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Sample records for strains tested representing

  1. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Kunkun; Chang, Li; Zheng, Bailin; Tang, Youhong; Wang, Hongjian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  2. Representative Stress-Strain Curve by Spherical Indentation on Elastic-Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile stress-strain curve of metallic materials can be determined by the representative stress-strain curve from the spherical indentation. Tabor empirically determined the stress constraint factor (stress CF, ψ, and strain constraint factor (strain CF, β, but the choice of value for ψ and β is still under discussion. In this study, a new insight into the relationship between constraint factors of stress and strain is analytically described based on the formation of Tabor’s equation. Experiment tests were performed to evaluate these constraint factors. From the results, representative stress-strain curves using a proposed strain constraint factor can fit better with nominal stress-strain curve than those using Tabor’s constraint factors.

  3. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T.; Bernaudat, C.

    2016-01-01

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO ® specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  4. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazalis, B., E-mail: bernard.cazalis@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Desquines, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/DMN, F- 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bernaudat, C. [Electricité de France, EDF/SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-04-15

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO{sup ®} specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  5. Bactericidal antibody against a representative epidemiological meningococcal serogroup B panel confirms that MATS underestimates 4CMenB vaccine strain coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosi, Giacomo; Biolchi, Alessia; Lo Sapio, Morena; Rigat, Fabio; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Medini, Duccio

    2013-10-09

    4CMenB (Bexsero), a vaccine developed against invasive meningococcal disease caused by capsular group B strains (MenB), was recently licensed for use by the European Medicines Agency. Assessment of 4CMenB strain coverage in specific epidemiologic settings is of primary importance to predict vaccination impact on the burden of disease. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was developed to predict 4CMenB strain coverage, using serum bactericidal antibody assay with human complement (hSBA) data from a diverse panel of strains not representative of any specific epidemiology. To experimentally validate the accuracy of MATS-based predictions against strains representative of a specific epidemiologic setting. We used a stratified sampling method to identify a representative sample from all MenB disease isolates collected from England and Wales in 2007-2008, tested the strains in the hSBA assay with pooled sera from infant and adolescent vaccinees, and compared these results with MATS. MATS predictions and hSBA results were significantly associated (P=0.022). MATS predicted coverage of 70% (95% CI, 55-85%) was largely confirmed by 88% killing in the hSBA (95% CI, 72-95%). MATS had 78% accuracy and 96% positive predictive value against hSBA. MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage by the 4CMenB vaccine in infants and adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. 1. An overview of concrete embedment strain instrumentation and calibration test results for selected concrete embedment strain meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The report presents results of calibration tests on strain meters. The approach was divided into two phases: (1) an overview of meter performance criteria for PCPV applications and techniques for strain measurements in concrete and (2) procurement of commercially available gages and their evaluation to assess the reliability of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors. Calibration test results for gages embedded in 15.2-cm-diam by 54-cm cylindrical concrete specimens indicated that calibration factors should be determined (verified) by embedding samples of the gages in test specimens fabricated using a representative mix and that further research should be conducted on other measurement techniques based on inductance, capacitance, semiconductors, and fluidic principles

  7. Standard practice for strain controlled thermomechanical fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of materials under uniaxially loaded strain-controlled conditions. A “thermomechanical” fatigue cycle is here defined as a condition where uniform temperature and strain fields over the specimen gage section are simultaneously varied and independently controlled. This practice is intended to address TMF testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. While this practice is specific to strain-controlled testing, many sections will provide useful information for force-controlled or stress-controlled TMF testing. 1.2 This practice allows for any maximum and minimum values of temperature and mechanical strain, and temperature-mechanical strain phasing, with the restriction being that such parameters remain cyclically constant throughout the duration of the test. No restrictions are placed on en...

  8. Validation Tests of Fiber Optic Strain-Based Operational Shape and Load Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.; Jutte, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft design has been progressing toward reduced structural weight to improve fuel efficiency, increase performance, and reduce cost. Lightweight aircraft structures are more flexible than conventional designs and require new design considerations. Intelligent sensing allows for enhanced control and monitoring of aircraft, which enables increased structurally efficiency. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has developed an instrumentation system and analysis techniques that combine to make distributed structural measurements practical for lightweight vehicles. Dryden's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) technology enables a multitude of lightweight, distributed surface strain measurements. The analysis techniques, referred to as the Displacement Transfer Functions (DTF) and Load Transfer Functions (LTF), use surface strain values to calculate structural deflections and operational loads. The combined system is useful for real-time monitoring of aeroelastic structures, along with many other applications. This paper describes how the capabilities of the measurement system were demonstrated using subscale test articles that represent simple aircraft structures. Empirical FOSS strain data were used within the DTF to calculate the displacement of the article and within the LTF to calculate bending moments due to loads acting on the article. The results of the tests, accuracy of the measurements, and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  9. Interpretation of large-strain geophysical crosshole tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drnevich, V.P.; Salgado, R.; Ashmawy, A.; Grant, W.P.; Vallenas, P.

    1995-10-01

    At sites in earthquake-prone areas, the nonlinear dynamic stress-strain behavior of soil with depth is essential for earthquake response analyses. A seismic crosshole test has been developed where large dynamic forces are applied in a borehole. These forces generate shear strains in the surrounding soil that are well into the nonlinear range. The shear strain amplitudes decrease with distance from the source. Velocity sensors located in three additional holes at various distances from the source hole measure the particle velocity and the travel time of the shear wave from the source. This paper provides an improved, systematic interpretation scheme for the data from these large-strain geophysical crosshole tests. Use is made of both the measured velocities at each sensor and the travel times. The measured velocity at each sensor location is shown to be a good measure of the soil particle velocity at that location. Travel times to specific features on the velocity time history, such as first crossover, are used to generate travel time curves for the waves which are nonlinear. At some distance the amplitudes reduce to where the stress-strain behavior is essentially linear and independent of strain amplitude. This fact is used together with the measurements at the three sensor locations in a rational approach for fitting curves of shear wave velocity versus distance from the source hole that allow the determination of the shear wave velocity and the shear strain amplitude at each of the sensor locations as well as the shear wave velocity associated with small-strain (linear) behavior. The method is automated using off-the-shelf PC-based software. The method is applied to large-strain crosshole tests performed as part of the studies for the design and construction of the proposed Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility planned for Hanford Site

  10. Deformation modeling and the strain transient dip test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.; Swearengen, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent efforts in material deformation modeling reveal a trend toward unifying creep and plasticity with a single rate-dependent formulation. While such models can describe actual material deformation, most require a number of different experiments to generate model parameter information. Recently, however, a new model has been proposed in which most of the requisite constants may be found by examining creep transients brought about through abrupt changes in creep stress (strain transient dip test). The critical measurement in this test is the absence of a resolvable creep rate after a stress drop. As a consequence, the result is extraordinarily sensitive to strain resolution as well as machine mechanical response. This paper presents the design of a machine in which these spurious effects have been minimized and discusses the nature of the strain transient dip test using the example of aluminum. It is concluded that the strain transient dip test is not useful as the primary test for verifying any micromechanical model of deformation. Nevertheless, if a model can be developed which is verifiable by other experimentts, data from a dip test machine may be used to generate model parameters

  11. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  12. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  13. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  14. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  15. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  16. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of strain-rate sensitivity of ion-irradiated austenitic steel using strain-rate jump nanoindentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Hamaguchi, Dai; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined strain-rate jump nanoindentation on ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We observed irradiation hardening of the ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We found that strain-rate sensitivity parameter was slightly decreased after the ion-irradiation. - Abstract: The present study investigated strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of a single crystal Fe–15Cr–20Ni austenitic steel before and after 10.5 MeV Fe{sup 3+} ion-irradiation up to 10 dpa at 300 °C using a strain-rate jump (SRJ) nanoindentation test. It was found that the SRJ nanoindentation test is suitable for evaluating the SRS at strain-rates from 0.001 to 0.2 s{sup −1}. Indentation size effect was observed for depth dependence of nanoindentation hardness but not the SRS. The ion-irradiation increased the hardness at the shallow depth region but decreased the SRS slightly.

  18. Draft genome comparison of representatives of the three dominant genotype groups of dairy Bacillus licheniformis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R Brent; Deeth, Hilton C; Craven, Heather; Turner, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3' ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species.

  19. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  20. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro

    1983-08-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500/sup 0/C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others.

  1. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500 0 C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  2. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  3. Prophage-Encoded Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A: Regulation of Production in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Representing Different Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the nature of the link between the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA gene and the lifecycle of Siphoviridae bacteriophages, including the origin of strain variation regarding SEA production after prophage induction. Five strains representing three different genetic lines of the sea region were studied under optimal and prophage-induced growth conditions and the Siphoviridae lifecycle was followed through the phage replicative form copies and transcripts of the lysogenic repressor, cro. The role of SOS response on prophage induction was addressed through recA transcription in a recA-disruption mutant. Prophage induction was found to increase the abundance of the phage replicative form, the sea gene copies and transcripts and enhance SEA production. Sequence analysis of the sea regions revealed that observed strain variances were related to strain capacity for prophage induction, rather than sequence differences in the sea region. The impact of SOS response activation on the phage lifecycle was demonstrated by the absence of phage replicative form copies in the recA-disruption mutant after prophage induction. From this study it emerges that all aspects of SEA-producing strain, the Siphoviridae phage and the food environment must be considered when evaluating SEA-related hazards.

  4. Modification of γ-induced mutagenesis in Ames test-strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Glycerine and cysteamine protective effect on mutagenesis was studied in 3 strains of Salmonella typhimurium under γ-radiation. Glycerine modifying effect was shown to be not similar for various test-strains and depended on DNA injury nature. DNA complex injuries were shown to play significant role in mutagenesis of TA100 and TA102 strains. Absence of cysteamine modifying effect on γ-induced mutagenesis testified to cysteamine effect on enzyme balance. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. RAPD Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Different Locations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine identification of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients in different locations in Egypt was confirmed by specific DNA fragment amplification. The susceptibilities of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against the four antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment (Isoniazid, INH; Rifampicin, Rif; Streptomycin, St and Ethambutol, E were examined. Our results indicated that, multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents about 19.5% of the tested strains, whereas sensitive strains represented 26.4%. The genetic polymorphism of the tested strains was examined using RAPD analysis. Six selected strains represent the different antibiotic susceptibility groups were examined using RAPD fingerprinting. No difference between the strains was recorded using the RFLP analysis of amplified specific fragment. The discrimination power of RAPD analysis was inadequate to clarify the genetic correlation between the tested strains. MDR-TB was approximately double time in 2008 compared with the value in 2007. Most of the new MDRTB was correlated with resident dense population regions.

  6. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebben, G.; Rasmussen, K.; Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J.; Rauscher, H.; Emons, H.; Stamm, H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term ‘representative test material’ is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  7. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  8. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  9. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)

  10. FIND Tuberculosis Strain Bank: a Resource for Researchers and Developers Working on Tests To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Related Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Nabeta, Pamela; Valli, Eloise; Albertini, Audrey; Collantes, Jimena; Lan, Nguyen Huu; Romancenco, Elena; Tukavdze, Nestani; Denkinger, Claudia M; Dolinger, David L

    2017-04-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB hampers global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well-characterized strains and samples from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has focused on the collection, characterization, and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and making them available to researchers and developers. The collection is being conducted at multiple centers in Southeast Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and soon the sub-Saharan Africa regions. Strains are characterized for their phenotypic resistances and MICs to first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs (SLDs) using the automated MGIT 960 system following validated procedures and WHO criteria. Analysis of resistance-associated mutations is done by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina NextSeq system. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and WGS are used to determine strain lineages. All strains are maintained frozen at -80°C ± 10°C as distinct mother and daughter lots. All strains are extensively quality assured. The data presented here represent an analysis of the initial part of the collection. Currently, the bank contains 118 unique strains with extracted genomic DNA and matched sputum, serum, and plasma samples and will be expanded to a minimum of 1,000 unique strains over the next 3 years. Analysis of the current strains by phenotypic resistance testing shows 102 (86.4%), 10 (8.5%), and 6 (5.1%) MDR, XDR, and mono/poly resistant strains, respectively. Two of the strains are resistant to all 11 drugs that were phenotypically tested. WGS mutation analysis revealed FLD resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB , katG , inhA , embB , embA , and pncA genes; SLD resistance in the gyr

  11. Study of creep behaviour in P-doped copper with slow strain rate tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuexing Yao; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2000-08-01

    Pure copper with addition of phosphorous is planned to be used to construct the canisters for spent nuclear fuel. The copper canisters can be exposed to a creep deformation up to 2-4% at temperatures in services. The ordinary creep strain tests with dead weight loading are generally employed to study the creep behaviour; however, it is reported that an initial plastic deformation of 5-15% takes place when loading the creep specimens at lower temperatures. The slow strain rate tensile test is an alternative to study creep deformation behaviour of materials. Ordinary creep test and slow strain rate tensile test can give the same information in the secondary creep stage. The advantage of the tensile test is that the starting phase is much more controlled than in a creep test. In a tensile test the initial deformation behaviour can be determined and the initial strain of less than 5% can be modelled. In this study slow strain rate tensile tests at strain rate of 10 -4 , 10 -5 , 10 -6 , and 10 -7 /s at 75, 125 and 175 degrees C have been performed on P-doped pure Cu to supplement creep data from conventional creep tests. The deformation behaviour has successfully been modelled. It is shown that the slow strain rate tensile tests can be implemented to study the creep deformation behaviours of pure Cu

  12. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, W.R.; Nauman, W.J.; Vollmer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  13. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  14. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  15. Variation of strain rate sensitivity index of a superplastic aluminum alloy in different testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Omid; Jahazi, Mohammad; Bombardier, Nicolas; Samuel, Ehab

    2017-10-01

    The strain rate sensitivity index, m-value, is being applied as a common tool to evaluate the impact of the strain rate on the viscoplastic behaviour of materials. The m-value, as a constant number, has been frequently taken into consideration for modeling material behaviour in the numerical simulation of superplastic forming processes. However, the impact of the testing variables on the measured m-values has not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the m-value for a superplastic grade of an aluminum alloy (i.e., AA5083) has been investigated. The conditions and the parameters that influence the strain rate sensitivity for the material are compared with three different testing methods, i.e., monotonic uniaxial tension test, strain rate jump test and stress relaxation test. All tests were conducted at elevated temperature (470°C) and at strain rates up to 0.1 s-1. The results show that the m-value is not constant and is highly dependent on the applied strain rate, strain level and testing method.

  16. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  17. Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.

  18. Dynamic Brazilian Test of Rock Under Intermediate Strain Rate: Pendulum Hammer-Driven SHPB Test and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. C.; Niu, L. L.; Li, S. H.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-09-01

    The tensile strength of rock subjected to dynamic loading constitutes many engineering applications such as rock drilling and blasting. The dynamic Brazilian test of rock specimens was conducted with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) driven by pendulum hammer, in order to determine the indirect tensile strength of rock under an intermediate strain rate ranging from 5.2 to 12.9 s-1, which is achieved when the incident bar is impacted by pendulum hammer with different velocities. The incident wave excited by pendulum hammer is triangular in shape, featuring a long rising time, and it is considered to be helpful for achieving a constant strain rate in the rock specimen. The dynamic indirect tensile strength of rock increases with strain rate. Then, the numerical simulator RFPA-Dynamics, a well-recognized software for simulating the rock failure under dynamic loading, is validated by reproducing the Brazilian test of rock when the incident stress wave retrieved at the incident bar is input as the boundary condition, and then it is employed to study the Brazilian test of rock under the higher strain rate. Based on the numerical simulation, the strain-rate dependency of tensile strength and failure pattern of the Brazilian disc specimen under the intermediate strain rate are numerically simulated, and the associated failure mechanism is clarified. It is deemed that the material heterogeneity should be a reason for the strain-rate dependency of rock.

  19. A proposed standard round compact specimen for plane strain fracture toughness testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Seeley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    A round, disk-shaped specimen is proposed as a standard test specimen for addition to ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399-78A). The specimen is diametrically cracked, and loaded in the same way as the existing standard compact specimen. Tests and analyses were performed to verify that the proposed round compact specimen and associated stress intensity factor K solution are appropriate for a standard plane strain fracture toughness test. The use of the round compact specimen for other fracture tests is described.

  20. Genome based analysis of type-I polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters in seven strains of five representative Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Hosoyama, Akira; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2014-04-30

    Actinobacteria of the genus Nocardia usually live in soil or water and play saprophytic roles, but they also opportunistically infect the respiratory system, skin, and other organs of humans and animals. Primarily because of the clinical importance of the strains, some Nocardia genomes have been sequenced, and genome sequences have accumulated. Genome sizes of Nocardia strains are similar to those of Streptomyces strains, the producers of most antibiotics. In the present work, we compared secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters of type-I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) among genomes of representative Nocardia species/strains based on domain organization and amino acid sequence homology. Draft genome sequences of Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum IFM 11049, Nocardia brasiliensis NBRC 14402(T), and N. brasiliensis IFM 10847 were read and compared with published complete genome sequences of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2, and N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1. Genome sizes are as follows: N. farcinica, 6.0 Mb; N. cyriacigeorgica, 6.2 Mb; N. asteroides, 7.0 Mb; N. otitidiscaviarum, 7.8 Mb; and N. brasiliensis, 8.9 - 9.4 Mb. Predicted numbers of PKS-I, NRPS, and PKS-I/NRPS hybrid clusters ranged between 4-11, 7-13, and 1-6, respectively, depending on strains, and tended to increase with increasing genome size. Domain and module structures of representative or unique clusters are discussed in the text. We conclude the following: 1) genomes of Nocardia strains carry as many PKS-I and NRPS gene clusters as those of Streptomyces strains, 2) the number of PKS-I and NRPS gene clusters in Nocardia strains varies substantially depending on species, and N. brasiliensis strains carry the largest numbers of clusters among the species studied, 3) the seven Nocardia strains studied in the present work have seven common PKS-I and/or NRPS clusters, some of whose products are yet to be studied

  1. The role of creep in stress strain curves for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandström, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dislocation based model takes into account both dynamic and static recovery. ► Tests at constant load and at constant strain rate modelled without fitting parameters. ► The model can describe primary and secondary creep of Cu-OFP from 75 to 250 °C. ► The temperature and strain rate dependence of stress strain curves can be modelled. ► Intended for the slow strain rates in canisters for storage of nuclear waste. - Abstract: A model for plastic deformation in pure copper taking work hardening, dynamic recovery and static recovery into account, has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model is intended to be used in finite-element computations of the long term behaviour of structures in Cu-OFP for storage of nuclear waste. The relation between the strain rate and the maximum flow stress in the model has been demonstrated to correspond to strain rate versus stress in creep tests for oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP. A further development of the model can also represent the primary and secondary stage of creep curves. The model is compared to stress strain curves in compression and tension for Cu-OFP. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 5 × 10 −5 and 5 × 10 −3 s −1 . The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20–175 °C for strain rates between 1 × 10 −7 and 1 × 10 −4 s −1 . Consequently, it is demonstrated that the model can represent mechanical test data that have been generated both at constant load and at constant strain rate without the use of any fitting parameters.

  2. Design of triaxial test with controlled suction: measure of strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasc-Barbier, M.; Cosenza, Ph.; Ghoreychi, M.; Chanchole, S.; Cosenza, Ph.; Tessier, D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental study of mechanical behavior of clayey materials under hygrometric condition is usually performed either on unloaded samples or by means of classical odometer tests used in soil mechanics. Such methods are not well adapted to hard deep clayey rocks with little deformability, porosity and permeability. Moreover, stress and strain tensors having a significant effect on hygro-mechanical behaviour and properties cannot be measured and investigated appropriately by classical tests. This is why a specific triaxial test was designed in which the sample is surrounded by a fiber glass tissue allowing air circulation and then by silicon on which confining pressure is applied. Thus, equilibrium between air and sample was reduced. Stress and strain tensors were also measured in time on the sample subjected to a mechanical loading and to a controlled suction. After presentation of the test, preliminary results are given. (authors)

  3. Comparisons of Venezuelan encephalitis virus strains by hemagglutination-inhibition tests with chicken antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Pancake, B A

    1977-01-01

    Twenty strains of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus inoculated intravenously in large doses into roosters produced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies detectable in plasmas within 7 to 10 days. No signs of illness occurred, and there was no evidence of viral growth in tissues since blood concentrations of infectious virus steadily decreased after inoculation. HI antibodies in early plasmas were specific for VE virus and did not cross-react significantly with two other North American alphaviruses, eastern and western encephalitis viruses. VE virus strains could be distinquished by virus-dilution, short-incubation HI, but not by plasma-dilution neutralization tests, by using early rooster antibodies. The distinctions by HI test were similar with some strains to, but different with other strains from, those described by Young and Johnson with the spiny rat antisera used to establish their subtype classifications of VE virus (14, 28). Nevertheless, results of HI tests with rooster antibodies correlated with equine virulence, as did results with spiny rat antibodies, and distinguished the new strains of virus that appeared in Middle America during the VE outbreak of 1969 from preexisting strains. PMID:591629

  4. Cyclic mechanical behavior of 316L: Uniaxial LCF and strain-controlled ratcheting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.; Janssens, K.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of cyclic plastic deformation behavior of plate and tubular 316L. ► Strain-controlled ratcheting response between room temperature and 200 °C. ► Isotropic cyclic hardening is dependent on the yield criterion used. ► Ratcheting induced hardening mostly affects the kinematic hardening component. ► Ratcheting induced hardening is related to the mean strain and the ratcheting rate. -- Abstract: With the purpose of analyzing the fatigue behavior under loading conditions relevant for the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor, a set of uniaxial low cycle fatigue and strain-controlled ratcheting tests (also named ‘cyclic tension tests’) has been performed at room temperature and at 200 °C on specimens manufactured from two different batches of stainless steel grade 316L. The experiments have been repeated varying strain amplitude, cyclic ratcheting rate and ratcheting direction in order to investigate the influence on the cyclic deformation behavior. In strain-controlled ratcheting tests, the stress response is found to be a superposition of two hardening mechanisms: the first one due to the zero mean strain cycling and the second one linked with the monotonic drifting of mean plastic strain. An approach is proposed to distinguish the effect of each mechanism and the influence of the test parameters on the hardening mechanisms is discussed

  5. Flat-Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Large Strain Amplitude Fatigue Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a flat-cladding fiber Bragg grating sensor for large cyclic strain amplitude tests of up to ±8,000 με. The increased contact area between the flat-cladding fiber and substrate, together with the application of a new bonding process, has significantly increased the bonding strength. In the push-pull fatigue tests of an aluminum alloy, the plastic strain amplitudes measured by three optical fiber sensors differ only by 0.43% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±7,000 με and 1.9% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±8,000 με. We also applied the sensor on an extruded magnesium alloy for evaluating the peculiar asymmetric hysteresis loops. The results obtained were in good agreement with those measured from the extensometer, a further validation of the sensor.

