health care centers (PHCs) in predominantly Indigenous communities, and whether provision of care was associated with organizational systems or characteristics. Longitudinal analysis of 2220 pregnancy care records from 50 PHCs involved in up to four cycles of CQI in Australia between 2007 and 2012. Linear and logistic regression analyses investigated associations between documented provision of pregnancy care and each CQI cycle, and self-ratings of organizational systems. Main outcome measures included screening and counselling for lifestyle-related risk factors. Women attending PHCs after ≥1 CQI cycles were more likely to receive each pregnancy care measure than women attending before PHCs had completed one cycle e.g. screening for cigarette use: baseline = 73 % (reference), cycle one = 90 % [odds ratio (OR):3.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI):2.2-4.1], two = 91 % (OR:5.1, 95 % CI:3.3-7.8), three = 93 % (OR:6.3, 95 % CI:3.1-13), four = 95 % (OR:11, 95 % CI:4.3-29). Greater self-ratings of overall organizational systems were significantly associated with greater screening for alcohol use (β = 6.8, 95 % CI:0.25-13), nutrition counselling (β = 8.3, 95 % CI:3.1-13), and folate prescription (β = 7.9, 95 % CI:2.6-13). Participation in a CQI initiative by PHCs in Indigenous communities is associated with greater provision of pregnancy care regarding lifestyle-related risk factors. More broadly, these findings support incorporation of CQI activities addressing systems level issues into primary care

  20. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pAboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.

  1. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  2. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. Methods This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492 using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. Results There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman’s rho = .765 p < 0.001. There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002–1.459 in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04–7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02–6.97 respectively p < 0.001 in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Conclusion Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage

  3. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen; Ward, Paul; Grace, Blair S; Gleadle, Jonathan

    2017-10-11

    Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492) using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman's rho = .765 p < 0.001). There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002-1.459) in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04-7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02-6.97 respectively p < 0.001) in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  4. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Commander, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, shall navigate, anchor or moor in this area. [26...

  5. Development and feasibility testing of an education program to improve knowledge and self-care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robyn A; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Buitendyk, Natahlia J; Adams, Michael J; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen A; Berry, Narelle M; Atherton, John; Johnson, Stella

    2015-01-01

    There is a 70% higher age-adjusted incidence of heart failure (HF) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, three times more hospitalisations and twice as many deaths as among non-Aboriginal people. There is a need to develop holistic yet individualised approaches in accord with the values of Aboriginal community health care to support patient education and self-care. The aim of this study was to re-design an existing HF educational resource (Fluid Watchers-Pacific Rim) to be culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, working in collaboration with the local community, and to conduct feasibility testing. This study was conducted in two phases and utilised a mixed-methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). Phase 1 used action research methods to develop a culturally safe electronic resource to be provided to Aboriginal HF patients via a tablet computer. An HF expert panel adapted the existing resource to ensure it was evidence-based and contained appropriate language and images that reflects Aboriginal culture. A stakeholder group (which included Aboriginal workers and HF patients, as well as researchers and clinicians) then reviewed the resources, and changes were made accordingly. In Phase 2, the new resource was tested on a sample of Aboriginal HF patients to assess feasibility and acceptability. Patient knowledge, satisfaction and self-care behaviours were measured using a before and after design with validated questionnaires. As this was a pilot test to determine feasibility, no statistical comparisons were made. Phase 1: Throughout the process of resource development, two main themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation. These were the importance of identity, meaning that it was important to ensure that the resource accurately reflected the local community, with the appropriate clothing, skin tone and voice. The resource was adapted to reflect this, and members of the local community voiced the recordings for the

  6. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  7. The Utilisation of Pisang Island as a Platform to Support the Current Safety and Security Needs of Marine Navigation in the Straits of Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current marine navigational practice relies less on long-range visual marine signals such as lighthouses for reference purposes. This is due to the availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, which are integrated with other navigational aids on ships. Therefore, the objective of this study is to review the function of Pisang Island lighthouse and to propose the most relevant use of Pisang Island for current navigational needs. The function of the lighthouse was reviewed according to the IALA Navigational Guide and the AIS data image. The result showed that the most suitable navigational use of the lighthouse is to act as a reference for Line of Position (LOP. The AIS data image indicated that mariners are not using Pisang Island lighthouse for LOP. The trend in the Straits of Malacca (SoM was compared with the trend in the Straits of Dover, UK. The selected experts verified that LOP was not practised there. As a specific example, a tanker ship route in the South China Sea was used to further support that LOP was not practised. This evidence supported the view that Pisang Island lighthouse is less relevant for current navigational practice and does not directly support the coastal state VTS operation and the establishment of the marine electronic highway. Furthermore, the existing shore-based VTS radar has limitations on range and the detection of targets near Pisang Island. Therefore, this study proposes the establishment of a new radar station on Pisang Island at the existing site of the lighthouse. The proposed new radar station on Pisang Island will add to the existing coverage of the VTS radar, bridging the coverage gaps to overcome the weakness of the existing shore-based radar and improve the safety and security of marine navigation in the SoM.

  8. Prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; O'Connor, Catherine C; Morgan, Stephen; Chamberlain, Catherine; Hocking, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) are Australia's first peoples. Between 2006 and 2015, HIV notifications increased among Aboriginal people; however, among non-Aboriginal people, notifications remained relatively stable. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people overall and by subgroups. In November 2015, a search of PubMed and Web of Science, grey literature and abstracts from conferences was conducted. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people tested and those who tested positive for HIV. The following variables were extracted: gender; Aboriginal status; population group (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, adults, youth in detention and pregnant females) and geographical location. An assessment of between study heterogeneity (I 2 test) and within study bias (selection, measurement and sample size) was also conducted. Seven studies were included; all were cross-sectional study designs. The overall sample size was 3772 and the prevalence of HIV was 0.1% (I 2 =38.3%, P=0.136). Five studies included convenient samples of people attending Australian Needle and Syringe Program Centres, clinics, hospitals and a youth detention centre, increasing the potential of selection bias. Four studies had a sample size, thus decreasing the ability to report pooled estimates. The prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people in Australia is low. Community-based programs that include both prevention messages for those at risk of infection and culturally appropriate clinical management and support for Aboriginal people living with HIV are needed to prevent HIV increasing among Aboriginal people.

  9. Hydrographic control of the marine ecosystem in the South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Valerie; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Holm-Hansen, Osmund

    2010-04-01

    The South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region of the West Antarctic Peninsula is an important spawning and nursery ground of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and is an important source of krill to the Southern Ocean. Krill reproductive and recruitment success, hence supply of krill to predator populations locally and in downstream areas, are extremely variable on interannual and longer time scales. Interannual ecosystem variability in this region has long been recognized and thought related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but understanding of how has been limited by the hydrographic complexity of the region and lack of appropriate ocean-atmosphere interaction models. This study utilizes multidisciplinary data sets collected in the region from 1990 to 2004 by the U.S. Antarctic Living Marine Resources (AMLR) Program. We focus on hydrographic conditions associated with changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of salp- and copepod-dominated zooplankton assemblages during 1998 and 1999, years characterized respectively by a strong El Niño event and La Niña conditions. We provide detailed analyses of hydrographic, biological and ecological conditions during these dichotomous years in order to identify previously elusive oceanographic processes underlying ecosystem variability. We found that fluctuations between salp-dominated coastal zooplankton assemblages and copepod-dominated oceanic zooplankton assemblages result from the relative influence of Weddell Sea and oceanic waters and that these fluctuations are associated with latitudinal movement of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (sACCf). Latitudinal movements of the sACCf can be explained by meridional atmosphere teleconnections instigated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean by ENSO variability and are consistent with out-of-phase forcing in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. During El

  10. Paths to improving care of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women following gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandra; Roux, Nicolette; Preece, Cilla; Rafter, Eileen; Davis, Bronwyn; Mein, Jackie; Boyle, Jacqueline; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Chamberlain, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Aim To understand enablers and barriers influencing postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes in Australian Indigenous women and how screening might be improved. Australian Indigenous women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are less likely than other Australian women to receive postpartum diabetes screening. This is despite a fourfold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within eight years postpartum. We conducted interviews with seven Indigenous women with previous GDM, focus groups with 20 Indigenous health workers and workshops with 24 other health professionals. Data collection included brainstorming, visualisation, sorting and prioritising activities. Data were analysed thematically using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Barriers are presented under the headings of 'capability', 'motivation' and 'opportunity'. Enabling strategies are presented under 'intervention' and 'policy' headings. Findings Participants generated 28 enabling environmental, educational and incentive interventions, and service provision, communication, guideline, persuasive and fiscal policies to address barriers to screening and improve postpartum support for women. The highest priorities included providing holistic social support, culturally appropriate resources, improving Indigenous workforce involvement and establishing structured follow-up systems. Understanding Indigenous women's perspectives, developing strategies with health workers and action planning with other health professionals can generate context-relevant feasible strategies to improve postpartum care after GDM. Importantly, we need evidence which can demonstrate whether the strategies are effective.

  11. Realist Review of Programs, Policies, and Interventions to Enhance the Social, Emotional, and Spiritual Well-Being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People Living in Out-of-Home Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lindstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The child protection system in Australia includes out-of-home care (OoHC for children and young people at risk of harm and neglect. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are 9 times more likely to be placed in care than non-Aboriginal young people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015. Australia’s history of colonization and subsequent policies have caused trauma to individuals, families, and communities and resulted in poor physical and mental health and mistrust of services. This review was undertaken to identify programs and policies currently in place that aim to improve the mental health and well-being of this vulnerable population. It provides an analysis of both the strengths of the current system as well as what has been inadequately addressed based on literature in the area.By incorporating an Aboriginal perspective, this review focuses on social, emotional, and spiritual well-being (SESWB and the aspects of a child’s life and community that promote this. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO publications. The review identified nine programs or policies that are designed to improve the SESWB of Aboriginal young people in OoHC in local and international settings. These are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle, cultural support plans, Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs, family group decision-making, therapeutic care, and Panyappi Mentoring Program. Given that culturally competent service provision is important to SESWB, the review concludes that an increase in monitoring and evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of programs and ensure their implementation and sustainability when warranted. Policy and research work is needed to adapt and devise programs promoting the SESWB of Aboriginal young people (at both the

  12. The facilitators and barriers of physical activity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander regional sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Claudie; Doering, Thomas; Alley, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Disparities in health perspectives between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations are major concerns in many of the world's well-developed nations. Indigenous populations are largely less healthy, more prone to chronic diseases, and have an earlier overall mortality than non-Indigenous populations. Low levels of physical activity (PA) contribute to the high levels of disease in Indigenous Australians. Qualitative analysis of structured one-on-one interviews discussing PA in a regional setting. Participants were 12 Indigenous Australian adults, and 12 non-Indigenous Australian adults matched on age, sex, and basketball division. Most participants reported engaging in regular exercise; however, the Indigenous group reported more barriers to PA. These factors included cost, time management and environmental constraints. The physical facilitators identified by our Indigenous sample included social support, intrinsic motivation and role modelling. Findings describe individual and external factors that promote or constraint PA as reported by Indigenous Australian adults. Results indicate that Indigenous people face specific barriers to PA when compared to a non-Indigenous sample. Implications for public health: This study is the first to compare the perspective of Indigenous Australians to a matched group of non-Indigenous Australians and provides useful knowledge to develop public health programs based on culturally sensitive data. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  14. Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Whop, Lisa J; Valery, Patricia C; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Condon, John R

    2015-02-01

    diagnosed with localised disease and less likely to receive treatment for their cancer compared to their urban counterparts. More research is needed to fully understand geographic differentials in cancer outcomes within the Indigenous population. Knowing how geographical location interacts with Indigenous status can help to identify ways of improving cancer outcomes for Indigenous Australians. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  15. Strait of Georgia chinook and coho fishery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, A. W

    1983-01-01

    The chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon fishery in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, is a valuble sport and commercial resource...

  16. A multi-centre open-label randomised non-inferiority trial comparing watchful waiting to antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media without perforation in low-risk urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (the WATCH trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Leach, Amanda Jane; Askew, Deborah; Walsh, Robyn; Kong, Kelvin; Girosi, Federico; Bond, Chelsea; Morris, Peter; Lujic, Sanja; Hu, Wendy; Usherwood, Tim; Tyson, Sissy; Spurling, Geoffrey; Douglas, Markeeta; Schubert, Kira; Chapman, Shavaun; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Murray, Reeion; Rabbitt, Keitha; Porykali, Bobby; Woodall, Cheryl; Newman, Tina; Reath, Jennifer

    2016-03-03

    Treatment guidelines recommend watchful waiting for children older than 2 years with acute otitis media (AOM) without perforation, unless they are at high risk of complications. The high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities leads these children to be classified as high risk. Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are at lower risk of complications, but evidence to support the subsequent recommendation for watchful waiting in this population is lacking. This non-inferiority multi-centre randomised controlled trial will determine whether watchful waiting is non-inferior to immediate antibiotics for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with AOM without perforation. Children aged 2 - 16 years with AOM who are considered at low risk for complications will be recruited from six participating urban primary health care services across Australia. We will obtain informed consent from each participant or their guardian. The primary outcome is clinical resolution on day 7 (no pain, no fever of at least 38 °C, no bulging eardrum and no complications of AOM such as perforation or mastoiditis) as assessed by general practitioners or nurse practitioners. Participants and outcome assessors will not be blinded to treatment. With a sample size of 198 children in each arm, we have 80 % power to detect a non-inferiority margin of up to 10 % at a significance level of 5 %, assuming clinical improvement of at least 80 % in both groups. Allowing for a 20 % dropout rate, we aim to recruit 495 children. We will analyse both by intention-to-treat and per protocol. We will assess the cost- effectiveness of watchful waiting compared to immediate antibiotic prescription. We will also report on the implementation of the trial from the perspectives of parents/carers, health professionals and researchers. The trial will provide evidence for the safety and effectiveness of watchful waiting

  17. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  18. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  19. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Higher notification rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are reported among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) compared with non-Aboriginal people in Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the pooled prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas among Aboriginal people in Australia by sex, age-group, setting (clinic vs population/community-based) and population group [adults, pregnant females, young people (12-29 years) and prisoners]. The databases Medline, PubMed and Web of Science were searched in May 2015. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of the four STIs in Aboriginal people and if possible, by gender, age-group, setting and population group. A total of 46 studies were included. The pooled prevalence was 11.2% (95%CI: 9.4-13.0%) for chlamydia (36 studies), 12.5% (95%CI: 10.5-14.6%) for gonorrhoea (28 studies), 16.8% (95%CI: 11.0-22.6%) for syphilis (13 studies) and 22.6% (95%CI: 18.5-26.7%) for trichomonas (11 studies); however, there was significant heterogeneity between studies (I(2) Aboriginal people through community-based programs that target asymptomatic young people.

  20. What are the legal dimensions to climate change in the Torres Strait?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change projections suggest that the Torres Strait Islands are one of the most vulnerable regions in Australia. This is due, in part, because several of the islands are only a metre or two above local mean sea level. Social and economic disadvantage further reduces the capacity to adapt to rapid environmental change, and so this problem is compounded on many of the Islands which lack adequate infrastructure, health services and employment opportunities. Consequently, considering the biophysical impacts in the socio-economic context is highly significant in order to understand - and hopefully improve - these communities' resilience to climate change. Cultural issues, not normally considered by natural scientists working on identifying climate impacts in human settlements, add increasing complexity to comprehending the full impacts of climate change in this location. Many Islanders connect the health of their land and sea country to their mental and physical wellbeing and, more broadly, their cultural integrity. In the longer term, the very existence of Ailan Kastom (Island Custom) may be threatened if projected sea level rise in combination with extreme weather events increases the frequency and/or severity of inundation incidents and necessitates relocation from the Islands. One other significant concern that has not been given appropriate consideration relates to the legal status of land (and sea) ownership. Over the last 15 years, the Torres Strait Islanders have successfully fought to obtain native title rights. Some Islanders are now concerned that these rights may disappear due to the impacts of climate change. In order to explore these issues, this paper provides: 1. a background to the climate change projections and likely direct and indirect impacts on the islands; and 2. a discussion of the legal dimension of the potential for climate change to impact on the native title rights of Torres Strait Islanders. We use the Torres

  1. Volcanism in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, M. R.

    Back-arc and marginal basins make up a significant portion of the earth's crust and they can represent the transition from continental to oceanic crust. The Bransfield Strait is a young marginal basin of the arc-trench system that lies off the northwestern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula. The strait is about 65 km wide and has a maximum water depth of 2000 m. "Active" volcanoes in the Bransfield Strait include two seamounts, which are south of the eastern end of King George Island, and three island volcanoes — Penguin, Deception, and Bridgeman Islands. Alkaline and calc-alkaline suites occur on these islands, and the seamounts are composed of tholeiites and basaltic andesites. This diversity is similar to that found in some back-arc basins, but the Bransfield Strait basalts as a group cannot be classified as back-arc basin or island-arc basalts. The diverse rock types and the chemical similarity of some of the Bransfield Strait basalts to ophiolite basalts suggests that some ophiolites were generated in back-arc basins.

  2. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  3. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  4. Soviet Carriers in Turkish Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    NATO from breakup in the Southern Region and their countries from war in 1974.8 PASOK (Socialist Party of Greece ) political rhetoric no:withstanding...Mudania on 11 October 1922 established the present borders I between Greece and Turkey. This marked the real end of World War I in the Middle East. The...e.g., Eastern Thrace) to Turkey. Greece kept the islands of the Aegean, but those near the Straits (e.g., Lemnos) were demilitarized. The Treaty of

  5. Sustained participation in annual continuous quality improvement activities improves quality of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAullay, Daniel; McAuley, Kimberley; Bailie, Ross; Mathews, Veronica; Jacoby, Peter; Gardner, Karen; Sibthorpe, Beverly; Strobel, Natalie; Edmond, Karen

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether participation in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease programme improved care and outcomes for Indigenous children. Data were collected from 59 Australian primary health-care centres providing services to Indigenous people and participating in the programme (February 2008 and December 2013). Indigenous children aged less than 2 years and centres that completed three or more consecutive annual audits within the 6-year study period were included. Crude and adjusted logistic generalised estimating equation models were used to examine the effect of year of audit on the delivery of care. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Outcomes were related to age-relevant health issues, including prevention and early intervention. These included administrative, health check, anticipatory guidance and specific health issues. During the audit period, there were 2360 files from 59 centres. Those that had a recall recorded, improved from 84 to 95% (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.44-4.11). Hearing assessments improved from 52 to 89% (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54). Improvement in anticipatory guidance, treatment and follow-up of medical conditions was almost universal. We documented significant improvements in quality of care of Indigenous children. Outcomes and their corresponding treatment and follow-ups improved over time. This appears to be related to services participating in annual CQI activities. However, these services may be more committed to CQI than others and therefore possibly better performing. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. The quantity, quality and characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian mentoring literature: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Towle, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring is a key predictor of empowerment and prospectively a game changer in the quest to improve health inequities. This systematic review reports on the state of evidence on mentoring for Indigenous Australians by identifying the quantity, nature, quality and characteristics of mentoring publications. Methods Thirteen databases were searched using specific search strings from 1983 - 2012. Grey literature was also canvassed. The resultant publications were mined to identify the...

  7. The quantity, quality and characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian mentoring literature: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Towle, Simon

    2014-12-13

    Mentoring is a key predictor of empowerment and prospectively a game changer in the quest to improve health inequities. This systematic review reports on the state of evidence on mentoring for Indigenous Australians by identifying the quantity, nature, quality and characteristics of mentoring publications. Thirteen databases were searched using specific search strings from 1983 - 2012. Grey literature was also canvassed. The resultant publications were mined to identify their outputs, nature, and quality. These were then conceptually mined for their characteristics to develop a model of mentoring that included the initiating environments, facilitating environments, operational strategies and outcomes. 771 citations were identified; 37 full text publications met inclusion criteria and were assessed. Fifteen were eligible for review. Four of five original research publications used strong qualitative research designs. No publications were found before 1999; the largest proportion concentrated in 2011 (n = 4). Facilitating environments included: mapping participants' socio-cultural and economic context; formal mentoring practices with internal flexibility; voluntary participation; integrated models with wrap-around services; mentor/staff competencies; and sustained funding. Mentoring strategies comprised: holistic scaffolding approaches; respectful, trusting, one-on-one mentoring relationships; knowledgeable mentors; regular contact; longer-term relationships and exit strategies; culturally-tailored programs; personal and social development opportunities; and specialised skills and learning opportunities. Outcomes varied in accordance to program aims and included improvements in aspects of education and employment, offending behaviours, relationships, and personal, social and professional development. Little research explored the effectiveness of mentoring, captured its impact qualitatively or quantitatively, developed appropriate measures or assessed its cost

  8. Process evaluation of a pilot evidence-based Polycystic Ovary Syndrome clinic in the Torres Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jacqueline; Hollands, Grace; Beck, Sarah; Hampel, Gaynor; Wapau, Hylda; Arnot, Marissa; Browne, Louise; Teede, Helena J; Moran, Lisa J

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic endocrine syndrome in reproductive-aged women which is very common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a pilot clinic on Thursday Island which aimed to provide a comprehensive evidence-based service for women with PCOS throughout the Torres Strait. Mixed-method evaluation at 12 months comprising a medical record audit, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Primary care. Audit of n = 11 clinics (n = 36 women), qualitative semi-structured interviews with n = 8 clinicians and focus group discussions with n = 8 women. (i) Fidelity to evidence-based guidelines, (ii) barriers and enablers to women using the service, (iii) the ability to meet the needs of women and the community. The clinic was largely successful in providing evidence-based care with up to 78% of women receiving recommended cardiometabolic screening, 100% emotional screening and 89% lifestyle management despite the remoteness of the clinic and limited financial and human resources. Health care providers report sustainability of the clinic will be dependent on factors including staffing, administrative support and inclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers. While the clinic has been largely successful there are areas identified for potential improvement and to facilitate sustainability which should be considered before up-scaling this model to a national level. These include systems, administrative and staffing support, engaging with other community services to facilitate lifestyle changes and ongoing engagement and upskilling of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health care providers. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  10. Alcohol management plans in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian communities in Queensland: community residents have experienced favourable impacts but also suffered unfavourable ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Clough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, ‘Alcohol Management Plans’ (AMPs provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents’ experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland’s 15 remote Indigenous communities. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48% males, 623 (52% females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities. Seven propositions about ‘favourable’ impacts and seven about ‘unfavourable’ impacts were developed from semi-structured interviews. For each proposition, one-sample tests of proportions examined participant agreement and multivariable binary logistic regressions assessed influences of gender, age (18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65 years, residence (≥6 years, current drinking and Indigenous status. Confirmatory factor analyses estimated scale reliability (ρ, item loadings and covariances. Results Slim majorities agreed that: AMPs reduced violence (53%, p = 0.024; community a better place to live (54%, 0.012; and children were safer (56%, p < 0.001. More agreed that: school attendance improved (66%, p < 0.001; and awareness of alcohol’s harms increased (71%, p < 0.001. Participants were equivocal about improved personal safety (53%, p = 0.097 and reduced violence against women (49%, p = 0.362. The seven ‘favourable’ items reliably summarized participants’ experiences of reduced violence and improved community amenity (ρ = 0.90. Stronger agreement was found for six ‘unfavourable’ items: alcohol availability not reduced (58%, p < 0.001; drinking not reduced (56%, p < 0.001; cannabis use increased (69%, p < 0.001; more binge drinking (73%, p < 0.001; discrimination experienced (77%, p < 0.001; increased fines, convictions and criminal records for breaching restrictions (90%, p < 0

  11. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  12. A survey on relation of morphological, molecular and phylogenetic structure of zoanthids of the islands located in the Hormoz Strait (Hormoz, Qeshm, Larak, Hengam)

    OpenAIRE

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa

    2014-01-01

    The order Zoantharia (Zoanthids) is one of the most neglected orders of cnidarians in the Persian Gulf. The present study aims to investigate the biodiversity of this order with morphological and molecular examination in the Persian Gulf. For this purpose, 123 colonies of zoanthids with variety of shape and colors have been collected from intertidal and shallow water zone of four islands, i. e. Hengam, Qeshm, Larak and Hormoz. After sampling, morphological characteristics of each specimen wer...