  6. Strain measurement in and analysis for hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dan; Zhuang Dongzhen

    2013-01-01

    The strain measurement in hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel performed in Dongfang Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. is introduced. The detail test scheme and method was introduced and the measurement results of strain and stress was given. Meanwhile the finite element analysis was performed for the pressure vessel, which was generally matched with the measurement results. The reliability of strain measurement was verified and the high strength margin of vessel was shown, which would give a good reference value for the follow-up hydraulic tests and strength analysis of reactor pressure vessel. (authors)

  7. Characterization of strain rate sensitivity and activation volume using the indentation relaxation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Baoxing; Chen Xi; Yue Zhufeng

    2010-01-01

    We present the possibility of extracting the strain rate sensitivity, activation volume and Helmholtz free energy (for dislocation activation) using just one indentation stress relaxation test, and the approach is demonstrated with polycrystalline copper. The Helmholtz free energy measured from indentation relaxation agrees well with that from the conventional compression relaxation test, which validates the proposed approach. From the indentation relaxation test, the measured indentation strain rate sensitivity exponent is found to be slightly larger, and the indentation activation volume much smaller, than their counterparts from the compression test. The results indicate the involvement of multiple dislocation mechanisms in the indentation test.

  8. Behavioural analysis of four mouse strains in an anxiety test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaalen, M M; Steckler, T

    2000-10-01

    Differences in locomotor activity, exploratory activity and anxiety-like behaviour of C57BL/6ChR,C57BL/6J, Swiss Webster/J and A/J strain were investigated in an anxiety battery. The battery consisted of paradigms studying spontaneous behaviour after a mild stressor, tasks of innate anxiety (light-dark box, elevated plus maze, novel object exploration), response to a conflict situation (Vogel conflict), conditioned fear and response to inescapable swim stress. Locomotor activity was studied in an open field and compared with locomotion in the other tests. Exploratory behaviour was studied in a 16-hole board task. The data confirm previous studies suggesting that A/J mice are a relatively anxious strain. Also, the data indicated that locomotor activity was independent of the paradigm employed, while the rank order of strain-dependent effects on anxiety-related behaviour changed as a function of the task under study. Our data provide further support for the notion that choice of strain is essential in studies of anxiety-related behaviour. Influence of strain should be considered in pharmacological and lesion studies, as well as in studies with mutant mice. In addition, the data indicate that different anxiety paradigms tax different aspects of anxiety, suggesting that a battery of different tests should be used in studies of anxiety-related behaviour.

  9. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  10. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  11. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  12. In vitro testing of the some antibiotics efficiency on some E. coli strains isolated from avian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia-Ileana Nueleanu,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available For broiler chickens, a major mortality cause on the entire exploitation period is represented by the collibacilar infections, which need a correct and efficient treatment. The mortality in 94 broiler chickens was studied, between three and thirty days of age, from four avian farms from Satu-Mare county, isolating and identifying 32 Escherichia coli strains in pure culture. The testing of sensitivity to antibiotics of the isolated germs was made through the difusimethric method, revealing a decreased efficiency to Oxitetracyclin, Amoxicyllin and Erithromycin, while in the case of Amoxicyllin + Clavulanic acid, Florfenicol and Gentamycin a good sensitivity was observed.

  13. Processing of plane strain compression test results for investigation of AISI-304 stainless steel constitutive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, Sergey A.; Puzino, Yuriy A.; Bober, Stanislav A.; Kliber, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The paper is oriented toward the determination of constitutive equation constants by the inverse analysis of plane strain compression test results. The interpretation of such results is complicated by the inhomogeneity of strain rate distribution in the specimen caused by rigid ends, the lateral spreading of a specimen friction and the variation of temperature during the test. The results of plane strain compression tests of AISI-304 stainless steel are presented and significant deviations of temperature are observed at higher strain rates. Finite element simulation was performed to estimate the inhomogeneity of strain rate within the specimen and evaluate the effect of friction on the test results. Constitutive equations of the material were obtained by inverse analysis minimizing the deviations between the measured load values and the ones predicted by numerical simulation. Keywords: PSCT, AISI-304, Gleeble, constitutive equations, hot forming, FEM, inverse analysis.

  14. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  15. The Genetically Remote Pathogenic Strain NVH391-98 of the Bacillus cereus Group Represents the Cluster of Thermophilic Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Bidnenko, Elena; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Lapidus, Alla; Sorokin, Alexei

    2007-10-02

    Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group are known to cause food poisoning. A rare phylogenetically remote strain, NVH391-98, was recently characterized to encode a particularly efficient cytotoxin K presumably responsible for food poisoning. This pathogenic strain and its close relatives can be phenotypically distinguished from other strains of the B. cereus group by the inability to grow at temperatures below 17 degrees C and by the ability to grow at temperatures from 48 to 53 degrees C. A temperate phage, phBC391A2, residing in the genome of NVH391-98 allows us to distinguish the three known members of this thermophilic strain cluster.

  16. Three-axial strain controlled testing applied to bone specimens from the proximal tibial epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, F.; Pongsoipetch, B.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1990-01-01

    Reproducibility of the determination of Young's modulus and energy absorption along the three axes of trabecular bone cubes was analysed by non-destructive compression to 0.5% strain using different testing protocols. These protocols included testing with and without pre-conditioning to a viscoel......Reproducibility of the determination of Young's modulus and energy absorption along the three axes of trabecular bone cubes was analysed by non-destructive compression to 0.5% strain using different testing protocols. These protocols included testing with and without pre...

  17. Strain measurements at high temperatures in a concrete structure representing a cylindrical section of a PCPV with hot liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittenhelm, Ch.

    1975-11-01

    In an experimental ring, representing an 1 m high section of the Austrian PCPV-Model with hot liner, different types of strain gauges were installed in the insulating concrete and the prestressed concrete. In this ring the thermal conditions were the same as in the PCPV-Model. In this report the results of measurements of the past two years are brought and comparisons with static calculations is attempted. (author)

  18. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    to calculate independently the strain and temperature are presented in the article, together with a measurement resolution study. This multi-parameter measurement method was applied to an epoxy tensile specimen, tested in a unidirectional tensile test machine with a temperature controlled cabinet. A full......A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  19. Normalized Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) stress-strain curve prediction method based on small strain triaxial test data on undisturbed Auckland residual clay soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. J. Md; Ibrahim, A.; Rahman, A. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Small strain triaxial test measurement is considered to be significantly accurate compared to the external strain measurement using conventional method due to systematic errors normally associated with the test. Three submersible miniature linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) mounted on yokes which clamped directly onto the soil sample at equally 120° from the others. The device setup using 0.4 N resolution load cell and 16 bit AD converter was capable of consistently resolving displacement of less than 1µm and measuring axial strains ranging from less than 0.001% to 2.5%. Further analysis of small strain local measurement data was performed using new Normalized Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) method and compared with existing Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (RMYSF) prediction method. The prediction of shear strength based on combined intrinsic curvilinear shear strength envelope using small strain triaxial test data confirmed the significant improvement and reliability of the measurement and analysis methods. Moreover, the NRMYSF method shows an excellent data prediction and significant improvement toward more reliable prediction of soil strength that can reduce the cost and time of experimental laboratory test.

  20. Triaxial extensometer for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Bo; Xu, Ming-long; Zhao, Tian-fei; Zhang, Zhi-jun; Lu, Tian-jian

    2010-01-01

    A new strain gauge-based triaxial extensometer (radial extensometers x, y and axial extensometer z) is presented to improve the volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials. By the triaxial extensometer, triaxial deformations of the foam specimen can be measured directly, from which the volumetric strain is determined. Sensitivities of the triaxial extensometer are predicted using a finite-element model, and verified through experimental calibrations. The axial extensometer is validated by conducting a uniaxial compression test in aluminium foam and comparing deformation measured by the axial extensometer to that by the advanced optical 3D deformation analysis system ARAMIS; the result from the axial extensometer agrees well with that from ARAMIS. A new modus of two-wire measurement and transmission in a hydrostatic environment is developed to avoid the punching and lead sealing techniques on the pressure vessel for the hydro-compression test. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the triaxial extensometer is determined through an experimental test. An application in an aluminium foam hydrostatic compression test shows that the triaxial extensometer is effective for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

  1. Survey of radiosensitivity in a variety of human cell strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlett, C.F.; Harcourt, S.A.

    1980-03-01

    Gamma-ray sensitivity for cell killing was assayed in 54 human cell strains, including some derived from individuals suffering from certain hereditary diseases. The overall range of Do values in this study was 38 to 180 rads, indicating a considerable range of variability in humans. The normal sensitivity was described by a range of Do values of 97 to 180 rads. All ten ataxia telangiectasia cell strains tested proved radiosensitive and gave a mean Do value of 57 +- 15 (S.E.) rads, and these represent the most radiosensitive human skin fibroblasts currently available. Representative cell strains from familial retinoblastoma, Fanconi's anemia, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria occupied positions of intermediate sensitivity, as did one of two ataxia telangiectasia heterozygotes. Six xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains together with two Cockayne's syndrome cell strains (all known to be sensitive to ultraviolet light) fell into the normal range, indicating an absence of cross-sensitivity between ultraviolet light and gamma-irradiation.

  2. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  3. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and We......A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...

  4. Longitudinally Jointed Edge-wise Compression Honeycomb Composite Sandwich Coupon Testing and FE Analysis: Three Methods of Strain Measurement, and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Babak; AbdulRahim, Nur Aida; Segal, Ken; Fan, Terry; Jones, Justin; Hodges, Ken; Mashni, Noah; Garg, Naman; Sang, Alex; Gifford, Dawn; hide

    2013-01-01

    Three means (i.e., typical foil strain gages, fiber optic sensors, and a digital image correlation (DIC) system) were implemented to measure strains on the back and front surfaces of a longitudinally jointed curved test article subjected to edge-wise compression testing, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, according to ASTM C364. The Pre-test finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to assess ultimate failure load and predict strain distribution pattern throughout the test coupon. The predicted strain pattern contours were then utilized as guidelines for installing the strain measurement instrumentations. The strain gages and fiber optic sensors were bonded on the specimen at locations with nearly the same strain values, as close as possible to each other, so that, comparisons between the measured strains by strain gages and fiber optic sensors, as well as the DIC system are justified. The test article was loaded to failure (at approximately 38 kips), at the strain value of approximately 10,000mu epsilon As a part of this study, the validity of the measured strains by fiber optic sensors is examined against the strain gage and DIC data, and also will be compared with FEA predictions.

  5. Correction of the post -- necking true stress -- strain data using instrumented nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Fonseca, Ivan Dario

    The study of large plastic deformations has been the focus of numerous studies particularly in the metal forming processes and fracture mechanics fields. A good understanding of the plastic flow properties of metallic alloys and the true stresses and true strains induced during plastic deformation is crucial to optimize the aforementioned processes, and to predict ductile failure in fracture mechanics analyzes. Knowledge of stresses and strains is extracted from the true stress-strain curve of the material from the uniaxial tensile test. In addition, stress triaxiality is manifested by the neck developed during the last stage of a tensile test performed on a ductile material. This necking phenomenon is the factor responsible for deviating from uniaxial state into a triaxial one, then, providing an inaccurate description of the material's behavior after the onset of necking. The research of this dissertation is aimed at the development of a correction method for the nonuniform plastic deformation (post-necking) portion of the true stress-strain curve. The correction proposed is based on the well-known relationship between hardness and flow (yield) stress, except that instrumented nanoindentation hardness is utilized rather than conventional macro or micro hardness. Three metals with different combinations of strain hardening behavior and crystal structure were subjected to quasi-static tensile tests: power-law strain hardening low carbon G10180 steel (BCC) and electrolytic tough pitch copper C11000 (FCC), and linear strain hardening austenitic stainless steel S30400 (FCC). Nanoindentation hardness values, measured on the broken tensile specimen, were converted into flow stress values by means of the constraint factor C from Tabor's, the representative plastic strainepsilonr and the post-test true plastic strains measured. Micro Vickers hardness testing was carried out on the sample as well. The constraint factors were 5.5, 4.5 and 4.5 and the representative plastic

  6. Strain transfer through film-substrate interface and surface curvature evolution during a tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  7. Relationship between the Pedaling Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Manolova, Aneliya; Crequy, Samuel; Lestriez, Philippe; Debraux, Pierre; Bertucci, William

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX) frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider...

  8. Sequencing of bovine herpesvirus 4 v.test strain reveals important genome features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC, the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA. As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner. Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses.

  9. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  10. The contribution of the expanding shell test to the modeling of elastoplaticity at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois

    2002-01-01

    The expanding shell test allows to load a material in the domain of high strain levels while strain rate is about 104s-1. This test submits an hemisphere to a radial expanding free flight, using a pyrotechnic device. The experiment (experimental apparatus, measurements...) is described with the difficulties encountered for the interpretation of the experimental data. Under some assumptions, the numerical transformation of radial velocities gives indications about the evolution of the strain, stress, strain rate and temperature rise, this last one being related to plastic work. We show how it is possible to associate both analytical and numerical approaches. Numerical simulation of the test is presented in a companion paper (see [Buy01]). Results obtained for copper, tantalum and TA6V4 are presented. The contribution of this test to the modeling of elastoplastic behavior is discussed and further works are proposed

  11. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  12. Life prediction of l6 steel using strain-life curve and cyclic stress-strain curve by means of low cycle fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sanket; Ukhande, Manoj; Date, Prashant; Lomate, Dattaprasad; Takale, Shyam; Singh, RKP

    2017-05-01

    L6 Steel is used as die material in closed die hot forging process. This material is having some unique properties. These properties are due to its composition. Strain softening is the noticeable property of this material. Due to this in spite of cracking at high stress this material gets plastically deformed and encounters loss in time as well as money. Studies of these properties are necessary to nurture this material at fullest extent. In this paper, numerous experiments have been carried on L6 material to evaluate cyclic Stress - strain behavior as swell as strain-life behavior of the material. Low cycle fatigue test is carried out on MTS fatigue test machine at fully reverse loading condition R=-1. Also strain softening effect on forging metal forming process is explained in detail. The failed samples during low cycle fatigue test further investigated metallurgically on scanning electron microscopy. Based on this study, life estimation of hot forging die is carried out and it’s correlation with actual shop floor data is found out. This work also concludes about effect of pre-treatments like nitro-carburizing and surface coating on L6 steel material, to enhance its fatigue life to certain extent.

  13. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between strain and central deflection in small punch creep specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Wang Zhiwen

    2003-01-01

    Acquiring information about creep strain directly from small punch creep tests is difficult because the deformation behaviour of the small punch specimen is complicated. A routine is suggested in the present paper to treat this problem indirectly. Based on a finite element analysis, it is proposed that the relationship of central deflection δ to central creep strain ε c of a specimen subjected to creep can be represented approximately by the relationship of central deflection δ to central (elastic-plastic) strain ε of a specimen not subjected to creep. With this hypothesis, the δ∼ε c relation of the small punch creep specimen is obtained by resorting to a rigid-plastic membrane stretch forming model. Finally, small punch creep test results are used to evaluate creep strain and creep strain rate by taking advantage of this δ∼ε c relation

  15. Interaction of heat production, strain rate and stress power in a plastically deforming body under tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglietti, A.

    1982-01-01

    At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.

  16. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mohamadi, Sakineh; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Tadayon, Keyvan; Ghaderi, Rainak

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Some level of diversity. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine. This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping. In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A.Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.

  17. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  18. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  19. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  20. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  1. Measurement test on creep strain rate of uranium-zirconium solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Takanari; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru

    1996-11-01

    In order to measure creep strain rate of a small specimen of U-Zr solid solution, authors proposed an estimation method which was based upon the stress relaxation after compression. It was applied to measurement test on creep strain rate of the U-10wt%Zr specimen in the temperature range of 757 to 911degC. It may be concluded that the proposed method is valid, provided that the strain is within the appropriate range and that sufficient amount of the load decrement is observed. The obtained creep rate of U-10wt%Zr alloy indicated significantly smaller value, compared to the experimental data for pure U metal and evaluated data for U-Pu-Zr alloy. However, more careful measurement is desired in future since the present data are thought to be influenced by the precipitations included in the specimen. (author)

  2. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Cornelissen, R.A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees

  3. The emergence of the activity reduces conflict related strain (ARCAS) model: A test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Cornelissen, R. A. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees

  4. Standard test method for plane-strain (Chevron-Notch) fracture toughness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plane-strain (chevron-notch) fracture toughnesses, KIv or KIvM, of metallic materials. Fracture toughness by this method is relative to a slowly advancing steady state crack initiated at a chevron-shaped notch, and propagating in a chevron-shaped ligament (Fig. 1). Some metallic materials, when tested by this method, exhibit a sporadic crack growth in which the crack front remains nearly stationary until a critical load is reached. The crack then becomes unstable and suddenly advances at high speed to the next arrest point. For these materials, this test method covers the determination of the plane-strain fracture toughness, KIvj or KIvM, relative to the crack at the points of instability. Note 1—One difference between this test method and Test Method E 399 (which measures KIc) is that Test Method E 399 centers attention on the start of crack extension from a fatigue precrack. This test method makes use of either a steady state slowly propagating crack, or a...

  5. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  6. Relationship between the Pedaling Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya V. Manolova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider was in static standing position on the pedals and applied maximal muscular isometric force to the right pedal. The second pedaling condition corresponds to three pedaling sprint tests at submaximal intensities at 150, 300 and 550 W on a cycle-trainer. The results showed that smaller strain was observed in the pedaling condition than in the rider static standing position condition. The highest strains were located in the seat tube and the right chain stay near the bottom bracket area. The maximum stress observed through all conditions was 41 MPa on the right chain stay. This stress was 11 times lower than the yield stress of the frame material (460 MPa. This protocol could help to adapt the frame design to the riders as a function of their force and mechanical power output. These results could also help design BMX frames for specific populations (females and rider morphology.

  7. Integration testing through reusing representative unit test cases for high-confidence medical software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Youngsul; Choi, Yunja; Lee, Woo Jin

    2013-06-01

    As medical software is getting larger-sized, complex, and connected with other devices, finding faults in integrated software modules gets more difficult and time consuming. Existing integration testing typically takes a black-box approach, which treats the target software as a black box and selects test cases without considering internal behavior of each software module. Though it could be cost-effective, this black-box approach cannot thoroughly test interaction behavior among integrated modules and might leave critical faults undetected, which should not happen in safety-critical systems such as medical software. This work anticipates that information on internal behavior is necessary even for integration testing to define thorough test cases for critical software and proposes a new integration testing method by reusing test cases used for unit testing. The goal is to provide a cost-effective method to detect subtle interaction faults at the integration testing phase by reusing the knowledge obtained from unit testing phase. The suggested approach notes that the test cases for the unit testing include knowledge on internal behavior of each unit and extracts test cases for the integration testing from the test cases for the unit testing for a given test criteria. The extracted representative test cases are connected with functions under test using the state domain and a single test sequence to cover the test cases is produced. By means of reusing unit test cases, the tester has effective test cases to examine diverse execution paths and find interaction faults without analyzing complex modules. The produced test sequence can have test coverage as high as the unit testing coverage and its length is close to the length of optimal test sequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive wireless antenna sensor for strain and crack sensing—electromagnetic modeling, simulation, and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Xiaohua; Cho, Chunhee; Wang, Yang; Cooper, James; Tentzeris, Manos M; Leon, Roberto T

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates a passive wireless antenna sensor designed for strain and crack sensing. When the antenna experiences deformation, the antenna shape changes, causing a shift in the electromagnetic resonance frequency of the antenna. A radio frequency identification (RFID) chip is adopted for antenna signal modulation, so that a wireless reader can easily distinguish the backscattered sensor signal from unwanted environmental reflections. The RFID chip captures its operating power from an interrogation electromagnetic wave emitted by the reader, which allows the antenna sensor to be passive (battery-free). This paper first reports the latest simulation results on radiation patterns, surface current density, and electromagnetic field distribution. The simulation results are followed with experimental results on the strain and crack sensing performance of the antenna sensor. Tensile tests show that the wireless antenna sensor can detect small strain changes lower than 20 με, and can perform well at large strains higher than 10 000 με. With a high-gain reader antenna, the wireless interrogation distance can be increased up to 2.1 m. Furthermore, an array of antenna sensors is capable of measuring the strain distribution in close proximity. During emulated crack and fatigue crack tests, the antenna sensor is able to detect the growth of a small crack. (paper)

  9. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  10. STAT, GAPS, STRAIN, DRWDIM: a system of computer codes for analyzing HTGR fuel test element metrology data. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.

    1977-08-01

    A system of computer codes has been developed to statistically reduce Peach Bottom fuel test element metrology data and to compare the material strains and fuel rod-fuel hole gaps computed from these data with HTGR design code predictions. The codes included in this system are STAT, STRAIN, GAPS, and DRWDIM. STAT statistically evaluates test element metrology data yielding fuel rod, fuel body, and sleeve irradiation-induced strains; fuel rod anisotropy; and additional data characterizing each analyzed fuel element. STRAIN compares test element fuel rod and fuel body irradiation-induced strains computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. GAPS compares test element fuel rod, fuel hole heat transfer gaps computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. DRWDIM plots the measured and predicted gaps and strains. Although specifically developed to expedite the analysis of Peach Bottom fuel test elements, this system can be applied, without extensive modification, to the analysis of Fort St. Vrain or other HTGR-type fuel test elements.

  11. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  12. Dynamic strain aging of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel in tensile testing and deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.G.; Hong, S.; Anjabin, N.; Park, B.H.; Kim, S.K.; Chin, K.-G.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic strain aging (DSA) of metallic materials due to solute atom diffusion to mobile dislocations induce deformation instability with load fluctuations and deformation localizations, hence reducing their sheet formability. In this paper, DSA behaviors of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with and without Al during tensile testing and deep drawing are investigated in terms of strain localization and the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) band. A theoretical DSA model with internal variables of dislocation density and twin volume fraction is presented for an estimation of strain localization and strain hardening behavior of TWIP steels. The simulation results of the load history and PLC bands during tensile testing and deep drawing are in good agreement with the experimental values. A serration behavior is observed in high-Mn TWIP steels and its tensile residual stress is higher than that in the Al-added TWIP steels, which results in a deformation crack or delayed fracture of deep drawn specimens

  13. Strain-specific battery of tests for domains of mania: effects of valproate, lithium and imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD, especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment.

  14. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  15. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  16. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  17. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  18. Construction of in-situ creep strain test facility for the SFR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Heo, Hyeong Min; Kim, Jun Hwan; Kim, Sung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, in-situ laser inspection creep test machine was developed for the measuring the creep strain of SFR fuel cladding materials. Ferritic-martensitic steels are being considered as an attractive candidate material for a fuel cladding of a SFR due to their low expansion coefficients, high thermal conductivities and excellent irradiation resistances to a void swelling. HT9 steel (12CrMoVW) is initially developed as a material for power plants in Europe in the 1960. This steel has experienced to expose up to 200dpa in FFTE and EBR-II. Ferritic-Martensitic steel's maximum creep strength in existence is 180Mpa for 106 hour 600 .deg., but HT9 steel is 60Mpa. Because SFR is difficult to secure in developing and applying materials, HT9 steel has accumulated validated data and is suitable for SFR component. And also, because of its superior dimensional stability against fast neutron irradiation, Ferritic-martensitic steel of 9Cr and 12Cr steels, such as HT9 and FC92(12Cr-2W) are preferable to utilize in the fuel cladding of an SFR in KAERI. The pressurized thermal creep test of HT9 and FC92 claddings are being conducted in KAERI, but the change of creep strain in cladding is not easy to measure during the creep test due to its pressurized and closed conditions. In this paper, in-situ laser inspection pressurized creep test machine developed for SFR fuel cladding specimens is described. Moreover, the creep strain rate of HT9 at 650 .deg. C was examined from the in-situ laser inspection pressurized creep test machine.

  19. Genetic characterization of type A enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agi Deguchi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A, is both a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and a major cause of human gastrointestinal disease, which usually involves strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE. The gene (cpe encoding this toxin can be carried on the chromosome or a large plasmid. Interestingly, strains carrying cpe on the chromosome and strains carrying cpe on a plasmid often exhibit different biological characteristics, such as resistance properties against heat. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of C. perfringens by PCR-surveying 21 housekeeping genes and genes on representative plasmids and then confirmed those results by Southern blot assay (SB of five genes. Furthermore, sequencing analysis of eight housekeeping genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis were also performed. Fifty-eight C. perfringens strains were examined, including isolates from: food poisoning cases, human gastrointestinal disease cases, foods in Japan or the USA, or feces of healthy humans. In the PCR survey, eight of eleven housekeeping genes amplified positive reactions in all strains tested. However, by PCR survey and SB assay, one representative virulence gene, pfoA, was not detected in any strains carrying cpe on the chromosome. Genes involved in conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid were also absent from almost all chromosomal cpe strains. MLST showed that, regardless of their geographic origin, date of isolation, or isolation source, chromosomal cpe isolates, i assemble into one definitive cluster ii lack pfoA and iii lack a plasmid related to the cpe plasmid. Similarly, independent of their origin, strains carrying a cpe plasmid also appear to be related, but are more variable than chromosomal cpe strains, possibly because of the instability of cpe-borne plasmid(s and/or the conjugative transfer of cpe-plasmid(s into unrelated C. perfringens strains.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  1. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Inst. Co. Ltd. (Japan)); Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki

    1982-08-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components.

  2. Determination of parameters for a stress-strain constitutive equation considering time-dependent behavior of Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Nakama, Shigeo; Okubo, Seisuke

    2008-01-01

    Toki granite was tested to obtain parameters for the constitutive equation. The testing method was uniaxial compressive loading at the moderate a constant strain rate that is decreased after yielding to obtain the complete stress-strain curve. In addition, two kinds of the strain rate were alternately switched to obtain the parameter n from one specimen. The n represents the strength time-dependence in the constitutive equation. The second parameter m can be obtained by fitting the experimental stress-strain curve to the calculated curve. The m accounts for the behavior after yielding. According to the results, Toki granite has n=52 and m=60, showing relatively weak time-dependence of creep failure. (author)

  3. The Effects of Academic and Interpersonal Stress on Dating Violence among College Students: A Test of Classical Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain…

  4. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  5. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  6. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  7. Incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of microbial strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Maria; Gasch, Audrey P

    2017-08-01

    Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling and regulatory rewiring, has proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering. This review highlights how comparative genomics can also facilitate strain engineering, by identifying novel genes and pathways, regulatory mechanisms and genetic background effects for engineering. We discuss how incorporating comparative genomics into the design-test-learn cycle of strain engineering can provide novel information that complements other engineering strategies. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of strain rate, test temperature and test environment on tensile properties of vandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Eatherly, W.S.; Gibson, L.T.

    1996-01-01

    Tensile testing was carried out on SS-3 tensile specimens punched from 0.762-mm-thick sheets of the large heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and small heats of V-3Cr-3Ti and V-6Cr-6Ti. The tensile specimens were annealed at 1000 degrees for 2 h to obtain a fully recrystallized, fine grain microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10-19 μm. Room temperature tests at strain rates ranging from 10 -3 to 5 x 10 -1 /s were carried out in air; elevated temperature testing up to 700 degrees C was conducted in a vacuum better than 1 x 10 -5 torr ( -3 Pa). To study the effect of atomic hydrogen on ductility, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) with a hydrogen leak system

  9. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components. (author)

  10. An effective uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnuyanondh, L.; Rizkalla, S.; Murray, D.W.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-02-01

    This report evaluates the direct tensile strength and an equivalent uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete using data from specimens tested at the University of Alberta which represent segments from the wall of a containment vessel. The stress-strain relationship, when used in conjunction with the BOSOR5 program, enables prediction of the response of prestressed concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical (BOSOR5) load-strain response of the wall segments are also presented. It is concluded that the BOSOR5 program is able to predict satisfactorily the response of the wall segments and multi-layered shell structures. (author)

  11. Performance of four different rat strains in the autoshaping, two-object discrimination, and swim maze tests of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J S; Jansen, J H; Linders, S; Princen, A; Broekkamp, C L

    1995-04-01

    The performance of four strains of rats commonly used in behavioural research was assessed in three different tests of learning and memory. The four strains included three outbred lines (Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar) and one inbred strain (S3). Learning and memory were tested using three different paradigms: autoshaping of a lever press, a two-object discrimination test, and performance in a two-island swim maze task. The pigmented strains showed better performance in the autoshaping procedure: the majority of the Long-Evans and the S3 rats acquired the response, and the majority of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley failed to acquire the response in the set time. The albino strains were slightly better in the swim maze than the pigmented strains. There appeared to be a speed/accuracy trade-off in the strategy used to solve the task. This was also evident following treatment with the cholinergic-depleting agent hemicholinium-3. The performance of the Long-Evans rats was most affected by the treatment in terms of accuracy and the Wistar and Sprague-Dawleys in terms of speed. In the two-object discrimination test only the Long-Evans showed satisfactory performance and were able to discriminate a novel from a known object a short interval after initial exposure. These results show large task- and strain-dependent differences in performance in tests of learning and memory. Some of the performance variation may be due to emotional differences between the strains and may be alleviated by extra training. However, the response to pharmacological manipulation may require more careful evaluation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  13. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  14. Effects of gauge volume on pseudo-strain induced in strain measurement using time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Abe, Jun; Xu, Pingguang; Aizawa, Kazuya; Akita, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Spurious or pseudo-strains observed in time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction due to neutron attenuation, surface-effects and a strain distribution within the gauge volume were investigated. Experiments were carried out on annealed and bent ferritic steel bars to test these effects. The most representative position in the gauge volume corresponds to the neutron-weighted center of gravity (ncog), which takes into account variations in intensity within the gauge volume due to neutron attenuation and/or absence of material in the gauge volume. The average strain in the gauge volume was observed to be weighted towards the ncog position but following an increase in the size of the gauge volume the weighted average strain was changed because of the change in the ncog position when a strain gradient appeared within the gauge volume. On the other hand, typical pseudo-strains, which are well known, did appear in through-surface strain measurements when the gauge volume was incompletely filled by the sample. Tensile pseudo-strains due to the surface-effect increased near the sample surface and exhibited a similar trend regardless of the size of the gauge volume, while the pseudo-strains increased faster for the smaller gauge volume. Furthermore, a pseudo-strain due to a change in the ncog position was observed even when the gauge volume was perfectly filled in the sample, and it increased with an increase in the size of the gauge volume. These pseudo-strains measured were much larger than those simulated by the conventional modeling, whereas they were simulated by taking into account an incident neutron beam divergence additionally in the model. Therefore, the incident divergence of the incident neutron beam must be carefully designed to avoid pseudo-strains in time-of-flight neutron diffractometry

  15. Inverse methods for the mechanical characterization of materials at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Rodriguez J.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical material characterization represents a research challenge. Furthermore, special attention is directed to material characterization at high strain rates as the mechanical properties of some materials are influenced by the rate of loading. Diverse experimental techniques at high strain rates are available, such as the drop-test, the Taylor impact test or the Split Hopkinson pressure bar among others. However, the determination of the material parameters associated to a given mathematical constitutive model from the experimental data is a complex and indirect problem. This paper presents a material characterization methodology to determine the material parameters of a given material constitutive model from a given high strain rate experiment. The characterization methodology is based on an inverse technique in which an inverse problem is formulated and solved as an optimization procedure. The input of the optimization procedure is the characteristic signal from the high strain rate experiment. The output of the procedure is the optimum set of material parameters determined by fitting a numerical simulation to the high strain rate experimental signal.

  16. Effects of strain rate, test temperature and test environment on tensile properties of vandium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Eatherly, W.S.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile testing was carried out on SS-3 tensile specimens punched from 0.762-mm-thick sheets of the large heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and small heats of V-3Cr-3Ti and V-6Cr-6Ti. The tensile specimens were annealed at 1000{degrees} for 2 h to obtain a fully recrystallized, fine grain microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10-19 {mu}m. Room temperature tests at strain rates ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 5 x 10{sup {minus}1}/s were carried out in air; elevated temperature testing up to 700{degrees}C was conducted in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} torr (<10{sup {minus}3} Pa). To study the effect of atomic hydrogen on ductility, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) with a hydrogen leak system.

  17. Forming limit curves of DP600 determined in high-speed Nakajima tests and predicted by two different strain-rate-sensitive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß-Borkowski, Nathalie; Lian, Junhe; Camberg, Alan; Tröster, Thomas; Münstermann, Sebastian; Bleck, Wolfgang; Gese, Helmut; Richter, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    Determination of forming limit curves (FLC) to describe the multi-axial forming behaviour is possible via either experimental measurements or theoretical calculations. In case of theoretical determination, different models are available and some of them consider the influence of strain rate in the quasi-static and dynamic strain rate regime. Consideration of the strain rate effect is necessary as many material characteristics such as yield strength and failure strain are affected by loading speed. In addition, the start of instability and necking depends not only on the strain hardening coefficient but also on the strain rate sensitivity parameter. Therefore, the strain rate dependency of materials for both plasticity and the failure behaviour is taken into account in crash simulations for strain rates up to 1000 s-1 and FLC can be used for the description of the material's instability behaviour at multi-axial loading. In this context, due to the strain rate dependency of the material behaviour, an extrapolation of the quasi-static FLC to dynamic loading condition is not reliable. Therefore, experimental high-speed Nakajima tests or theoretical models shall be used to determine the FLC at high strain rates. In this study, two theoretical models for determination of FLC at high strain rates and results of experimental high-speed Nakajima tests for a DP600 are presented. One of the theoretical models is the numerical algorithm CRACH as part of the modular material and failure model MF GenYld+CrachFEM 4.2, which is based on an initial imperfection. Furthermore, the extended modified maximum force criterion considering the strain rate effect is also used to predict the FLC. These two models are calibrated by the quasi-static and dynamic uniaxial tensile tests and bulge tests. The predictions for the quasi-static and dynamic FLC by both models are presented and compared with the experimental results.

  18. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja4@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-05-15

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  19. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-05-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  20. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr–1W–0.06Ta–0.22V–0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300–873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  1. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of Silver Nanowires: Rate-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Gao, Wei; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio

    2016-01-13

    The characterization of nanomaterials under high strain rates is critical to understand their suitability for dynamic applications such as nanoresonators and nanoswitches. It is also of great theoretical importance to explore nanomechanics with dynamic and rate effects. Here, we report in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) tensile testing of bicrystalline silver nanowires at strain rates up to 2/s, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in the literature. The experiments are enabled by a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) with fast response time. It was identified that the nanowire plastic deformation has a small activation volume (ductile failure mode transition was observed at a threshold strain rate of 0.2/s. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that along the nanowire, dislocation density and spatial distribution of plastic regions increase with increasing strain rate. Furthermore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations show that deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary migration and dislocation interactions are responsible for such ductility. Finally, the MD and experimental results were interpreted using dislocation nucleation theory. The predicted yield stress values are in agreement with the experimental results for strain rates above 0.2/s when ductility is pronounced. At low strain rates, random imperfections on the nanowire surface trigger localized plasticity, leading to a brittle-like failure.

  2. Assessing the representativeness of durability tests for wood pellets by DEM Simulation - Comparing conditions in a durability test with transfer chutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Aditya; Dafnomilis, Ioannis; Hancock, Victoria; Lodewijks, Gabriel; Schott, Dingena

    2017-06-01

    Dust generation when handling wood pellets is related to the durability of the product, in other words the wear rate of particles subject to forces. During transport, storage and handling wood pellets undergo different forces when interacting with different pieces of equipment. This paper assesses the representativeness of the tumbling can test in relation to transfer chutes, by comparing forces acting on wood pellets in durability tests and in transfer chutes using DEM. The study also incorporates effects such as shape and size variations. The results showed that the tumbling can test underestimates compressive and tangential forces. Since the tested material is subject to milder conditions than in reality, it can be concluded that this test is not representative for the conditions in the supply chain of wood pellets.

  3. 76 FR 69585 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for... [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2011-0082] Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding... to Product Certification.'' The proposed rule was intended to implement what was then known as...

  4. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional. The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models.

  5. Genetic Characterization Of Syrian Erwinia Amylovora Strains By Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Arabi, M.; Shoaib, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty Erwinia amylovora strains, collected from the main rosaceous crop-growing regions in Syria, were chosen as representatives of all major pathogenicity groups and were genetically studied by AFLP. Eight primer combinations were utilized and approximately 300 scorable bands in total were generated. Based on similarity coefficient, E. amylovora strains were placed into a main cluster containing two sub clusters, indicating very low genetic variations among the studied pathogen. The existence of two plasmids, pEA29 (present in nearly all E. amylovora isolates) and pEL60 (present mainly in Lebanese strains), was confirmed using multiplex PCR in all tested Syrian E. amylovora strains, indicating that Lebanese and Syrian isolates may share a common origin.(author)

  6. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-01-01

    The strong crystallographic texture which is developed during the fabrication of zirconium-based alloys causes pronounced anisotropy in their mechanical properties, particularly deformation. The tendency for circular-section tension specimens with a high concentration of basal poles in one direction to become elliptical when deformed in tension has been used in this study to provide quantitative data on the effects of both strain and temperature on strain anisotropy. Tension tests were carried out over a temperature range of 293 to 1193 K on specimens machined from Zircaloy-2 plate. The strain anisotropy was found to increase markedly at temperatures over 923 K, reaching a maximum in the region of 1070 K. The strain anisotropy increased with increasing strain in this temperature region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized-water reactor fuel cladding by carrying out tube swelling tests and evaluating the axial deformation produced. Although scatter in the test results was higher than that exhibited in the tension tests, the general trend in the data was similar. The effects of the strain anisotropy observed are discussed in relation to the effects of temperature on the ductility of Zircaloy fuel cladding tubes during postulated largebreak loss-of-coolant accidents

  7. Draft genome sequence of marine alphaproteobacterial strain HIMB11, the first cultivated representative of a unique lineage within the Roseobacter clade possessing an unusually small genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Bryndan P; Grote, Jana; Whittaker, Kerry A; Bender, Sara J; Luo, Haiwei; Grim, Sharon L; Brown, Julia M; Casey, John R; Dron, Antony; Florez-Leiva, Lennin; Krupke, Andreas; Luria, Catherine M; Mine, Aric H; Nigro, Olivia D; Pather, Santhiska; Talarmin, Agathe; Wear, Emma K; Weber, Thomas S; Wilson, Jesse M; Church, Matthew J; DeLong, Edward F; Karl, David M; Steward, Grieg F; Eppley, John M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Schuster, Stephan; Rappé, Michael S

    2014-06-15

    Strain HIMB11 is a planktonic marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii belonging to the ubiquitous and versatile Roseobacter clade of the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Here we describe the preliminary characteristics of strain HIMB11, including annotation of the draft genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis with other members of the Roseobacter lineage. The 3,098,747 bp draft genome is arranged in 34 contigs and contains 3,183 protein-coding genes and 54 RNA genes. Phylogenomic and 16S rRNA gene analyses indicate that HIMB11 represents a unique sublineage within the Roseobacter clade. Comparison with other publicly available genome sequences from members of the Roseobacter lineage reveals that strain HIMB11 has the genomic potential to utilize a wide variety of energy sources (e.g. organic matter, reduced inorganic sulfur, light, carbon monoxide), while possessing a reduced number of substrate transporters.

  8. Effects of canine parvovirus strain variations on diagnostic test results and clinical management of enteritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Jessica E; Stucker, Karla M; Carr, Alaina H; Harbison, Carole E; Scarlett, Janet M; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of canine parvovirus (CPV) strains among dogs with enteritis admitted to a referral hospital in the southwestern United States during an 11-month period and to compare diagnostic test results, disease severity, and patient outcome among CPV strains. Prospective observational study. 72 dogs with histories and clinical signs of parvoviral enteritis. For each dog, a fecal sample or rectal swab specimen was evaluated for CPV antigen via an ELISA. Subsequently, fecal samples (n = 42 dogs) and pharyngeal swab specimens (16) were obtained and tested for CPV antigen via an ELISA and CPV DNA via a PCR assay. For specimens with CPV-positive results via PCR assay, genetic sequencing was performed to identify the CPV strain. 56 dogs tested positive for CPV via ELISA or PCR assay. For 42 fecal samples tested via both ELISA and PCR assay, 27 had positive results via both assays, whereas 6 had positive PCR assay results only. Ten pharyngeal swab specimens yielded positive PCR assay results. Genetic sequencing was performed on 34 fecal or pharyngeal swab specimens that had CPV-positive PCR assay results; 25 (73.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2c, and 9 (26.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2b. No association was found between CPV strain and disease severity or clinical outcome. CPV type-2b and CPV type-2c posed similar health risks for dogs; therefore, genetic sequencing of CPV does not appear necessary for clinical management of infected patients. The diagnostic tests used could detect CPV type-2c.

  9. Developing the multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasri, Mahmoud; Airey, Gordon; Thom, Nick

    2018-04-01

    While most published work from Europe has been concerned with evaluating binders' resistance to rutting based on their stiffness (deformation resistance), work originating in the US has mainly been concerned with ranking binders based on their recoverability in a multiple stress form. This paper details the design of a new modified multiple stress-strain creep recovery (MS-SCR) test. The test is designed to evaluate binders' rutting resistance based on two rutting resistance mechanisms: stiffness and recoverability. A preliminary investigation is presented in this paper followed by details of the design of the new modified test. A 40/60 penetration grade bitumen and bitumen-filler mastics prepared with three filler concentrations (35%, 50%, and 65% filler content by mass of mastic) were tested. In addition, two polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) using the same base bitumen type were examined for validation. Two parameters are introduced to characterise the short and long recovery in the new test. In terms of stiffness, the test allows the behaviour of binders at different stress levels and loading cycles to be studied and produces a new parameter that can quantify the degree of modification. Finally, a relationship between nonlinearity and normal force in the test was investigated.