  13. The health effects of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The major healt effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population living in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children, and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect has proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers, who continued to show relatively high levels of demoralization some months after the accident. Moreover, the groups in the general population and the workers, in their differen ways, had continuing problems of trust that stemmed directly from the Three Mile Island accident. For both the nuclear workers and general population, the mental health and behavioral effects are understandable in terms of the objective realities of the threats they faced during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

  14. The Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum (BMP) is planning for further exclusive licences for exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Greenland off shore areas of Davis Strait. To support the decision process BMP has asked DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy and the Greenland I...

  15. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

  16. Children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hanna K; Viner-Brown, Samara I; Garcia, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Our objectives were to (a) estimate the prevalence of children's mental health problems, (b) assess family functioning, and (c) investigate the relationship between children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island. From the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, Rhode Island data for children 6 to 17 years of age were used for the analyses (N = 1326). Two aspects of family functioning measures, parental stress and parental involvement, were constructed and were examined by children's mental health problems, as well as other child and family characteristics (child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, parent's education, income, employment, family structure, number of children, and mother's general and mental health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship. Among Rhode Island children, nearly 1 (19.0%) in 5 had mental health problems, 1 (15.6%) in 6 lived with a highly stressed parent, and one third (32.7%) had parents with low involvement. Bivariate analyses showed that high parental stress and low parental involvement were higher among parents of children with mental health problems than parents of children without those problems (33.2% vs 11.0% and 41.0% vs 30.3%, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, parents of children with mental health problems had nearly 4 times the odds of high stress compared with parents of children without those problems. When children's mental health problems were severe, the odds of high parental stress were elevated. However, children's mental health was not associated with parental involvement. Children's mental health was strongly associated with parental stress, but it was not associated with parental involvement. The findings indicate that when examining the mental health issues of children, parental mental health and stress must be considered.

  17. Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withy, Kelley; Andaya, January; Vitousek, Sharon; Sakamoto, David

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal reports of a doctor shortage on the Big Island have been circulating for years, but a detailed assessment of the health care workforce had not previously been accomplished. The Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment used licensure data, focus groups, telephone follow up to provider offices, national estimates of average provider supply and analysis of insurance claims data to assess the extent of the existing medical and mental health workforce, approximate how many additional providers might be effectively utilized, develop a population-based estimate of future demand and identify causes and potential solutions for the challenges faced. As of February 2008, the researchers were able to locate 310 practicing physicians, 36 nurse practitioners, 6 physician assistants, 51 psychologists, 57 social workers and 42 other mental health providers. Based on national averages, claims analysis and focus groups, the Island could use approximately 45 additional medical professionals to care for the 85% of the population that is medically insured; a larger number to care for the entire population. Ascertaining a complete roster of mental health professionals was not possible using this methodology. The researchers compared the current supply of physicians with the national average of physicians to population and the number of visits to different specialists for the year 2006 and found specific regional shortages of providers. The focus groups concentrated on solutions to the workforce crisis that include the formation of a well-organized, broad collaboration to coordinate recruitment efforts, expand and strengthen retention and renewal activities, and reinvigorate the health profession pipeline and training opportunities. The researchers recommend collaboration between the community, government, business, health center care providers, hospitals and centers to develop a plan before the tenuous state of healthcare on the Big Island worsens. In addition, continued

  18. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  19. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers

  20. Operational Art of Maritime Straits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowell, James P

    2008-01-01

    .... Given the expanding role of asymmetric warfare in littoral sea control and the growing importance of strait integrity in the global economy, understanding the intricacies of operational factors...

  1. After accounting for competing causes of death and more advanced stage, do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with cancer still have worse survival? A population-based cohort study in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Walton, Richard; You, Hui; Baker, Deborah; Roder, David; Currow, David; Aranda, Sanchia

    2017-06-02

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia have been found to have poorer cancer survival than non-Aboriginal people. However, use of conventional relative survival analyses is limited due to a lack of life tables. This cohort study examined whether poorer survival persist after accounting for competing risks of death from other causes and disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis, for all cancers collectively and by cancer site. People diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry. Aboriginal status was multiply imputed for people with missing information (12.9%). Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 'advanced stage' at diagnosis (separately for distant and distant/regional stage). Survival was examined using competing risk regression to compute subhazard ratios (SHRs) with 95%CIs. Of the 301,356 cases, 2517 (0.84%) identified as Aboriginal (0.94% after imputation). After adjusting for age, sex, year of diagnosis, socio-economic status, remoteness, and cancer site Aboriginal peoples were more likely to be diagnosed with distant (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) or distant/regional stage (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.18-1.40) for all cancers collectively. This applied to cancers of the female breast, uterus, prostate, kidney, others (those not included in other categories) and cervix (when analyses were restricted to cases with known stages/known Aboriginal status). Aboriginal peoples had a higher hazard of death than non-Aboriginal people after accounting for competing risks from other causes of death, socio-demographic factors, stage and cancer site (SHR 1.40, 95%CI 1.31-1.50 for all cancers collectively). Consistent results applied to colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers. Aboriginal peoples with cancer have an elevated hazard of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people, after accounting for more advanced stage and competing

  2. The Australian Burden of Disease Study: impact and causes of illness and death in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Al-Yaman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates fatal and nonfatal disease burden among Indigenous Australians in 2011 and compares it with non-Indigenous Australians. The study found that there were 284 years lost per 1000 people because of premature death or living with ill health. Most of the disease burden was from chronic diseases (64%, particularly mental and substance-use disorders, injuries, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and respiratory diseases. The burden of disease was higher among males (54% than females (46% and higher for fatal (53% than for nonfatal burden (47%. The disease groups with the highest burden varied by age group, with mental and substance-use disorders and injuries being the largest disease groups among those aged 5–44 years, and cardiovascular disease and cancer becoming more prominent among those aged 45 and older. Large disparities existed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, with the total burden being 2.3 times the non-Indigenous rates, fatal burden being 2.7 times and nonfatal burden being 2 times.

  3. Tide-surge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Shi, Fengyan; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Shang, Shao-Ping; Kirby, James T.

    2010-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a long and wide shelf-channel where the hydrodynamics is extremely complex, being characterized by strong tides, and where storm surges frequently occur during the typhoon season. Obvious oscillations due to tide-surge interaction were observed by tide gauges along the northern Fujian coast, the west bank of the Taiwan Strait, during Typhoon Dan (1999). Numerical experiments indicate that nonlinear bottom friction (described by the quadratic formula) is a major factor to predict these oscillations while the nonlinear advective terms and the shallow water effect have little contribution. It is found that the tide-surge interaction in the northern portion of the Taiwan Strait is intensified by the strait. Simulations based on simplified topographies with and without the island of Taiwan show that, in the presence of the island, the channel effect strengthens tidal currents and tends to align the major axes of tidal ellipses along the channel direction. Storm-induced currents are also strengthened by the channel. The pattern of strong tidal currents and storm-induced currents along the channel direction enhances tide-surge interaction via the nonlinear bottom friction, resulting in the obvious oscillations along the northern Fujian coast.

  4. Ocean wave characteristic in the Sunda Strait using Wave Spectrum Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N. S.; Adiprabowo, S. R.; Nurfitri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The wave characteristics including significant wave height and direction, seas and swell in the Sunda Strait are analyzed seasonally to provide marine weather information. This is crucial for establishing secured marine activities between islands of Sumatera and Java. Ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are simulated for one year (July 1996–June 1977) by using SWAN numerical model. The ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are divided into three areas of interest; southern, centre and northern part of the Sunda Strait. Despite a weaker local wind, the maximum significant wave height is captured at the southern part with its height of 2.6 m in November compared to other seasonally months. This is associated with the dominated swell from the Indian Ocean contributes on wave energy toward the Sunda Strait. The 2D spectrum analysis exhibits the monthly wave characteristic at southern part that is dominated by seas along the year and swell propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Sunda Strait during December to February (northwest monsoon), May, and November. Seas and swell at northern part of the Sunda Strait are apprehended weaker compared to other parts of the Sunda Strait due to its location is farther from the Indian Ocean.

  5. Hydrological conditions in the straits of the Ryukyu archipelago and adjacent basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. V.; Bogdanov, K. T.

    2007-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the water are studied on the basis of hydrological and meteorological long-term data combined with the materials of field observations over a period longer than half a century in the region of the Ryukyu archipelago. New data about the hydrological characteristics of the waters were obtained. Characteristic differences of waters of various modifications in the main straits between the islands are demonstrated. The dependence of the water structure formation in the straits on the seasonal variability of the water exchange through the straits is distinguished.

  6. "Working Together": An Intercultural Academic Leadership Programme to Build Health Science Educators' Capacity to Teach Indigenous Health and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Taylor, Kate; Bessarab, Dawn; Kickett, Marion; Jones, Sue; Hoffman, Julie; Flavell, Helen; Scott, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Progress has been slow in improving health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians and other Australians. While reasons for this are complex, delivering healthcare respectful of cultural differences is one approach to improving Indigenous health outcomes. This paper presents and evaluates an intercultural…

  7. Training competent and effective Primary Health Care Workers to fill a void in the outer islands health service delivery of the Marshall Islands of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni Bhalachandra H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for health are non-existent in many parts of the world and the outer islands of Marshall Islands in Micronesia are prime examples. While the more populated islands with hospital facilities are often successful in recruiting qualified health professionals from overseas, the outer islands generally have very limited health resources, and are thus less successful. In an attempt to provide reasonable health services to these islands, indigenous people were trained as Health Assistants (HA to service their local communities. In an effort to remedy the effectiveness of health care delivery to these islands, a program to train mid-level health care workers (Hospital Assistants was developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the hospital in Majuro, the capital city of the Marshall Islands. Methods A physician instructor with experience and expertise in primary health care in these regions conducted the program. The curriculum included training in basic health science, essentials of endemic disorders and their clinical management appropriate to the outer islands. Emphasis was given to prevention and health promotion as well as to the curative aspects. For clinical observation, the candidates were assigned to clinical departments of the Majuro hospital for 1 year during their training, as assistants to the nursing staff. This paper discusses the details of the training, the modalities used to groom the candidates, and an assessment of the ultimate effectiveness of the program. Results Out of 16 boys who began training, 14 candidates were successful in completing the program. In 1998 a similar program was conducted exclusively for women under the auspices of Asian Development Bank funding, hence women were not part of this program. Conclusion For developing countries of the Pacific, appropriately trained human resources are an essential component of economic progress, and the health workforce

  8. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Zhiyu

    2013-06-01

    On continental shelves, a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing. In this paper, using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations, satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration, and results of a tidal model, we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing, upwelling, and river diluted water plumes. In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions, however, where thermohaline structure varies in different ways owing to significant influences of upwelling and river diluted water plumes. The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions off the Dongshan Island, Nanao Island, and Pingtan Island, while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified. The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  9. Legal regime of the Bering Strait and security of navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Skaridov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the legal regime and security of navigation in the Bering Strait. Methods formal logical method systemic method comparative legal method statistical method. Results in the recent years specialized publications contain numerous publications on the problems of development of Arctic shipping and the future intensification of the use of the Northern Sea Route. Whatever Arctic routes may be chosen by the skippers the vessels will have to overcome the narrowness of the Bering Strait. If the existing estimates are reasonable and the navigation of the NorthWest Sea Passage will increase it is appropriate to ask whether the legal regime and security means are adapted to the possible increase of commercial shipping and military navigation. In this respect the author formulates the legal measures aimed at ensuring security in the Bering Strait area with the account of growing cargo traffic. Scientific novelty for the first time the article proves the necessity to include into the Bering Strait area the territories bounded from the north by the east and west passages formed by the Diomede Islands and continental coasts of the Russian Federation and the United States and from the south ndash by the passages between the Cape of Chukotka and Cape Sevuokuk of St. Lawrence Island Cape Sivuka and the mainland of Alaska in order to protect the sea natural landscape and to ensure the maritime safety. The opinion is substantiated about the necessity to equip the marine passages forming the waters of the Bering Strait with a security system. The proposed legal regime of ensuring the safety of navigation in the Bering Strait which includes the common navigation rules establishing the areas of the vessel traffic separation designation of areas of marine reserves and organizationallegal means for damping the dangerous situations. Practical significance the findings and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and law

  10. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  11. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  12. Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

  13. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  14. Determining the Applicability of the Barotropic Approximation to the Mean Seasonal Flow Through the Tsushima/Korean Strait using Variational Assimilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, S. R; Jacobs, G. A; Leben, R. R

    2005-01-01

    .... The velocity measurements are from two lines of moored acoustic Doppler Current profilers (ADCPs) spanning the Tsushima/Korean strait just north and south of Tsushima island and the SSHA measurements are from the TOPEX altimeter...

  15. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  16. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann

    2010-12-01

    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean and sea ice regime in Nares Strait and the Arctic Ocean may contribute to the recently observed calving events in Petermann Fjord.

  17. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L O; Parkinson, D K

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  18. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms

  19. Perceptions of electronic health record implementation: a statewide survey of physicians in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Matthew C; Baier, Rosa R; Gardner, Rebekah L

    2014-10-01

    Although electronic health record use improves healthcare delivery, adoption into clinical practice is incomplete. We sought to identify the extent of adoption in Rhode Island and the characteristics of physicians and electronic health records associated with positive experience. We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health for the Health Information Technology Survey 2009 to 2013. Survey questions included provider and practice demographics, health record information, and Likert-type scaled questions regarding how electronic health record use affected clinical practice. The survey response rate ranged from 50% to 65%, with 62% in 2013. Increasing numbers of physicians in Rhode Island use an electronic health record. In 2013, 81% of physicians used one, and adoption varied by clinical subspecialty. Most providers think that electronic health record use improves billing and quality improvement but has not improved job satisfaction. Physicians with longer and more sophisticated electronic health record use report positive effects of introduction on all aspects of practice examined (P electronic health record introduction (P electronic health record vendors most frequently used in Rhode Island, 5 were associated with improved job satisfaction. We report the largest statewide study of electronic health record adoption to date. We found increasing physician use in Rhode Island, and the extent of adoption varies by subspecialty. Although older physicians are less likely to be positive about electronic health record adoption, longer and more sophisticated use are associated with more positive opinions, suggesting acceptance will grow over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Howland Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites around...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites around...

  2. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Achieving universal health coverage in small island states: could importing health services provide a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is difficult to achieve in settings short of medicines, health workers and health facilities. These characteristics define the majority of the small island developing states (SIDS), where population size negates the benefits of economies of scale. One option to alleviate this constraint is to import health services, rather than focus on domestic production. This paper provides empirical analysis of the potential impact of this option. Methods Analysis was based on publicly accessible data for 14 SIDS, covering health-related travel and health indicators for the period 2003–2013, together with in-depth review of medical travel schemes for the two highest importing SIDS—the Maldives and Tuvalu. Findings Medical travel from SIDS is accelerating. The SIDS studied generally lacked health infrastructure and technologies, and the majority of them had lower than the recommended number of physicians in a country, which limits their capacity for achieving UHC. Tuvalu and the Maldives were the highest importers of healthcare and notably have public schemes that facilitate medical travel and help lower the out-of-pocket expenditure on medical travel. Although different in approach, design and performance, the medical travel schemes in Tuvalu and the Maldives are both examples of measures used to increase access to health services that cannot feasibly be provided in SIDS. Interpretation Our findings suggest that importing health services (through schemes to facilitate medical travel) is a potential mechanism to help achieve universal healthcare for SIDS but requires due diligence over cost, equity and quality control. PMID:29527349

  4. An Observational Array for High-Resolution, Year-Round Measurements of Volume, Freshwater, and Ice Flux Variability in Davis Strait: Cruise Report for R/V Knorr 179-05, 22 September-4 October 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Craig

    2004-01-01

    .... This 300-km-wide strait sits between Baffin Island and the west coast of Greenland and acts as the gateway for waters passing between the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the subpolar North Atlantic...

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Overview of a public health approach to pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Annette; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Swanepoel, De Wet; Goulios, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Childhood hearing impairment is a significant cause of disability in developing countries. Otitis media and meningitis are leading infectious causes of preventable hearing loss in children. It is estimated that the Pacific Islands have among the greatest global burden of childhood hearing impairment due to infectious causes, and yet there is currently very little in the research literature on pediatric hearing disorders in this region. (1) To review existing research literature on pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands, and (2) to present a public health approach to the development and improvement of childhood hearing services in the Pacific Islands. The primary tool was a comprehensive literature review. MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant journal articles. There was no limit on the date of publication. Any article reporting on hearing impairment in the Pacific Region was included. A total of 23 journal articles were found that satisfied the above inclusion criteria. The limited information available in the literature suggests that otitis media and vaccine-preventable infections are a significant cause of avoidable childhood hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands. Pediatric audiology services are limited in this region. Further research is required to develop effective public health programs that should reduce the burden of preventable childhood hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. There is limited information in the research literature on pediatric hearing impairment and audiology services in the Pacific Islands. Epidemiological data based on the WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol are urgently needed, and the development of audiology services within the existing public and primary health care framework should reduce the burden of preventable hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Molokai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Niihau Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lanai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  16. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  17. Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high-resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    2005-08-01

    The variability of the water transport through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica) was investigated using a high-resolution model. This model of the Mediterranean circulation was developed in the context of the Mercator project. The region of interest is the western Mediterranean between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Strait of Sicily. The major water masses and the winter convection in the Gulf of Lions were simulated. The model reproduced the meso-scale and large-scale patterns of the circulation in very good agreement with recent observations. The western and the eastern gyres of the Alboran Sea were observed but high interannual variability was noticed. The Algerian Current splits into several branches at the longitude of the Strait of Sicily level, forming the Tyrrhenian branch, and, the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Atlantic Tunisian Current in the eastern Mediterranean. The North Current retroflexed north of the Balearic Islands and a dome structure was observed in the Gulf of Lions. The cyclonic barotropic Algerian gyre, which was recently observed during the MATER and ELISA experiment, was evidenced in the simulation. From time-series of 10-day mean transport, the three straits presented a high variability at short time-scales. The transport was generally maximum, in April for the Strait of Gibraltar, in November for the Strait of Sicily, and in January for the Strait of Corsica. The amplitudes of the transport through the Straits of Gibraltar (0.11 Sv) and Sicily (0.30 Sv) presented a weaker seasonal variability than that of the Strait of Corsica (0.70 Sv). The study of the relation between transport and wind forcing showed that the transport through the Strait of Gibraltar is dependent on local zonal wind over short time-scales (70%), which was not the case for the other straits (less than 30%). The maximum (minimum) of the transport occurred for an eastward (westward) wind stress in the strait. An interannual

  18. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  19. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, G K

    1981-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, illustrated the inadequacy of Pennsylvania's public health sector in implementing emergency measures. Throughout the crisis, decisions impacting public health were made by engineers and physicists rather than by physicians. Recommendations to improve the preparedness of the state's public health department to handle future nuclear accidents include: developing a radiological emergency response plan for the health aspects of an accident/ establishing a radiation health unit/ collecting baseline data on the incidence of hypothyroidism around nuclear power plants/ and preparing potassium iodide for deployment and distribution.

  20. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem from the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ave, Charlie; Kapa, D Ramaiah; Ottesen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF. Surveys carried out at the baseline, mid-term, stop-MDA, and post-MDA periods assessed LF antigen (Ag) prevalence in children and adults. Historical data, health workers' observations, and hospital records were used to assess the trend and burden of chronic disease. The baseline Ag prevalence (1999) ranged from 2.0% in Manihiki to > 18.0% in Aitutaki, Mitiaro, and Pukapuka, and the national average Ag prevalence was 8.6%. MDA, carried out with a national treatment coverage over six annual rounds of MDA ranging from 63.5 to 96.7% in different years, was stopped in 2007. By then, the national Ag prevalence had declined to 0.27%. The post-MDA surveillance survey results (2013-2014) showed that Ag prevalence had fallen to 0% in 11/12 islands, and the national prevalence was only 0.03%. Chronic filarial disease had almost entirely disappeared. The Cook Islands met all the criteria required for the World Health Organization (WHO) to acknowledge elimination of LF as a public health problem, as it did officially in 2016. This success also confirms that LF, even when transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that are recognized to be more efficient than other vector species, can be eliminated as a public health problem by six rounds of MDA.

  1. Intraseasonal variability and tides in Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Gordon, Arnold L.; Sprintall, Janet; Herunadi, Bambang

    2000-05-01

    Intraseasonal variability and tides along the Makassar Strait, the major route of Indonesian throughflow, are investigated using spectral and time-frequency analyses which are applied to sea level, wind and mooring data. Semidiurnal and diurnal tides are dominant features, with higher (lower) semidiurnal (diurnal) energy in the north compared to the south. Sea levels and mooring data display intraseasonal variability which are probably a response to remotely forced Kelvin waves from the Indian Ocean through Lombok Strait and to Rossby waves from the Pacific Ocean. Sea levels in Tarakan and Balikpapan and Makassar mooring velocities reveal intraseasonal features with periods of 48-62 days associated with Rossby waves from the Sulawesi Sea. Kelvin wave features with periods of 67-100 days are seen in Bali (Lombok Strait), at the mooring sites and in Balikpapan, however, they are not seen in Tarakan, which implies that these waves diminish after passing through the Makassar Strait.

  2. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    Based on repeat observations made during 2001-2003 along two transects in the Taiwan Strait this study aims at understanding factors controlling primary productivity with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, the major bio...

  3. Low health literacy and poor health status in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Baker, Kay Kromer; Onaka, Alvin; Braun, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AA/PI). We used a population-based sample in Hawai'i to consider if low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes in Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiians, and other AA/PI groups compared with Whites. In data weighted and adjusted for population undercounts and complex survey design, low health literacy varied significantly by group, from 23.9% among Filipinos, 20.6% in Other AA/PI, 16.0% in Japanese, 15.9% in Native Hawaiians, and 13.2% in Whites (χ(2) (4) = 52.22; p culture, and health outcomes.

  4. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  5. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing: a nursing perspective of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, M; Gallant, M; MacKinnon, M; Dell, G; Herbert, R; MacNutt, G; McCarthy, M J; Murnaghan, D; Robertson, K

    2000-06-01

    The philosophy of primary health care (PHC) recognizes that health is a product of individual, social, economic, and political factors and that people have a right and a duty, individually and collectively, to participate in the course of their own health. The majority of nursing models cast the client in a dependent role and do not conceptualize health in a social, economic, and political context. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing is congruent with the international move towards PHC. It guides the nurse in practising in the social and political environment in which nursing and health care take place. This model features a nurse/client partnership, the goal being to encourage clients to act on their own behalf. The conceptualization of the environment as the collective influence of the determinants of health gives both nurse and client a prominent position in the sociopolitical arena of health and health care.