  10. Evaluation of Dynamic Deformation Behaviors in Metallic Materials under High Strain-Rates Using Taylor Bar Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyung Oh; Shin, Hyung Seop [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To ensure the reliability and safety of various mechanical systems in accordance with their high-speed usage, it is necessary to evaluate the dynamic deformation behavior of structural materials under impact load. However, it is not easy to understand the dynamic deformation behavior of the structural materials using experimental methods in the high strain-rate range exceeding 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. In this study, the Taylor bar impact test was conducted to investigate the dynamic deformation behavior of metallic materials in the high strain-rate region, using a high-speed photography system. Numerical analysis of the Taylor bar impact test was performed using AUTODYN S/W. The results of the analysis were compared with the experimental results, and the material behavior in the high strain-rate region was discussed.

  11. A quick method for testing recessive lethal damage with a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.; Puppo, S.; Gualandi, G.; Conti, L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple method capable of detecting recessive lethal damage in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans is described. The method scores the recessive lethals on the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th chromosomes, which represent about 40% of the total map of A. nidulans. Two examples of induced lethals, with ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate are shown. The frequency of lethals may reach 36% of the total population with UV irradiation. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Yuichi; Ami, Yasushi; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Fujimoto, Akira; Haga, Kei; Murakami, Kosuke; Fujii, Yoshiki; Shirato, Haruko; Oka, Tomoichiro; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Takaji

    2018-03-01

    Slc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other "real" Wistar strains, such as Crlj:WI, that are available worldwide were tested in terms of their usefulness in evaluating the immunogenicity of the past and current lots of a national reference vaccine. The response of the Crlj:WI rats against the serotype 1 of sIPV was comparable to that of the Slc:Wistar rats, while the Crlj:WI rats exhibited a higher level of response against the serotypes 2 and 3. The immunogenic potency units of a national reference vaccine determined using the Slc:Wistar rats were reproduced on tests using the Crlj:WI rats. These results indicate that a titer of the neutralizing antibody obtained in response to a given dose of sIPV cannot be directly compared between these two rat strains, but that, more importantly, the potency units are almost equivalent for the two rat strains. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 12567 a livestock-associated clade representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni strain 12567, a member of a C. jejuni livestock-associated clade that expresses glycoconjugates linked to improved gastrointestinal tract persistence....

  14. Dynamic testing at high strain rates of an ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Joshi, S.; Azevedo, K.; Ma, E.; Ramesh, K.T.; Figueiredo, R.B.; Langdon, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    A ZK60 magnesium alloy was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K to produce a grain size of ∼0.8 μm and it was then tested under dynamic conditions at strain rates up to 4.0 x 10 3 s -1 using a split-Hopkinson bar. The stress-strain curves in dynamic testing exhibited upwards concave curvature suggesting the occurrence of twinning. Examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation slip played a major role in the flow behavior with dislocation accumulation as the main source of work hardening. An identification of Burgers vectors revealed the extensive presence of prismatic dislocations. Rod-shaped Mg 1 (Zn,Zr) 1 precipitates present in the as-received alloy become fragmented and overaged during ECAP.

  15. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  16. High Strain Rate Testing of Rocks using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiessler, Ruprecht; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael; Nau, Siegfried; Hess, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic mechanical testing of rocks is important to define the onset of rate dependency of brittle failure. The strain rate dependency occurs through the propagation velocity limit (Rayleigh wave speed) of cracks and their reduced ability to coalesce, which, in turn, significantly increases the strength of the rock. We use a newly developed pressurized air driven Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB), that is specifically designed for the investigation of high strain rate testing of rocks, consisting of several 10 to 50 cm long strikers and bar components of 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 meters in length each. The whole set up, composed of striker, incident- and transmission bar is available in aluminum, titanium and maraging steel to minimize the acoustic impedance contrast, determined by the change of density and speed of sound, to the specific rock of investigation. Dynamic mechanical parameters are obtained in compression as well as in spallation configuration, covering a wide spectrum from intermediate to high strain rates (100-103 s-1). In SHPB experiments [1] one-dimensional longitudinal compressive pulses of diverse shapes and lengths - formed with pulse shapers - are used to generate a variety of loading histories under 1D states of stress in cylindrical rock samples, in order to measure the respective stress-strain response at specific strain rates. Subsequent microstructural analysis of the deformed samples is aimed at quantification fracture orientation, fracture pattern, fracture density, and fracture surface properties as a function of the loading rate. Linking mechanical and microstructural data to natural dynamic deformation processes has relevance for the understanding of earthquakes, landslides, impacts, and has several rock engineering applications. For instance, experiments on dynamic fragmentation help to unravel super-shear rupture events that pervasively pulverize rocks up to several hundred meters from the fault core [2, 3, 4]. The dynamic, strain

  17. Pilot study on proximal femur strains during locomotion and fall-down scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klodowski, Adam, E-mail: adam.klodowski@lut.fi; Valkeapaeae, Antti, E-mail: antti.valkeapaa@lut.fi; Mikkola, Aki, E-mail: aki.mikkola@lut.fi [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    The most common and severe type of fracture among the elderly is known as a proximal femur fracture. Aging-related bone loss is one of the major contributing factors to increased likelihood of bone fracture. Specific exercises can be used to strain bones and increase bone strength to counter the effects of bone loss. The flexible multibody simulation approach can be used as a non-invasive method for estimating bone strains caused by physical activity. This method was recently used to analyze the strain of locomotion in regard to human femur and tibia leg bones. The current study focuses on strain analysis of the femoral neck. The research test person was a clinically healthy 65-year old Caucasian male. The computed tomography was used to build a geometrically accurate finite element model of the femur with inhomogeneous material properties derived from the voxel data. The anthropometric data was used to model the musculoskeletal system of the test person. The multibody skeletal model was utilized to estimate loading on the femoral neck during walking, which represents a routine daily activity. The flexible multibody simulation results were compared to strains that occurred during a simulated fall onto the greater trochanter of the femur. The fall simulation was made entirely using finite element software. Results from the finite element analysis were compared with the previous study showing that the test person does not belong to the high-risk hip fracture group. Finally, the estimated strains gathered from the walking simulation were compared to the strain values from the simulated fall-down scenario.

  18. The impact of mouse passaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains prior to virulence testing in the mouse and guinea pig aerosol models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Converse

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the virulence of lab-passaged Mycobacterium tuberculosis and recombinant M. tuberculosis mutants might be reduced due to multiple in vitro passages, and that virulence might be augmented by passage of these strains through mice before quantitative virulence testing in the mouse or guinea pig aerosol models.By testing three M. tuberculosis H37Rv samples, one deletion mutant, and one recent clinical isolate for survival by the quantitative organ CFU counting method in mouse or guinea pig aerosol or intravenous infection models, we could discern no increase in bacterial fitness as a result of passaging of M. tuberculosis strains in mice prior to quantitative virulence testing in two animal models. Surface lipid expression as assessed by neutral red staining and thin-layer chromatography for PDIM analysis also failed to identify virulence correlates.These results indicate that animal passaging of M. tuberculosis strains prior to quantitative virulence testing in mouse or guinea pig models does not enhance or restore potency to strains that may have lost virulence due to in vitro passaging. It is critical to verify virulence of parental strains before genetic manipulations are undertaken and comparisons are made.

  19. Quantitative investigation of ligament strains during physical tests for sacroiliac joint pain using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Yao, Zhidong; Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man

    2014-06-01

    It may be assumed that the stability is affected when some ligaments are injured or loosened, and this joint instability causes sacroiliac joint pain. Several physical examinations have been used to diagnose sacroiliac pain and to isolate the source of the pain. However, more quantitative and objective information may be necessary to identify unstable or injured ligaments during these tests due to the lack of understanding of the quantitative relationship between the physical tests and the biomechanical parameters that may be related to pains in the sacroiliac joint and the surrounding ligaments. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the sacroiliac joint was developed and the biomechanical conditions for six typical physical tests such as the compression test, distraction test, sacral apex pressure test, thigh thrust test, Patrick's test, and Gaenslen's test were modelled. The sacroiliac joint contact pressure and ligament strain were investigated for each test. The values of contact pressure and the combination of most highly strained ligaments differed markedly among the tests. Therefore, these findings in combination with the physical tests would be helpful to identify the pain source and to understand the pain mechanism. Moreover, the technology provided in this study might be a useful tool to evaluate the physical tests, to improve the present test protocols, or to develop a new physical test protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic diversity among major endemic strains of Leptospira interrogans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a world-widely distributed zoonosis. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from contaminated water or soil. The availability of genomic sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni opened up opportunities to identify genetic diversity among different pathogenic strains of L. interrogans representing various kinds of serotypes (serogroups and serovars. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis was used to compare the gene content of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai with that of other 10 L. interrogans strains prevailed in China and one identified from Brazil using a microarray spotted with 3,528 protein coding sequences (CDSs of strain Lai. The cutoff ratio of sample/reference (S/R hybridization for detecting the absence of genes from one tested strain was set by comparing the ratio of S/R hybridization and the in silico sequence similarities of strain Lai and serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. Among the 11 strains tested, 275 CDSs were found absent from at least one strain. The common backbone of the L. interrogans genome was estimated to contain about 2,917 CDSs. The genes encoding fundamental cellular functions such as translation, energy production and conversion were conserved. While strain-specific genes include those that encode proteins related to either cell surface structures or carbohydrate transport and metabolism. We also found two genomic islands (GIs in strain Lai containing genes divergently absent in other strains. Because genes encoding proteins with potential pathogenic functions are located within GIs, these elements might contribute to the variations in disease manifestation. Differences in genes involved in O-antigen biosynthesis were also identified for strains belonging to different serogroups, which offers an opportunity for future development of genomic typing tools for serological classification

  1. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, A; Furuhata, K; Matsumoto, A; Koike, K A; Fukuyama, M; Tabuchi, K

    1995-01-01

    Strains of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs which were isolated previously from various environments and assigned tentatively to the genus Methylobacterium were characterized in comparison with authentic strains of previously known species of this genus. Most of the isolates derived from chlorinated water supplies exhibited resistance to chlorine, whereas 29 to 40% of the isolates from air, natural aquatic environments, and clinical materials were chlorine resistant. None of the tested authentic strains of Methylobacterium species obtained from culture collections exhibited chlorine resistance. Numerical analysis of phenotypic profiles showed that the test organisms tested were separated from each other except M. organophilum and M. rhodesianum. The chlorine-resistant isolates were randomly distributed among all clusters. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence-based phylogenetic analyses showed that representatives of the isolates together with known Methylobacterium species formed a line of descent distinct from that of members of related genera in the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria and were divided into three subclusters within the Methylobacterium group. These results demonstrate that there is phenotypic and genetic diversity among chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains within the genus. PMID:7793931

  2. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, A; Furuhata, K; Matsumoto, A; Koike, K A; Fukuyama, M; Tabuchi, K

    1995-06-01

    Strains of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs which were isolated previously from various environments and assigned tentatively to the genus Methylobacterium were characterized in comparison with authentic strains of previously known species of this genus. Most of the isolates derived from chlorinated water supplies exhibited resistance to chlorine, whereas 29 to 40% of the isolates from air, natural aquatic environments, and clinical materials were chlorine resistant. None of the tested authentic strains of Methylobacterium species obtained from culture collections exhibited chlorine resistance. Numerical analysis of phenotypic profiles showed that the test organisms tested were separated from each other except M. organophilum and M. rhodesianum. The chlorine-resistant isolates were randomly distributed among all clusters. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence-based phylogenetic analyses showed that representatives of the isolates together with known Methylobacterium species formed a line of descent distinct from that of members of related genera in the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria and were divided into three subclusters within the Methylobacterium group. These results demonstrate that there is phenotypic and genetic diversity among chlorine-resistant Methylobacterium strains within the genus.

  3. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  4. Mathematical description for the stress-strain behavior of annealed 21/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Hebble, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed series of tensile tests on one heat of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel over the range 25 to 593 0 C (75 to 1100 0 F) and at nominal strain rates of 0.4, 0.04, 0.004, and 0.0004/min. To determine an empirical relationship to represent the flow behavior, we fitted the true-stress true-strain data from these tests to several proposed models. The models fit were those proposed by Holloman, Ludwik, Ludwigson, and Voce. From a comparison of the standard error of estimate, the Voce equation was concluded to be the best mathematical description of the data under most test conditions and the best single representation over the wide range of test conditions

  5. Elasto-plastic stress/strain at notches, comparison of test and approximative computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beste, A.; Seeger, T.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetime of cyclically loaded components is decisively determined by the value of the local load in the notch root. The determination of the elasto-plastic notch-stress and-strain is therefore an important element of recent methods of lifetime determination. These local loads are normally calculated with the help of approximation formulas. Yet there are no details about their accuracy. The basic construction of the approximation formulas is presented, along with some particulars. The use of approximations within the fully plastic range and for material laws which show a non-linear stress-strain (sigma-epsilon-)-behaviour from the beginning is explained. The use of approximation for cyclic loads is particularly discussed. Finally, the approximations are evaluated in terms of their exactness. The test results are compared with the results of the approximation calculations. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  6. Hypervelocity technology carbon/carbon testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, John V.; Kretz, Lawrence O.

    The paper describes the procedures used at the Structures Test Laboratory of the Wright Laboratory's Flight Dynamics Directorate to test a carbon/carbon hot structure representing a typical hypersonic gliding body, and presents the results of tests. The forebody was heated to 1371 C over 13 test runs, using radiant quartz lamps; a vertical shear force of 5.34 kN was introduced to the nose at a stabilized temperature of 816 C. Test data were collected using prototype high-temperature strain gages, in-house-designed high-temperature extensometers, conventional strain gages, and thermocouples. Video footage was taken of all test runs. Test runs were successfully completed up to 1371 C with flight typical thermal gradients at heating rates up to 5.56 C/sec. Results showed that, overall, the termal test control systems performed as predicted and that test temperatures and thermal gradients were achieved to within about 5 percent in most cases.

  7. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Strain measurements of temperatures up to 3000C in a concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittenhelm, Ch.

    1975-10-01

    Strain measurements in a concrete structure representing a cylindrical section of a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel with hot liner, were made. In order to interpret these values in terms of strain and stress in a three dimensional structure, the gauge characteristics as well as the material date of the concrete have to be known in great detail. The paper deals with the performance of different gauges embedded in small concrete blocks and others of the same type embedded in the test ring. Temperature resistance, long-time performance, electrical drift and hysteresis of the gauges were investigated. (author)

  9. Identification of material constitutive laws representative of machining conditions for two titanium alloys: Ti6Al4V and Ti555-3

    OpenAIRE

    GERMAIN, Guénaël; MOREL, Anne; BRAHAM-BOUCHNAK, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Determining a material constitutive law that is representative of the extreme conditions found in the cutting zone during machining operations is a very challenging problem. In this study, dynamic shear tests, which reproduce, as faithfully as possible, these conditions in terms of strain, strain rate, and temperature, have been developed using hat-shaped specimens. The objective was to identify the parameters of a Johnson–Cook material behavior model by an inverse method for two titanium all...

  10. Strain-dependent electrical resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myounggu; Kim, Hyonny; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    The strain-dependent electrical resistance characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymer composite films were investigated. In this research, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is used as the polymer matrix. Two representative volume fractions of MWCNT/PEO composite films were selected: 0.56 vol% (near the percolation threshold) and 1.44 vol% (away from the percolation threshold) of MWCNT. An experimental setup which can measure electrical resistance and strain simultaneously and continuously has been developed. Unique and repeatable relationships in resistance versus strain were obtained for multiple specimens with different volume fractions of MWCNT. The overall pattern of electrical resistance change versus strain for the specimens tested consists of linear and nonlinear regions. A resistance change model to describe the combination of linear and nonlinear modes of electrical resistance change as a function of strain is suggested. The unique characteristics in electrical resistance change for different volume fractions imply that MWCNT/PEO composite films can be used as tunable strain sensors and for application into embedded sensor systems in structures

  11. Damage Assessment of Heat Resistant Steels through Electron BackScatter Diffraction Strain Analysis under Creep and Creep-Fatigue Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Kimachi, Hirohisa; Tsuboi, Toshiki; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Shotaro; Mizutani, Yoshiki

    EBSD(Electron BackScatter Diffraction) analyses were conducted for studying the quantitative microstructural metrics of creep and creep-fatigue damage for austenitic SUS304HTB boiler tube steel and ferritic Mod.9Cr piping steel. KAM(Kernel Average Misorientation) maps and GOS(Grain Orientation Spread) maps were obtained for these samples and the area averaged values KAMave and GOSave were obtained. While the increasing trends of these misorientation metrics were observed for SUS304HTB steel, the decreasing trends were observed for damaged Mod.9Cr steel with extensive recovery of subgrain structure. To establish more universal parameter representing the accumulation of damage to compensate these opposite trends, the EBSD strain parameters were introduced for converting the misorientation changes into the quantities representing accumulated permanent strains during creep and creep-fatigue damage process. As KAM values were dependent on the pixel size (inversely proportional to the observation magnification) and the permanent strain could be expressed as the shear strain which was the product of dislocation density, Burgers vector and dislocation movement distance, two KAM strain parameters MεKAMnet and MεδKAMave were introduced as the sum of product of the noise subtracted KAMnet and the absolute change from initial value δKAMave with dislocation movement distance divided by pixel size. MεδKAMave parameter showed better relationship both with creep strain in creep tests and accumulated creep strain range in creep-fatigue tests. This parameter can be used as the strain-based damage evaluation and detector of final failure.

  12. Finite Element Verification of Non-Homogeneous Strain and Stress Fields during Composite Material Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    Uni-directional glass fiber reinforced polymers play a central role in the task increasing the length of wind turbines blades and thereby lowering the cost of energy from wind turbine installations. During this, optimizing the mechanical performance regarding material stiffness, compression...... strength and fatigue performance is essential. Nevertheless, testing composites includes some challenges regarding stiffness determination using conventional strain gauges and achieving correct material failure unaffected by the gripping region during fatigue testing. Challenges, which in the present study......, has been addressed using the finite element method. During this, a verification of experimental observations, a deeper understanding on the test coupon loading and thereby improved test methods has been achieved....

  13. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  14. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  15. Drop Testing Representative Multi-Canister Overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Spencer D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morton, Dana K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack (MCO) canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. Two test MCO canisters were assembled at Hanford, prepared for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), drop tested at Sandia National Laboratories, and evaluated back at the INEEL. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations. The completed effort has demonstrated that the canister design is capable of maintaining a 50 psig pressure boundary after drop testing. Based on helium leak testing methods, one test MCO was determined to have a leakage rate not greater than 1x10-5 std cc/sec (prior internal helium presence prevented a more rigorous test) and the remaining test MCO had a measured leakage rate less than 1x10-7 std cc/sec (i.e., a leaktight containment) after the drop test. The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event.

  16. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  17. BCG strain S4-Jena: An early BCG strain is capable to reduce the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by induction of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Inge-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical immunotherapy with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has been established as the most effective adjuvant treatment for high risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. We investigated the differences between the S4-Jena BCG strain and commercially available BCG strains. We tested the genotypic varieties between S4-Jena and other BCG strains and analysed the effect of the BCG strains TICE and S4-Jena on two bladder cancer cell lines. Results In contrast to commercially available BCG strains the S4-Jena strain shows genotypic differences. Spoligotyping verifies the S4-Jena strain as a BCG strain. Infection with viable S4-Jena or TICE decreased proliferation in the T24 cell line. Additionally, hallmarks of apoptosis were detectable. In contrast, Cal29 cells showed only a slightly decreased proliferation with TICE. Cal29 cells infected with S4-Jena, though, showed a significantly decreased proliferation in contrast to TICE. Concordantly with these results, infection with TICE had no effect on the morphology and hallmarks of apoptosis of Cal29 cells. However, S4-Jena strain led to clearly visible morphological changes and caspases 3/7 activation and PS flip. Conclusions S4-Jena strain has a direct influence on bladder cancer cell lines as shown by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. The data implicate that the T24 cells are responder for S4-Jena and TICE BCG. However, the Cal29 cells are only responder for S4-Jena and they are non-responder for TICE BCG. S4-Jena strain may represent an effective therapeutic agent for NMIBC.

  18. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Norris, A P; Bratchell, N

    1989-02-01

    A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys. Of 112 biochemical and physiological tests used, 74 gave results which differed among the strains. Cluster analysis revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin; these included a single group at the 72% level of similarity containing most of the 'endemic' strains. In comparison with strains from freshly slaughtered birds, a higher proportion of 'endemic' strains produced fibrinolysin, alpha-glucosidase and urease and were beta-haemolytic on sheep-blood agar. The 'endemic' type also showed a greater tendency to coagulate human but not bovine plasma, and to produce mucoid growth and clumping. The last two properties, relevant to colonization of processing equipment, were less evident in heart infusion broth than in richer media or process water collected during defeathering of the birds.

  19. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  20. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  1. Material characterization of Inconel 718 from free bulging test at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Joon Tae; Yoon, Jong Hoon; Lee, Ho Sung [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Sung Kie [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Macroscopic superplastic behavior of metallic or non metallic materials is usually represented by the strain rate sensitivity, and it can be determined by tensile tests in uniaxial stress state and bulging tests in multi axial stress state, which is the actual hot forming process. And macroscopic behavior of Non SPF grade materials could be described in a similar way as that of superplastic materials, including strain hardening, cavity and so on. In this study, the material characterization of non SPF grade Inconel 718 has been carried out to determine the material parameters for flow stress throughout free bulging test under constant temperature. The measured height of bulged plate during the test was used for estimation of strain rate sensitivity, strain hardening index and cavity volume fraction with the help of numerical analysis. The bulged height obtained from the simulation showed good agreement with the experimental findings. The effects of strain hardening and cavity volume fraction factor for flow stress were also compared.

  2. Resimulation of noise: a precision estimator for least square error curve-fitting tested for axial strain time constant imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S. P.; Righetti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent elastography techniques focus on imaging information on properties of materials which can be modeled as viscoelastic or poroelastic. These techniques often require the fitting of temporal strain data, acquired from either a creep or stress-relaxation experiment to a mathematical model using least square error (LSE) parameter estimation. It is known that the strain versus time relationships for tissues undergoing creep compression have a non-linear relationship. In non-linear cases, devising a measure of estimate reliability can be challenging. In this article, we have developed and tested a method to provide non linear LSE parameter estimate reliability: which we called Resimulation of Noise (RoN). RoN provides a measure of reliability by estimating the spread of parameter estimates from a single experiment realization. We have tested RoN specifically for the case of axial strain time constant parameter estimation in poroelastic media. Our tests show that the RoN estimated precision has a linear relationship to the actual precision of the LSE estimator. We have also compared results from the RoN derived measure of reliability against a commonly used reliability measure: the correlation coefficient (CorrCoeff). Our results show that CorrCoeff is a poor measure of estimate reliability for non-linear LSE parameter estimation. While the RoN is specifically tested only for axial strain time constant imaging, a general algorithm is provided for use in all LSE parameter estimation.

  3. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.K.; Sabol, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Strain gauge validation experiments for the Sandia 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has erected a research oriented, 34- meter diameter, Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine near Bushland, Texas. This machine, designated the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed, is equipped with a large array of strain gauges that have been placed at critical positions about the blades. This manuscript details a series of four-point bend experiments that were conducted to validate the output of the blade strain gauge circuits. The output of a particular gauge circuit is validated by comparing its output to equivalent gauge circuits (in this stress state) and to theoretical predictions. With only a few exceptions, the difference between measured and predicted strain values for a gauge circuit was found to be of the order of the estimated repeatability for the measurement system.

  5. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  6. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at home on…

  7. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.

  8. Identification and Characterization of T5-Like Bacteriophages Representing Two Novel Subgroups from Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonkos Sváb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC, enteropathogenic (EPEC, enterotoxigenic (ETEC, and enteroinvasive (EIEC pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei strains, as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR E. coli and multiple strains representing different Salmonella enterica serovars. All the bacteriophages exhibited Siphoviridae morphology. Whole genome sequencing of the novel T5-like bacteriophages showed that they represent two distinct groups, with the genome-based grouping correlating to the different host spectra. As these bacteriophages are of food origin, their stability and lack of any virulence genes, as well as their broad and mutually complementary host spectrum makes these new T5-like bacteriophages valuable candidates for use as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogenic enterobacteria.

  9. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  10. Hydrostatic Stress Effects Incorporated Into the Analysis of the High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the effect of high strain rate on composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and strain rate dependence of the composite response is primarily due to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain tensile and shear deformation data for a representative polymer for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop, characterize, and correlate a material model in which the strain rate dependence and nonlinearity (including hydrostatic stress effects) of the polymer are correctly analyzed. To obtain the material data, Glenn s researchers designed and fabricated test specimens of a representative toughened epoxy resin. Quasi-static tests at low strain rates and split Hopkinson bar tests at high strain rates were then conducted at the Ohio State University. The experimental data confirmed the strong effects of strain rate on both the tensile and shear deformation of the polymer. For the analytical model, Glenn researchers modified state variable constitutive equations previously used for the viscoplastic analysis of metals to allow for the analysis of the nonlinear, strain-rate-dependent polymer deformation. Specifically, we accounted for the effects of

  11. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  12. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  13. Representative stresses for creep deformation and failure of pressurised tubes and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, B.J.; Browne, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a series of tube and uniaxial tests on two casts of 1/2CrMoV pipe steel are examined to determine the representative stress which must be applied to uniaxial data in order to predict the strain rates and lives of pressurised tubes and pipes. The stress criterion for deformation is shown to correlate with the analytically derived reference stress (σsub(R)) at low pressure while at high pressures a modified reference stress (> σsub(R)) must be used. The rupture life exhibits a similar correlation such that the representative stress for rupture is given by σsub(R) at low stresses yet, at high stresses, it is greater than σsub(R) and attains a value comparable with the mean diameter hoop stress. The latter thus describes the rupture life at high pressures but significantly underestimates the life at low pressures approaching those in service. Consideration is given to the multiaxial stress rupture criterion and the effect of geometry in constant load tests. (author)

  14. Segregation of genes from donor strain during the production of recombinant congenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zutphen, L F; Den Bieman, M; Lankhorst, A; Demant, P

    1991-07-01

    Recombinant congenic strains (RCS) constitute a set of inbred strains which are designed to dissect the genetic control of multigenic traits, such as tumour susceptibility or disease resistance. Each RCS contains a small fraction of the genome of a common donor strain, while the majority of genes stem from a common background strain. We tested at two stages of the inbreeding process in 20 RCS, derived from BALB/cHeA and STS/A, to see whether alleles from the STS/A donor strain are distributed over the RCS in a ratio as would theoretically be expected. Four marker genes (Pep-3; Pgm-1; Gpi-1 and Es-3) located at 4 different chromosomes were selected and the allelic distribution was tested after 3-4 and after 12 generations of inbreeding. The data obtained do not significantly deviate from the expected pattern, thus supporting the validity of the concept of RCS.

  15. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Pozzo, Renato del; Mola, Jairo

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  16. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Zuogui; Akiyama, Eiji; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Zhang Boping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  17. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China); Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Zuogui [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Eiji [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: AKIYAMA.Eiji@nims.go.jp; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Boping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  18. Failure strains and proposed limit strains for an reactor pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    2005-01-01

    The local failure strains of essential design elements of a reactor vessel are investigated. The size influence of the structure is of special interest. Typical severe accident conditions including elevated temperatures and dynamic loads are considered. The main part of work consists of test families with specimens under uniaxial and biaxial load. Within one test family the specimen geometry and the load conditions are similar, but the size is varied up to reactor dimensions. Special attention is given to geometries with a hole or a notch causing non-uniform stress and strain distributions typical for the reactor vessel. A key problem is to determine the local failure strain. Here suitable methods had to be developed including the so-called 'vanishing gap method', and the 'forging die method'. They are based on post-test geometrical measurements of the fracture surfaces and reconstructions of the related strain fields using finite element models. The results indicate that stresses versus dimensionless deformations are approximately size independent up to failure for specimens of similar geometry under similar load conditions. Local failure strains could be determined. The values are rather high and size dependent. Statistical evaluation allow the proposal of limit strains which are also size dependent. If these limit strains are not exceeded, the structures will not fracture

  19. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Juan; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-09-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 °C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L(-1)) at 40 °C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L(-1), which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 °C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP.

  20. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  1. Deformed Shape Calculation of a Full-Scale Wing Using Fiber Optic Strain Data from a Ground Loads Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance

    2011-01-01

    A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included

  2. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Pork Chain Supply in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Vergara, José L; Bonilla, Ana M; Muñoz, Javier; Mallea, Alejandra; Vallejos, Diego; Quezada-Aguiluz, Mario; Campos, Jorge; Rojas-García, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other emerging strains in meat-producing animals and retail meat has increased the risk of contamination of food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize S. aureus strains isolated from the pork chain supply in Chile. A total of 487 samples were collected: 332 samples from pigs at farms and slaughterhouses (nasal, n = 155; skin, n = 177); 85 samples from carcasses at slaughterhouses; and 70 meat samples at supermarkets and retail stores. The isolation of S. aureus was carried out by selective enrichment and culture media. Biochemical testing (API ® Staph) and PCR (detection of the nuc and mecA genes) were used to confirm S. aureus and MRSA strains. The agglutination test was used to determine the protein PBP2'. Enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) were determined by agglutination test and the se genes by PCR method. Oxacillin and cefoxitin susceptibility testing were carried out using the diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork meat supply was 33.9%. A higher prevalence was detected on carcasses (56.5%), in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) and in nonpackaged retail meat (43.1%) than packaged retail meat (5.3%) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the prevalence in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) and between natural pig farming (33.3%) and conventional production (52.8%). The mecA gene and the protein PBP2' were not detected in S. aureus strains. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance, and one S. aureus strain was resistant to cefoxitin. One S. aureus strain isolated from a meat sample was positive for enterotoxin SEB. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin-resistant and seb-producing S. aureus strains were detected, which represent a risk in the pork chain supply.

  3. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Cian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, leaving tigecycline as the only therapeutic choice.The purpose of this study is the characterization of the mechanisms involved in resistance to carbapenems in these strains and the evaluation of a reliable and simple test for phenotypic confirmation of ESBL and/or carbapenemase production. 25 isolates of MDR K. pneumoniae were collected between October 2008 and May 2009, mainly from urinary samples of elderly patients hospitalized in medicine wards. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system.The double-disc (DD test was used to check the production of ESBLs, while imipenem and imipenem-EDTA synergy test was used to detect the production of metallo-ßlactamase (MBL. Carbapenemase activity was tested by an hydrolysis assay and the production of MBLs was also investigated by PCR. The DD synergy test highlighted the possible production of ESBLs in 18 out of 22 strains, considered as negative by Vitek. All ESBLs producers tested positive for the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Only one isolate was resistant to carbapenems and resulted positive for production of MBL by the phenotypic test.The crude extract showed carbapenemase activity inhibited by EDTA; PCR test gave positive result for a blaVIM-type allele. PCR analysis performed on representative isolates, followed by sequencing, showed that coding sequence of ompk35 was not functional. Results of this study confirmed the emergence of ESBL-positive strains of K. pneumoniae that

  4. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  5. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  6. Characterization of cracking in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites using the compact tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    The characterization of the tensile behavior of strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) is of significant importance to the material design. In a previous work the tensile stress-crack opening response of different types of SHCC was characterized using notched specimens tested in direct...... tension, where a single crack was obtained and mechanically characterized by performing Single Crack Tension Test (SCTT). In this study the tensile behavior of SHCC materials is characterized under eccentric tensile load using the Compact Tension Test (CTT). The long edge notch placed in the rectangular...... plate specimens and the eccentrically applied tensile load create the local conditions necessary to the initiation of a single crack at the tip of the notch. Further propagation and opening of the crack in Mode I allow the assessment of the tensile load-displacement relationship. The experimental...

  7. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  8. Experimental technologies comparison for strain measurement of a composite main landing gear bay specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Massimo; Arena, Maurizio; Ciminello, Monica; Guida, Michele; Meola, Carosena; Cerreta, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    The development of advanced monitoring system for strain measurements on aeronautical components remain an important target both when related to the optimization of the lead-time and cost for part validation, allowing earlier entry into service, and when related to the implementation of advanced health monitoring systems dedicated to the in-service parameters verification and early stage detection of structural problems. The paper deals with the experimental testing of a composite samples set of the main landing gear bay for a CS-25 category aircraft, realized through an innovative design and production process. The test have represented a good opportunity for direct comparison of different strain measurement techniques: Strain Gauges (SG) and Fibers Bragg Grating (FBG) have been used as well as non-contact techniques, specifically the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Infrared (IR) thermography applied where possible in order to highlight possible hot-spot during the tests. The crucial points identification on the specimens has been supported by means of advanced finite element simulations, aimed to assessment of the structural strength and deformation as well as to ensure the best performance and the global safety of the whole experimental campaign.

  9. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  10. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  11. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  12. The development of an enhanced strain measurement device to support testing of radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapkher, W.L.; Arviso, M.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of reliable instrumentation measurement data. Over the last four decades, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively involved in the development, testing, and evaluation of measurement devices for a broad range of applications, resulting in the commercialization of several measurement devices commonly used today. SNL maintains an ongoing program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of packages used to transport radioactive or hazardous materials. The development of the enhanced strain measurement device is part of this program

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  14. A study of graphite-epoxy laminate failures due to high transverse shear strains using the multi-span-beam shear test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1989-01-01

    The multi-span-beam shear test procedure is used to study failure mechanisms in graphite-epoxy laminates due to high transverse shear strains induced by severe local bending deformations in test specimens. Results of a series of tests on specimens with a variety of stacking sequences, including some with adhesive interleaving, are presented. These results indicate that laminates with stacking sequences with several + or - 45 and 90 deg plies next to each other are more susceptible to failures due to high transverse shear strains than laminates with + or - 45 and 0 deg plies next to each other or with + or - 45 deg plies next to layers of adhesive interleaving. Results of these tests are compared with analytical results based on finite elements.

  15. Stress corrosion crack initiation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment during creep, relaxation, and constant strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel, T.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Bono, M.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Chabretou, V.; Mozzani, N.; Rautenberg, M.

    2018-02-01

    During accidental power transient conditions with Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), the synergistic effect of the stress and strain imposed on the cladding by thermal expansion of the fuel, and corrosion by iodine released as a fission product, may lead to cladding failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In this study, internal pressure tests were conducted on unirradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment. The goal was to investigate the influence of loading type (constant pressure tests, constant circumferential strain rate tests, or constant circumferential strain tests) and test temperature (320, 350, or 380 °C) on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC). The experimental results obtained with different loading types were consistent with each other. The apparent threshold hoop stress for I-SCC was found to be independent of the test temperature. SEM micrographs of the tested samples showed many pits distributed over the inner surface, which tended to coalesce into large pits in which a microcrack could initiate. A model for the time-to-failure of a cladding tube was developed using finite element simulations of the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of the material and a modified Kachanov's damage growth model. The times-to-failure predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental data.

  16. A novel type of VP4 carried by a porcine rotavirus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liprandi, Ferdinando; Gerder, Marlene; Bastidas, Zoleida; Lopez, Jose A.; Pujol, Flor H.; Ludert, Juan E.; Joelsson, Daniel B.; Ciarlet, Max

    2003-01-01

    The gene encoding the VP8* trypsin-cleavage product of the VP4 protein of porcine rotavirus strain A34 was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to the homologous region of all known P genotypes. The aa sequence of the VP8* of strain A34 shared low identity, ranging from 39% (bovine strain B223, P8[11]) to 76% (human strain 69M, P4[10]), with the homologous sequences of representative strains of the remaining 21 P genotypes. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the VP8* of strain A34 shares a common evolutionary lineage with those of human 69M (P4[10]) and equine H-2 (P4[12]) strains. Hyperimmune sera raised to strain A34 and to a genetic reassortant strain containing the VP4 gene from strain A34, both with high homologous neutralization titer via VP4, failed to neutralize strains representative of 15 different P genotypes. These results indicate that strain A34 should be considered as prototype of a new P genotype and serotype (P14[23]) and provide further evidence for the vast genetic and antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses

  17. Developmental Predictors of Violent Extremist Attitudes : A Test of General Strain Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the influence of collective strain on support for violent extremism among an ethnically diverse sample of Swiss adolescents. This study explores two claims derived from general strain theory: (1) Exposure to collective strain is associated with higher support for

  18. [Comparison of efficacy of tests for differentiation of typical and atypical strains of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsen'eva, T E; Lebedeva, S A; Trukhachev, A L; Vasil'eva, E A; Ivanova, V S; Bozhko, N V

    2010-01-01

    To characterize species specificity of officially recommended tests for differentiation of Yersiniapestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and propose additional tests allowing for more accurate identification. Natural, laboratory and typical strains oftwo Yersinia species were studied using microbiological, molecular and biochemical methods. For PCR species-specific primers complementary to certain fragments of chromosomal DNA of each species as well as to several plasmid genes of Y. pestis were used. It was shown that such attributes of Y. pestis as form of colonies, fermentation ofrhamnose, melibiose and urea, susceptibility to diagnostic phages, nutritional requirements could be lost in pestis bacterial species or detected in pseudotuberculosis species. Such attribute as mobility as well as positive result of CoA-reaction on fraction V antigen are more reliable. Guaranteed differentiation of typical and changed according to differential tests strains is provided only by PCR-analysis with primers vlml2for/ISrev216 and JS respectively, which are homologous to certain chromosome fragments of one of two Yersinia species.

  19. Application of large strain analysis for estimation of behavior and stability of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Mitsuo; Jiang, Yujing; Esaki, Tetsuro.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to simulate a large deformation phenomena with plastic flow after failure by using a general numerical approach, such as the FEM (finite element method), based on the infinitesimal strain theory. In order to investigate the behavior of tunnels excavated in soft rock mass, a new simulation technique which can represent large strain accurately is desired, and the code FLAC (Fast Lagragian Analysis of Continua) adopted in this study is being thought a best mean for this propose. In this paper, the basic principles and the application of the large strain analysis method to stability analysis and prediction of the deformational behavior of tunnels in soft rock are presented. First, the features of the large strain theory and some different points from the infinitesimal strain theory are made up. Next, as the examples, the reproduction of uniaxial compression test for soft rock material and the stability analysis of tunnel in soft rock are tried so as to determine the capability of presenting the large deformational behavior. (author)

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  1. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  2. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.

  3. A behavioural test battery to investigate tic-like symptoms, stereotypies, attentional capabilities, and spontaneous locomotion in different mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Onori, Martina; Ceci, Chiara; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The preclinical study of human disorders associated with comorbidities and for which the aetiology is still unclear may substantially benefit from multi-strain studies conducted in mice. The latter can help isolating experimental populations (strains) exhibiting distinct facets in the parameters isomorphic to the symptoms of a given disorder. Through a reverse-translation approach, multi-strain studies can inform both natural predisposing factors and environmental modulators. Thus, mouse strains selected for a particular trait may be leveraged to generate hypothesis-driven studies aimed at clarifying the potential role played by the environment in modulating the exhibition of the symptoms of interest. Tourette's syndrome (TS) constitutes a paradigmatic example whereby: it is characterized by a core symptom (tics) often associated with comorbidities (attention-deficit-hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms); it has a clear genetic origin though specific genes are, as yet, unidentified; its course (exacerbations and remissions) is under the influence of environmental factors. Based on these considerations, we tested four mouse strains (ABH, C57, CD1, and SJL) - varying along a plethora of behavioural, neurochemical, and immunological parameters - on a test battery tailored to address the following domains: tics (through the i.p. administration of the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI, 5mg/kg); locomotion (spontaneous locomotion in the home-cage); perseverative responding in an attentional set shifting task; and behavioural stereotypies in response to a single amphetamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Present data demonstrate that while ABH and SJL mice respectively exhibit selective increments in amphetamine-induced sniffing behaviour and DOI-induced tic-like behaviours, C57 and CD1 mice show a distinct phenotype, compared to other strains, in several parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity of levofloxacin alone and in combination with a DnaK inhibitor against gram-negative rods, including levofloxacin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2009-02-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of > or =4 microg/ml).

  5. Fuel-pin cladding transient failure strain criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.; Duncan, D.R.; Hunter, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion for cladding failure based on accumulated strain was developed for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins and used to interpret the calculated strain results from failed transient fuel pin experiments conducted in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility. The new STRAIN criterion replaced a stress-based criterion that depends on the DORN parameter and that incorrectly predicted fuel pin failure for transient tested fuel pins. This paper describes the STRAIN criterion and compares its prediction with those of the stress-based criterion

  6. A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a constitutive model for representing inelastic flow due to coupled creep, damage, and healing in rock salt is present in this paper. This model, referred to as Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, has been formulated by considering individual mechanisms that include dislocation creep, shear damage, tensile damage, and damage healing. Applications of the model to representing the inelastic flow and fracture behavior of WIPP salt subjected to creep, quasi-static loading, and damage healing conditions are illustrated with comparisons of model calculations against experimental creep curves, stress-strain curves, strain recovery curves, time-to-rupture data, and fracture mechanism maps

  7. Context and strain-dependent behavioral response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Amber E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study posed the question whether strain differences in stress-reactivity lead to differential behavioral responses in two different tests of anxiety. Strain differences in anxiety-measures are known, but strain differences in the behavioral responses to acute prior stress are not well characterized. Methods We studied male Fisher 344 (F344 and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats basally and immediately after one hour restraint stress. To distinguish between the effects of novelty and prior stress, we also investigated behavior after repeated exposure to the test chamber. Two behavioral tests were explored; the elevated plus maze (EPM and the open field (OFT, both of which are thought to measure activity, exploration and anxiety-like behaviors. Additionally, rearing, a voluntary behavior, and grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior were measured in both tests. Results Prior exposure to the test environment increased anxiety-related measures regardless of prior stress, reflecting context-dependent learning process in both tests and strains. Activity decreased in response to repeated testing in both tests and both strains, but prior stress decreased activity only in the OFT which was reversed by repeated testing. Prior stress decreased anxiety-related measures in the EPM, only in F344s, while in the OFT, stress led to increased freezing mainly in WKYs. Conclusion Data suggest that differences in stressfulness of these tests predict the behavior of the two strains of animals according to their stress-reactivity and coping style, but that repeated testing can overcome some of these differences.