  6. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  7. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The problems arising from Three Mile Island were not limited to deficiencies in reactor design, safety controls or manpower training. The author, Pennsylvania's newly appointed Secretary of Health, states that the public health sector was totally unprepared to cope with this accident. H e contends that decisions were made by engineers and physicists when medical doctors were called for; that the incidence of hypothyroidism has increased tenfold downwind from two Pennsylvania reactor sites and he appeals for cooperation between physicians specialized in radiation medicine, nuclear physicists and engineers to establish public health safeguards in the event of future accidents. (Auth.)

  10. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, G K [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Graduate School of Public Health

    1981-01-01

    The problems arising from Three Mile Island were not limited to deficiencies in reactor design, safety controls or manpower training. The author, Pennsylvania's newly appointed Secretary of Health, states that the public health sector was totally unprepared to cope with this accident. H e contends that decisions were made by engineers and physicists when medical doctors were called for; that the incidence of hypothyroidism has increased tenfold downwind from two Pennsylvania reactor sites and he appeals for cooperation between physicians specialized in radiation medicine, nuclear physicists and engineers to establish public health safeguards in the event of future accidents.

  11. Evaluation of a Leadership in Mental Health course for Pacific Island Nation delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    We report the background to and preliminary evaluation of the Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course, run for the first time in Cairns in conjunction with Creating Futures 2015. The course was well attended and well received, with increased confidence in key areas demonstrated and concerns regarding local application identified. In addition to positive comments, content and delivery issues were raised. Future opportunities for expanding upon this initial course are discussed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. A review of health leadership and management capacity in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine; Roberts, Graham; Hall, John

    2012-04-01

    ACCESS AND UTILISATION OF HEALTH CARE: The armed conflict that engulfed the Solomon Islands between 1998 and 2003 significantly disrupted the provision of health care especially in rural and remote areas. There is one doctor for 3,300 people and approximately 13 nurses and midwives for 10,000 people. Despite limitations 87% of people seek health care when sick. FINANCING THE HEALTH SYSTEM: The SIG placed a series of reservations on ministerial goods and services budgets that effectively the budget by 33%, severely impacting provincial budgets and resulting in acquired debts. Shortfalls have been addressed by allocating Health Sector Support Program funds to the provinces to allow services to continue, a strategy that will likely recur, but by which donor support replaces government provision Provincial health accountants have received training in MYOB in 2009 but acquittal systems require higher level accounting skills for reports to be submitted on time to permit the release of subsequent funding tranches. HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH: The shortage of doctors and specialists is a key challenge. As at December 2010, there were a total of 2,728 health workers in the public sector in Solomon Islands. Staff costs consume on average 55% of provincial health grants Filled Public Service Division staff establishments and budgetary reservations have reduced the ability to meet the salary and wage costs of new graduates. Solomon Islands is currently negotiating to assist Vanuatu in filling its nursing staff vacancies with its surplus The return of 75 Cuban trained medical officers from 2013 presents the management challenge of accessing budget provisions for so many new positions and in funding the infrastructure needed to house, equip and maintain them in service. HEALTH MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE: Provincial health managers are operationally responsive to local needs, managerially responsible to provincial governments, while being concerned with adherence to central MHMS policy

  13. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  14. Lessons of Three Mile Island for the health care community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the key points that we should have learned from the TMI accident. There has to be one responsible decision maker; otherwise conflicting decision increase the stress and anxiety levels. There has to be a realistic appraisal and clear communication of the situation with all of the people involved. Both overoptimistic and overpessimistic views are deleterious in promoting realistic responses from the population at risk. There has to be an action plan on paper that is credible, one which people can believe will work. Adequate time, thought, and resources have to be dedicated to the plan. It is not simply a matter of putting words on paper. Education for radiation emergencies is critically important. All professional (including governors, their staffs, and health care personnel) and the general public must know something about radiation before they are caught in the middle of a crisis

  15. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  16. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankert, Stanley [Department of Applied Science, University of California - Davis (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration.

  17. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, Stanley

    1970-01-01

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration

  18. Analisis Kebijakan Pembiayaan Kesehatan di Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru (Policy Analysis: Health Financing in Aru Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calculation of Community Health Development Index (IPKM of Aru Islands is in rank 352, of alldistricts/cities in Indonesia. This low in IPKM rank was suspected to be the result of the ineffectivity and ineffi ciency on health budgeting. Various problems can be detected and identifi ed through the implementation of the District Health Accounts (DHA in the district/city level. The objectives of this research is mapping district health account, which consist of resources, organizer, activity and program. Method: This method applied was cross sectional design, and was conducted in 2012. The analysis unit was health district offi ce and a cross- sector health agencies ho had health funding allocation (Hospital, Department of Population and Family Planning, Regional Development Planning Board, Social Services. Results: The results showed that the largest source of funding comes from the Aru Islands government is 91.95% (81.60% APBD and APBN 9.31%. Most budget management is dominated by the government (94.42%. Most of the archipelagic Aru District budgets are used for activities that 54.67% indirect and direct activities amounted to 45.33%. Besides, fi nancing mapping results also indicate that public health programs Aru district absorb 11.25% of the total budget, 18.36% for individual health program efforts and the remaining 70.39% for program support. Conclusions: Health budget in District Aru largely sourced from the government (central, provincial and district levels. Indirect activities absorb more budget than Important government programs such as HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. Recomendations: The government should provide more funds to implement important programs of the government. Health District Offi ce should also be able to allocate substantial funds for essential government programs.

  19. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  20. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  1. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. Methods A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16–29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Results Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 % identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females. At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Conclusion Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other

  2. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  3. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  4. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  5. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  6. The Principles of Designing Hospital Hotel with the Approach of Health Tourism in Kish Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosh Sheikh Kazemha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is known as one of the fastest growing sectors of the world tourism industry. Today, medical tourism has been highly considered by tourists to take advantage of the health benefits and physical and psychological effects of specific areas. Medical tourism as one of the tourism dimensions helps the economy of the country. Given the lucrative nature of the industry, many developing and even developed countries, focus their attention on the industry sector and plan for it. Hospital hotel is a combination of a hotel as a resort and a hospital as a place of healing and rejuvenation that in addition to the course of treatment provides accommodations after treatment as well. Hence, the present study examined the background of this type of application and its advantages and disadvantages and its feasibility in Kish Island to investigate the growth factors and potential of health tourism and ways to overcome obstacles to attract medical tourism. The findings show that the Island faces challenges in basic and health infrastructure, government’s efficient support, having a program for the development of medical tourism, having centers providing the health service with the international credit and promotion and integrated marketing. Proper planning, cheap prices of tourism services, medical education, creating websites of medical tourism and health tourism policy council are also the strategies mentioned in this study.

  7. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  8. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silove Derrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a whole. We sought to understand how mental health and psychosocial wellbeing were seen at the community level, the extent to which these issues were identified as being associated with periods of 'tension', violence and instability, and the availability of traditional approaches and Ministry of Health services to address these problems. Methods This article reports the findings of qualitative research conducted in a rural district on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, and focus groups were held with women, men and young people. Wellbeing was defined broadly. Results Problems of common concern included excessive alcohol and marijuana use, interpersonal violence and abuse, teenage pregnancy, and lack of respect and cooperation. Troubled individuals and their families sought help for mental problems from various sources including chiefs, church leaders and traditional healers and, less often, trauma support workers, health clinic staff and police. Substance-related problems presented special challenges, as there were no traditional solutions at the individual or community level. Severe mental illness was also a challenge, with few aware that a community mental health service existed. Contrary to our expectations, conflict-related trauma was not identified as a major problem by the community who were more concerned about the economic and social sequelae of the conflict. Conclusion

  9. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident.

  10. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  11. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  12. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  13. [Health assessment of Qi'ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Gong; Zheng, Yao-Hui; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-02-01

    Based on the theories of wetland ecosystem health and by using "Pressure-State-Response" model, a health assessment indicator system for Qi' ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary was built, and the assessment indices, assessment criteria, indices weighted values, assessment grades, and assessment methods were established to assess the health state of this ecosystem. In 2008, the overall health index of this ecosystem was 0.6580, health level was of grade II (healthy), and the pressure, state, and response indices were 0.3469, 0.8718, and 0.7754, respectively, suggesting that this ecosystem was good in state and response, but still had definite pressure. As a provincial nature reserve, this ecosystem was to be further improved in its health level. However, the research on the health assessment of mangrove wetland ecosystem was still young. Further studies should be made on the selection of assessment indices, long-term oriented monitoring of these indices, and quantification of the relations between ecosystem health level and ecosystem services.

  14. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  15. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. SEAFLOOR MORPHOLOGY INFLUENCES ON CURRENT CONDITION IN A SUNDA STRAIT BRIDGE PROJECT USING NUMERICAL MODEL

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    Franto Novico

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than 50 years since the idea to construct the bridge of Sunda Strait was inspirited by Prof. Sedyatmo. This issued is very important due to accelerate the economic growth between Sumatera Island and Java Island which is known as the densest population in the Indonesia. However, until today the bridge is still not construct yet because the high budget and the lack of technical data are still being problems. One of the most important data is current condition along the Sunda Strait. Unfortunately, no one has been clearly studied about current condition along Sunda Strait. Therefore, the information about current condition would be completed to fulfil the lack of data and information. The RV Geomarine I, as a research vessel conducted the survey in October 2012 that one of the objectives is to get the impression about the current condition around the bridge plan. Attaching echo sounder of bathy 1500 to get the depth profile and applied the RD Instrument ADCP Mobile Workhorse Monitor 300 kHz to collect the real current data and analyze the current using numerical model by Mike 21 were carried out to describe the condition of the current around the bridge proposed. In addition, the detail flexible mesh of hydrodynamic model is applied along bridge plan to analyse the current condition that caused by seafloor morphology. Based on the ADCP data it would be seen that the highest velocity record of the current occurs at October 18th 2012 at line 19 with the value 2.63 m/sec. Nevertheless, the numerical model shown the highest current velocity occurs around the northwest of Sangiang Island where the speed attains more than 4.59 m/sec.

  17. Magnetic properties as tracers for source-to-sink dispersal of sediments: A case study in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An

    2011-09-01

    Different lithologies between Taiwan and southeastern China lead to diverse mineralogical composition for weathering products derived from the two shores of the Taiwan Strait. Pyrrhotite and magnetite are respectively the dominant magnetic minerals associated with fluvial sediments from western Taiwan and southeastern China. While magnetite commonly co-exists with pyrrhotite in sediments sourced from Taiwan, pyrrhotite has not been found in sediments sourced from mainland China. Associated with such a distinction are vast differences in magnetic properties, including magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM, HIRM and the S-ratio, which can be used to study the provenances of sediments in the Taiwan Strait and adjoining marginal seas. Based on any two of these parameters, the magnetic characteristics of much of the Taiwan Strait sediment can be explained using a two-endmember mixing model. Source-to-sink dispersal of sediments in the Taiwan Strait can then be traced from the distribution of these parameters. The results not only corroborate an earlier study based on radionuclides and particle size distribution ( Huh et al., 2011) but reveal more diagnostic details. Besides spatial distribution based on a large number (216) of surface sediments, we also analyzed temporal variation of magnetic properties in six well-dated cores collected at key sites along the sediment source-to-sink pathways. From profiles of these parameters in cores from the middle of the northern Taiwan Strait, it is calculated that sediment supply from Taiwan has increased substantially in the past five decades, which may very well be related to accelerated land use and increased frequency of intense rainfalls in Taiwan during the same period. The approach described in this work may be extended to other source-to-sink systems around the world and through time, especially the mountainous islands fringing the Pacific and Indian Oceans in southeastern Asia. As with Taiwan, these islands have high

  18. Neocolonialism and Health Care Access among Marshall Islanders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U.S.-based Marshall Islanders face in receiving medical treatment. Calling on an expansive and inclusive notion of neocolonialism, I argue that Marshallese structural vulnerability with regard to health and health care treatment derives from their status as neocolonial subjects and from their limited claims to health-related deservingness associated with this status. [Marshall Islanders, health care access, neocolonialism, radiation exposure, immigrant health] L̗ōmn̗ak ko rōttin̗o: Ilo M̗ajel̗, juon bwebwenato kōn kōmmālmel im nuclear baam̗ ko im ekkatak ko rōttin̗o̗ kōn wāwein an baijin ko jelōt armej, barāinwōt an to an ri tarinae ro an Amedka pād ilo aelōn̄ kein, em̗ōj an jelōt ājmour an armej ro ilo aelōn̄ kein. Men̄e alikkar bwe Amedka in ear jino nan̄inmej kein im ej un eo armej rein rej em̗m̗akūt jān āne kein āne er n̄an ioon Amedka, elōn̄ iaan ri M̗ajel̗ rein rej jelm̗ae elōn̄ apan̄ ko n̄an aer del̗o̗n̄e jikin ājmour ko. Jān ekkatak eo ej bōk jikin kiō, jerbal in ej etali kabōjrak rak kein rōlōn̄ im armej in M̗ajel̗ ro ioon Amedka in rej jelm̗ae ilo aer jibadōk lo̗k jikin taktō. Ilo an kar Amedka jibadōk juon jea eo eutiej imejān lal̗ in, ij kwal̗ok juon aō akweelel bwe apan̄ ko an armej in M̗ajel̗ ikijjeen ājmour im jikin taktō ej itok jān aer kar ri kōm̗akoko ilo an kar

  19. Depositional environment of near-surface sediments, King George Basin, Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. I.; Park, B. K.; Chang, S. K.; Han, M. W.; Oh, J. K.

    1994-03-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to determine the depositional environments of the King George Basin northeast of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The cored section revealed three distinct lithofacies: laminated siliceous ooze derived from an increased paleoproductivity near the receding sea-ice edges, massive muds that resulted from hemipelagic sedimentation in open water, and graded sediments that originated from nearby local seamounts by turbidity currents. Clay mineral data of the cores indicate a decreasing importance of volcanic activity through time. Active volcanism and hydrothermal activity appear to be responsible for the enrichment of smectite near the Penguin and Bridgeman Islands.

  20. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  1. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  2. Meiofauna communities from the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel

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    G. C. Chen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiofauna from 20 stations (ranging between 8 and 550 m in the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel revealed 28 small sized taxa of higher categories including the temporary meiofauna. Nematoda, Copepoda Harpacticoidea and Polychaeta occurred in all samples; Turbellaria, Bivalvia, Kinorhyncha and Ostracoda were regularly present. Nematodes represented between 68% and 94% of the meiofauna at each station, followed by the copepods (2.3% to 14.5% and polychaetes (1.1% to 11.5%. Maximal total density, 9700 individuals 10 cm-2, was found in the surroundings of Picton Island, while the mean abundance per station was 3374 individuals 10 cm-2. The vertical pattern within the sediment showed that 87% of meiofauna components concentrated in the upper 0-5 cm sediment layers and 13% in the lower ( > 5cm layers. More than 95% of copepods, as well as the temporary meiofauna occurred in the top 5 cm layers. The proportion of nematodes and copepods shows opposite trends in the vertical distribution. Multivariate analysis using the total density and the 10 `true´ meiofauna taxa densities discriminates between communities in the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel area. Meiofaunal density was much higher in the Beagle Channel, but the diversity was lower than that in the Straits of Magellan. The Southern Magellan meiofauna communities are compared with those found at the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Weddell Sea (high Antarctic. It is considered that hydrodynamic features (tidal currents with strong winds, geographical characteristics, together with sediment composition are the key parameters structuring the meiofauna community in the Straits of Magellan and in the Beagle Channel.

  3. Scales of Marine Turbulence in Cook Strait (New Zealand) in the Context of Tidal Energy Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Cook Strait, the channel separating New Zealand's North and South Islands, is at it's narrowest around 22 km across with flows driven by a semidiurnal tide, wind and a baroclinic pressure gradient. Water depths are around 250-300 m in the main part of the channel, with shoals to the south and the submerged Fishermans Rock (aka pinnacle) in the centre northwest of the Strait. The substantial tidal flow speed is due to the tide being nearly out of phase comparing the ends of the strait and further enhanced by a narrowing of the strait. It has significant potential for a tidal energy resource suitable for extraction due to both its significant energy levels but also its proximity to electricity infrastructure and nationally high uptake of renewable energy in general. Here we describe recent flow and turbulence data and contextualise them in terms of scales relevant to marine energy extraction. With flow speeds reaching 3 m s-1 in a water column of > 200 m depth the setting is heuristically known to be highly turbulent. Turbulent energy dissipation rates are modest but high for oceans, around 5x10-5 W kg-1. Thorpe scales, the observed quantity representing the energy-bearing scale, are often as much as one quarter of the water depth. This means eddy sizes can potentially be larger than blade length. A boundary-layer structure was apparent but highly variable. This has implications for both operation of tidal turbines, as well as modulating their effect on the environment. Fishermans Rock itself is interesting as if can be considered a proxy for a larger array of turbines.

  4. Long-time observation of annual variation of Taiwan Strait upwelling in summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. L.; Kawamura, H.; Guan, L.

    The Taiwan Strait is between Taiwan Island and Mainland China, where several upwelling zones are well known for good fishing grounds. Earlier studies in the strait have been conducted on detecting upwelling by ship measurements with short-term cruises, but long-term variations of upwelling in this region are not understood. The present paper examines satellite images for a long-time observation of two major upwelling zones in the Taiwan Strait: Taiwan Bank Upwelling (TBU) and Dongshan Upwelling (DSU). Sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) images have been analyzed for summer months (June, July, and August) from 1980 to 2002. Results reveal annual variation of two upwelling zones. These two upwelling zones occur every year characterized with distinct low water temperature and high Chl-a concentrations. During the period from 1989 to 1998, SST is found to be 1.15 °C lower in TBU, and 1.42 °C lower in the DSU than the Taiwan Strait. The size of DSU has been found to be larger during summer of 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1995; TBU has been found to be weak during summer of 1994 and 1997. Ocean color images obtained from CZCS, OCI, and SeaWiFS also show high Chl-a concentrations (0.8-2.5 mg m-3) in two upwelling zones, which coincide with low SST in terms of location, shape, and time. These high Chl-a concentrations in TBU and DSU may be related to upwelling waters that bring nutrients from bottom to surface. The present results also show the potential of using satellite data for monitoring of ocean environment for long time period.

  5. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Accidental Risk Analyses of the Istanbul and Canakkale Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essiz, Betül; Dagkiran, Berat

    2017-12-01

    Maritime transportation plays an important role in the world. Commercial transport and navy are international maritime activities in different countries. Thanks to the role of straits and channels, these activities can be easier and faster, Turkey has a crucial importance on it because of importance of geographical location. The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally significant waterways connecting Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. They consist of the Canakkale Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and the Istanbul Strait, all part of the sovereign sea territory of Turkey and subject to the regime of internal waters. They are conventionally considered by the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Because of this geographical importance, all kinds of huge sized vessel activities and high volume cargo transportation always keep going in this waterway. On the other hand, the more maritime activities grow the more accident risks increase. So, can be examined the accident risks on Istanbul and Canakkale Straits and can be assessed risk analysis for them. In the context of the study, one can see general information of the Turkish Straits and the regulatory regime. In addition, tables are applied for vessel movement in the Turkish Straits by years in detail in order to sense variation of the vessel. Risk analyses may also be described in sections with many variables. This paper outlines ship accidents and the risk analysis of ship accidents is applied and resulted for the Turkish Straits. The last chapter concerns the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) System in the Turkish Straits.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of the 2012 Rhode Island health care worker influenza vaccination regulations: implementation process and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna; Lindley, Megan C; Dube, Donna; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Paiva, Kristi A; Raymond, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In October 2012, the Rhode Island Department of Health (HEALTH) amended its health care worker (HCW) vaccination regulations to require all HCWs to receive annual influenza vaccination or wear a surgical mask during direct patient contact when influenza is widespread. Unvaccinated HCWs failing to wear a mask are subject to a fine and disciplinary action. To describe the implementation of the 2012 Rhode Island HCW influenza vaccination regulations and examine their impact on vaccination coverage. Two data sources were used: (1) a survey of all health care facilities subject to the HCW regulations and (2) HCW influenza vaccination coverage data reported to HEALTH by health care facilities. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were performed using SAS Release 9.2. For the 2012-2013 influenza season, 271 inpatient and outpatient health care facilities in Rhode Island were subject to the HCW regulations. Increase in HCW influenza vaccination coverage. Of the 271 facilities, 117 facilities completed the survey (43.2%) and 160 facilities reported vaccination data to HEALTH (59.0%). Between the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 influenza seasons, the proportion of facilities having a masking policy, as required by the revised regulations, increased from 9.4% to 94.0% (P employee HCWs in Rhode Island increased from 69.7% in the 2011-2012 influenza season to 87.2% in the 2012-2013 season. Rhode Island's experience demonstrates that statewide HCW influenza vaccination requirements incorporating mask wearing and moderate penalties for noncompliance can be effective in improving influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs.

  8. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  9. Peer review CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modelling analysis : Proposed Duke Point generation facility Georgia Strait Crossing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A peer review of the air quality dispersion modeling analysis for the proposed gas-fired plant at Duke Point in the vicinity of Nanaimo, British Columbia was required, and SENES Consultants Limited (SENES) was commissioned to perform it. British Columbia Hydro had requested that Levelton Engineering Ltd. prepare an air quality impact assessment, and it was submitted to be included in Vancouver Island Generation Project (VIGP) permit application. This permit application was for the Joint Panel Review of the Georgia Strait Crossing Pipeline (GSX) Project and the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. The CALMET/CALPUFF Modelling System had been used by Levelton to conduct the air quality dispersion modelling analysis. Copies of the input and output files that had been used for the conduct of the modelling analysis were provided to SENES. The ability for SENES to reproduce the modelling results that had been published in the GSX application represented the first step in the peer review. This was accomplished by running the files received from Levelton into the CALMET/CALPUFF models. A detailed review of the methodology selected by Levelton during the conduct of the dispersion modelling analysis was then initiated by SENES. Some deficiencies were identified by SENES, despite concurrence with the overall conceptual approach adopted by Levelton. The deficiencies concerned meteorological data; startup, partial load and upset conditions; pollutant emissions; health risk assessment; cumulative impact on ambient particulate matter 10 concentrations; and collateral environmental impacts. refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  10. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Optimizing learning in healthcare: how Island Health is evolving to learn at the speed of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Conrad; Stroud, Carol; Jackson, Mary; Stevenson, R Lynn; Archer, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are challenged with constrained resources and increasing service demands by an aging population with complex care needs. Exponential growth in competency requirements also challenges staff's ability to provide quality patient care. How can a healthcare organization support its staff to learn "at or above the speed of change" while continuing to provide the quality patient care? Island Health is addressing this challenge by transforming its traditional education model into an innovative, evidence-based learning and performance support approach. Implementation of the methodology is yielding several lessons learned, both for the internal Learning and Performance Support team, and for what it takes to bring a new way of doing business into an organization. A key result is that this approach is enabling the organization to be more responsive in helping staff gain and maintain competencies.