  8. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare e-test and disc diffusion methods for doripenem susceptibility of acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial infections Acinetobacter baumanni isolates detected as nosocomial infection. Material and Method:. Between January to December, 2009 a total of 94 Acinetobacter baumanni strains isolated from different clinical specimens from intensive care units have been studied for doripenem susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Minimal inhibitory consantrations (MIC were accepted as; sensitive %u22641 %u03BCg/ml, intermadiate 2-4 %u03BCg/ml, resistant >4 %u03BCg/ml and diameters of inhibition zone with 10 µg disc; sensitive

  9. Properties of strain gages at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Nobuo; Fujiyoshi, Toshimitsu.

    1978-01-01

    At the time of developing superconduction generators, the stress measurement for rotor parts is required to grasp the safety and performance of the rotor at cryogenic temperature, which is cooled with liquid helium. In case of carrying out the stress measurement with strain gages, the problems are as follows. The strain gages and lead wires are exposed to cryogenic temperature from 4 to 10 K and strong magnetic field of about 3T, and subjected to high centrifugal acceleration of about 500G. In order to establish the techniques of the stress measurement under such conditions, the adhesives and damp-proof coatings for strain gages and strain gages themselves in Japan and foreign countries were examined on the properties at cryogenic temperature. As for the properties of strain gages, mainly the apparent strain owing to temperature change was investigated, and the change of the gage factors was studies only at liquid nitrogen temperature. The stress measurement with strain gages at low temperature had been studied in detail down to liquid nitrogen temperature concerning LNG tanks. The experimental apparatus, the samples, the testing methods and the test results of cooling tests on adhesives and damp-proof coatings, and the temperature characteristics of strain gages are reported. The usable adhesives and coatings were found, and correction by accurate temperature measurement is required for apparent strain. (Kako, I.)

  10. Thermal strain measurement of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xingli [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Wanjing, E-mail: wjwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Jichao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wei, Ran; Sun, Zhaoxuan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Li, Qiang; Xie, Chunyi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Chen, Hong-En; Wang, Kaiqiang; Wu, Lei; Chen, Zhenmao [State Key Lab for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei, 230022 (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • To understand the service behavior of W/Cu divertor, an electrical resistance strain gauge system had been introduced in a thermal strain measurement experiment. • The measurement system successfully finished the experiment and obtained valued thermal strain data. • Two thermomechanical analyses had also been carried out and compared with the measurement results. • Experiment results corresponded well to simulations and threw a light upon the failure of W/Cu divertor in the previous baking tests. - Abstract: W/Cu divertor has complex structure and faces extreme work environment in EAST Tokamak device. To measure its thermal strain shall be a valued way to understand its service behavior and then optimize its design and manufacturing process. This work presents a preliminary study on measuring thermal strain of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges. Eight gauges had been used in the experiment and the heating temperature had been set to 230 °C with respect to the work temperature. To realize the measuring experiment, an appropriate fixing method of gauges in divertor narrow spaces had been taken and tested, which could not only withstand high temperature but also had no damage to the divertor sample. The measurement results were that three gauges showed positive strain while other three showed negative strain after having been compensated, which corresponded to tensile stress and compressed stress respectively. Two thermomechanical simulations had also been carried out and used for comparing with the experiment.

  11. Numerical development of a new correlation between biaxial fracture strain and material fracture toughness for small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pradeep [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Dutta, B.K., E-mail: bijon.dutta@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chattopadhyay, J. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The miniaturized specimens are used to determine mechanical properties of the materials, such as yield stress, ultimate stress, fracture toughness etc. Use of such specimens is essential whenever limited quantity of material is available for testing, such as aged/irradiated materials. The miniaturized small punch test (SPT) is a technique which is widely used to determine change in mechanical properties of the materials. Various empirical correlations are proposed in the literature to determine the value of fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) using this technique. bi-axial fracture strain is determined using SPT tests. This parameter is then used to determine J{sub IC} using available empirical correlations. The correlations between J{sub IC} and biaxial fracture strain quoted in the literature are based on experimental data acquired for large number of materials. There are number of such correlations available in the literature, which are generally not in agreement with each other. In the present work, an attempt has been made to determine the correlation between biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and crack initiation toughness (J{sub i}) numerically. About one hundred materials are digitally generated by varying yield stress, ultimate stress, hardening coefficient and Gurson parameters. Such set of each material is then used to analyze a SPT specimen and a standard TPB specimen. Analysis of SPT specimen generated biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) and analysis of TPB specimen generated value of J{sub i}. A graph is then plotted between these two parameters for all the digitally generated materials. The best fit straight line determines the correlation. It has been also observed that it is possible to have variation in J{sub i} for the same value of biaxial fracture strain (ε{sub qf}) within a limit. Such variation in the value of J{sub i} has been also ascertained using the graph. Experimental SPT data acquired earlier for three materials were then used to get J

  12. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-03-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of the variant cells as compared to the diameter of the parental 3153A strain showed a relationship similar to that of the diameters of haploid versus diploid S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that those strains may be representative of the imperfect stage of C. albicans.

  13. Apt strain measurement technique for impulsive loading applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Soumya Ranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Sahoo, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of precise measurement of strain time history for impulsive loading applications has been addressed in the present investigation. Finite element modeling is initially carried out for a hemispherical test model and stress bar assembly to arrive at an appropriate location for strain measurement. In dynamic calibration experiments, strain measurements are performed using two wire and three wire quarter bride arrangements along with half bridge circuit. Usefulness of these arrangements has been verified by analyzing strain signals in time and frequency domains. Comparison of recovered force time histories proved that the half bridge circuit is the most suitable for such applications. Actual shock tube testing of the instrumented hemispherical test model confirmed the applicability of half bridge circuit for short duration strain measurements. (technical note)

  14. Indirect deformation (strain) measurements and calibrations in Sandia triaxial apparatus for rock testing to 2500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    Indirect procedures for axial and radial strain measurements on rock in triaxial tests to 250 0 C are presented. The description of techniques includes discussions of all calibrations and of the accuracies of measurements. In addition, two examples are given to show how the techniques are implemented in triaxial compression and triaxial extension experiments. 10 figures

  15. [Characteristics of Lactobacillus strains contained in pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, W; Bucholc, B; Wójcik, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are components of drugs administered orally in cases of intestinal disturbances, or antibiotic--related diarrhea. Biochemical properties, growth behavior, bile tolerance, and survival at low pH of six LAB strains (four strains L. rhamnosus and two L. acidophilus) were studied. The survival at low pH was determined in MRS broth (Difco) acidified to pH 1; 2; 3; and 4. Bile tolerance was tested on MRS broth with 0.3% oxgall (Difco). Between tested strains differences in ability to grow at low pH and survival in bile were observed. Only 0.01% inoculum of all examined strains survived at pH 1. Differences between strains in survival at low pH (pH 2 and pH 3) and tolerance of bile were observed. However, after 2 h incubation at pH 4, 100% of strains stayed alive. Examined strains demonstrated good 3% bile tolerance. All strains met the criteria for probiotic strains: ability to survive at pH 3 and in the presence of bile.

  16. Effects of strain history on structural reliability analysis of pipes subjected to reeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Hugo A.; Bravo, Richard E. [TENARIS Group, Campana (Argentina). Center for Industrial Research; Daguerre, Federico [TENARIS Group (Mexico). TAMSA

    2005-07-01

    In this work a method to perform a Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) for a tube subject to reeling is considered in detail. A fracture mechanics based methodology is reviewed and the points that need to be resolved before extending the methods to include reeling are clearly identified. The effect of the strain history on the applied and material fracture mechanics parameters were studied. A theoretical model was developed to describe the crack driving force evolution through strain cycles. A criterion was proposed and corroborated to represent material fracture resistance behavior. An experimental program was carried out. The material analyzed was a X65 grade. Monotonic and cyclic fracture mechanic tests were performed on single edge notch in tension specimens. The material fracture resistance curve was determined based on the monotonic tests. The cyclic tests were used to determine experimentally the applied fracture mechanic parameters evolution. A very good agreement between predicted and measured CTOD values was obtained for the cases analyzed. A methodology to perform a SRA for tube subjected to reeling is proposed. (author)

  17. Job strain variations in relation to plasma testosterone fluctuations in working men--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A; Eneroth, P

    1990-01-01

    Job strain, a high level of psychological demands combined with a low level of decision latitude, has been hypothesized to induce mobilization of energy and inhibition of anabolism. In the present project this hypothesis was tested using four repeated observations every third month in a group of 44 men working in six widely different occupations. On each occasion scores of self-reported demands and decision latitude were calculated for every participant. An earlier report has shown that systolic blood pressure during work hours--an indicator of mobilization of energy--increased with increasing job strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude). Blood samples were drawn in the morning at the work site. For each man the plasma testosterone levels--representing the general level of anabolic activity--on the two occasions with the worst strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude) were compared with the plasma testosterone levels on the two occasions with the least strain. The results indicated that total plasma testosterone (but not free testosterone) levels increased when strain diminished in sedentary but not in physically demanding work. Subjects with a family history of hypertension showed a greater decrease in testosterone levels than others when job strain increased.

  18. Assessment of creep-fatigue damage using the UK strain based procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bate, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The UK strain based procedures have been developed for the evaluation of damage in structures, arising from fatigue cycles and creep processes. The fatigue damage is assessed on the basis of modelling crack growth from about one grain depth to an allowable limit which represents an engineering definition of crack formation. Creep damage is based up on the exhaustion of available ductility by creep strain accumulation. The procedures are applicable only when level A and B service conditions apply, as defined in RCC-MR or ASME Code Case N47. The procedures require the components of strain to be evaluated separately, thus they may be used with either full inelastic analysis or simplified methods. To support the development of the UK strain based creep-fatigue procedures an experimental program was undertaken by NNC to study creep-fatigue interaction of structures operating at high temperature. These tests, collectively known as the SALTBATH tests considered solid cylinder and tube-plate specimens, manufactured from Type 316 stainless steel. These specimens were subjected to thermal cycles between 250 deg. C and 600 deg. C. In all the cases the thermal cycle produces tensile residual stresses during dwells at 600 deg. C. One of the tube-plate specimens was used as a benchmark for validating the strain based creep fatigue procedures and subsequently as part of a CEC co-operative study. This benchmark work is described in this paper. A thermal and inelastic stress analysis was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS. The inelastic behaviour of the material was described using the ORNL constitutive equations. A creep fatigue assessment using the strain based procedures has been compared with an assessment using the RCC-MR inelastic rules. The analyses indicated that both the UK strain based procedures and the RCC-MR rules were conservative, but the conservatism was greater for the RCC-MR rules. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  19. DNA Probes Show Genetic Variation in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of the Azolla Fern and a Closer Relationship to Free-Living Nostoc Strains than to Free-Living Anabaena Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazinski, Jacek; Zheng, Qi; Taylor, Rona; Croft, Lynn; Rolfe, Barry G.; Gunning, Brian E. S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two isolates of Anabaena azollae derived from seven Azolla species from various geographic and ecological sources were characterized by DNA-DNA hybridization. Cloned DNA fragments derived from the genomic sequences of three different A. azollae isolates were used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism among all symbiotic anabaenas. DNA clones were radiolabeled and hybridized against southern blot transfers of genomic DNAs of different isolates of A. azollae digested with restriction endonucleases. Eight DNA probes were selected to identify the Anabaena strains tested. Two were strain specific and hybridized only to A. azollae strains isolated from Azolla microphylla or Azolla caroliniana. One DNA probe was section specific (hybridized only to anabaenas isolated from Azolla ferns representing the section Euazolla), and five other probes gave finer discrimination among anabaenas representing various ecotypes of Azolla species. These cloned genomic DNA probes identified 11 different genotypes of A. azollae isolates. These included three endosymbiotic genotypes within Azolla filiculoides species and two genotypes within both A. caroliniana and Azolla pinnata endosymbionts. Although we were not able to discriminate among anabaenas extracted from different ecotypes of Azolla nilotica, Azolla mexicina, Azolla rubra and Azolla microphylla species, each of the endosymbionts was easily identified as a unique genotype. When total DNA isolated from free-living Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 was screened, none of the genomic DNA probes gave detectable positive hybridization. Total DNA of Nostoc cycas PCC7422 hybridized with six of eight genomic DNA fragments. These data imply that the dominant symbiotic organism in association with Azolla spp. is more closely related to Nostoc spp. than to free-living Anabaena spp. Images PMID:16348182

  20. Nature of interstitially induced lattice strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larger and larger strain fields which ultimately are associated with the production of broken bonds. Simple models of the strain fields associated with the addition of particles to a lattice in which the force exerted between the added atoms and host atoms is finite have been studied. From these studies one can define situations in which the billiard-ball approach has qualitative validity and those in which it is inappropriate. Basically, those situations in which the displacements of the host atoms can be represented as involving acoustic phonons yield long-range strain fields analogous to those of the billiard-ball model with the radius of the extra billiard ball being determined by the stiffness of the host lattice and the forces between the added atom and the surrounding host atoms. If the displacements produced by the added atoms are represented as involving primarily optical phonons the displacement pattern is short-ranged and not described by the usual elasticity theory. For example, Vegard's law does not apply in these instances. Such concerns arise in considering the strains induced by interstitial helium in tritides

  1. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  2. Strain, Sex, and Open-Field Behavior: Factors Underlying the Genetic Susceptibility to Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eimeira; Barrett, Douglas W.; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Learned helplessness represents a failure to escape after exposure to inescapable stress and may model human psychiatric disorders related to stress. Previous work has demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to learned helplessness. In this study, we assessed different factors associated with this susceptibility, including strain, sex, and open-field behavior. Testing of three rat strains (Holtzman, Long-Evans, and Sprague-Dawley) revealed that Holtzman rats were the most susceptible to helplessness. Holtzman rats not only had the longest escape latencies following inescapable shock, but also showed spontaneous escape deficits in the absence of prior shock when tested with a fixed-ratio 2 (FR2) running response. Moreover, when tested with fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) running—an easy response normally unaffected by helplessness training in rats—inescapable shock significantly increased the escape latencies of Holtzman rats. Within the Holtzman strain, we confirmed recent findings that females showed superior escape performance and therefore appeared more resistant to helplessness than males. However, regression and covariance analyses suggest that this sex difference may be explained by more baseline ambulatory activity among females. In addition, some indices of novelty reactivity (greater exploration of novel vs. familiar open-field) predicted subsequent helpless behavior. In conclusion, Holtzman rats, and especially male Holtzman rats, have a strong predisposition to become immobile when stressed which interferes with their ability to learn active escape responses. The Holtzman strain therefore appears to be a commercially available model for studying susceptibility to helplessness in males, and novelty-seeking may be a marker of this susceptibility. PMID:19428642

  3. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  4. Complete genome sequence of the bacteriochlorophyll a-containing Roseibacterium elongatum type strain (DSM 19469(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from Australian coast sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-15

    Roseibacterium elongatum Suzuki et al. 2006 is a pink-pigmented and bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the marine 'Roseobacter group' were found to be abundant in the ocean and play an important role in global and biogeochemical processes. In the present study we describe the features of R. elongatum strain OCh 323(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation. The 3,555,102 bp long genome consists of one circular chromosome with no extrachromosomal elements and is one of the smallest known Roseobacter genomes. It contains 3,540 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a photosynthetic gene cluster, which putatively enables a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Gene sequences associated with quorum sensing, motility, surface attachment, and thiosulfate and carbon monoxide oxidation could be detected. The genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

  5. Processing plant persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes appear to have a lower virulence potential than clinical strains in selected virulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Thomsen, L.E.; Jørgensen, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    cell line, Caco-2; time to death in a nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans and in a fruit fly model, Drosophila melanogaster and fecal shedding in a guinea pig model. All strains adhered to and grew in Caco-2 cells in similar levels. When exposed to 10(6) CFU/ml, two strains representing......% killed C elegans worms was longer (110 h) for the RAPD type 9 strains than for the other four strains (80 h). The Scott A strain and one RAPD type 9 strain were suspended in whipping cream before being fed to guinea pigs and the persistent RAPD type 9 strain was isolated from feces in a lower level...... to contaminate food products, and it is important to determine their virulence potential to evaluate risk to consumers. We compared the behaviour of food processing persistent and clinical L. monocytogenes strains in four virulence models: Adhesion, invasion and intracellular growth was studied in an epithelial...

  6. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against six bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating bacteria in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after 5-min contact time at 20°C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Thirty-two combinations were synergistic in distilled water; twenty-five of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination was synergistic for all six bacterial strains in distilled water and remained synergistic with interfering substances. Six other combinations maintained their synergistic effect in the presence of an organic load but only for one or two bacterial strains. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method was proposed and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectant and/or sanitizer combinations. © 2012 ANSES Fougères Laboratory Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Characterisation of a detergent-stable alkaline protease from a novel thermophilic strain Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. AS-S24-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sudhir K; Roy, Jetendra K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2010-02-01

    An alkaline-protease-producing bacterial strain (AS-S24-II) isolated from a soil sample in Assam is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rod and grows at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C and salinity ranging from 0% to 7% (w/v) NaCl. Phenotypic characterisation, chemotaxonomic properties, presence of Paenibacillus-specific signature sequences, and ribotyping data suggested that the strain AS-S24-II represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. (MTCC 8959) is proposed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. lentimorbus strain DNG-14 and P. lentimorbus strain DNG-16 represent the closest phylogenetic neighbour of this novel strain. Alkaline protease production (598 x 10(3) U l(-1)) by P. tezpurensis sp. nov. in SmF was optimised by response surface method. A laundry-detergent-stable, Ca(2+)-independent, 43-kDa molecular weight alkaline serine protease from this strain was purified with a 1.7-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protease displayed optimum activity at pH 9.5 and 45-50 degrees C temperature range and exhibited a significant stability and compatibility with surfactants and most of the tested commercial laundry detergents at room temperature. Further, the protease improved the wash performance of detergents, thus demonstrating its feasibility for inclusion in laundry detergent formulations.

  8. Duplex PCR for differentiation of the vaccine strain Brucella suis S2 and B. suis biovar 1 from other strains of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Tan, Pengfei; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zouliang; Mao, Kairong; Peng, Daxin; Chen, Yiping

    2014-09-01

    Immunisation with attenuated Brucella spp. vaccines prevents brucellosis, but may also interfere with diagnosis. In this study, a duplex PCR was developed to distinguish Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from field strains of B. suis biovar 1 and other Brucella spp. The PCR detected 60 fg genomic DNA of B. suis S2 or biovar 1 field strains and was able to distinguish B. suis S2 and wild-type strains of B. suis biovar 1 among 76 field isolates representing all the common species and biovars, as well as four vaccine strains, of Brucella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of poroelasticity theory and constant strain rate test in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Hung; Rühaak, Wolfram; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Extensive groundwater extraction leads to a drawdown of the ground water table. Consequently, soil effective stress increases and can cause land subsidence. Analysis of land subsidence generally requires a numerical model based on poroelasticity theory, which was first proposed by Biot (1941). In the review of regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction, Galloway and Burbey (2011) stated that more research and application is needed in coupling of stress-dependent land subsidence process. In geotechnical field, the constant rate of strain tests (CRS) was first introduced in 1969 (Smith and Wahls 1969) and was standardized in 1982 through the designation D4186-82 by American Society for Testing and Materials. From the reading values of CRS tests, the stress-dependent parameters of poroelasticity model can be calculated. So far, there is no research to link poroelasticity theory with CRS tests in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction. One dimensional CRS tests using conventional compression cell and three dimension CRS tests using Rowe cell were performed. The tests were also modelled by using finite element method with mixed elements. Back analysis technique is used to find the suitable values of hydraulic conductivity and bulk modulus that depend on the stress or void ratio. Finally, the obtained results are used in land subsidence models. Biot, M. A. (1941). "General theory of three-dimensional consolidation." Journal of applied physics 12(2): 155-164. Galloway, D. L. and T. J. Burbey (2011). "Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction." Hydrogeology Journal 19(8): 1459-1486. Smith, R. E. and H. E. Wahls (1969). "Consolidation under constant rates of strain." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div.

  11. Strain differentiation of polioviruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; A.J.H. Stegmann; J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractPanels of monoclonal antibodies raised against different poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 strains, were tested in a micro-neutralization test and in a micro-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay against a large number of poliovirus strains. The results were compared with those obtained with the

  12. Plastic strain induced damage evolution and martensitic transformation in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garion, C.; Skoczen, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behavior at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of these irreversible phenomena, associated with the dissipation of plastic power, are included into the constitutive model of stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The model is tested on the thin-walled corrugated shells (known as bellows expansion joints) used in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider, the new proton storage ring being constructed at present at CERN

  13. One- and multistage total strain and stress-controlled fatigue tests with a steel of type 42 CrMo 4 subject to varied residual and mean stress loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.; Schulze, V.

    1995-01-01

    Work under this research project covered tests with the quenched and tempered steel 42 CrMo 4 to which one- and two-stage tension-compression fatigue stresses were applied with varying mean loads, under conditions of nominal stress and total strain control. Shot peening was used to induce various microstructural conditions in the material at the surface and near below. Softening in the material was observed to be a continuous process, and the steel showed no stabilised, cyclic deformation behaviour. The cyclic stress-strain curve measured with equal stress amplitudes and total strain control applied shows higher plastic strain amplitudes than that measured with nominal stresses. The fatigue behaviour under two-stage loading depends on the chosen sequence of loads applied, the testing periods, and the overall testing procedure, so that there is no way of deriving data for two-stage testing procedures from single-stage test results. (orig.) [de

  14. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory activities of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains against antibiotic susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, L; Gergova, G; Markovska, R; Yordanov, D; Mitov, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to detect anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. Activity of non-neutralized and non-heat-treated (CFSs1), non-neutralized and heat-treated (CFSs2), pH neutralized, catalase-treated and non-heat-treated (CFSs3), or neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated (CFSs4) CFSs against 18 H. pylori strains (11 of which with antibiotic resistance) was evaluated. All GLB strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs), the neutralized CFSs of two GLB strains inhibited >81% of test strains and those of four GLB strains were active against >71% of antibiotic resistant strains. Two H. pylori strains were BLIS resistant. The heating did not reduce the CFS activity. Briefly, all GLB strains evaluated produced heat-stable BLISs, although GLB and H. pylori strain susceptibility patterns exhibited differences. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance activity can be an advantage for the probiotic choice for H. pylori infection control. In this study, anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (GLB) strains was evaluated by four cell-free supernatant (CFS) types. The GLB strains produced heat-stable bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs) with a strong anti-H. pylori activity and some neutralized, catalase- and heat-treated CFSs inhibited >83% of the test strains. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance production of GLB strains can render them valuable probiotics in the control of H. pylori infection. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  16. Application of a fiber optic grating strain sensor for the measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Yoshinori; Kita, Satoshi; Ide, Hiroshi; Tsukada, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developed using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In order to evaluate the performance of fiber optic grating sensors under irradiation environment, heat-up and performance tests at elevated temperatures before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed in JMTR. It was determined that it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x10 23 n m -2 (E>1 MeV) by a fiber optic grating sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristics were in good agreement with out-of-pile test results

  17. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    , representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying...... the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from...