  12. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  14. Automated multi-lesion detection for referable diabetic retinopathy in indigenous health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ramon; Carvalho, Tiago; Spurling, Geoffrey; Goldenstein, Siome; Wainer, Jacques; Luckie, Alan; Jelinek, Herbert F; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes mellitus that affects more than one-quarter of the population with diabetes, and can lead to blindness if not discovered in time. An automated screening enables the identification of patients who need further medical attention. This study aimed to classify retinal images of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples utilizing an automated computer-based multi-lesion eye screening program for diabetic retinopathy. The multi-lesion classifier was trained on 1,014 images from the São Paulo Eye Hospital and tested on retinal images containing no DR-related lesion, single lesions, or multiple types of lesions from the Inala Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health care centre. The automated multi-lesion classifier has the potential to enhance the efficiency of clinical practice delivering diabetic retinopathy screening. Our program does not necessitate image samples for training from any specific ethnic group or population being assessed and is independent of image pre- or post-processing to identify retinal lesions. In this Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, the program achieved 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity in identifying bright lesions, while detection of red lesions achieved a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 95%. When both bright and red lesions were present, 100% sensitivity with 88.9% specificity was obtained. All results obtained with this automated screening program meet WHO standards for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  15. Automated multi-lesion detection for referable diabetic retinopathy in indigenous health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Pires

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes mellitus that affects more than one-quarter of the population with diabetes, and can lead to blindness if not discovered in time. An automated screening enables the identification of patients who need further medical attention. This study aimed to classify retinal images of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples utilizing an automated computer-based multi-lesion eye screening program for diabetic retinopathy. The multi-lesion classifier was trained on 1,014 images from the São Paulo Eye Hospital and tested on retinal images containing no DR-related lesion, single lesions, or multiple types of lesions from the Inala Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health care centre. The automated multi-lesion classifier has the potential to enhance the efficiency of clinical practice delivering diabetic retinopathy screening. Our program does not necessitate image samples for training from any specific ethnic group or population being assessed and is independent of image pre- or post-processing to identify retinal lesions. In this Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, the program achieved 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity in identifying bright lesions, while detection of red lesions achieved a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 95%. When both bright and red lesions were present, 100% sensitivity with 88.9% specificity was obtained. All results obtained with this automated screening program meet WHO standards for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  16. 234Th-based measurements of particle flux in surface water of the Bransfield Strait, western Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of particulate and dissolved 234 Th were carried out in March 2002 in the Bransfield Strait located between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium found in the upper water column has allowed evaluation of downward particle fluxes across a frontal zone, which divides water masses coming from the Bellingshausen Sea and the Weddell Sea. The highest particle flux has been found in this mixing zone, where it was 3-5 times greater than in the adjacent waters. Total mass fluxes in the upper 150-m water column were estimated as about 2.2 g m -2 day -1 in the eastern part of the Strait and 3.1 g m -2 day -1 in the western area. (author)

  17. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ewen; Gatti, Clémence; Bambridge, Tamatoa; Chinain, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data. A mean incidence rate of 8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants for the study period and an average under-reporting rate of 54% were found. Taking into account hospitalization and medication fees, and loss of productive days, the health-related costs due to CFP were estimated to be USD $1613 and $749 for each reported and unreported case, respectively, with an overall cost of USD $241,847 for the study period. Comparison of the present status of CFP on Moorea with a risk map established in the late 1970's showed that the spatial distribution of the risk has stayed relatively stable in time, with the north shore of the island remaining the most prone to ciguatera. Evaluation of the current knowledge on CFP among different populations groups, i.e. fishermen, residents and visitors, was also conducted through direct and indirect interviews. About half of the fishermen interviewed were actually able to identify risky fishing areas. While, overall, the CFP risk perception in the fishing community of Moorea seemed accurate, although not scientifically complete, it was sufficient for the safe practice of their fishing activities. This may be due in part to adaptive responses adopted by 36% of the fishermen interviewed, such as the avoidance of either high-risk fishing sites or toxic species. At the residents and visitors' level, the study points out a striking lack of awareness

  19. Sea state indices for a coastal strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Dewey, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Strait of Georgia at the west coast of Canada is an enclosed coastal strait, about 250km long and 25 to 50 km wide, with great socio-economic importance. Regular freighter traffic, ferry services, commercial and sport fisheries, and recreational boating, makes the area one of the busiest marine areas in the world. Waves in SoG are generally small, with the median value of the significant wave height Hs=0.3m. However, strong outflows off the mountainous terrain can generate significant wave heights Hs > 2.5m, with high spatial and temporal variability. In addition, strong tidal currents and the Fraser River outflow generate localized regions of steep and breaking waves that are of particular concern. We have implemented the Wavewatch III model at 500m-resolution, forced by Environment Canada's high resolution atmospheric model winds and currents from the UBC NEMO implementation of the Salish Sea. The final output combines GIS layers of the predicted wave field (Hs, dominant wave length and direction), the modeled wind field and currents, observed currents from a set of CODAR systems, and a sea state index that highlights regions of potentially steep and dangerous waves.

  20. The bottom water exchange between the Singapore Strait and the West Johor Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunfang; Eltahir, Elfatih; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-08-01

    As a part of the border between Singapore and Malaysia, the West Johor Strait (WJS) suffered newly from harmful algal blooms. There is no previous study showing the source of the nutrients in the WJS. This paper is investigating the possible water exchange between the water in the WJS and the bottom water in Singapore Strait. This paper adopts a two-level nesting atmosphere-ocean coupled models to downscale the global atmosphere-ocean model into the Singapore coastal water, keeping the large-scale and long-term ocean and climate circulation signals and the advantages of the high-resolution. Based on the high-resolution ocean circulation fields, a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to trace the Singapore Strait's bottom water movement and the water mixing in the WJS. The results showed that the numerical models well resolved the Singapore coastal water regional circulation. There is a small but significant bottom water (1.25%) transport from the Singapore Strait to the WJS, which occurs from the southwest coastline of Singapore. The bottom water in the Singapore Strait prefers to enter the WJS during the spring tide and the flood period, and stay in Johor Strait for 6.4 days. The spring tide is the first-order factor for the water vertical mixing in the WJS, the wind is also very important for the vertical mixing especially in neap tide condition. An overall very important factor is the light perturbation. With the strongest vertical mixing of nutrients and bottom sediments due to the spring tide, the latter ones may inhibit the light penetration during the spring tide and reduce the algal bloom. The light penetration otherwise is greater during the neap tide, when the winds are the most important factor and hence favor the algal bloom. With the strongest wind in February and the longest permanence time in June and the sufficient nutrient supply in February and June, the most serious algal blooms may happen in February and June in the WJS.

  1. The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunimitsu Ayano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics, which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. Methods All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. Results The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96. Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07, illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15, the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22, and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and

  2. Health related physical fitness of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pina de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purposes of this research were: (1 to investigate health related physical fitness (HPF of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores islands, Portugal, and to (2 analyse sex differences in each age. The sample comprised 3742 children of both sexes, residents in Azores islands, Portugal. Twenty-five percent of the children in each gender and age in each island were evaluated with FITNESSGRAM: 1-mile run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk lift and body mass index (BMI (kg/m-2. Data were analysed as follow: χ2 to test the differences in ratio of success/failure in each age group; factorial ANOVA gender*age to test the differences between age groups and gender; discriminant function to test the presence of multivariate profiles of HPF in age natural groups. The ratios of success in both boys and girls were low. In girls there was a substantial decrease of ratio of success between 6 and 10 years of age. Among 10-year-old girls the global ratio of success was only 18%. In boys, the ratios of success had also a tendency to decrease along age. Among 10-years-old boys the global ratio of success was 39%. Boys had better performance in all tests than girls of all ages. Discriminant function analyses indicated that there were a low percentage of children classified in their natural age groups. Although there were children with HPF level advanced for their natural age groups, there were a considerable number of children with HPF level lower than the expected for their own age. RESUMO Pretendeu-se (1 conhecer os níveis da aptidão física associada à saúde (ApFS da população escolar de 6 a 10 anos de idade do arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal e (2 analisar as diferenças entre os sexos ao longo da idade. A amostra foi constituída por 3742 crianças, de ambos os sexos, residentes no arquipélago dos Açores. A avaliação da ApFS foi efectuada de acordo com a bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM: corrida/marcha da milha, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk

  3. [Taxation of traditional rums in French overseas territories and public health: The example of Reunion Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mété, D

    2017-11-01

    France has a complex system for the taxation of alcoholic beverages. In the French overseas territories (FOT), the system includes little-known specificities whose purpose is to preserve the sugar-cane-rum sector, a pillar for the weak economies in these territories. Taxes are reduced for traditional rums produced and sold locally. This favors the marketing of alcoholic spirits at low prices. In metropolitan France, on the contrary, spirits are heavily taxed drinks and their share in consumption is minor. Reunion Island (RI) is a FOT confronted with significant socioeconomic precariousness and with one of the highest national morbidity and mortality rates associated with alcohol abuse. Spirits account for half of the total consumption of pure alcohol, with a strong predominance for local traditional rums. These products are preferentially consumed by vulnerable subjects, often affected by an alcohol-use disorder. This study consists of three parts. First, a comparative analysis of alcoholic beverage prices between RI and mainland France. Second, an analysis of the bibliography on the consequences of preferential consumption of spirits. Third, a literature review on the impact of taxation on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. In France, the cheapest gram of pure alcohol is found in the FOT. The preferential consumption of spirits is associated with more frequent and more rapid complications. It is correlated with the level of alcoholic psychoses. Taxation is effective in reducing damage caused by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. The World Health Organization recommends the application of a minimum price for alcohol and tax increases. The reduced taxation of the traditional rums of the FOT does not take into account public health data. Its purpose is economic. In RI, it contributes to a high level of consumption of spirits and encourages excess mortality through alcohol abuse. It constitutes an inequality of health for these populations. Changes in this tax

  4. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  5. Strait of Juan de Fuca 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  6. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  7. Strait of Juan de Fuca 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  8. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  9. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  10. Optical properties and molecular diversity of dissolved organic matter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its light absorbing chromophoric component (CDOM) are of particular interest in the Arctic region because of climate change effects that lead to warmer sea surface temperatures and longer exposure to sunlight. We used continuous UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, excitation emission matrix fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry during a transect from the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea ice edge through Bering Strait to determine the variability of DOM and CDOM. These data were combined with discrete sampling for stable oxygen isotopes of seawater, in order to evaluate the contributions of melted sea ice versus runoff to the DOM and CDOM components. This study demonstrated that high geographical resolution of optical properties in conjunction with stable oxygen ratios and non-targeted ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was able to distinguish between different DOM sources in the Arctic, including identification of labile DOM sources in Bering Strait associated with high algal blooms and sampling locations influenced by terrestrially-derived DOM, such as the terrestrial DOM signal originating from Arctic rivers and dirty/anchor sea ice. Results of this study also revealed the overall variability and chemodiversity of Arctic DOM present in the Bering and Chukchi Seas.

  11. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  12. Strengthening capacity for local evidence to inform local responders to HIV in a remote Solomon Island health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MacLaren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Documenting specific knowledge and attitudes about HIV in the culturally diverse nation of Solomon Islands is essential to inform locally targeted public health responses. As part of a large capacity-strengthening project at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands, researchers, using a ‘learn-by-doing’ process, worked with participants in public health research methods. Methods: Overall, 43 people attended research capacity building workshops in 2011; eight joined the HIV study group. A cross-sectional survey including semi-structured interviews on HIV was conducted by the group. In February 2014, a hospital administrator was interviewed about how the 2011 study informed local HIV responses. Results: Of the 53 survey participants, 64% self-assessed as having little or no HIV knowledge, but 90% knew HIV could be transmitted between men and women during sex. Less than 50% knew HIV could be transmitted between two men having sex, 45% thought HIV could be transmitted by mosquitoes and 55% agreed condoms help protect from HIV. Most participants reported negative attitudes towards people with HIV. Three years later the health administrator reported ad hoc responses to HIV because of low HIV prevalence, increasing noncommunicable diseases, staff turnover and resource shortages. Discussion: This HIV study was used to strengthen research skills in local health professionals and community members in Solomon Islands. It showed that community members require accurate information about HIV transmission and that entrenched stigma is an issue. Although results provided local evidence for local response, ongoing health system challenges and little local HIV transmission meant HIV services remain rudimentary.

  13. The occurrence of pycnogonids associated with the volcanic structures of Bransfield Strait central basin (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Munilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four specimens of pycnogonids belonging to twenty-two species, eight genera and six families were collected with a rocky dredge during the cruise Gebrap-96 in the central basin of Bransfield Strait, from depths between 647 and 1592 m. The richest station in terms of abundance and biomass was DR6 (south of Livingston Island, which was also the shallowest one; at this relatively shallow depth food is more available than in deeper waters. The families Nymphonidae and Colossendeidae had the same number of specimens (21 specimens; 39% abundance each. The most abundant species were Nymphon villosum and N. proximum. Pallenopsis buphthalmus was collected for only the third time. The collections increased the geographical distribution of three species and the depth range of six species. The volcanic structures sampled were inactive during 1996, since none of the specimens showed signs of hydrothermal phenomena. This collection was typically representative of the west Antarctic benthic zone.

  14. Utilization and Accessibility of Healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: Implications for Health Outcomes and Disease Surveillance for Typhoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Ali, Said M.; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Deen, Jacqueline; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers', health administrators', and village residents' and leaders' perceptions of typhoid fever, and hypothetical and actual health care use among village residents for typhoid fever. Qualitative data provided descriptions of home-based treatment practices and use of western pharmaceuticals, and actual healthcare use for culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Survey data indicate health facility use was associated with gender, education, residency, and perceptions of severity for symptoms associated with typhoid fever. Data have implications for education of policy makers and health administrators, design and implementation of surveillance studies, and community-based interventions to prevent disease outbreaks, decrease risks of complications, and provide information about disease recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23208887

  15. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  16. Social media and health information sharing among Australian Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Kerrigan, Vicki; Henryks, Joanna; Freeman, Becky; Thomas, David P

    2018-04-17

    Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life. We present six social media user typologies together with an overview of health content that generated significant interaction. Content ranged from typical health-related issues such as mental health, diet, alcohol, smoking and exercise, through to a range of broader social determinants of health. Social media-based health promotion approaches that build on the social capital generated by supportive online environments may be more likely to generate greater traction than confronting and emotion-inducing approaches used in mass media campaigns for some health topics.

  17. Health priorities in an Australian mining town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, I. K.; Skinner, T. C.; Bhana, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In developed countries men's health is poorer than women's for a range of key indicators, and being an Indigenous man in Australia widens the gap substantially. Establishing the rates of mortality and health inequality between the sexes is useful for identifying that men's health...... with the aim of targeting health promotion activities more effectively. Methods: An intercept survey was conducted of residents of the Pilbara region towns Port Hedland and South Hedland in 2010. Settings included the main shopping centres and precincts in the towns and at community event venues. Interviewers...... recorded gender, age, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander self-identification status, whether people worked in the mining industry or not and in what capacity and occupation. Participants were asked a series of questions about health issues of concern from a list of 13 issues which included national...

  18. Beyond dire straits: a view from the conservation perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T. [Marine and Coastal Community Network, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    As a stretch of water, Bass Strait is often considered a place to be bridged, but in reality it has been treated as a bit of a road, a road without many rules, a road to profit and loss. If this stretch of water should have taught anything, it should have been the consequences of unchecked resource extraction. The Australian fur seal, the southern elephant seal, the southern right whale are just a few examples. Recent examples also suggest that there is some distance to go in the management of renewable resources at sustainable levels. In reality, Bass Strait, in terms of marine resource extraction, a region where the multiple-use concept has been applied for the longest period in Australia`s history, has not been managed particularly well. A number of concepts in the path to integrated planning are outlined, particularly the implementation of sanctuary areas which could assist the protection of biodiversity and ecological processes if applied in a network. Challenges to be faced in any future planning for the pro-active management of Bass Strait are listed. Conservation interests recognize lack of management in the area and the lack of interstate and interagency co-ordination continues to allow the region to be plundered much the same way as it always has. Bass Strait`s road to the future must be a bridge, a bridge built on solid foundations of ecological sustainability, a bridge with a resilient conservation keystone. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  20. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  1. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  2. Conditions in the Channel Islands during the 1940–45 German Occupation and their impact on the health of islanders: A systematic review of published reports and first-hand accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. H. Ellison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1940-45 German occupation of the Channel Islands culminated in a 10-month siege between the liberation of Normandy in 1944 and the fall of Berlin in May 1945. This paper systematically reviews published reports and first-hand accounts of conditions in the Channel Islands during the occupation, and assesses the impact of these conditions on the health of islanders. Vital registration data, official reports and first-hand accounts all suggest that the occupation was accompanied by widespread weight loss and an increase in mortality, particularly among the elderly and other vulnerable groups. Children, adolescents and young adults may have also suffered disproportionately as these groups (teenagers in particular were allocated rations that underestimated their full nutritional requirements. Indeed, data collected before, during and after the occupation reveal that the height and weight of school children was significantly lower during the occupation, while age at menarche was significantly delayed amongst girls entering puberty.

  3. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  5. Value chains of public and private health care services in a small EU Island State: A SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Buttigieg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and macro-economic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private healthcare sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care, as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health care systems in Malta, a small EU island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT. The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health care services in Malta.

  6. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  7. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report [TMI79c] to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists

  8. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  9. Dreams deferred: Contextualizing the health and psychosocial needs of undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ling, Irving; To, Tu My; Melo, Jason; Quach, Thu

    2017-07-01

    There are currently 1.5 million undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the US. Undocumented API young adults, in particular, come of age in a challenging political and social climate, but little is known about their health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the psychosocial needs and health status of API undocumented young adults. Guided by social capital theory, this qualitative study describes the social context of API undocumented young adults (ages 18-31), including community and government perceptions, and how social relationships influence health. This study was conducted in Northern California and included four focus group discussions (FGDs) and 24 in-depth interviews (IDIs), with 32 unique participants total. FGDs used purposeful sampling by gender (two male and two female discussions) and education status (in school and out-of-school). Findings suggest low bonding and bridging social capital. Results indicate that community distrust is high, even within the API community, due to high levels of exploitation, discrimination, and threats of deportation. Participants described how documentation status is a barrier in accessing health services, particularly mental health and sexual and reproductive health services. This study identifies trusted community groups and discusses recommendations for future research, programs, and policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-related Nonadherence to Medication Treatment Plans: Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl A; Long, Christopher R; Payakachat, Nalin; Felix, Holly; Bursac, Zoran; Rowland, Brett; Hudson, Jonell S; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2018-04-01

    Adherence to medication treatment plans is important for chronic disease (CD) management. Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) puts patients at risk for complications. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) suffer from high rates of CD and socioeconomic disparities that could increase CRN behaviors. Examine factors related to CRN to medication treatment plans within an understudied population. Using 2014 NHPI-National Health Interview Survey data, we examined CRN among a nationally representative sample of NHPI adults. Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine associations among financial burden-related factors, CD status, and CRN. Across CD status, NHPI engaged in CRN behaviors had, on an average, increased levels of perceived financial stress, financial insecurity with health care, and food insecurity compared with adults in the total NHPI population. Regression analysis indicated perceived financial stress [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.10-1.22], financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.90), and food insecurity (AOR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61) all increase the odds of CRN among those with CD. We also found significant associations between perceived financial stress (AOR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12), and food insecurity (AOR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and request for lower cost medication. This study demonstrated health-related and non-health-related financial burdens can influence CRN behaviors. It is important for health care providers to collect and use data about the social determinants of health to better inform their conversations about medication adherence and prevent CRN.

  12. On the Nature of the Mesoscale Variability in Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Robert; von Appen, Wilken; Mastropole, Dana; Valdimarsson, Hedinn; Vage, Kjetil; Jonsson, Steingriumur; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-04-01

    The dense overflow through Denmark Strait is the largest contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. As such, it is important to understand the sources of water feeding the overflow and how the water negotiates the sill as it passes into the Irminger Sea. Here we use a large collection of shipboard hydrographic transects occupied across the strait, together with 6-years of mooring data from the sill, to investigate the water masses and mesoscale variability of the overflow water. Two dominant types of mesoscale features were identified, referred to as a "bolus" and a "pulse". The former is a large lens of weakly stratified water corresponding to a slight increase in along-strait velocity. The latter is a thin layer with greater stratification and strongly enhanced along-strait flow. The boluses, which are often noted in the historical literature, are associated with cyclonic circulation, while pulses, which have not been previously identified, are associated with anti-cyclonic circulation. Both features result in increased transport of overflow water. It is argued that these fluctuations at the sill trigger energetic variability downstream in the Deep Western Boundary Current.

  13. Dynamics of Flow in the Region of the Tsugaru Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    possessed sufficient initial vrticity at a strait outlet. Beardslev and Hart (1978) pro- duced anal yr i c sol It i ons -t the out t low ci rcul at ion for a...38. ’da , M . , 1934, Hlydrographical studies based on simll taneous oceano - ,graphi cal surveys made in the Japan Sea and i ts adjacent waters during

  14. PROBLEMS OF SEA-GOING NAVIGATION IN KERCI STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŞTEFAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kerch Strait was the main passage between the Azov Sea and the Black Sea.The passage of ships through the strait is hampered by several physical and geographical factors: emerged and submerged morphology, the climatic and hydrological parameters. As a result of the extremely low depths of the strait, for the safety of navigation, authorities have been forced to dredge a canal for passage of the vessels with a medium draft, to make a properly hydrographical develop¬ment of the fairway and of the shores, and to establish a favorable anchoring area etc. Ice, which occurs in winter, makes the navigation very difficult, which takes place in convoys, preceded by ice breakers. Fog, frequent in the transitional seasons, hampered navigation; many accidents happened because of this inconvenience. Most accidents due to weather conditions (fog, wind are specific to smaller vessels, sea-river type, which are sailing in the area and which, due to their construction, are not able to deal with exceptional weather conditions at sea. The existence of surface currents, with the dominant direction north-south, from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea, affects navigation only around the heads where cau¬ses circular currents. In this case are affected only pleasure boats and low powered vessel. With all these impediments to navigation, the Kerch Strait is an important waterway, especially for the countries bordering the Sea of Azov: Ukraine and the Russian Federation, and also for the countries from the Black Sea basin.

  15. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  16. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  17. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  18. Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.; Pasquale, di A.; Kiche, I.; Onoka, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Maire, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic

  19. A prescription for sustaining community engagement in malaria elimination on Aneityum Island, Vanuatu: an application of Health Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriko; Kaneko, Akira; Yamar, Sam; Taleo, George; Tanihata, Takeo; Lum, J Koji; Larson, Peter S; Shearer, Nelma B C

    2015-07-31

    Community engagement has contributed to disease control and elimination in many countries. Community engagement in malaria elimination (ME) on Aneityum Island has been sustained since its introduction in the early 1990s. Capacity developed within this population has led to a health empowered community response. Health Empowerment Theory (HET) can account for the innovative community actions and capacity development efforts taken to realize and sustain meaningful changes in well-being. This study used the HET framework to investigate participant perceptions of ME efforts on the island focusing on two HET elements, personal and social-contextual resources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of empowerment as a critical element of community engagement. Six focus group discussions, ten key informant interviews and 17 in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2012 on Aneityum. Both deductive and inductive approaches to qualitative content analysis were used to identify themes, which were condensed, coded and classified based on the HET elements above. Awareness and use of personal and social-contextual resources played an important role in ME efforts. Most participants shared their knowledge to prevent malaria reintroduction. Many participants reported their skills needed for behavioral maintenance, problem-solving or leadership. Participants who perceived a threat took preventive actions even in the dry season. Community leaders focused on second generation capacity development. A local health coalition provided ME services. Members of networks were sources of information and assistance. Face-to-face was the preferred method of communication. Barriers to engagement (e.g., financial difficulties, health literacy issues and underdeveloped infrastructure) were minimized through active collaboration and mutual assistance. In the community engagement continuum, health empowerment develops incrementally overtime as people gain their knowledge and skills, form

  20. A photovoltaic generator on coconut island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, N. R.

    A description is given of the design principles of a photovoltaic—diesel power generator that has been constructed on Coconut Island, Torres Strait, to supply a village of 130 people with 240 V: 50 Hz electricity. Even though the solar fraction is only 0.4, the system sets a precedent for Australia with an array size of 23 kW. The uniqueness arises, however, from the fact that it is a stand-alone, inverter-driven system of considerable size with a sine-wave output.

  1. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  2. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  3. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  4. Environmental impacts on human health during a Saharan dust episode at Crete Island, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastos, P.T. [Univ. of Athens, Athen (Greece). Lab. of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment; Kampanis, N.A. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (Greece). Inst of Applied and Computational Mathematics; Giaouzaki, K.N. [Univ. of Crete, Iraklion (Greece). Dept. of Cardiology; Matzarakis, A. [Univ. of Freiburg (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study is to examine the synergistic environmental impacts (thermal bioclimatic conditions and air quality due to particulate pollution) with cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes, in Heraklion in the northern part of Crete Island, during a Saharan dust episode on March 22-23, 2008. Daily counts of admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes were obtained from the two main hospitals in Heraklion. The corresponding daily meteorological parameters, such as maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloud cover, from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service), were processed in order to estimate and analyze the bioclimatic conditions expressed by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is based on the energy balance models of the human body. Dust concentrations were derived from the SKIRON forecast model of the University of Athens, while Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products such as aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550), aerosol small mode fraction (SM), Aangstroem exponent in the 550-865 nm band and mass concentration, were used for the episode. Besides, daily composite anomalies (reference period: 1968-1996) of the air temperature and vector wind from the middle to the lower atmospheric levels (500 hPa - mean sea level) on March 23, 2008, were calculated from the reanalysis datasets of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The analysis of MODIS and SKIRON products showed that high AOD{sub 550} values (>0.9) and high dust concentration (>250 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), respectively, appear on March 23, 2008, while the respiratory admissions were five-fold than the mean daily admissions on the same day of the emergence of the Saharan dust episode (key day). According to the analysis, this is due to the existence of coarse-mode particles along the dust pathway, which

  5. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Saipan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maug Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maug...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rose Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Oahu...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Uracas Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ofu-Olosega Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ta'u Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ta'u...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 sites at...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 23 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  11. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  12. Tidal and residual currents in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. López

    Full Text Available During the 1992-1993 oceanographic cruise of the Spanish R/V Hespérides, recording equipment was deployed in the Bransfield Strait. Six Aanderaa RCM7 current meters and three Aanderaa WLR7 tide gauges were successfully recovered after an operation period of 2.5 months. Relevant features of the time series obtained are presented and discussed in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the tidal character of the currents and the relative importance of tidal flow in the general hydrodynamics of the strait. For these purposes a dense grid of hydrographic stations, completed during the BIOANTAR 93 cruise, is used. Preliminary geostrophic calculations relative to a 400 m depth, yield current velocities of around 0.20 m s-1 in the study area, whereas the magnitude of tidal currents is seen to be 0.30-0.40 m s-1.

  13. Competing priorities that rival health in adults on probation in Rhode Island: substance use recovery, employment, housing, and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kimberly R; Must, Aviva; Tang, Alice M; Beckwith, Curt G; Stopka, Thomas J

    2018-02-27

    Individuals on probation experience economic disadvantage because their criminal records often prohibit gainful employment, which compromises their ability to access the basic components of wellbeing. Unemployment and underemployment have been studied as distinct phenomenon but no research has examined multiple determinants of health in aggregate or explored how these individuals prioritize each of these factors. This study identified and ranked competing priorities in adults on probation and qualitatively explored how these priorities impact health. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2016 with 22 adults on probation in Rhode Island to determine priority rankings of basic needs. We used Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and the literature to guide the priorities we pre-selected for probationers to rank. Within a thematic analysis framework, we used a modified ranking approach to identify the priorities chosen by participants and explored themes related to the top four ranked priorities. We found that probationers ranked substance use recovery, employment, housing, and food intake as the top four priorities. Probationers in recovery reported sobriety as the most important issue, a necessary basis to be able to address other aspects of life. Participants also articulated the interrelatedness of difficulties in securing employment, food, and housing; these represent stressors for themselves and their families, which negatively impact health. Participants ranked healthcare last and many reported underinsurance as an issue to accessing care. Adults on probation are often faced with limited economic potential and support systems that consistently place them in high-risk environments with increased risk for recidivism. These findings emphasize the need for policies that address the barriers to securing gainful employment and safe housing. Interventions that reflect probationer priorities are necessary to begin to mitigate the health disparities in this population.

  14. Tile-Ippokratis: The Experience of an Ehealth Platform for the Provision of Health Care Services in the Island of Chios and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Homer

    2010-01-01

    Tile-Ippokratis proposed an integrated platform for the provision of low-cost ehealth services to citizens in southeast Mediterranean area (Island of Chios and Cyprus). The aim of the paper is to present the architecture, the design, and the evaluation results of this platform. The platform based on already evaluated state-of-the-art mobile ehealth systems and using wireless and terrestrial telecommunication networks is able to provide the following health care services: (i) telecollaboration and teleconsultation services between health care personnel and between health care personnel and patients and (ii) ehealth services for “at risk” citizens such as elderly and patients with chronic diseases (Island of Chios) and postsurgery patients (Cyprus). The ehealth systems supported capabilities for vital signal measurements (ECG 1 lead, SPO2, HR, BP, weight, and temperature), an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) infrastructure, and video conference, along with communication gateways for data transmission over ADSL, GPRS, and WLAN networks. PMID:20871664

  15. Workforce insights on how health promotion is practised in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Kathryn; Devine, Sue; Judd, Jenni; Nichols, Nina; Watt, Kerrianne

    2017-07-01

    Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services deliver holistic and culturally appropriate primary health care to over 150 communities in Australia. Health promotion is a core function of comprehensive primary health care; however, little has been published on what enables or challenges health promotion practice in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service. Apunipima Cape York Health Council (Apunipima) delivers primary health care to 11 remote north Queensland communities. The workforce includes medical, allied health, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and health practitioners and corporate support staff. This study aimed to identify current health promotion practices at Apunipima, and the enablers and challenges identified by the workforce, which support or hinder health promotion practice. Sixty-three staff from across this workforce completed an online survey in February 2015 (42% response rate). Key findings were: (1) health promotion is delivered across a continuum of one-on-one approaches through to population advocacy and policy change efforts; (2) the attitude towards health promotion was very positive; and (3) health promotion capacity can be enhanced at both individual and organisational levels. Workforce insights have identified areas for continued support and areas that, now identified, can be targeted to strengthen the health promotion capacity of Apunipima.

  16. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  17. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  18. Preliminary study of internal wave effects to chlorophyll distribution in the Lombok Strait and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Yessy; Oshima, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internal wave in the Lombok Strait to chlorophyll distribution in the surrounded areas using ERS SAR, ASTER, SeaWiFS and AVHRR-NOAA images data during 1996-2004 periods. The observation results shows that the internal waves were propagated to the south and the north of strait and mostly occurred during transitional season from dry to wet and wet season (rainy season) between September to December when the layers are strongly stratified. Wavelet transform of image using Meyer wavelet analysis is applied for internal wave detection in ERS SAR and ASTER images, for symmetric extension of data at the image boundaries, to prevent discontinuities by a periodic wrapping of data in fast algorithm and space-saving code. Internal wave created elongated pattern in detail and approximation of image from level 2 to 5 and retained value between 2-4.59 times compared to sea surface, provided accuracy in classification over than 80%. In segmentation process, the Canny edge detector is applied on the approximation image at level two to derive internal wave signature in image. The proposed method can extract the internal wave signature, maintain the continuity of crest line while reduce small strikes from noise. The segmentation result, i.e. the length between crest and trough, is used to compute the internal wave induced current using Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. On ERS SAR data contains surface signature of internal wave (2001/8/20), we calculated that internal wave propagation speed was 1.2 m/s and internal wave induced current was 0.56 m/s, respectively. From the observation of ERS SAR and SeaWiFS images data, we found out that the distribution of maximum chlorophyll area at southern coastline off Bali Island when strong internal wave induced current occurred in south of the Lombok Strait was distributed further to westward, i.e. from 9.25°-10.25°LS, 115°-116.25°SE to 8.8°-10.7°LS, 114.5°-116°SE, and surface chlorophyll concentration

  19. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed. Applying conservation constraints on these boxes provides barotropic reference velocities. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss from the area between the sections averaged over the four years is about 10 TW. The net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer is derived from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait. In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to the south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  20. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  1. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  2. Indigenous health: effective and sustainable health services through continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross S; Si, Damin; O'Donoghue, Lyn; Dowden, Michelle

    2007-05-21

    The Australian government's Healthy for Life program is supporting capacity development in Indigenous primary care using continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. An important influence on the Healthy for Life program has been the ABCD research project. The key features contributing to the success of the project are described. The ABCD research project: uses a CQI approach, with an ongoing cycle of gathering data on how well organisational systems are functioning, and developing and then implementing improvements; is guided by widely accepted principles of community-based research, which emphasise participation; and adheres to the principles and values of Indigenous health research and service delivery. The potential for improving health outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities using a CQI approach should be strengthened by clear clinical and managerial leadership, supporting service organisations at the community level, and applying participatory-action principles.

  3. 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea and their relation to tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most earthquake-prone areas in the eastern central Aegean Sea are the Izmir Bay, the Karaburun peninsula and the island of Chios. The level of seismic activity and tsunami potential are influenced by the presence of normal faults around the region. There have been about 20 moderate-size earthquakes from 496 BC to 1949 AD. Among these earthquakes, the ones on the dates 20 March 1389, 13 November 1856, 19/22 January 1866, 3 April 1881 and 23 July 1949 produced tsunamis. The Chios-Cesme earthquake (1881, Mw 6.5 took place in the South of the Cesme strait while the Chios-Karaburun earthquake (1949, Mw 6.7 occurred in the North. The tsunamis caused by the earthquakes affected the coasts of Chios Island and Cesme. These waves are thought to be associated with the earthquakes and co-seismic underwater failures possibly occurred along the coasts of the Chios Island and Karaburun Peninsula or on the complex subaqueous morphology between these lands. Some sea waves or oscillations observed following the aftershocks are believed to be related to other natural phenomena; e.g. the seiches occurred mainly in open-narrow bays as triggered by the earthquakes.

  4. The Principles of Designing Hospital Hotel with the Approach of Health Tourism in Kish Island

    OpenAIRE

    Anosh Sheikh Kazemha; Kaveh Shokoohi Dehkordi

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism is known as one of the fastest growing sectors of the world tourism industry. Today, medical tourism has been highly considered by tourists to take advantage of the health benefits and physical and psychological effects of specific areas. Medical tourism as one of the tourism dimensions helps the economy of the country. Given the lucrative nature of the industry, many developing and even developed countries, focus their attention on the industry sector and plan for it. Hospita...

  5. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  6. From 'what' to 'how' -- capacity building in health promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; MacLaren, David; Isihanua, Angela; MacLaren, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a capacity building process undertaken within the HIV/AIDS prevention project of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in the Solomon Islands. ADRA HIV/AIDS has recently reoriented its project structure, moving beyond its awareness raising approach to incorporate health promotion frameworks, theories, strategies and assumptions. These have been used to inform project practice in project planning, delivery and evaluation. This paper shares what has worked and not worked in the capacity building process, including a project evaluation of the initial HIV/AIDS awareness raising project and the application of a number of capacity building strategies, including utilising a volunteer Australian Youth Ambassador for Development (AYAD) funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Existing and new projects are outlined. The underlying theme is that any capacity building exercise must include structural support (e.g. management, national frameworks) to ensure the incorporation of new initiatives and approaches. With time this enables ownership by counterparts and external partnerships to develop. The presence of an AYAD volunteer has been an effective strategy to achieve this. Reflections from the evaluators, the AYAD volunteer and the HIV/AIDS team are included.

  7. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Sleep Outcomes in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-05-16

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.

  8. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  9. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  10. Tectonomagmatic activity and ice dynamics in the Bransfield Strait back-arc basin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak, Robert P.; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Matsumoto, Haru; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R.; Haxel, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    An array of moored hydrophones was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes and ice-generated sounds within the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. During a 2 year period, a total of 3900 earthquakes, 5925 icequakes and numerous ice tremor events were located throughout the region. The seismic activity included eight space-time earthquake clusters, positioned along the central neovolcanic rift zone of the young Bransfield back-arc basin. These sequences of small magnitude earthquakes, or swarms, suggest ongoing magmatic activity that becomes localized along isolated volcanic features and fissure-like ridges in the southwest portion of the basin. A total of 122 earthquakes were located along the South Shetland trench, indicating continued deformation and possibly ongoing subduction along this margin. The large number of icequakes observed show a temporal pattern related to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and a spatial distribution consistent with channeling of sea ice along submarine canyons from glacier fronts. Several harmonic tremor episodes were sourced from a large (˜30 km2) iceberg that entered northeast portion of the basin. The spectral character of these signals suggests they were produced by either resonance of a small chamber of fluid within the iceberg, or more likely, due to periodicity of discrete stick-slip events caused by contact of the moving iceberg with the seafloor. These pressure waves appear to have been excited by abrasion of the iceberg along the seafloor as it passed Clarence and Elephant Islands.

  11. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

  12. Pacific Island publications in the reproductive health literature 2000-2011: with New Zealand as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Improvement of tuberculosis laboratory capacity on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: a health cooperation project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Paglia

    Full Text Available Low-income countries with high Tuberculosis burden have few reference laboratories able to perform TB culture. In 2006, the Zanzibar National TB Control Programme planned to decentralize TB diagnostics. The Italian Cooperation Agency with the scientific support of the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases sustained the project through the implementation of a TB reference laboratory in a low-income country with a high prevalence of TB. The implementation steps were: 1 TB laboratory design according to the WHO standards; 2 laboratory equipment and reagent supplies for microscopy, cultures, and identification; 3 on-the-job training of the local staff; 4 web- and telemedicine-based supervision. From April 2007 to December 2010, 921 sputum samples were received from 40 peripheral laboratories: 120 TB cases were diagnosed. Of all the smear-positive cases, 74.2% were culture-positive. During the year 2010, the smear positive to culture positive rate increased up to 100%. In March 20, 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar officially recognized the Public Health Laboratory- Ivo de Carneri as the National TB Reference Laboratory for the Zanzibar Archipelago. An advanced TB laboratory can represent a low cost solution to strengthen the TB diagnosis, to provide capacity building and mid-term sustainability.

  14. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in the mental health of Indigenous children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Carrington CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of mental health problems among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is a major public health problem in Australia. While socioeconomic factors are implicated as important determinants of mental health problems in mainstream populations, their bearing on the mental health of Indigenous Australians remains largely uncharted across all age groups. Methods We examined the relationship between the risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioural difficulties (CSEBD and a range of socioeconomic measures for 3993 Indigenous children aged 4–17 years in Western Australia, using a representative survey conducted in 2000–02. Analysis was conducted using multivariate logistic regression within a multilevel framework. Results Almost one quarter (24% of Indigenous children were classified as being at high risk of CSEBD. Our findings generally indicate that higher socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced risk of mental health problems in Indigenous children. Housing quality and tenure and neighbourhood-level disadvantage all have a strong direct effect on child mental health. Further, the circumstances of families with Indigenous children (parenting quality, stress, family composition, overcrowding, household mobility, racism and family functioning emerged as an important explanatory mechanism underpinning the relationship between child mental health and measures of material wellbeing such as carer employment status and family financial circumstances. Conclusions Our results provide incremental evidence of a social gradient in the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Improving the social, economic and psychological conditions of families with Indigenous children has considerable potential to reduce the mental health inequalities within Indigenous populations and, in turn, to close the substantial racial gap in mental health. Interventions that target housing quality, home

  16. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between...

  17. Public Health Needs Assessments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, After the 2009 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Chen, Tai-Ho; Martin, Colleen; Vagi, Sara; Roth, Joseph; Keim, Mark; Noe, Rebecca; Ponausuia, Seiuli Elisapeta; Lemusu, Siitia; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective An 8.3 magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves devastated American Samoa on September 29, 2009, resulting in widespread loss of property and public services. An initial and a follow-up Community Needs Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) objectively quantified disaster-affected population needs. Methods Using a 2-stage cluster sampling method of CASPER, a household questionnaire eliciting information about medical and basic needs, illnesses, and injuries was administered. To assess response efforts, percent changes in basic and medical needs, illnesses, and injuries between the initial and follow-up CASPER were calculated. Results During the initial CASPER (N=212 households), 47.6% and 51.6% of households reported needing a tarpaulin and having no electricity, respectively. The self-reported greatest needs were water (27.8%) and financial help with cleanup (25.5%). The follow-up CASPER (N=207 households) identified increased vector problems compared to pre-tsunami, and food (26%) was identified as the self-reported greatest need. As compared to the initial CASPER, the follow-up CASPER observed decreases in electricity (−78.3%), drinking water (−44.4%), and clothing (−26.6%). Conclusion This study highlights the use of CASPER during the response and recovery phases following a disaster. The initial CASPER identified basic needs immediately after the earthquake, whereas the follow-up CASPER assessed effectiveness of relief efforts and identified ongoing community needs. PMID:23077263

  18. STUDY OF ESTIMATE CONCENTRATION OF WATER CONSTITUENTS AT BADUNG STRAIT BALI USING INVERSE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Swardika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm was employed to retrieve the concentrations of three water constituents, chlorophyll-a,suspended matter and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM from MODIS (Moderate-ResolutionImaging Spectrometer in wide range covering from oligotrophic case-1 to turbid case-2 waters at theBadung Strait Bali. The algorithm is a neural network (NN which is used to parameterize the inverse of aradiative transfer model. It’s used in this study as a multiple nonlinear regression technique. The NN is a feedforward back propagation model with two hidden layers. The NN was trained with computed radiancecovering the range of chlorophyll-a from 0.001 to 64.0 ?g/l, inorganic suspended matter from 0.01 to 50.0mg/l, and CDOM absorption at 440nm from 0.001 to 5.0 m-1. Inputs to the NN are the radiance of the fivespectral channels which were under discussion for MODIS. The outputs are the three water constituentconcentrations. The NN algorithm was tested using in-situ data set on May, September, November 2005 atthe Badung Strait Bali and the north sea of Sumbawa Island and applied to MODIS. The coefficient ofdetermination (R2 between chlorophyll-a concentrations derived from simulation and in-situ data is 0.327,for suspended matter R2 is 0.408. No in-situ measurements of CDOM available for validation. Also, in-situdata were compared with the corresponding distribution obtained by the NASA standard OC4 (OC3M forMODIS chlorophyll-a algorithm and giving R2 0.188. This study gives better accuracy compare withstandard algorithm. How ever both studies are giving over estimate chlorophyll-a concentration. Since thereare no standard MODIS products available for suspended matter and CDOM, the result of the retrieval by theNN for these two variables could only be assessed by a general knowledge of their concentrations anddistribution patterns

  19. Paleocene Picrites of Davis Strait: Products of a Plume or Plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, E. K.; Clarke, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Voluminous, subaerial, ultra-depleted, 62 Ma, primary picritic lavas occur on both sides of Davis Strait separating Baffin Island and West Greenland. Temporally, the picrites are coeval with the initiation of sea-floor spreading in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay around 62 Ma. Petrogenetically, the chemical characteristics of these picrites (MgO = 18-21 wt. %; K2O = 0.01-0.20 wt. %; 87Sr/86Sri ≈ 0.7030; ɛNdi ≈ +5.2-8.6; 3He/4He ≤ 49.5RA) demand only derivation by partial melting of highly depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) at a pressure of 4 GPa, followed by rapid ascent to the surface, but do not necessarily require high temperatures or high degrees of partial melting. Tectonically, these picrites formed in thick Archean and Paleoproterozoic cratonic terranes during Paleogene rifting between Greenland and North America. Structurally, the picrites are related to the major intersection of a NNW suture zone under Baffin Bay and the E-W trending Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt. During the late Mesozoic, ENE extension created normal faulted basins quasi-parallel with the NNW suture and thinned the mantle lithosphere. Elastic finite element models and present day studies of crustal extension show that the thicker Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt underwent less thinning and extension than the NNW suture zone in the Archean Rae craton. These extensional disparities occur at the orthogonal intersection of pre-existing E-W trending strike-slip faults in the thicker Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt with the NNW thinned Archean suture zone, and likely resulted in the formation of one or more pull-apart basins. Because the strike-slip faults are ancient suture zones, trans-tension within these suture zones easily reached 120 km, creating not only decompression melting in the SCLM, but also a pathway for the picritic melts to rapidly reach the surface. Such a purely tectonic model requires no spatially or temporally improbable deep mantle plume for generation of

  20. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.

    2017-04-01

    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  1. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically; the entire width of the array (70 km freshened between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. The OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01, despite the inevitable limitations of a z-coordinate model in representing the mixing processes at and downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase in southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated strengthening of the East Greenland Current.

  2. Taiwan’s Security Calculus of Cross-­Strait Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration across the Taiwan Strait is relatively insignificant by its scale but it is indeed indisputably politically sensitive. Given the long-term political separation and military rivalry across the Taiwan Strait in the past six decades while both sides of the Taiwan Strait nevertheless intensively engaged each other economically, commercially and culturally, a social trend of cross-Strait migration inevitably results. There are various interpretations on such a demographic development which has raised security concerns, which are in turn creating a biased judiciary arrangement on the migration activities. What are the factors behind the security calculus of cross-Strait migration? How can the security calculus justify its arguments and subsequently maintain unequal treatments with respect to cross-Strait immigrants? Are the rationales for maintaining a tight grip on cross-Strait migration in line with the political ideal proclaimed by the political factions in Taiwan still sensible? What is the potential for the trend of cross-Strait migration affecting the security calculus in the future? On the other hand, for the migration from Taiwan to Mainland China, how influential can it be on the security decision-making process of the Beijing leadership? Is there any impact possibly caused by cross-Strait migration – and is it essentially overstated? Or alternatively, is the overstated influence potentially caused by cross-Strait migration an intentionally staged political myth? What are the substantial impacts actually ever achieved by cross-Strait migration on the security dimension? What is the self-fulfilled conviction of cross-Strait migration? For all the inquiries noted above, the author of this paper would like to scrutinize the truth and separate it from numerous myths ever advocated by the different factions in Taiwan politics. A sound and neutral judgment to tell the exact influences likely enacted by cross-Strait migration would

  3. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Luu, Q.-H.; Babu, M.T.

    www.ocean-sci.net/9/293/2013/ doi:10.5194/os-9-293-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. EGU Journal Logos (RGB) Advances in Geosciences O pen A ccess Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences O pen A ccess Annales Geophysicae O pen A... Sci., 9, 293–300, 2013 www.ocean-sci.net/9/293/2013/ P. Tkalich et al.: Sea level in Singapore Strait 295 likely to be the cause for modulating the inter-annual sea level variability associated with ENSO. On the Sunda Shelf and particularly in SS, our...