  18. Instrument for measuring fuel cladding strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Development work to provide instrumentation for the continuous measurement of strain of material specimens such as nuclear fuel cladding has shown that a microwave sensor and associated instrumentation hold promise. The cylindrical sensor body enclosing the specimen results in a coaxial resonator absorbing microwave energy at frequencies dependent upon the diameter of the specimen. Diametral changes of a microinch can be resolved with use of the instrumentation. Very reasonable values of elastic strain were measured at 75 0 F and 1000 0 F for an internally pressurized 20 percent C.W. 316 stainless steel specimen simulating nuclear fuel cladding. The instrument also indicated the creep strain of the same specimen pressurized at 6500 psi and at a temperature of 1000 0 F for a period of 700 hours. Although the indicated strain appears greater than actual, the sensor/specimen unit experienced considerable oxidation even though an inert gas purge persisted throughout the test duration. By monitoring at least two modes of resonance, the measured strain was shown to be nearly independent of sensor temperature. To prevent oxidation, a second test was performed in which the specimen/sensor units were contained in an evacuated enclosure. The strain of the two prepressurized specimens as indicated by the microwave instrumentation agreed very closely with pre- and post-test measurements obtained with use of a laser interferometer

  19. Physical Simulation of a Duplex Stainless Steel Friction Stir Welding by the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Hot Torsion Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Eduardo Bertoni; Santos, Tiago Felipe Abreu; Button, Sergio Tonini; Ramirez, Antonio Jose

    2016-09-01

    Physical simulation of friction stir welding (FSW) by means of hot torsion tests was performed on UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel. A thermomechanical simulator Gleeble 3800® with a custom-built liquid nitrogen cooling system was employed to reproduce the thermal cycle measured during FSW and carry out the torsion tests. Microstructures were compared by means of light optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. True strain and strain rate were calculated by numerical simulation of the torsion tests. Thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) was reproduced at peak temperature of 1303 K (1030 °C), rotational speeds of 52.4 rad s-1 (500 rpm) and 74.5 rad s-1 (750 rpm), and 0.5 to 0.75 revolutions, which represent strain rate between 10 and 16 s-1 and true strain between 0.5 and 0.8. Strong grain refinement, similar to the one observed in the stir zone (SZ), was attained at peak temperature of 1403 K (1130 °C), rotational speed of 74.5 rad s-1 (750 rpm), and 1.2 revolution, which represent strain rate of 19 s-1 and true strain of 1.3. Continuous dynamic recrystallization in ferrite and dynamic recrystallization in austenite were observed in the TMAZ simulation. At higher temperature, dynamic recovery of austenite was also observed.

  20. Research on the Phenotypic Characterization of Mrsa Strains Isolated from Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Maria BUCUR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: chromogen, methicillin, MRSA, resistance Introduction: Currently, both in staphylococci isolated from animals with different diseases, as well as in humans, the MRSA strains (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus are monitored, as the methicillin resistance is associated with the resistance to other antibiotic groups. Methicillin resistance is encoded by mec staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes (SCCmec, which are islands of resistance. These strains can be identified by molecular biology tests and tests that reveal several phenotypic characteristics. The research was made in order to characterize and identify phenotypically the MRSA staphylococci strains isolated from animals. Materials and Methods: Researches were made on 240 coagulase positive and coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. Mannitol fermentation was tested on Champan medium, free coagulase was revealed on Baird-Parker medium and to identify S. aureus subsp. aureus was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic Staph. Methicillin-resistant strains were detected by disc diffusion method, using biodiscs with methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Also, to identify the MRSA strains, was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic MRSA. Results: The isolates were positive to mannitol and produced complete haemolysis or were unhaemolytic. A total of 44 strains produced free coagulase on Baird-Parker medium, considered coagulase positive strains, while 196 were coagulase negative strains. The isolates conducted differently to methicillin: 22,08% of strains were resistant, 51,25% of strains were susceptible and 26,66% had intermediate resistance, while the resistant strains to oxacillin were 42,91%. The increased frequency of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci and, particularly, MRSA strains, determined using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, which is more reliable than methicillin and oxacillin. On the MRSA chromogenic medium, the methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci

  1. Stress and strain measurements in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askegaard, V.

    1978-01-01

    A design basis is given for stress- and strain cells to be used in a solid either externally loaded or with a stressfree strain field (for example shrinkage). A stress- and a strain cell has been designed for use in granular materials. Calibration tests show either good or reasonably good correspondance with calculated values. (orig.) [de

  2. Emotional strain in caregiving among African American grandmothers raising their grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine; Jones, Samuel; Speakes-Lewis, Amandia

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented in the number of grandparents raising their grandchildren. Using Role Strain Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, this study examines how older grandmothers fare relative to their younger counterparts. Eighty-five custodial African American grandmothers, aged 33-88 years old, completed demographic questionnaires and scales of Role Demand, Emotional Strain, Caregiving Strain Index, and Level of Care. Results showed older grandmothers experienced less emotional and caregiving strain relative to younger grandmothers. Furthermore, married grandmothers experienced less caregiving strain, and their age did not insulate them from the strain associated with the level of care. Implications are discussed.

  3. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  4. Description of near-tip fracture processes in strain hardening cementitious composites using image-based analysis and the compact tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2013-01-01

    The cracking mechanisms assume a key role in the composite behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs). Due to their importance, in previous studies the mechanical behavior of SHCC materials, as well as of other strain softening fiber reinforced cementitious composites......, was characterized under eccentric tensile loading using the Compact Tension Test (CTT). The present research further extends this investigation, with particular emphasis on cementitious composites reinforced with multiple types of fibers. The experimental tensile load-displacement results are discussed and compared...

  5. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  6. On strain and stress in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Smith, David W.

    2014-11-01

    Recent theoretical simulations of amelogenesis and network formation and new, simple analyses of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) allow estimation of the order of magnitude of the strain energy density in populations of living cells in their natural environment. A similar simple calculation translates recent measurements of the force-displacement relation for contacting cells (cell-cell adhesion energy) into equivalent volume energy densities, which are formed by averaging the changes in contact energy caused by a cell's migration over the cell's volume. The rates of change of these mechanical energy densities (energy density rates) are then compared to the order of magnitude of the metabolic activity of a cell, expressed as a rate of production of metabolic energy per unit volume. The mechanical energy density rates are 4-5 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate in amelogenesis or bone remodeling in the BMU, which involve modest cell migration velocities, and 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller for innervation of the gut or angiogenesis, where migration rates are among the highest for all cell types. For representative cell-cell adhesion gradients, the mechanical energy density rate is 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic energy density rate. The results call into question the validity of using simple constitutive laws to represent living cells. They also imply that cells need not migrate as inanimate objects of gradients in an energy field, but are better regarded as self-powered automata that may elect to be guided by such gradients or move otherwise. Thus Ġel=d/dt 1/2 >[(C11+C12)ɛ02+2μγ02]=(C11+C12)ɛ0ɛ˙0+2μγ0γ˙0 or Ġel=ηEɛ0ɛ˙0+η‧Eγ0γ˙0 with 1.4≤η≤3.4 and 0.7≤η‧≤0.8 for Poisson's ratio in the range 0.2≤ν≤0.4 and η=1.95 and η‧=0.75 for ν=0.3. The spatial distribution of shear strains arising within an individual cell as cells slide past one another during amelogenesis is not known

  7. Experimental validation of finite element analysis of human vertebral collapse under large compressive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Clouthier, Allison L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures represent a major health problem in elderly populations. Such fractures can often only be diagnosed after a substantial deformation history of the vertebral body. Therefore, it remains a challenge for clinicians to distinguish between stable and progressive potentially harmful fractures. Accordingly, novel criteria for selection of the appropriate conservative or surgical treatment are urgently needed. Computer tomography-based finite element analysis is an increasingly accepted method to predict the quasi-static vertebral strength and to follow up this small strain property longitudinally in time. A recent development in constitutive modeling allows us to simulate strain localization and densification in trabecular bone under large compressive strains without mesh dependence. The aim of this work was to validate this recently developed constitutive model of trabecular bone for the prediction of strain localization and densification in the human vertebral body subjected to large compressive deformation. A custom-made stepwise loading device mounted in a high resolution peripheral computer tomography system was used to describe the progressive collapse of 13 human vertebrae under axial compression. Continuum finite element analyses of the 13 compression tests were realized and the zones of high volumetric strain were compared with the experiments. A fair qualitative correspondence of the strain localization zone between the experiment and finite element analysis was achieved in 9 out of 13 tests and significant correlations of the volumetric strains were obtained throughout the range of applied axial compression. Interestingly, the stepwise propagating localization zones in trabecular bone converged to the buckling locations in the cortical shell. While the adopted continuum finite element approach still suffers from several limitations, these encouraging preliminary results towards the prediction of extended vertebral

  8. Differences between strains of Rhizobium in sensitivity to canavanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaks, T E [Marshall Univ., Huntingdon, West Virginia (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1977-11-01

    Four strains of rhizobia that nodulate canavanine-synthesizing legumes and four strains that nodulate noncanavanine-synthesizing legumes were tested for sensitivity to L-canavanine. The effect of canavanine on growth depends upon the strain of Rhizobium tested rather than the canavanine synthesizing capability of the host legume. In both groups of rhizobia, some strains were inhibited in growth by canavanine. Canavanine enhancement of growth was observed in rhizobia that nodulate noncanavanine-synthesizing legumes. Canavanine was found to enhance the incorporation of /sup 3/H-uridine and /sup 3/H-L-leucine into trichloroacetic acid insoluble fractions of starved cells of two strains of rhizobia tested. This demonstrated that under certain conditions, some rhizobia can detoxify canavanine and utilize it in synthetic processes.

  9. Molecular analysis of exotoxin A associated with antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients in Tehran hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Amirmozafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a unique bacteria that in order to survive in different environments by complex adaptation process can make changes in his virulence genes expression and drug resistance. The aim of this research is the investigation of existence of a logical association between toxA gene and antibiotic resistance in strains possess the gene. Materials and Methods: Antibiogram test by disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer was performed according to CLSI protocols. In this study, the existence of toxA gene with the help of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 102 clinical isolates from blood samples, wound, urine and trachea was examined. Chi-square test was used to investigate the relationship between exotoxin A and antibiotic resistance. Results: The 81 strains (79.4% had toxA gene. Frequency of toxA genes in isolated strains from different infections were wound (91.4%, blood (85.7%, trachea (72.7%, and urine (42.1%. Multiple resistance index in strains possess the toxA gene was calculated 75%. Chi 2 test to determine the relationship between drug resistance and gene toxA was significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: The significant chi-square test and an increase in multi-resistant strains possessing the toxA gene, can represent a considerable genetic switch between exotoxin A activity and resistance to antibiotics in the blood, urine, tracheal, wound infections Respectively, which lead to turn genes on of drug resistance regulating in bacteria. The results of this study will be verified by southern blot, analysis of the expression of toxA gene and determine the mechanism of resistance in resistant strains Methods.

  10. [Identification of Candida dubliniensis strains using heat tolerance tests, morphological characteristics and molecular methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevtap; Darka, Ozge; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Günalp, Ayfer

    2003-01-01

    Described in 1995, Candida dubliniensis is a novel Candida species closely related to Candida albicans due primarily to its ability to produce germ tube and chlamydospores. Given these phenotypic similarities between the two species, C. dubliniensis cannot be readily distinguished from Candida albicans by routine laboratory work-up. We explored the frequency of isolation of C. dubliniensis among 213 strains previously defined as C. albicans based on their ability to produce germ tube. The test isolates were initially examined for their morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar, inability to grow at 45 degrees C, and the biochemical assimilation profile (ID 32C system, bioMerieux, France). Among all, 2 (0.9%) of the isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis based on the production of numerous chlamydospores in chains on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of growth at 45 degrees C. The assimilation profile of these isolates was found to be in accordance with this identification. In an effort to confirm the identification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were carried out by using the C. dubliniensis specific primer set, DUBF and DUBR. Both of the isolates yielded C. dubliniensis-specific 288 base pair amplification products, confirming the previous identification obtained with the initial screening tests. The isolates were found to be susceptible to fluconazole and itraconazole, and generated amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-1 microgram/ml by NCCLS M27-A2 microdilution method. These data suggest that the isolation rate of C. dubliniensis among our clinical isolates is low. The morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of ability to grow at 45 degrees C appear as reliable, cheap, and practical screening tests in initial identification of C. dubliniensis among germ tube-producing Candida strains.

  11. Multilinear stress-strain and failure calibrations for Ti-6Al-4V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This memo concerns calibration of an elastic-plastic J2 material model for Ti-6Al-4V (grade 5) alloy based on tensile uniaxial stress-strain data obtained in the laboratory. In addition, tension tests on notched specimens provided data to calibrate two ductile failure models: Johnson-Cook and Wellman's tearing parameter. The tests were conducted by Kim Haulen- beek and Dave Johnson (1528) in the Structural Mechanics Laboratory (SML) during late March and early April, 2017. The SML EWP number was 4162. The stock material was a TIMETALR® 6-4 Titanium billet with 9 in. by 9 in. square section and length of 137 in. The product description indicates that it was a forging delivered in annealed condition (2 hours @ 1300oF, AC at the mill). The tensile mechanical properties reported in the material certi cation are given in Table 1, where σo represents the 0.2% strain offset yield stress, σu the ultimate stress, εf the elongation at failure and R.A. the reduction in area.

  12. Stress strain flow curves for Cu-OFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Rolf; Hallgren, Josefin

    2009-04-01

    Stress strain curves of oxygen free copper alloyed with phosphorus Cu-OFP have been determined in compression and tension. The compression tests were performed at room temperature for strain rates between 10 -5 and 10 -3 1/s. The tests in tension covered the temperature range 20 to 175 deg C for strain rates between 10 -7 and 5x10 -3 1/s. The results in compression and tension were close for similar strain rates. A model for stress strain curves has been formulated using basic dislocation mechanisms. The model has been set up in such a way that fitting of parameters to the curves is avoided. By using a fundamental creep model as a basis a direct relation to creep data has been established. The maximum engineering flow stress in tension is related to the creep stress giving the same strain rate. The model reproduces the measured flow curves as function of temperature and strain rate in the investigated interval. The model is suitable to use in finite-element computations of structures in Cu-OFP

  13. Peri-Implant Strain in an In Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Souheil; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Wadkar, Abhinav P; Quran, Firas A Al; Ehrenberg, David; Weiner, Saul

    2015-10-01

    An in vitro experimental model was designed and tested to determine the influence that peri-implant strain may have on the overall crestal bone. Strain gages were attached to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) models containing a screw-type root form implant at sites 1 mm from the resin-implant interface. Three different types of crown superstructures (cemented, 1-screw [UCLA] and 2-screw abutment types) were tested. Loading (1 Hz, 200 N load) was performed using a MTS Mechanical Test System. The strain gage data were stored and organized in a computer for statistical treatment. Strains for all abutment types did not exceed the physiological range for modeling and remodeling of cancellous bone, 200-2500 με (microstrain). For approximately one-quarter of the trials, the strain values were less than 200 με the zone for bone atrophy. The mean microstrain obtained was 517.7 με. In conclusion, the peri-implant strain in this in vitro model did not exceed the physiologic range of bone remodeling under axial occlusal loading.

  14. Comprehensive update of dalbavancin activity when tested against uncommonly isolated streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus spp. (1357 strains).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-06-01

    Dalbavancin is an investigational lipoglycopeptide having an extended serum elimination half-life allowing once-weekly dosing. Data from testing 1357 strains of uncommonly isolated species expand the dalbavancin spectrum details as follows (MIC50/90): β-haemolytic streptococcal serogroups C, F, and G (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL), 7 viridans group of streptococci (≤0.03/≤0.03-0.06 μg/mL), 5 Corynebacterium spp. (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), and Micrococcus spp. (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL). Among all reported isolates, 99.8% of tested strains were inhibited at dalbavancin MIC values at ≤0.12 μg/mL. Dalbavancin remains very potent against rarer Gram-positive pathogens, using in vitro test experience with organisms cultured through 2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathogenesis of New Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus From Israel and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarangga, P; Brown, C C; Miller, P J; Haddas, R; Rehmani, S F; Afonso, C L; Susta, L

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains-1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenotype XIIIb isolated in Pakistan (Karachi/07)-were characterized by intracerebral pathogenicity index and detailed clinicopathologic assessment. The intracerebral pathogenicity index values for Kvuzat/13 and Karachi/07 were 1.89 and 1.85, respectively, classifying these strains as virulent by international standards. In 4-week-old White Leghorn chickens, both strains caused 100% mortality within 4 (Kvuzat/13) and 5 (Karachi/07) days postinfection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for NDV nucleoprotein showed that both strains had wide systemic distribution, especially targeting lymphoid organs and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in the respiratory and intestinal tracts. Results of the animal experiment confirm that both Kvuzat/13 and Karachi/07 are highly virulent and behaved as velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Resistance Pattern and Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC Strains Isolated in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin A Begum

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh.A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA was used for detection of Heat labile (LT and Heat stable (ST toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE.Among 1067 (12% ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523 of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin of representative

  17. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  18. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  19. Strain distribution and failure mode of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries under biaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Wang, Yanli; Li, Jianlin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Turner, John A.; Gorney, Phillip

    2018-02-01

    Deformation of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries has been studied under biaxial tension by using a dome test setup. This deformation mode provides characterization of separator strength under more complex loading conditions, closer representing deformation of an electric vehicle battery during crash event, compared to uniaxial tension or compression. Two polymer separators, Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 were investigated by deformation with spheres of three different diameters. Strains in separators were measured in situ by using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results show consistent rupture of separators along the machine direction coinciding with areas of high strain accumulation. The critical first principal strain for failure was independent of the sphere diameter and was determined to be approximately 34% and 43% for Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 respectively. These values can be taken as a criterion for internal short circuit in a battery following an out-of-plane impact. A Finite Element (FE) model was built with the anisotropic description of separator behavior, derived from tensile tests in orthogonal directions. The results of simulations predicted the response of separator rather well when compared to experimental results for various sizes of rigid sphere.

  20. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  1. Grain orientation and strain measurements in sub-micron wide passivated individual aluminum test structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Valek, B.C.; Spolenak, R.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Brown, W.L.; Marieb, T.; Bravman, J.C.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray microdiffraction dedicated beamline, combining white and monochromatic beam capabilities, has been built at the Advanced Light Source. The purpose of this beamline is to address the myriad of problems in Materials Science and Physics that require submicron x-ray beams for structural characterization. Many such problems are found in the general area of thin films and nano-materials. For instance, the ability to characterize the orientation and strain state in individual grains of thin films allows us to measure structural changes at a very local level. These microstructural changes are influenced heavily by such parameters as deposition conditions and subsequent treatment. The accurate measurement of strain gradients at the micron and sub-micron level finds many applications ranging from the strain state under nano-indenters to gradients at crack tips. Undoubtedly many other applications will unfold in the future as we gain experience with the capabilities and limitations of this instrument. We have applied this technique to measure grain orientation and residual stress in single grains of pure Al interconnect lines and preliminary results on post-electromigration test experiments are presented. It is shown that measurements with this instrument can be used to resolve the complete stress tensor (6 components) in a submicron volume inside a single grain of Al under a passivation layer with an overall precision of about 20 MPa. The microstructure of passivated lines appears to be complex, with grains divided into identifiable subgrains and noticeable local variations of both tensile/compressive and shear stresses within single grains

  2. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  3. Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: testing a general strain theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    This article draws on general strain theory (GST) to develop and test a model of the childhood abuse-crime relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health),(1) we find that early childhood physical and sexual abuse are robust predictors of offending in adolescence, for the full sample and in equations disaggregated by gender. GST is partially supported in that the effects of childhood physical abuse on offending for both females and males are mediated by an index of depression symptoms, whereas the effect of sexual abuse among females appears to be mediated largely by closeness to mother. The effect of childhood sexual abuse among males, however, is more robust than among females and it persists despite controls for low self-control, ties to delinquent peers, school attachment, and closeness to mother. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the bacteriochlorophyll a-containing Roseibacterium elongatum type strain (DSM 19469T), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from Australian coast sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roseibacterium elongatum Suzuki et al. 2006 is a pink-pigmented and bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the marine ‘Roseobacter group’ were found to be abundant in the ocean and play an important role in global and biogeochemical processes. In the present study we describe the features of R. elongatum strain OCh 323T together with its genome sequence and annotation. The 3,555,102 bp long genome consists of one circular chromosome with no extrachromosomal elements and is one of the smallest known Roseobacter genomes. It contains 3,540 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a photosynthetic gene cluster, which putatively enables a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Gene sequences associated with quorum sensing, motility, surface attachment, and thiosulfate and carbon monoxide oxidation could be detected. The genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). PMID:25197467

  6. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  7. Mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean strain effects on the random cyclic strain-life relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. In order to save costs of specimens and tests, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is applied to manage the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, respectively, -1, -0.52, 0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, are applied to study the effects. Total 104 specimens are fatigued. Since the material exhibits an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress under the six ratios and, in addition, there is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case, previous Zhao's random strain-life relations are therefore applied for effective characterization of the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Coffin-Manson equation.Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average fatigue lives, the standard deviations of the logarithms of fatigue lives, and the fatigue lives under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios greater than zero exhibit a positive effect of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under the survival probability of 0.999 and the confidence of 95%. A negative effect is exhibited for the case of the ratios less than zero. In addition, the assessment of the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion for the practice of higher reliabilities. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the average lives, the scattering regularity of test data, and the size of sampling. (author)

  8. Evaluation of biofilm formation by bacterial strains isolated from milking equipment and milk samples from cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gonçalves da Silva Chagas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biofilm-forming bacteria from the mammary gland of dairy cows adhered to equipment in the milking environment represents one of the major causes of bacterial resistance during mastitis treatment. The aim of this study was to identify strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli in milk samples from cows with mastitis, as well as in the expansion tank and milking set liners. We aimed to quantify the extracellular proteins and polysaccharides in the biofilm produced by each strain. A total of 294 samples were collected from a dairy farm in the municipality of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. To identify the S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. coli isolates responsible for biofilm production, we tested the phenotype using the Congo red agar (CRA and microplate adhesion tests. Protein quantification was performed with a Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay Kit (BCA kit, and polysaccharides were quantified by the phenol sulfuric acid method. We identified eight strains of S. aureus, one strain of S. epidermidis and 11 strains of E. coli responsible for biofilm production, all of which showed a higher concentration of polysaccharides than proteins in the matrix. Escherichia coli was considered the most prevalent bacterium among the samples, and S. aureus was determined to be the largest biofilm producer. The results of the CRA and microplate adhesion tests were similar in regard to identification of the biofilm-producing strains according to their phenotype and matrix composition. The classification of S. aureus strains as major biofilm producers is of great concern for producers, as such bacteria are considered one of the predominant contagious etiological agents that cause bovine mastitis. In addition, our observation that E. coli and S. epidermidis can produce biofilms highlights the need to reassess prophylactic measures to avoid the adhesion of biofilm-producing bacteria.