  4. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  5. Remote environmental monitoring of the upper sea (REMUS) : Implementation in the strait of Gibraltar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabet, R.El.; Dehbi, N.; Khoukhi, T.El.; Laissaoui, A.; Delecaut, G.; Lacroix, J.P.; Abril, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Interest in the need of environmental monitoring in the Gibraltar strait, in which a wide range of oceanic processes and interactions of global interest occur, has recently increased in order to ensure proper surveillance and control of marine pollution and consequently to complying with international recommendations and binding agreements pertaining to the protection of marine environment. The effects of the english submarine incident (end 2000) in the Gibraltar strait and the radiological incident of Algeciras, Spain (melting of a Cs- 137 source at a steel manufactory ACENIROX) suggest an adequate national and regional technical capabilities and expertise for long-term environmental monitoring as a key to control the area and to develop emergency model in the case of any future accident in the zone. REMUS involves new technologic developments that allow real-time and continuous remote monitoring of sea areas using autonomous probes in anchored buoys, powered with solar panels and equipped with low consumption sensors and one onboard PC that communicates via GSM with central laboratory in land. Sensors incorporate a very sensitive (few Bq m -3 ) NaI detector for gamma-emitting radionuclides, oceanographic instruments (current meters, CTDs), and chemical sensors (pH,chlorophyl1,..). This technology allows the remote environmental monitoring of the upper sea (although some additional sensors can be equally deployed in depth) combining the interest in the early detection of environmental risks (releases of many hazardous materials) and the fundmental research in marine systems, as chalenge in the preservation of natural resources and the human health through the knowledge. Thus, the development of predictive models is also one objective of this project. [fr

  6. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  7. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes.

  8. Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in stroke survivors in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Bastida Julio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-of-illness analysis is the main method of providing an overall vision of the economic impact of a disease. Such studies have been used to set priorities for healthcare policies and inform resource allocation. The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in the first, second and third years after surviving a stroke in the Canary Islands, Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 448 patients with stroke based on ICD 9 discharge codes, who received outpatient care at five hospitals. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria University Hospital. Data on demographic characteristics, health resource utilization, informal care, labor productivity losses and HRQOL were collected from the hospital admissions databases and questionnaires completed by stroke patients or their caregivers. Labor productivity losses were calculated from physical units and converted into monetary units with a human capital-based method. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Healthcare costs, productivity losses and informal care costs were analyzed with log-normal, probit and ordered probit multivariate models. Results The average cost for each stroke survivor was €17 618 in the first, €14 453 in the second and €12 924 in the third year after the stroke; the reference year for unit prices was 2004. The largest expenditures in the first year were informal care and hospitalizations; in the second and third years the main costs were for informal care, productivity losses and medication. Mean EQ-5D index scores for stroke survivors were 0.50 for the first, 0.47 for the second and 0.46 for the third year, and mean EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were 56, 52 and 55, respectively. Conclusions The main strengths of this study lie in our bottom-up-approach to costing, and in the evaluation of stroke survivors from a

  9. Monitoring multi-year macro ocean litter dynamics and backward-tracking simulation of litter origins on a remote island in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Ying; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Yu, Teng-Lang; Liu, Kuo-Lieh; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Jeng, Ming-Shiou

    2018-04-01

    Ocean litter has accumulated rapidly and is becoming a major environmental concern, yet quantitative and regular observations and exploration that track litter origins are limited. By implementing monthly sample collections over five years (2012–2016) at Dongsha Island, a remote island in the northern South China Sea (SCS), we assessed macro ocean litter dynamics, identified source countries of individual plastic bottles, and analyzed the origins of the litter by a backward-tracking model simulation considering both the effects of current velocity and windage. The results showed that large amounts of litter, which varied monthly and annually in weight and quantity, reached the island during the study years, and there were spatial differences in accumulation patterns between the north and south coasts. Styrofoam and plastic bottles were the two primary sources of macro ocean litter both annually and monthly, and most of the litter collected on the island originated from China and Vietnam, which were collectively responsible for approximately 47.5%–63.7% per month. The simulation indicated that current advection at the near-surface depths and low windage at the sea surface showed similar patterns, while medium to high windage exhibited comparable expression patterns in response to potential source regions and drifting time experiments. At either the surface with low windage or current advection at depths of 0.5 m and 1 m, macro ocean litter in the Western Philippine Sea, i.e. through the Luzon Strait between Taiwan and the Philippines, was an important contributor to the litter bulk from October to March, whereas the litter was predicted to mainly originate from the southwestern SCS from April to September. With an increasing windage effect, litter in the Taiwan Strait was predicted to be an additional major potential source. Surprisingly, a small proportion of the macro ocean litter was predicted to continuously travel in the northern SCS for a long duration

  10. Perceived discrimination and its associations with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.

  11. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  12. The Influence of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander Young Adults: Through a Social Determinants of Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; To, Tu My; Ling, Irving; Melo, Jason; Chavarin, Josue

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based policies to address the health of the 11.7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) offers temporary relief to qualified undocumented immigrants. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs), in particular, are the fastest growing immigrant population; yet, little is known about their health challenges. This article examines the influence of DACA on the health of API undocumented young adults. In total, 32 unique participants participated in 24 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions. Participants were aged 18-31 years and identified as undocumented API. DACA potentially improves health outcomes through four potential social determinants: economic stability, educational opportunities, social and community contexts, and access to health care. These determinants improve the mental health and sense of well-being among undocumented young adults. Targeted outreach and education in communities should be informed by these research findings with an eye toward promoting the economic, education, and health benefits of enrolling in DACA. Social policies that address the social determinants of health have significant potential to address health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Funds of Knowledge of Sorting and Patterning: Networks of Exchange in a Torres Strait Island Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature and how they might be used to support parents and children with their learning of mathematics that is taught and learned in the early years of school. Funds of knowledges are those that have been historically and culturally accumulated into a body of knowledge and…

  14. Learning from Mistakes and Moving Forward in Intercultural Research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Vanette; Woods, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    The ongoing challenges in equitable research involving Indigenous peoples and their communities and ways to overcome these are discussed in this article. Central to this article is the narrative reflection of a non-Indigenous researcher following research on Indigenous spirituality, well-being and resilience in the Yaegl community of northern New…

  15. Potash in a salt mushroom at Hormoz Island, Hormoz Strait, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talbot, Christopher; Aftabi, Pedram; Chemia, Zurab

    2009-01-01

    marine erosion removed any salt mountains from a sub-group of near-shore Zagros diapirs and exposed their deeper structural levels. Even though these diapirs are still active, their potash deposits are likely more tractable to safe exploitation than in a salt mountain — as we make clear here for Hormoz...

  16. Fall-related hospitalisations of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara A; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline Ct; Coombes, Julieann; Mitchell, Rebecca J; Moore, Robyn; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    To compare the socio-demographic characteristics and type of injury sustained, the use of hospital resources and rates of hospitalisation by injury type, and survival following fall injuries to older Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous Australian people hospitalised for fall-related injuries. Population-based retrospective cohort data linkage study. Setting, participants: New South Wales residents aged 50 years or more admitted to a public or private NSW hospital for a fall-related injury during 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2012. Proportions of patients with defined injury types, mean hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, age-standardised hospitalisation rates and age-adjusted rate ratios, 28-day re-admission rates. There were 312 758 fall-related injury hospitalisations for 234 979 individuals; 2660 admissions (0.85%) were of Aboriginal people. The proportion of hospitalisations for fall-related fracture injuries was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous Australians (49% v 60% of fall-related hospitalisations; P Aboriginal patients was non-fracture injury to head or neck (19% of hospitalisations); for non-Indigenous patients it was hip fractures (18%). Age-adjusted LOS was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous patients (9.1 v 14.0 days; P Aboriginal people, fall injury hospitalisations increased at an annual rate of 5.8% (95% CI, 4.0-7.7%; P Aboriginal people and other older Australians, suggesting that different approaches are required to prevent and treat fall injuries.

  17. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-01-01

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture. PMID:29670026

  18. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-04-18

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture.

  19. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  20. Developing an instrument for assessing fidelity of motivational care planning: The Aboriginal and Islander Mental health initiative adherence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Phuong-Tu; Nagel, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and trial an Adherence Scale to measure fidelity of Motivational Care Planning (MCP) within a clinical trial. This culturally adapted therapy MCP uses a client centered holistic approach that emphasises family and culture to motivate healthy life style changes. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale (MCP-AS) was developed through consultation with Aboriginal and Islander Mental Health Initiative (AIMhi) Indigenous and non-Indigenous trainers, and review of MCP training resources. The resultant ten-item scale incorporates a 9-Point Likert Scale with a supporting protocol manual and uses objective, behaviourally anchored criteria for each scale point. A fidelity assessor piloted the tool through analysis of four audio-recordings of MCP (conducted by Indigenous researchers within a study in remote communities in Northern Australia). File audits of the remote therapy sessions were utilised as an additional source of information. A Gold Standard Motivational Care Planning training video was also assessed using the MCP-AS. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale contains items measuring both process and content of therapy sessions. This scale was used successfully to assess therapy through observation of audio or video-recorded sessions and review of clinical notes. Treatment fidelity measured by the MCP-AS within the pilot study indicated high fidelity ratings. Ratings were high across the three domains of rapport, motivation, and self-management with especially high ratings for positive feedback and engagement, review of stressors and goal setting. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale has the potential to provide a measure of quality of delivery of Motivation Care Planning. The pilot findings suggest that despite challenges within the remote Indigenous community setting, Indigenous therapists delivered therapy that was of high fidelity. While developed as a research tool, the scale has the potential to

  1. Online Hookup Sites for Meeting Sexual Partners Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Rhode Island, 2013: A Call for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Poceta, Joanna; Rose, Jennifer; Bertrand, Thomas; Kantor, Rami; Harvey, Julia; Santamaria, E Karina; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Nunn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Frequent use of websites and mobile telephone applications (apps) by men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners, commonly referred to as "hookup" sites, make them ideal platforms for HIV prevention messaging. This Rhode Island case study demonstrated widespread use of hookup sites among MSM recently diagnosed with HIV. We present the advertising prices and corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of the top five sites used by newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM to meet sexual partners: Grindr, Adam4Adam, Manhunt, Scruff, and Craigslist. Craigslist offered universal free advertising. Scruff offered free online advertising to selected nonprofit organizations. Grindr and Manhunt offered reduced, but widely varying, pricing for nonprofit advertisers. More than half (60%, 26/43) of newly diagnosed MSM reported meeting sexual partners online in the 12 months prior to their diagnosis. Opportunities for public health agencies to promote HIV-related health messaging on these sites were limited. Partnering with hookup sites to reach high-risk MSM for HIV prevention and treatment messaging is an important public health opportunity for reducing disease transmission risks in Rhode Island and across the United States.

  2. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  3. Primary health care reform, dilemmatic space and risk of burnout among health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Javanparast, Sara; Lawless, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Health system changes may increase primary health care workers' dilemmatic space, created when reforms contravene professional values. Dilemmatic space may be a risk factor for burnout. This study partnered with six Australian primary health care services (in South Australia: four state government-managed services including one Aboriginal health team and one non-government organisation and in Northern Territory: one Aboriginal community-controlled service) during a period of change and examined workers' dilemmatic space and incidence of burnout. Dilemmatic space and burnout were assessed in a survey of 130 staff across the six services (58% response rate). Additionally, 63 interviews were conducted with practitioners, managers, regional executives and health department staff. Dilemmatic space occurred across all services and was associated with higher rates of self-reported burnout. Three conditions associated with dilemmatic space were (1) conditions inherent in comprehensive primary health care, (2) stemming from service provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and (3) changes wrought by reorientation to selective primary health care in South Australia. Responses to dilemmatic space included ignoring directives or doing work 'under the radar', undertaking alternative work congruent with primary health care values outside of hours, or leaving the organisation. The findings show that comprehensive primary health care was contested and political. Future health reform processes would benefit from considering alignment of changes with staff values to reduce negative effects of the reform and safeguard worker wellbeing.

  4. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  5. The anomalous amplification of M2 tide in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Sen; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Joe; Chao, Shenn-Yu

    2004-04-01

    The complex tidal wave propagation pattern in the Taiwan Strait invites parochialism. Along the eastern (Taiwan) boundary of the strait, the anomalous amplification of M2 tide in the middle often led to the parochial view that two tidal waves coming from both ends of the strait collide in the middle, creating wave resonance. Along the western (China) boundary, one sees a southward progressive tidal wave and hence no wave collision. To reconcile, we examine a few solutions of a numerical tidal model below. Both realistic bottom bathymetry and idealized bottom topographies are used to identify dominant mechanism leading to the complex tidal wave propagation. Our process of elimination identifies the wave reflection of southward propagating tidal wave by the deep trench in the southern strait as the true cause responsible for the complex wave propagation pattern.

  6. Determination of trace and toxic elements in marine sediments collected from the strait of Malacca, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Hj. Wood

    2007-01-01

    The Strait of Malacca has been a major route for international trade with heavy traffic of large vessels navigating through the narrow waterway everyday. Beside, the Strait of Malacca has some natural ecosystem which requires proper protection from human activities. Therefore, the Malaysian government has initiated a project to monitor the pollution level at the Strait of Malacca. As a result, sampling expeditions had been conducted to collect marine samples to be analyzed for trace and toxic elements as well as organic pollutions and radionuclides. The focus of this report is to determine trace and toxic element concentration in surface sediment samples collected from 18 sampling locations at the Strait of Malacca was reported. (author)

  7. Data Assimilation Modeling of the Barotropic Tides in the Korea/Tsushima Strait

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Book, Jeffrey W; Pistek, Pavel; Perkins, Henry; Thompson, Keith R; Teague, William J

    2004-01-01

    During 1999-2000, 13 bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and 12 wave/tide gauges were deployed along two lines across the Korea/Tsushima Strait, providing long-term measurements of currents and bottom pressure...

  8. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Christopher D; Wolfson, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements and acoustic propagation modeling for the frequency range 1 10 kHz are combined to analyze the acoustic environment of Haro Strait of Puget Sound, home to the southern resident killer whales...

  9. Accessibility to health care facilities in Montreal Island: an application of relative accessibility indicators from the perspective of senior and non-senior residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morency Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required. Methods Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons. Data The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists. Results Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be

  10. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  11. Social determinants in the sexual health of adolescent Aboriginal Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; McKay, Kathy

    2018-03-01

    While research indicates that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents may be at increased risk of some sexually transmitted infections, there is limited information about factors that may place these young people at more risk of adverse sexual health than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Current research has tended to focus on surveillance-type data, but there is an increasing need to understand social determinants of sexual health risk. This systematic review assessed the evidence of social determinants impacting on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents' sexual health in Australia. Published, English-language literature was searched across key databases from 2003 to 2015. Fourteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Findings suggest that social determinants such as access to healthcare, poverty, substance use, educational disadvantage, sociocultural context, gender inequalities, status and identity, and social disadvantage impacted on Indigenous adolescents' sexual behaviours and sexual health risk. Evidence from the literature included in the review suggests that peer education may be an acceptable and appropriate approach for addressing such issues. There remains a need for programmes and services to be community-developed and community-led, thus ensuring cultural appropriateness and relevance. However, there is also a significant need for such programmes to be effectively and rigorously evaluated with data that goes beyond surveillance, and seeks to unpack how sexual norms are experienced by Indigenous adolescents, particularly outside of remote Australia - and how these experiences act as either risk or protective factors to good sexual health and positive social and emotional well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    OpenAIRE

    Prihartini Widiyanti; Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid im...

  13. Seasonal and interannual variability of the water exchange in the Turkish Straits System estimated by modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MADERICH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A chain of simple linked models is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of the Turkish Straits System. This chain includes two-layer hydraulic models of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits simulating the exchange in terms of level and density difference along each strait, and a one-dimensional area averaged layered model of the Marmara Sea. The chain of models is complemented also by the similar layered model of the Black Sea proper and by a one-layer Azov Sea model with the Kerch Strait. This linked chain of models is used to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the system in the period 1970-2009. The salinity of the Black Sea water flowing into the Aegean Sea increases by approximately 1.7 times through entrainment from the lower layer. The flow entering into the lower layer of the Dardanelles Strait from the Aegean Sea is reduced by nearly 80% when it reaches the Black Sea. In the seasonal scale, a maximal transport in the upper layer and minimal transport in the bottom layer are during winter/spring for the Bosphorus and in spring for the Dardanelles Strait, whereas minimal transport in upper layer and maximal undercurrent are during the summer for the Bosphorus Strait and autumn for the Dardanelles Strait. The increase of freshwater flux into the Black Sea in interannual time scales (41 m3s-1 per year is accompanied by a more than twofold growth of the Dardanelles outflow to the North Aegean (102 m3s-1 per year.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE PETROLEUM POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE SHIP SOURCE IN ISTANBUL STRAIT

    OpenAIRE

    Salihoglu, Eren

    2018-01-01

    Introduction.The Istanbul Strait is one of theworld's most dangerous natural waterways in terms of sea traffic. Istanbulstraıt, which have great strategic importance, can cause environmentaldisasters because of the sea accidents that the may occur. Petroleum pollutionthat can arise from these vessels can negatively affect the structure of seawater and the marine life.Aim of the study In this study, oil pollution inİstanbul Strait, accidents and investigated scales were researched, the ef...

  15. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  16. Fronts and internal currents at the northern mouth of the strait of Messina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of internal waves and currents generated by tidal mixing inside the strait of Messina, with classical measurements made in 1922-1923 by Francesco Vercelli are compared. A peculiar front South of Capo Vaticano in southern Tyrrhenian Sea is described. Its relation with the turbolence due to the braking of internal nonlinear waves generated by the inside the Strait of Messina is discussed

  17. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term monitoring of sea ice conditions in the Kerch Strait by remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Mityagina, Marina I.; Bocharova, Tatiana Yu.; Kostianoy, Andrey G.

    2017-10-01

    The results of multi-year satellite monitoring of ice conditions in the Kerch Strait connecting the Black and Azov Seas are discussed. The issue gained importance in view of the ongoing construction of the Crimean Bridge across the strait. Our monitoring has been based on the whole variety of available satellite data including visible and radar data over the past 17 years. Every year the Azov Sea becomes fully or partially covered by ice during the cold season. In severe winters, ice often is carried to the Kerch Strait and even the Black Sea. An analysis of ice drift hydrometeorological conditions is presented. The ice conditions of 2017 are under special consideration. Everyday satellite monitoring of the Kerch Strait, including the construction area of the Crimean Bridge, revealed ice formation and drift features on the way from the Azov Sea through the Kerch Strait as well as ice interaction with the piers of the main and technological bridges under construction. It was found that, even under strong northeast winds, ice can pass neither through the piers, nor via the widest shipway. At present, it is hard to discern the impacts of the two bridges on floating ice, nevertheless when the construction is over and the technological bridge is gone, by all appearances the main bridge will strongly affect ice conditions in the Kerch Strait. This perspective calls for continuous satellite monitoring of the area that is enabled by cutting-edge systems and technologies.

  19. The Partners in Recovery program: mental health commissioning using value co-creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverton, Jeff; Janamian, Tina

    2016-04-18

    The Australian Government's Partners in Recovery (PIR) program established a new form of mental health intervention which required multiple sectors, services and consumers to work in a more collaborative way. Brisbane North Primary Health Network applied a value co-creation approach with partners and end users, engaging more than 100 organisations in the development of a funding submission to PIR. Engagement platforms were established and continue to provide opportunities for new co-creation experiences. Initially, seven provider agencies - later expanded to eight to include an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander provider organisation - worked collaboratively as a Consortium Management Committee. The co-creation development process has been part of achieving the co-created outcomes, which include new initiatives, changes to existing interventions and referral practices, and an increased understanding and awareness of end users' needs.

  20. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10–20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally. PMID:29623271

  2. Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous quality improvement (CQI processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10–20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally.

  3. Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10-20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally.

  4. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  5. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  6. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Order of metals distribution were as follow: Fe > Al > Se > Cu > As > Zn > Mn > Ni > Ba > Pb > Cd > Cr > Co. • As and Cu levels have exceeded Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard. • Seven principal components of PCA were extracted from estuaries and coastal waters. • Mineral-related parameters are main pollution sources in the waters. -- Abstract: The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 and NO 3 ) and metals concentrations ( 27 Al, 75 As, 138 Ba, 9 Be, 111 Cd, 59 Co, 63 Cu, 52 Cr, 57 Fe, 55 Mn, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 80 Se, 66 Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system

  7. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  8. The Torres Indigenous Hip Hop Project: evaluating the use of performing arts as a medium for sexual health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Alexandra; Crouch, Alan; Robertson, Heather; Fagan, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    The Torres Indigenous Hip Hop Project (the Project) was conducted in the Torres and Northern Peninsula Area of Queensland during early 2010. This paper provides a critical analysis of project outcomes and identifies criteria that may form a suitable framework for the assessment of proposals for sexual health promotion using performing arts-based approaches in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settings. A case study method was used. The first phase of analysis assessed whether project objectives were met using data collected during project planning and implementation. The second phase used these findings, augmented by interviews with key personnel, to respond to the question 'How could this be done better?'. The Project required significant human and organisational implementation support. The project was successful in facilitating event-specific community mobilisation. It raised awareness of sexual health disadvantage and engaged effectively with the target group. It laid important groundwork to progress school-based and community mechanisms to address regional youth disadvantage. Against these benefits are issues of opportunity cost and the need for ongoing resources to capitalise on the opportunities created. With substantial support and planning, such approaches can play an important role in engaging young people and bridging the gap between clinical interventions and improvements in health deriving from community-driven strategies. SO WHAT? This paper contributes to existing literature by identifying key elements of an effective approach to using performing arts in sexual health promotion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settings. It also provides guidance when consideration is being given to investment in resource-intensive health promotion initiatives.

  9. Evaluation of the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Tu, Yi-Long; Yeh, Hung-Te; Wu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new statistical downscaling framework to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. • The statistical model relates Weibull distribution parameters to output of a GCM model and regression coefficients. • Validation of the simulated wind speed distribution presents an acceptable agreement with meteorological data. • Three chosen GCMs show the same tendency that the eastern half of Taiwan Strait stores higher wind resources. - Abstract: A new statistical downscaling framework is proposed to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. In this framework, a two-parameter Weibull distribution function is used to estimate the wind energy density distribution in the strait. An empirically statistical downscaling model that relates the Weibull parameters to output of a General Circulation Model (GCM) and regression coefficients is adopted. The regression coefficients are calculated using wind speed results obtained from a past climate (1981–2000) simulation reconstructed by a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. These WRF-reconstructed wind speed results are validated with data collected at a weather station on an islet inside the strait. The comparison shows that the probability distributions of the monthly wind speeds obtained from WRF-reconstructed and measured wind speed data are in acceptable agreement, with small discrepancies of 10.3% and 7.9% for the shape and scale parameters of the Weibull distribution, respectively. The statistical downscaling framework with output from three chosen GCMs (i.e., ECHAM5, CM2.1 and CGCM2.3.2) is applied to evaluate the wind energy density distribution in Taiwan Strait for three future climate periods of 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100. The results show that the wind energy density distributions in the future climate periods are higher in the eastern half of Taiwan Strait, but reduce slightly by 3% compared with that in the

  10. Monthly Variation of Taiwan Strait Through-flow Transports and Associated Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, S.; Sheu, D.; Kuo, H.

    2005-05-01

    Through-flow transports and associated water masses are analyzed using current data measured by bottom-mounted and ship-board ADCP (1999-2001) across the central Taiwan Strait and strait-wide hydrographic data acquired from 79 CTD survey cruises (1986-2003). The East Asian monsoon, from southwest in July to August and northeast in October to March, controls the transport fluctuation which peaks in August (2.34 Sv northward), is hampered by the northeast monsoon after September and diminishes to the minimum (0.26 Sv southward) in December. The standard deviation of the calculated transport ranges from 0.56 to 1.05 Sv during northeast monsoon months and is relatively small in other months. A cluster analysis together with conventional T-S diagrams identifies the saline and warm Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW), the less saline South China Sea Surface Water (SCSSW), the brackish and cold China Coastal Water (CCW), the saline Subsurface Water (SW) (depth > 100 m) and the Diluted Coastal Water (DCW). The majority of the northward transport in summer carries the SCSSW to the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the DCW appears off the northwest bank of the strait and the SW resides in the bottom layer of a deep trench in the southeastern strait. The onset of the northeast monsoon in September drives the CCW from the Yangtze river mouth to the northern strait. In the southern strait, the northward-moving KBW replaces the SCSSW and meets the southward-intruding CCW in the middle strait during November to April.

  11. A Riccati model for Denmark Strait overflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käse, R. H.

    2006-10-01

    A controlled volume box model of the western basins of the Nordic Seas for water denser than 1027.8 kg m-3 is constructed, where accumulation in volume ($\\frac{dV}{dt) is driven by net imbalances between prescribed net inflow from the northern, eastern and top boundaries (Qs) and hydraulically limited outflow through the Denmark Strait. The resulting Riccati equation is solved analytically for filling and flushing experiments with constant Qs and numerically for stochastic forcing Qs(t). For small perturbations to Qs with white noise spectrum, the overflow response is red noise with a time scale between 5 and 15 years depending on the mean interface height and area. For Qs proportional to the NAO index, the overflow is positively correlated with the NAO. A 140 years integration reveals variations in the overflow between 2.5 Sv in the 1970s and a maximum of 4 Sv in the 1990s. Hydraulic transport calculations from hydrographic data north of Iceland show good agreement with the model hindcast.

  12. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices

  13. Underwater Noise Pollution at the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gazioğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Underwater noise pollution (UNP has become a major concern in marine habitats, which is intense anthropogenic noise in the marine (aquatic environment. It is caused by ship traffic, oceanographic experiments, and use of explosives in geophysical research, underwater construction, active sonars and seismic survey techniques. Oceans are much nosier than 1960s. Narrow and shallow channel noisy aquatic environments where noise levels reach the highest value is not surprising. The Strait of Istanbul (SoI; Bosphorus is one of the most important maritime passages (app. 50 000 vessel/year or 140 vessel/day which is situated between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea are also biologically extremely important gateway not only it provides access to a channel. Many of the varieties of fish migration hunting value are realized through the TSS. Local maritime traffic is another important acoustic sources which are more than 3 000 elements (Kesgin and Vardar, 2001 of everyday local traffic in SoI, which are causing noise in the 2 and 10 kHz range. Large vessels create signals both in bands below 1 kHz (main engine, electrical instruments cavitation noise creates higher frequency bands. Almost all elements of marine traffic in SoI located therefore encountered UND in all bands.

  14. Analysis of turbulent mixing in Dewakang Sill, Southern Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Jaya, I.; Sudjono, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Dewakang Sill is located in southern Makassar Strait, conveying major path of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), as a confluence region of different water masses, such as salty Pacific water and fresh Java Sea water. Its depth is about 680 m which blocks the ITF flow below this depth into Flores Sea. This research aimed to estimate turbulent mixing in the Dewakang Sill by applying Thorpe analysis using 24 hours “yoyo” CTD data sets, acquired from MAJAFLOX Cruise in August 2015. The results showed that stratification of water masses is dominated by Pacific water origin. Those are North Pacific Subtropical thermocline and Intermediate water masses. Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) and turbulent vertical diffusivity (Kρ ) value in the Dewakang Sill are of O(1.08 × 10-6)Wkg-1, and O(2.84 × 10-4) m2s-1 respectively. High correlation between epsilon and internal waves oscillation suggested that internal tidal waves activities are the major forcing for turbulent mixing in the study area.

  15. Topographic control of oceanic flows in deep passages and straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Saddle points between neighboring deep ocean basins are the sites of unidirectional flow from one basin to the next, depending on the source of bottom water. Flow in these sites appears to be topographically controlled so the interface between the bottom water and the water above adjusts itself to permit bottom water flow from the basin that contains a source of bottom water into the next. Examples in the Atlantic include flow in the Romanche Fracture Zone, the Vema Channel, the Ceara Abyssal Plain, the Anegada-Jungfern passage, and the Discovery Gap, but there are many more. Theoretical predictions of volume flux using a method that requires only conductivity-temperature-depth data archives and detailed knowledge of bathymetry near the saddle point are compared with volume flux estimates using current meters and/or geostrophic estimates for seven cases. The ratio of prediction to volume flux estimate ranges from 1.0 to 2.7. Some ocean straits that separate adjacent seas are also found to critically control bidirectional flows between basins. Theory of the influence of rotation on such critical flows is reviewed. Predictions of volume flux in eight cases are compared with ocean estimates of volume flux from traditional methods.

  16. Population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. Preliminary estimates for the period March 28, 1979--April 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battist, L.; Congel, F.; Buchanan, J.; Peterson, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose and potential health impact of the accident on March 28, 1979 at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This assessment was prepared by a task group composed of technical staff members from The Environmental Protection Agency, The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The estimated dose that might have been received by an individual is less than 100 mrem. The collective dose received by the 2,164,000 people estimated to live within 50 miles of the reactor site is calculated to be 3,300 person-rem (with a range of 1600 to 5300 person-rem). This corresponds to an average dose of approximately 1.5 mrem. The potential number of fatal cancers that is projected to occur as a result of the accident is less than 1. This potential impact would be undetectable compared to the 325,000 cancer deaths that would normally be expected to occur in a population of 2,164,000. The estimated total health impact, including fatal and non-fatal cancers and genetic effects to all future generations is approximately 2 health effects

  17. Observations on health outcome studies of exposure of the worker and the general population during the nuclear reactor accident at three mile island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island in March 1979 resulted in the release of radioactivity to the environment. Radiation exposure of the workers and the general population living in the vicinity of the damaged nuclear reactor was estimated based on dose measurements, meteorological conditions, demographic characteristics, reconstruction of the source term, and a number of other factors. The projected estimates of potential delayed health effects in the worker and general population, notable cancer, developmental abnormalities of the newborn, and genetic ill-health, were carefully estimated based on then-current knowledge of radiation risks and statistical techniques of analysis. Almost a decade later, we now have epidemiological and statistical data on certain of these health outcomes in the exposed populations at risk. Discussion includes the reliability of the initial radiation risk estimates, the major illnesses of concern, the mental stress and behavioral effects at the time of and following the accident, and the current findings of the ongoing studies of the health outcomes of the vulnerable populations at risk

  18. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen

    2017-04-01

    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  19. Seismic activity around and under Krakatau volcano, Sunda Arc: constraints to the source region of island arc volcanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2002), s. 545-565 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/97/0898; GA AV ČR IAA3012002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : Krakatau * Sunda Strait seismicity * island arc volcanism * subduction * Wadati-Benioff zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2002

  20. Moho Depth Derived from Gravity Data in the Taiwan Strait Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hsiang Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed are gional Bouguer gravity anomaly map using marine and land data from Tai wan and the Chinese province of Fuchien, as well as SEASAT altimetry-de rived gravity data for the Tai wan Strait and its surrounding area. The map shows isogals trending generally in a NE-SW direction, conforming with the over all shallower geo logical strike of the strait. Removing gravity effects generated by the water layer and seafloor to pography, the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly is obtained, reflecting the subsurface structure. Moho depth is then computed by the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method from the regional Bouguer gravity data set. Over the strait area, the geometry of the Moho relief is smooth with an average depth of about 30 km, except for the Penghu up lift. Moho depth is shallower in the Taiwan Strait and thickens to ward both sides of the strait. The relatively shallower Moho depth, reaching up to 28 km, is convex up ward underneath the Penghu uplift.

  1. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  2. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  3. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  4. Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E

    2013-05-01

    We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men's Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM.

  5. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  6. Characterizing the Seismic Ocean Bottom Environment of the Bransfield Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, B.; Lekic, V.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers record ground motions that result from earthquakes, anthropogenic sound sources (e.g. propellers, air gun sources, etc.), ocean waves and currents, biological activity, as well as surface processes on the sea and coastal land. Over a two-week span in April, 2001 - the Austral late fall -ten stations arranged in eleven lines were deployed beneath the Bransfield Strait along the Antarctica Peninsula to passively record data before and after an active source seismic survey. The goal of this study is to understand ocean bottom seismicity, identify centers of seismic activity and characterize possible glaciological mechanisms of icequakes and tremors. The instruments were sampled at 200Hz, allowing signals of ice-quakes, small earthquakes, and other high frequency sources to be detected and located. By visualizing the data as spectrograms, we identify and document ground vibrations excited by local earthquakes, whale songs, and those potentially due to surface processes, such as the cracking and movement of icebergs or ice shelves, including possible harmonic tremors from the ice or the volcanic arc nearby. Using relative timing of P-wave arrivals, we locate the hypocenters of nearby earthquakes and icequakes, and present frequency-dependent polarization analysis of their waveforms. Marine mammal sounds were detected in a substantial part of the overall acoustic environment-late March and Early April are the best months to hear whales such as humpback, sperm and orca communicating amongst each other because they are drawn to the cold, nutrient-rich Antarctic waters. We detect whales communicating for several hours in the dataset. Other extensively recorded sources resemble harmonic tremors, and we also identify signals possibly associated with waves set up on the notoriously stormy seas.

  7. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany

    Full Text Available Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia. The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions, with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  11. Sea Level Trend and Variability in the Straits of Singapore and Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Q.; Tkalich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Straits of Singapore and Malacca (SSM) connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, the largest marginal sea situated in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Consequently, sea level in the SSM is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale sea level variability is dominant by the Asian monsoon. Interannual sea level signals are modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In the long term, regional sea level is driven by the global climate change. However, relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on regional sea level in the SSM are yet to be quantified. In present study, publicly available tide gauge records and satellite altimetry data are used to derive long-term sea level trend and variability in SSM. We used the data from research-quality stations, including four located in the Singapore Strait (Tanjong Pagar, Raffles Lighthouse, Sultan Shoal and Sembawang) and seven situated in the Malacca Strait (Kelang, Keling, Kukup, Langkawji, Lumut, Penang and Ko Taphao Noi), each one having 25-39 year data up to the year 2011. Harmonic analysis is performed to filter out astronomic tides from the tide gauge records when necessary; and missing data are reconstructed using identified relationships between sea level and the governing phenomena. The obtained sea level anomalies (SLAs) and reconstructed mean sea level are then validated against satellite altimetry data from AVISO. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea level in the SSM is varying with global mean sea level, rising for the period 1984-2009 at the rate 1.8-2.3 mm/year in the Singapore Strait and 1.1-2.8 mm/year in the Malacca Strait. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ×5 cm with correlation coefficient

  12. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF DEMERSAL FISH STOCK IN THE MALACCA STRAIT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malacca Strait is one of the main fishing areas for demersal fishery in Indonesia. To support the management of that fishery, an assessment of the demersal fish stock was conducted. This study estimated that the maximum sustainable yield and the optimal catch per unit effortof demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait were about 106.8 thousand tons/year and 28.5 tons per unit of Danish seine, respectively, resulting from the operation of 3,752 Danish seines. Unfortunately, fishing effort was higher than its optimum level and the fish stock was over-exploited since 2003. To recover the demersal fish stock to its optimum level and to ensure the optimal fish production from demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait, it was necessary to reduce fishing effort at about 67% from its level in 2011.

  13. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes...... retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later......Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...

  14. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  15. Seasonal variation of the flow in the strait of Bah al Mandab

    OpenAIRE

    Smeed, D

    1997-01-01

    There is a strong seasonal variation in the exchange flow through the strait of Bah al Mandab connecting the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden (Thompson, 1939). In the winter a two-layer flow is observed in the strait. Dense intermediate water from the Red Sea flows into the Gulf of Aden and warmer fresher surface water flows into the Red Sea. In the summer season the direction of the surface flow is reversed and a third layer, of density between that of the surface layer and that of the intermedia...

  16. Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Maritime traffic profile in Western Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhai, C; Feng, L; Guojun, P

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical statistics and spatial analyses for merchant vessels navigating in Western Taiwan Strait are used to unravel potential spatial heterogeneity based on ship tracking records derived from China's coastal Automatic Identification System shore-based network from October 2011 to September 2012. Two maritime traffic profile's indices, composition of vessels, weighted frequency of ship transits, are proposed. Based on the two indices, the most risky hotspots or areas in the Strait are detected by comparing spatial distribution of maritime traffic volume of fishing boat, container ship, crude oil tanker and all ships exclude fishing boats

  17. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was ob...... clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region.......Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris...

  18. Experiences of three states implementing the Medicaid health home model to address opioid use disorder-Case studies in Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Wishner, Jane B; Allen, Eva H; Lallemand, Nicole; Epstein, Marni; Spillman, Brenda C

    2017-12-01

    The United States is facing an unprecedented opioid epidemic. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) included several provisions designed to increase care coordination in state Medicaid programs and improve outcomes for those with chronic conditions, including substance use disorders. Three states-Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont - adopted the ACA's optional Medicaid health home model for individuals with opioid use disorder. The model coordinates opioid use disorder treatment that features opioid agonist therapy provided at opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and Office-based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with medical and behavioral health care and other services, including those addressing social determinants of health. This study examines state approaches to opioid health homes (OHH) and uses a retrospective analysis to identify facilitators and barriers to the program's implementation from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. We conducted 28 semi-structured discussions with 70 discussants across the three states, including representatives from state agencies, OHH providers (OTPs and OBOTs), Medicaid health plans, and provider associations. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo. In addition, we reviewed state health home applications, policies, regulatory guidance, reporting, and other available OHH materials. We adapted the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) model as a guiding framework to examine the collected data, helping us to identify key factors affecting each stage of the OHH implementation. Overall, discussants reported that the OHH model was implemented successfully and was responsible for substantial improvements in patient care. Contextual factors at both the state level (e.g., legislation, funding, state leadership, program design) and provider level (OHH provider characteristics, leadership, adaptability) affected each stage of implementation of the OHH model. States took a variety of approaches in

  19. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings.

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at...

  2. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island. Response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1982-01-01

    The author's comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment. (author)

  3. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  4. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    equilibrium shape more quickly but were also susceptible to total erosion. Our observations support the hypothesis that the islands were initially carved by high-water volume flows via a unique catastrophic drainage of a pro-glacial lake in the southern North Sea at the Dover Strait rather than by fluvial erosion throughout the Pleistocene.

  5. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  6. Applicability of health physics lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident to the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-02-01

    The TMI-2 and Fukushima Daiichi accidents appear to be dissimilar because they involve different reactor types. However, the health physics related lessons learned from TMI-2 are applicable, and can enhance the Fukushima Daiichi recovery effort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Storm surges in the Singapore Strait due to winds in the South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.

    on the north, Karimata Strait on the south, east cost of Peninsular Malaysia on the west, and break of Sunda Shelf on the east, could experience positive or negative SLAs depending on the wind direction and speed. Strong sea level surges during NE monsoon...

  8. Report on the Hydroida collected by the "BALGIM" expedition in and around the Strait of Gibraltar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 102 species and varieties of hydroids and three unidentifiable species are described or mentioned in the present report, which deals principally with hydroids collected in the IberoMoroccan Bay (and adjacent Atlantic), the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Alboran Sea; for revisionary purposes

  9. An improved MODIS standard chlorophyll-a algorithm for Malacca Straits Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lah, N Z Ab; Reba, M N M; Siswanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    The Malacca Straits has high productivity of nutrients as a result to potential primary production. Yet, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua has shown an overestimation of Chl-a retrieval in the case-2 water of Malacca Straits. In an update to the previous study, this paper presents the second validation exercise of MODIS OC3M algorithm using the reprocessed MODIS data (R2013) and locally tuned the algorithm with respect to two in-sit stations located at northern and southern part of Malacca Straits. The result shows the OC3M retrieved in the case-2 (south station) water remarkably overestimated in-situ Chl-a, but it is underestimated in the case-1 (north station). Local tuning was employed by iterative regression at the fourth-order polynomial to improve the accuracy of Chl-a retrieval. As a result, locally tuned OC3M algorithm give robust statistical performance and can be applied best for both case-1 and case-2 water in Malacca Straits

  10. Simulation of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Fayman, P. A.; Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The eddy-resolved ocean circulation model RIAMOM (Lee et al., 2003) is used to analyze seasonal variability of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea. The model domain is a vast area including the northern Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea and adjacent region in the Pacific Ocean. A numerical experiment with a horizontal 1/18° resolution has been carried out under realistic meteorological conditions from the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis with restoring of surface temperature and salinity. The simulated seasonal variability of both the current system and mesoscale eddy dynamics in the Tatar Strait is in a good agreement with temperature and salinity distributions of oceanographic observation data collected during various seasons and years. Two general circulation regimes in the Strait have been found. The circulation regime changes from summer to winter due to seasonal change of the North Asian Monsoon. On a synoptic time scale, the similar change of the circulation regime occurs due to change of the southeastern wind to the northwestern one when the meteorological situation with an anticyclone over the Okhotsk Sea changes to that with a strong cyclone. The Lagrangian maps illustrate seasonal changes in direction of the main currents and in polarity and location of mesoscale eddies in the Strait.

  11. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area 2,000 feet wide extending from a point on Cape Prince of Wales marked by a triangular cable marker located...

  12. Hydraulic theory of sea straits applied to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Theory for the dynamics of flow in sea straits holds promise to provide, in addition to geological evidence, insight into the configuration of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This paper, for the first time,

  13. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  14. Late glacial ice advances in the Strait of Magellan, Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculloch, Robert D.; Bentley, Michael J.

    During the last glacial cycle low gradient glaciers repeatedly drained north-eastward into the Strait of Magellan and dammed extensive proglacial lakes in the central section of the strait. This paper focuses on the two most recent glacial advances in the strait, culminating over 150 and 80 km from the present ice limits. The timing of the first of the two advances has, up to now, been ambiguous and depended on the interpretation of anomously older dates of 16,590-15,800 yr BP for deglaciation at Puerto del Hambre. Here, we show there is evidence from seismic data and truncated shorelines that the Puerto del Hambre basin has been tectonically displaced and that the dates do not represent minimums for deglaciation. Several other dates show that the advance occurred sometime before 14,260 yr BP. The timing of the second advance has been investigated using a refined tephrochronology for the region, which has also enabled a palaeoshoreline and glaciolacustrine sediments to be linked to a moraine limit. 14C dating of peat and a key tephra layer, above and below the glaciolacustrine deposits, respectively suggest that the advance culminated in the Strait of Magellan between 12,010 and 10,050 yr BP.

  15. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  16. Lifestyle and health determinants of cardiovascular disease among Greek older adults living in Eastern Aegean Islands: An adventure within the MEDIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Foscolou

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Overall, CVD risk seems to be low among Eastern Aegean Islanders; certain differences in CVD risk factors exist between Greek islanders and their counterparts living in Gökçeada, and those differences may be attributed to various environmental, cultural and lifestyle factors.

  17. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  18. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  19. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  20. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over.

  1. An analytical study of M2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Fang, Guohong; Cui, Xinmei; Teng, Fei

    2018-02-01

    The tides in the Taiwan Strait (TS) feature large semidiurnal lunar (M2) amplitudes. An extended Taylor method is employed in this study to provide an analytical model for the M2 tide in the TS. The strait is idealized as a rectangular basin with a uniform depth, and the Coriolis force and bottom friction are retained in the governing equations. The observed tides at the northern and southern openings are used as open boundary conditions. The obtained analytical solution, which consists of a stronger southward propagating Kelvin wave, a weaker northward propagating Kelvin wave, and two families of Poincaré modes trapped at the northern and southern openings, agrees well with the observations in the strait. The superposition of two Kelvin waves basically represents the observed tidal pattern, including an anti-nodal band in the central strait, and the cross-strait asymmetry (greater amplitudes in the west and smaller in the east) of the anti-nodal band. Inclusion of Poincaré modes further improves the model result in that the cross-strait asymmetry can be better reproduced. To explore the formation mechanism of the northward propagating wave in the TS, three experiments are carried out, including the deep basin south of the strait. The results show that the southward incident wave is reflected to form a northward wave by the abruptly deepened topography south of the strait, but the reflected wave is slightly weaker than the northward wave obtained from the above analytical solution, in which the southern open boundary condition is specified with observations. Inclusion of the forcing at the Luzon Strait strengthens the northward Kelvin wave in the TS, and the forcing is thus of some (but lesser) importance to the M2 tide in the TS.

  2. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  3. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (pturbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice variations in Vilkitsky strait, Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, T.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation.Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared to the traditional route via the Suez Canal. Vilkitsky strait is the narrowest and northest portion of the Northern Sea Route with heaviest traffic between the Taimyr Peninsular and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The preliminary results of sea ice variations are presented by using moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer(MODIS) data with 250-m resolution in the Vilkitsky strait during 2009-2012. Temporally, the first rupture on sea ice in Vilkitsky strait usually comes up in April and sea ice completely break into pieces in early June. The strait would be ice-free between August and late September. The frequency of ice floes grows while temperature falls down in October. There are always one or two months suitable for transport. Spatially, Sea ice on Laptev sea side breaks earlier than that of Kara sea side while sea ice in central of strait breaks earlier than in shoreside. The phenomena are directly related with the direction of sea wind and ocean current. In summmary, study on Spatial and temporal patterns in this area is significant for the NSR. An additional research issue to be tackled is to seeking the trends of ice-free duration in the context of global warming. Envisat ASAR data will also be used in this study.

  6. Study of dissolved oxygen content in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in water were analyzed based on long-term observations (2006-2013) in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). It was found that the monthly average DO concentrations at the bottom of the strait were significantly lower in summer than the average annual long-term data. The minimum DO contents were recorded during four months, from July to October. It was shown that the DO content in water depended on changes in current directions in the strait: lower DO contents resulted from hypoxic water inflow, mostly from Amur Bay.

  7. Health Status of Galápagos Sea Lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristóbal Island Rookeries Determined by Hematology, Biochemistry, Blood Gases, and Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Rosas, Diego; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Deresienski, Diane; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    The Galápagos sea lion, Zalophus wollebaeki, is an endemic and endangered species subject to population decline associated with environmental variability, such as El Niño events, constant feeding stress, and exposure to diseases through contact with introduced species. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some pinniped species, but baseline biochemical and blood gas values are lacking from Z. wollebaeki. We analyzed blood samples from 30 juvenile Galápagos sea lions (19 females, 11 males) captured in two rookeries on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin, Na, K, ionized Ca, and glucose, and blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus(TM) analyzer. Average heart rate, biochemistry, and hematology parameters were comparable with healthy individuals of other pinniped species. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with body condition of juvenile Galápagos sea lions. When compared with available blood values of clinically healthy California sea lions, Galápagos sea lions had higher total protein and Hct and lower Ca and K levels. Our results provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos sea lions.

  8. The Glacial and Relative Sea Level History of Southern Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica Megan

    The mapping and dating of surficial glacial landforms and sediments across southern Banks Island document glaciation by the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the last glacial maximum. Geomorphic landforms confirm the operation of an ice stream at least 1000 m thick in Amundsen Gulf that was coalescent with thin, cold-based ice crossing the island's interior, both advancing offshore onto the polar continental shelf. Raised marine shorelines across western and southern Banks Island are barren, recording early withdrawal of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream prior to the resubmergence of Bering Strait and the re-entry of Pacific molluscs ~13,750 cal yr BP. This withdrawal resulted in a loss of ~60,000 km2 of ice --triggering drawdown from the primary northwest LIS divide and instigating changes in subsequent ice flow. The Jesse moraine belt on eastern Banks Island records a lateglacial stillstand and/or readvance of Laurentide ice in Prince of Wales Strait (13,750 -- 12,750 cal yr BP). Fossiliferous raised marine sediments that onlap the Jesse moraine belt constrain final deglaciation to ~12,600 cal yr BP, a minimum age for the breakup of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream. The investigation of a 30 m thick and 6 km wide stratigraphic sequence at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, identifies an advance of the ancestral LIS during the Mid-Pleistocene (sensu lato), substantially diversifying the glacial record on Banks Island. Glacial ice emplaced during this advance has persisted through at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, demonstrating the resilience of circumpolar permafrost. Pervasive deformation of the stratigraphic sequence also records a detailed history of glaciotectonism in proglacial and subglacial settings that can result from interactions between cold-based ice and permafrost terrain. This newly recognized history rejects the long-established paleoenvironmental model of Worth Point that assumed a simple 'layer-cake' stratigraphy.

  9. Strengthening the admissions process in health care professional education: focus on a premier Pacific Island medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chinyere Ezeala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relying solely on measures of intellectual aptitude and academic performance in university admissions can be disadvantageous to underprivileged students. The Fiji School of Medicine primarily uses such measures to evaluate and select student applicants, and the introduction of supplementary assessments could provide better access for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study examined the need for supplementary assessments in the admission process, types of additional assessments needed, and stakeholders??views on a multi-entry multi-exit strategy currently in use at the Fiji School of Medicine. A survey of the key stakeholders was conducted in February and March 2012 using closed and open ended questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two validated questionnaires were self-administered by key stakeholders from the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences (CMNHS and Fiji Ministries of Education and Health, with a response rate of 61%. Returned questionnaires were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Sixty-five percent of respondents supported the introduction of supplementary assessments, 49% favoured admissions test, and 16% preferred assessing non-academic factors. Many respondents supported the School?占퐏 multi-entry multi-exit strategy as a ?占퐂ood policy??that provided ?占퐀lexibility??and opportunity for students, but should be better regulated. These findings demonstrate the need for supplementary assessments in the selection process and for continued support for the use of multi-entry multi-exit strategy at the school.

  10. Water temperature, salinity, and velocity including ADCP ice tracking from Bering Strait moorings A2, A3, A4 in Bering Strait from 2015-07-02 to 2016-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0164166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2015 to summer 2016. Mooring deployments were funded by the NSF-Arctic Observing...

  11. Physical oceanographic mooring data (temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking) collected from Bering Strait Moorings A2, A3, A4 in Bering Strait from 2014-07-02 to 2015-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0155760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2014 to summer 2015. Mooring deployments were funded by the NSF-Arctic Observing...

  12. Economic Rationality in Choosing between Short-Term Bad-Health Choices and Longer-Term Good-Health Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  13. Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  15. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  16. Marine resources, biophysical processes, and environmental management of a tropical shelf seaway: Torres Strait, Australia Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. T.; Butler, A. J.; Coles, R. G.

    2008-09-01

    This special issue of Continental Shelf Research contains 20 papers giving research results produced as part of Australia's Torres Strait Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) Program, which was funded over a three-year period during 2003-2006. Marine biophysical, fisheries, socioeconomic-cultural and extension research in the Torres Strait region of northeastern Australia was carried out to meet three aims: 1) support the sustainable development of marine resources and minimize impacts of resource use in Torres Strait; 2) enhance the conservation of the marine environment and the social, cultural and economic well being of all stakeholders, particularly the Torres Strait peoples; and 3) contribute to effective policy formulation and management decision making. Subjects covered, including commercial and traditional fisheries management, impacts of anthropogenic sediment inputs on seagrass meadows and communication of science results to local communities, have broad applications to other similar environments.

  17. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone on Lake Erie, Port Clinton, Ohio. This zone is intended to...

  18. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of −0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr−1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr−1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr−1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches

  19. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  20. Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T

    2014-06-16

    The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector.

  1. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  2. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  3. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river......Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...

  4. Effect of the Northern Sea Route Opening to the Shipping Activities at Malacca Straits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative route for transporting cargoes between the Far East and Europe seems highly acceptable by shipping companies due to the great saving in fuel consumption, bunker cost, operating cost, emissions and journey time. This situation will not only affect the maritime business activity in the Straits of Malacca but also, the Malaysian economy in different perspectives when the vessels sail via the Suez Canal and the Indian Ocean are expected to decrease. The objective of this study is to analyse the implication in the opening of the Northern Sea Route on Maritime Sector of the Malaysian economy by using PESTEL analysis. The main scope is focusing more on the Malacca Straits shipping activity by using a number of parameters that have been obtained from Port Klang and Port Klang Authority through a set of questionnaires and interview sessions with industrial experts.

  5. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  6. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  7. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  8. Simulating Wind Driven Waves in the Strait of Hormuz using MIKE21 (Simulasi Gelombang Angin di Selat Hormuz Menggunakan MIKE21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeghe Eslami Mehdiabadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daerah pesisir di bumi adalah salah satu zona paling dinamis yang dipengaruhi oleh berbagai parameter seperti gelombang, arus, dan badai. Untuk mengelola serta mengkontrol zona tersebut adalah penting untuk mempelajari hidrodinamika daerah. Penelitian ini menggunakan MIKE 21/3 coupled Model FM untuk melihat gelombang (wind driven waves di sekitar Pulau Larak di Selat Hormuz. Untuk mensimulasikan pola gelombang di wilayah tersebut digunakan irregular triangular grid.  Pola arus di sekitar pulau dipelajari untuk jangka waktu satu tahun. Ditemukan bahwa gelombang yang ditimbulkan karena arus di sekitar pantai utara pulau relatif lemah. Terlihat pula bahwa gelombang yang ada di daerah tersebut terutama ke arah timur laut. Tinggi gelombang rata-rata di surfzone adalah sekitar 0,5 m., Dengan kecepatan arus sekitar 0,2 m.s-1. Mengingat angin menang dan arah gelombang, disimpulkan bahwa pantai utara Pulau Larak tempat yang cocok untuk konstruksi pelabuhan dan kegiatan memancing. Kata kunci: gelombang, arus, MIKE, Pulau Larak Coastal areas on earth are among the most dynamic zones which affected by different parameters such as waves, currents, and storms. To manage and control such a zone it is essential to study the hydrodynamic of the area. MIKE 21/3 Coupled Model FM was used to investigate the wind driven waves around Larak Island located in the Strait of Hormuz. To simulate the pattern of the wave in the area irregular triangular grid was applied. The pattern of current around the Island was studied for a one year period of simulation. It was found that the current induced wave break around the Northern coast of the Island is relatively weak. It was also observed that the prevailed wave in the area is mainly toward the Northeast. The averaged wave height in the surfzone is about 0.5 m., with the current velocity of about 0.2 m.s-1. Considering the prevailed wind and wave direction, it was concluded that the northern coasts of the Larak Island are

  9. Transports and tidal current estimates in the Taiwan Strait from shipboard ADCP observations (1999-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Jan, S.; Wang, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Tidal and mean flows in the Taiwan Strait are obtained from analysis of 2.5 years (1999-2001) of shipboard ADCP data using a spatial least-squares technique. The average tidal current amplitude is 0.46 ms -1, the maximum amplitude is 0.80 ms -1 at the northeast and southeast entrances and the minimum amplitude is 0.20 ms -1 in the middle of the Strait. The tidal current ellipses derived from the shipboard ADCP data compare well with the predictions of a high-resolution regional tidal model. For the mean currents, the average velocity is about 0.40 ms -1. The mean transport through the Strait is northward (into the East China Sea) at 1.8 Sv. The transport is related to the along Strait wind by a simple regression, transport (Sv)=2.42+0.12×wind (ms -1). Using this empirical formula, the maximum seasonal transport is in summer, about 2.7 Sv, the minimum transport is in winter, at 0.9 Sv, and the mean transport is 1.8 Sv. For comparison, this result indicates that the seasonal amplitude is almost identical to the classical estimate by Wyrtki (Physical oceanography of the southeast Asian waters, scientific results of marine investigations of the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, 1959-1961. Naga Report 2, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 195 pp.) based on the mass balance in the South China Sea, while the mean is close to the recent estimate by Isobe [Continental Shelf Research 19 (1999) 195] based on the mass balance in the East China Sea.

  10. The Messina straits tsunami of december 28, 1908: a critical review of experimental data and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinti, S.; Giuliani, D.

    1983-01-01

    The tsunami which occurred on December 28, 1908, in the Straits of Messina is examined. A wide set of data coming from a number of sources was collected and reviewed in order to get a picture as clear as possible of the generation and evolution of the event. The tsunami magnitude is estimated according to the Murty-Loomis scale, based upon the evaluation of the initial wave disturbance energy

  11. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  12. An approach to peat formation period on both coast of Fildes Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenfen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Because peat consist mainly of organic matter, both credibility and comparability of the peat 14 C age are high. This paper discuss the use of radiocarbon ( 14 C) to study the peat age. The results of a comparative study of ten samples from China Great Wall Station in Antarctica and the nearby area (on both sides of Fildes Strait) are presented, indicating differences of peat formation period between the pole and other areas

  13. STATUS OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN THE MAKASSAR STRAIT BASED AT THE NORTHERN PART OF JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal of Makassar Strait is one of main fishing grounds for purse seine vessels from northern part of Java which based at the following landing sites, i.e. Pekalongan, Tegal and Juwana. The purse seine fishery predominantly targets small pelagic fish. This paper attempts to present the current condition of small pelagic fishery in the Makassar Strait. Catch and effort (trip data between 2004 and 2011 from the three landing sites were used to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY using Schaefer & Fox models. The results showed a decreasing trend in the catch rate, from 30.83 tons/trip in 2004 to 12.27 tons/trip in 2011. The estimated MSY is at the range of 34,705- 37,930 tons with optimum efforts for 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips. Thus the level of purse seine fishing effort in 2011, i.e. 3,078 trips, was exceeding the optimum effort. The decreasing trend in the catch rate may indicate overfishing is occurring between 2004 and 2011. For management of the small pelagic fisheries in the waters of Makassar Strait, important action recommended is fishing effort restrictions. The effort allowed would be only in the range of 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips, and the fishing capacity needs to be controled.

  14. Domesticating Hybridity: Straits Chinese Cultural Heritage Projects in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Teoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literal and figurative domestication of Straits Chinese, or Peranakan, history in selected heritage projects in late twentieth-century Malaysia and Singapore. These projects simultaneously foreground Straits Chinese history as a symbol of interracial harmony and marginalize it as a cultural artifact. Over the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the ethnoculturally hybrid Straits Chinese positioned themselves as “the King’s Chinese,” champions of a Confucian-values renaissance, and citizens of independent Malaysia and Singapore. Their adaptability helped them survive the upheaval of imperialism, decolonization, and nation building, but it was also controversial for its suggestion of political flexibility. Today, Southeast Asian governments and the Peranakan themselves depict the community as a uniquely local model of ethnic integration. Museums and historic homes emphasize portrayals and consumption of supposedly feminine aspects of Peranakan culture (e.g., fashion and cuisine, while downplaying purportedly masculine elements (e.g., the possession of multiple nationalities. By conflating femininity, tradition, and racial hybridity, this approach reifies stereotypes about gender and cultural identity, and replaces transgressive potential with politically anodyne nostalgia and commercialization. As anxieties about race, national history, and belonging continue to undergird the modern polity, transnationalism and transculturalism are acceptable as long as they are confined to the past.

  15. Johor strait as a hotspot for trace elements contamination in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Ismail, Ahmad; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies.

  16. Influence of habitat structure and environmental variables on larval fish assemblage in the Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roushon; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Idris, M H; Gaffar, Mazlan Abd; Romano, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that among different habitat sites (mangrove, estuary, river, seagrass and Open Sea) in Johor Strait, Malaysia, seagrass showed highest family diversity and abundance of larval fish. However, it is unclear whether this was due to difference in habitat complexity or water quality parameters.? To test this, larval fish were collected by using a bongo net equipped with a flow meter by subsurface horizontal towing from different habitats in Johor Strait between October 2007 and September 2008.? Various physico-chemical parameters were measured and then examined for any relationship to fish larvae diversity and abundance. Among the 24 families identified from the sites, seven families (Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Mullidae, Nemipteridae, Syngnathidae, Terapontidae and Uranoscopeidae) were significantly correlated with the tested waters quality parameters.? Salinity showed a positive and negative significant correlation with Clupeidae (p Johor Strait, Malaysia. This likely indicates that habitat structure was more important in determining larval abundance (highest in the seagrass habitat) as compared to water quality at the tested sites. This study emphasizes the need to conserve seagrass beds as important nursery grounds for various fish larvae to ensure adequate recruitment and ultimately sustainable fisheries management. ?

  17. Enhanced Structural Interpretation Using Multitrace Seismic Attribute For Oligo-Miocene Target at Madura Strait Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama Wahyu Hidayat, Putra; Hary Murti, Antonius; Sudarmaji; Shirly, Agung; Tiofan, Bani; Damayanti, Shinta

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is an important parameter for the field of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, it has significant effect to the amount of resources or reserves, rock spreading, and risk analysis. The existence of geological structure or fault becomes one factor affecting geometry. This study is conducted as an effort to enhance seismic image quality in faults dominated area namely offshore Madura Strait. For the past 10 years, Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock has been slightly explored on Madura Strait area, the main reason because migration and trap geometry still became risks to be concern. This study tries to determine the boundary of each fault zone as subsurface image generated by converting seismic data into variance attribute. Variance attribute is a multitrace seismic attribute as the derivative result from amplitude seismic data. The result of this study shows variance section of Madura Strait area having zero (0) value for seismic continuity and one (1) value for discontinuity of seismic data. Variance section shows the boundary of RMKS fault zone with Kendeng zone distinctly. Geological structure and subsurface geometry for Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock could be identified perfectly using this method. Generally structure interpretation to identify the boundary of fault zones could be good determined by variance attribute.

  18. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  19. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  20. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 39418 - Safety Zone: Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... submitting material to the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202... in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Chart 18655. Upon the commencement of the... around the launch site is necessary to protect spectators, vessels, and other property from the hazards...

  2. 78 FR 38835 - Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... submitting material to the docket, call Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Chart 18655. Upon the commencement of the fireworks display, the safety zone... protect spectators, vessels, and other property from the hazards associated with the pyrotechnics. C...

  3. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  4. Men's health and communities of practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Maree; Shaw, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy; Marjoribanks, Timothy; Kendrick, Madeleine

    2017-04-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the social opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men created through Men's Groups/Sheds across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. Men's Sheds are a safe space, resembling a work-shop setting or backyard shed, where men are encouraged to socialise and participate in health promotion, informal learning and engage in meaningful tasks both individually and at the community level. Design/methodology/approach Explore five case study sites through Wenger's (1998) active communities of practice (CoP). Qualitative methods are presented and analysed; methods comprise semi-structured interviews and yarning circles (focus groups). Five Indigenous leaders/coordinators participated in semi-structured interviews, as well as five yarning circles with a total of 61 Indigenous men. Findings In a societal context in which Indigenous men in Australia experience a number of social and health issues, impeding their quality of life and future opportunities, the central finding of the paper is that the effective development of social relations and socially designed programs through Men's Groups, operating as CoP, may contribute to overcoming many social and health well-being concerns. Originality/value Contributions will provide a better understanding of how Indigenous men are engaging with Men's Sheds, and through those interactions, are learning new skills and contributing to social change.

  5. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  6. Summer nitrogenous nutrient transport and its fate in the Taiwan Strait: A coupled physical-biological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hong, Huasheng; Jiang, Yuwu; Chai, Fei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the fate of nutrients in the Taiwan Strait during summer, we built a coupled physical-biological numerical ocean model, which can capture the basic hydrographic and biological features within the strait. The nutrient that we chose to model is dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The model includes individual reservoirs for nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4). Both the observational evidence and model results show that NO3 in the strait originates primarily from the upwelling subsurface water in the northern South China Sea (SCS) that enters the strait via the eastern and western routes separated by the Taiwan Bank. The coupled physical and biological effects on the NO3 transport at these two routes are highlighted in the study. For the western route, the shallow topography and the coastal upwelling intensify the biological uptake of NO3 in the whole water column. Consequently, the nitrogenous contribution by this route is mainly in form of the particulate organic nitrogen (PON). In contrast, NO3 is transported conservatively below the nitricline at the deep eastern route, contributing the whole NO3 supply in the TWS. The model estimates the fluxes of DIN and PON into the TWS, from the northern SCS, are 1.8 and 4 kmol s-1, respectively. Over half (˜1 kmol s-1) of the DIN is synthesized into PON by the phytoplankton in the strait. Overall, this study estimates the physical and biological effects on the nutrient transport in the TWS during summer.

  7. Skills, systems and supports: An Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (Apunipima) approach to building health promotion evaluation capacity of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nina; McFarlane, Kathryn; Gibson, Priscilla; Millard, Fiona; Packer, Andrew; McDonald, Malcolm

    2018-04-01

    Torres Strait Islander populations. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  8. Summary and discussion of findings from: population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (a preliminary assessment for the period March 28-April 7, 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This report was prepared by technical staff members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), who constitute an Ad Hoc Population Dose Assessment Group. It is an assessment of the health impact on the approximately 2 million offsite residents within 50 miles of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station from the dose received by the entire population (collective dose). The Ad Hoc Group has examined in detail the available data for the period up to and including April 7, 1979. The report also addresses several areas of concern about the types of radionuclides released, about the contribution to population exposure due to beta radiation (which does not penetrate the clothing and skin) emitted from the released radionuclides, about the degree of coverage afforded by available radiation measurements, and about the range of health effects that may result from the estimated collective dose

  9. The Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Southern Shelf of the Strait of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Abuş, Eren

    2013-04-01

    The sea level changes in the northern shelf (Istanbul) of the Sea of Marmara and the sources of sedimentary packages at the southern exist of the Strait of Istanbul have been an ongoing debate the past decade. This study aims to enlighten both the sea level oscillations since ~125 ky before present and the structure of aforesaid sedimentary sequence, Unit 2, near Kurbaǧalı River observed in high resolution sparker seismic sections using global sea level change curves. Contary to Hiscott et al. (2002), Gökaşan et al. (2005), and Eriş et al. (2007) preferring the global sea level change curve in Fairbanks (1989) so as to explain the age interval of the sequence, we introduced the curve in Bard et al. (1990) presented the 230Th - 234U ages of Acropora palmata samples collected from the offshore of the island of Barbados, where Fairbanks (1989) submits the first chronology using the limited 14C ages. Therefore, the deposition of the Unit 2 was considered as 10 - 9 ky before present by Hiscott et al. (2002), as 12 - 11±1.1 ky BP by Gökaşan et al. (2005), and as 6.4 - 3.2 ky BP by Eriş et al. (2007). Having applied this calibration to our study, the age interval of the Unit 2 was calculated as 11.5 ky before present. In previous studies, Unit 2 was presented as prograding deltaic deposits of the Kurbaǧalı River yet our studies illustrates that the stream current of Kurbaǧalı River is not capable of supporting adequate sediment input, which is about 1.5 x 8.5 kilometers when the thickness and rate of propagation of Unit 2 are considered. Thanks to high resolution seismic sections and bathymetry, we firstly introduce that the Unit 2 is a point-bar structure forming as a product of the meandering regime at the southern exit of the Bosphorus.

  10. Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

    2014-01-01

    Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997–2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50'N78°50'N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait.

  11. Analysis of Backscatter and Seafloor Acoustical Properties across deepwater sandwaves in Cook Strait, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, X.; Lamarche, G.

    2011-12-01

    Central Cook Strait, New Zealand presents a variety of geological landforms subjected to intense hydrodynamic conditions. A comprehensive EM300 multibeam coverage of the strait was used to develop a method to objectively characterise the seafloor substrate. Specific post-processing was applied to the backscatter data to correct the signal from sensor bias, and was completed by correlating a quantitative description of backscatter with the field data. The final calibrated Backscattering Strength (BS) provides information on the physical characteristics of the seafloor. The BS imagery was used for both qualitative and quantitative interpretation, and give access to a level of detail higher than with conventional multibeam bathymetry. We developed a functional descriptive model of the physical BS angular response, describing satisfactorily the various typical BS responses met over Cook Strait and providing a first-order interpretation of the substrate composition. The full model needs 6 input parameters, but a practical classification can be obtained with only two (the BS value at 45° and the specular-to-oblique contrast). We analyse the BS angular response of sandwaves and erosional bedforms typically met in the central Cook Strait. The sandwave fields occur in 200-350 m of water depth and exhibit large-scale topographical features (wavelengths 100 - 250 m; vertical amplitudes 2 - 10 m). They are conspicuous in the backscatter imagery, and analysing their BS variations according to topography is specially informative. The BS level has a sharp minimum at the wave crests and is maximal inside the troughs, with a typical dynamics of 6 dB. Such a variation cannot be explained by the dependence on incident angle retrieved from local high-resolution bathymetry. Hence we infer that the reflectivity variations observed on the sandwaves are due to sediment facies changes, from fine to coarse sand in this case. This is corroborated by the fact that some sandwave fields with

  12. U. S. Navy Deepening of Pinole Shoal and Mare Island Strait Regulatory Permit Application by the Commander, Mare Island Shipyard, Solano County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Mustela vison Mink Mustela . frenata Long-Tailed WJeasel M e hi is mpii*Striped Skunk Order Artiodactyla Odocoileus_ hemqionus Mule Deer Birds Order...intermitted nature of operation. 10 c. Fish - temporary adverse impact on respiratory structures (i.e. inhibition of respiratory exchange through... respiratory structures (i.e. inhibition of respiratory exchange through clogging of gills and the abrasive action on gill filaments) and feeding processes

  13. Reversal of subtidal dune asymmetries caused by seasonally reversing wind-driven currents in Torres Strait, northeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.

    1991-07-01

    Large subtidal sand dunes (sandwaves) located in Adolphus Channel, Torres Strait, have been observed to reverse their asymmetric orientation between September-February. This has been attributed to a reversal in wind-driven currents, which flow westward during the SE trade season (April-November) and eastwards during the NW monsoon season [December-March: HARRIS (1989) Continental Shelf Research, 9, 981-1002]. Observations in September 1988 and February 1989 from another area of dunes in Torres Strait corroborate this asymmetry reversal pattern. The results indicate that such reversals may be common in Torres Strait and in other areas where subtidal bedforms are subject to modification by superimposed, seasonally reversing, wind-driven currents.

  14. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  15. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  16. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power den