  9. Characterization of toxin complex gene clusters and insect toxicity of bacteria representing four subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  10. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  11. Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, A C; Tuomola, E M; Tölkkö, S; Salminen, S

    2001-02-28

    Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PELI, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media on adhesion was tested. The properties of the four strains were compared to the well-investigated probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG. Three of the tested strains showed significant adhesion properties in the mucus model, while L. brevis PELI had intermediate adhesion and L. rhamnosus LC-705 adhered poorly. Pretreatment with different milks decreased the adhesion and low pH and pepsin treatment reduced the adhesion of all tested strains except L. rhamnosus LC-705. No competitive exclusion of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli SfaII was observed. The results indicate that major differences exist between tested proposed probiotic strains. The growth media and the food matrix significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. This has previously not been taken into account when selecting novel probiotic strains.

  12. In vitro susceptibility to mecillinam of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duployez, C; Loiez, C; Cattoen, C; Descamps, D; Wallet, F; Vachée, A

    2016-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a safe beta-lactam for use in pregnancy. It has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Nordic countries where its efficacy, minor impact on the microbiota, and low level of resistance among the Escherichia coli strains have been proven. However, susceptibility data related to E. coli involved in asymptomatic bacteriuria and lower UTIs in pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to support the 2015 recommendations issued by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) on gestational UTI, with a particular focus on pivmecillinam. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by 12 hospitals with a maternity department on 235 E. coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women. Susceptibility to mecillinam was tested by disk diffusion method using the 2015 recommendations of the antibiogram committee of the French microbiology society (CA-SFM). Global susceptibility to mecillinam was 86.4%. Susceptibility to mecillinam was 96.5% for strains susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 38.7% for resistant strains. All six extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to mecillinam. Given the efficacy and safety of pivmecillinam during pregnancy, it may be used for the documented treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis in pregnant women. It also represents an alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Raman measurements of Kevlar-29 fiber pull-out test at different strain levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Lei, Zhenkun; Kang, Yilan; Qiu, Wei

    2008-11-01

    This paper adopted Kevlar-29 fiber monofilament embedding technology to prepare fiber/ epoxy resin tensile specimen. The specimen was pulled on a homemade and portable mini-loading device. At the same time micro-Raman spectroscopy is introduced to detect the distributions of stress on the embedded fiber at different strain levels. The characteristic peak shift of the 1610 cm-1 in Raman band has a linear relationship with the strain or stress. The experimental results show that the fiber axial stress decreases gradually from the embedded fiber-start to the embedded fiber-end at the same strain level. At different strain levels, the fiber axial stress increases along with the applied load. It reveals that there is a larger fiber axial stress distribution under a larger strain level. And the stress transfer is realized gradually from the embedded fiber-start to the fiber-end. Stress concentration exists in the embedded fiber-end, which is a dangerous region for interfacial debonding easily.

  14. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  15. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Highly Successful Outbreak Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2011-01-01

    we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert......, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics....

  16. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.

  17. Acute Heat Stress Changes Protein Expression in the Testes of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2018-03-19

    Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis. The results revealed 101 protein spots that differed significantly from the control following exposure to acute heat stress. The proteins that were differentially expressed participated mainly in protein metabolism and other metabolic processes, responses to stimuli, apoptosis, cellular organization, and spermatogenesis. Proteins that negatively regulate apoptosis were downregulated and proteins involved in autophagy and major heat shock proteins (HSP90α, HSPA5, and HSPA8) were upregulated in the testes of heat-stressed chickens. In conclusion, acute heat stress causes a change in protein expression in the testes of broiler-type B strain TCCs and may thus impair cell morphology, spermatogenesis, and apoptosis. The expression of heat shock proteins increased to attenuate the testicular injury induced by acute heat stress.

  18. Mechanical properties of Bi,Pb(2223) single filaments and Ic(ε) behaviour in longitudinally strained tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passerini, Reynald; Dhalle, Marc; Seeber, Bernd; Fluekiger, Rene

    2002-01-01

    The Young's modulus and fracture stress of isolated Bi,Pb(2223) filaments were deduced from three-point bending tests performed at different stages of the tapes preparation. These results were introduced in the model describing the evolution of critical current of tapes submitted to a longitudinal strain in view to predict their irreversible strain limit ε irr . These calculated irreversible strain limits were compared to measured values, taken from a set of tapes made with different filling factors and composite matrices. This experiment shows that the predicted irreversible strain limits correspond to the measured ones. Presenting the I c behaviour of highly stressed tapes in a magnetic field, we discuss the evolution of the ratio I strong c0 /I c0 versus strain. This value, representative of the fraction of the critical current attributed to strongly connected grains, increases significantly during the crack formation regime at ε > ε irr . This indicates that mechanically weak links correspond to electromagnetically weak ones. This result is further confirmed by comparing the modulus of rupture obtained in single filaments extracted from tapes with different I c values

  19. Methods for predicting isochronous stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Masanori; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves show the relation between stress and total strain at a certain temperature with time as a parameter, and they are drawn up from the creep test results at various stress levels at a definite temperature. The concept regarding the isochronous stress-strain curves was proposed by McVetty in 1930s, and has been used for the design of aero-engines. Recently the high temperature characteristics of materials are shown as the isochronous stress-strain curves in the design guide for the nuclear energy equipments and structures used in high temperature creep region. It is prescribed that these curves are used as the criteria for determining design stress intensity or the data for analyzing the superposed effects of creep and fatigue. In case of the isochronous stress-strain curves used for the design of nuclear energy equipments with very long service life, it is impractical to determine the curves directly from the results of long time creep test, accordingly the method of predicting long time stress-strain curves from short time creep test results must be established. The method proposed by the authors, for which the creep constitution equations taking the first and second creep stages into account are used, and the method using Larson-Miller parameter were studied, and it was found that both methods were reliable for the prediction. (Kako, I.)

  20. Mechanical properties of Bi,Pb(2223) single filaments and I sub c (epsilon) behaviour in longitudinally strained tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Passerini, R; Seeber, B; Flükiger, R

    2002-01-01

    The Young's modulus and fracture stress of isolated Bi,Pb(2223) filaments were deduced from three-point bending tests performed at different stages of the tapes preparation. These results were introduced in the model describing the evolution of critical current of tapes submitted to a longitudinal strain in view to predict their irreversible strain limit epsilon sub i sub r sub r. These calculated irreversible strain limits were compared to measured values, taken from a set of tapes made with different filling factors and composite matrices. This experiment shows that the predicted irreversible strain limits correspond to the measured ones. Presenting the I sub c behaviour of highly stressed tapes in a magnetic field, we discuss the evolution of the ratio I sup s sup t sup r sup o sup n sup g sub c sub 0 /I sub c sub 0 versus strain. This value, representative of the fraction of the critical current attributed to strongly connected grains, increases significantly during the crack formation regime at epsilon >...

  1. Dynamic strain aging of zircaloy-4 PWR fuel cladding in biaxial stress state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Seong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    The expanding copper mandrel test performed at three strain rates (3.2x10E-5/s,2.0x10E-6/s and 1.2x10E-7/s) over 553-873 K temperature range by varying the heating rates (8-10deg C/s,1-2deg C/s and 0.5deg C/s) in air and in vacuum (5x10E-5 torr). The yield stress peak, the strain rate sensitivity minimum and the activation volume peaks could be explained in terms of the dynamic strain aging. The activation energy for dynamic strain aging obtained from the yield stress peak temperature and strain rate was 196 KJ/mol and this value was in good agreement with the activation energy for oxygen diffusion in α-zirconium and Zircaloy-2 (207-220KJ/mol). Therefore, oxygen atoms are responsible for the dynamic strain aging which appeared between 573K and 673K. The yield stress increase due to the oxidation was obtained by comparing the yield stress in air with that in vacuum and represented by the percentage increase of yield stress (σ y a -σ y v /σ y v ). The slower the strain rate, the greater the percentage increase occurs. In order to estimate the yield stress of PWR fuel cladding material under the service environment, the yield stress in water was obtained by comparing the oxidation rate in air that in water assuming the relationship between the oxygen pick-up amount and the yield stress increase. (Author)

  2. Polymer optical fiber strain gauge for human-robot interaction forces assessment on an active knee orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Sánchez, Manuel R. A.; Botelho, Thomaz R.; Segatto, Marcelo V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of a polymer optical fiber (POF) strain gauge based on the light coupling principle, which the power attenuation is created by the misalignment between two POFs. The misalignment, in this case, is proportional to the strain on the structure that the fibers are attached. This principle has the advantages of low cost, ease of implementation, temperature insensitiveness, electromagnetic fields immunity and simplicity on the sensor interrogation and signal processing. Such advantages make the proposed solution an interesting alternative to the electronic strain gauges. For this reason, an analytical model for the POF strain gauge is proposed and validated. Furthermore, the proposed POF sensor is applied on an active orthosis for knee rehabilitation exercises through flexion/extension cycles. The controller of the orthosis provides 10 different levels of robotic assistance on the flexion/extension movement. The POF strain gauge is tested at each one of these levels. Results show good correlation between the optical and electronic strain gauges with root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of 1.87 Nm when all cycles are analyzed, which represents a deviation of less than 8%. For the application, the proposed sensor presented higher stability than the electronic one, which can provide advantages on the rehabilitation exercises and on the inner controller of the device.

  3. Effects of mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed for the effects of the mean strain on the random cyclic stress-strain relations of the new nuclear material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel. From saving the size of specimens, an improved maximum likelihood fatigue test method is proposed to operate the present strain-controlled fatigue tests. Six straining ratios, -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, are applied to study the effects. Fatigue test has been carried out on totally 104 specimens. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and the saturation hysteresis loops under the six ratios hold an entirely relaxation effect of mean stress. There is no effectively method for the description of the mean straining effects under this case. Previous Zhao's random stress-strain relations are therefore applied to characterizing effectively the scattering test data under the six ratios on a basis of Ramberg-Osgood equation. Then the effects of the ratios are analyzed respectively on the average stress amplitudes, the standard deviations of the stress amplitudes, and the stress amplitudes under different survival probabilities and confidences. The results reveal that the ratios act a relatively decreasing effect to the stress amplitudes under higher survival probabilities and confidences. The strongest effect appears at the ratio of 0.029, and a weaker effect acts as the distance increase of the ratio from the zero. In addition, it is indicated that the effects from the sense of average fatigue lives might result in a wrong conclusion. The effects can be appropriately assessed from a probabilistic sense to take into account the scattering regularity of test data and the size of sampling. (author)

  4. Strain localization during tensile Hopkinson bar testing of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moćko Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the analysis was to determine the strain localization for various specimen shapes (type A and type B according to PN-EN ISO 26203-1 standard and different loading conditions, i.e. quasi- static and dynamic. Commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Grade 5 were selected for the tests. Tensile loadings were applied out using servo-hydraulic testing machine and tensile Hopkinson bar with pre-tension. The results were recorded using ARAMIS system cameras and fast camera Phantom V1210, respectively at quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Further, specimens outline was determined on the basis of video data using TEMA MOTION software. The strain distribution on the specimen surface was estimated using digital image correlation method. The larger radius present in the specimen of type B in comparison to specimen of type A, results in slight increase of the elongation for commercially pure titanium at both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. However this effect disappears for Ti6Al4V alloy. The increase of the elongation corresponds to the stronger necking effect. Material softening due to increase of temperature induced by plastic work was observed at dynamic loading conditions. Moreover lower elongation at fracture point was found at high strain rates for both materials.

  5. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi + Uvr + (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi - Uvr + (1), ColIa Abi - Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi + Uvr + (85), ColIb Abi + Uvr - (5), ColIb Abi - Uvr + (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr - (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  6. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  7. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    Functional strain is one of the important clinical indicators for the quantification of heart performance and the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and functional strain parameters are used to aid therapeutic decisions and follow-up evaluations after cardiac surgery. A comprehensive framework for deriving functional strain parameters at the endocardium, epicardium, and mid-wall of the left ventricle (LV) from conventional cine MRI data was developed and tested. Cine data were collected using short TR-/TE-balanced steady-state free precession acquisitions on a 1.5T Siemens Espree scanner. The LV wall borders are segmented using a level set-based deformable model guided by a stochastic force derived from a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field model that accounts for the object shape and appearance features. Then, the mid-wall of the segmented LV is determined based on estimating the centerline between the endocardium and epicardium of the LV. Finally, a geometrical Laplace-based method is proposed to track corresponding points on successive myocardial contours throughout the cardiac cycle in order to characterize the strain evolutions. The method was tested using simulated phantom images with predefined point locations of the LV wall throughout the cardiac cycle. The method was tested on 30 in vivo datasets to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework to index functional strain parameters. The cine MRI-based model agreed with the ground truth for functional metrics to within 0.30 % for indexing the peak systolic strain change and 0.29 % (per unit time) for indexing systolic and diastolic strain rates. The method was feasible for in vivo extraction of functional strain parameters. Strain indexes of the endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium can be derived from routine cine images using automated techniques, thereby improving the utility of cine MRI data for characterization of myocardial function. Unlike traditional texture-based tracking, the

  8. OSM-Classic : An optical imaging technique for accurately determining strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel R.; Ayranci, Cagri; Nobes, David S.

    OSM-Classic is a program designed in MATLAB® to provide a method of accurately determining strain in a test sample using an optical imaging technique. Measuring strain for the mechanical characterization of materials is most commonly performed with extensometers, LVDT (linear variable differential transistors), and strain gauges; however, these strain measurement methods suffer from their fragile nature and it is not particularly easy to attach these devices to the material for testing. To alleviate these potential problems, an optical approach that does not require contact with the specimen can be implemented to measure the strain. OSM-Classic is a software that interrogates a series of images to determine elongation in a test sample and hence, strain of the specimen. It was designed to provide a graphical user interface that includes image processing with a dynamic region of interest. Additionally, the stain is calculated directly while providing active feedback during the processing.

  9. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Ewalt, Darla R.; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  10. Urease Activity Represents an Alternative Pathway for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nitrogen Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenwei; Mathys, Vanessa; Ang, Emily Lei Yin; Koh, Vanessa Hui Qi; Martínez Gómez, Julia María; Ang, Michelle Lay Teng; Zainul Rahim, Siti Zarina; Tan, Mai Ping; Pethe, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Urease represents a critical virulence factor for some bacterial species through its alkalizing effect, which helps neutralize the acidic microenvironment of the pathogen. In addition, urease serves as a nitrogen source provider for bacterial growth. Pathogenic mycobacteria express a functional urease, but its role during infection has yet to be characterized. In this study, we constructed a urease-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and confirmed the alkalizing effect of the urease activity within the mycobacterium-containing vacuole in resting macrophages but not in the more acidic phagolysosomal compartment of activated macrophages. However, the urease-mediated alkalizing effect did not confer any growth advantage on M. tuberculosis in macrophages, as evidenced by comparable growth profiles for the mutant, wild-type (WT), and complemented strains. In contrast, the urease-deficient mutant exhibited impaired in vitro growth compared to the WT and complemented strains when urea was the sole source of nitrogen. Substantial amounts of ammonia were produced by the WT and complemented strains, but not with the urease-deficient mutant, which represents the actual nitrogen source for mycobacterial growth. However, the urease-deficient mutant displayed parental colonization profiles in the lungs, spleen, and liver in mice. Together, our data demonstrate a role for the urease activity in M. tuberculosis nitrogen metabolism that could be crucial for the pathogen's survival in nutrient-limited microenvironments where urea is the sole nitrogen source. Our work supports the notion that M. tuberculosis virulence correlates with its unique metabolic versatility and ability to utilize virtually any carbon and nitrogen sources available in its environment. PMID:22645285

  11. Effect of various Portland cement paste compositions on early-age strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Alana G.

    Early-age strain in paste, mortar, and concrete mixtures was investigated using a new method where the specimen shape was a cone frustum. Strain of the specimen from both the horizontal and vertical directions was captured by height change measurement. The volumetric strain was then calculated as a function of the height change and was plotted versus time. A correlation was found between the slopes of the volumetric strain curve resulting from this test method and the initial setting time of the tested material. An initial evaluation of the repeatability of this innovative test method was conducted. The early-age strain effects of aggregate volume, shrinkage reducing admixture, water-cementitious ratio (w/cm), and partial cement replacement with supplementary cementitious materials were tested and individually compared. From these comparisons, it was observed that ambient temperature, bleed water development, and rheological properties had a significant impact on the volumetric strain results. Data showed increased strain as aggregate volume was reduced and as the w/cm was changed from 0.25 up to 0.50. The addition of shrinkage reducing admixture generally caused an increase in the 36-hour volumetric strain value. In most of the mixtures, cement replacement with 20% fly ash or 10% metakaolin reduced the measured volumetric strain when the w/cm was 0.30. Replacement of cement with 10% silica fume caused an insignificant change in volumetric strain results.

  12. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target...... material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF...

  13. Effect of ratchet strain on fatigue and creep–fatigue strength of Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Isobe, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Koichi; Enuma, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uniaxial fatigue and creep–fatigue tests with superimposed strain were performed. ► Variety of superimposed strain were applied as ratchet strain in the tests. ► Effect of superimposed strain on fatigue and creep–fatigue life is negligible. ► A cyclic softening character reducing the effect of superimposed strain. - Abstract: The effect of ratcheting deformation on fatigue and creep–fatigue life in Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel was investigated. Uniaxial fatigue and creep–fatigue testing with superimposed strain were performed to evaluate the effect of ratcheting deformation on the failure cycle. In a series of tests, a specific amount of superimposed strain was accumulated in each cycle. The accumulated strain as ratcheting deformation, cycles to reach the accumulated strain, and test temperatures were varied in the tests. In the fatigue tests with superimposed strain at 550 °C, slight reductions of failure lives were observed. All of the numbers of cycles to failure in the fatigue tests with superimposed strain were within a factor of 1.5 of that of the fatigue test without superimposed strain at 550 °C. The apparent relationship between failure cycles and testing parameters was not observed. In fatigue tests with superimposed strain at 550 °C, maximum mean stress was insignificant and generated in early cycles because Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel exhibits cyclic softening characteristics. It was assumed that suppression of mean stress generation by cyclic softening reduces the effect of ratcheting strain. Conversely, failure lives were increased by accumulated strain in the test conducted at 450 °C because of stress–strain hysteresis loop shrinkage caused by cyclic softening induced by the accumulated strain. In the creep–fatigue tests with superimposed strain, test results indicated that the accumulated stain was negligible. It was concluded that the effect of ratcheting deformation on fatigue and creep–fatigue life is negligible as long

  14. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  15. A method for determining the critical strain for recrystallisation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, G.A. de; Pagnano, C.A.G.; Gouvea, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid method of determining the critical strain for recrystallisation is metals is described, the results having been verified in the case of rolled pure titanium sheet. Using experimentally checked hypotheses, the plastic strain in a tensile test piece of varying cross-section could be calculated. After straining, the test piece was annealed isothermically at various temperatures, thus showing the variation of grain size with strain [pt

  16. A procedure to generate input data of cyclic softening and hardening for FEM analysis from constant strain amplitude fatigue tests in LCF regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarajaervi, U.; Cronvall, O.

    2007-03-01

    Fatigue is produced by cyclic application of stresses by mechanical or thermal loading. The metal subjected to fluctuating stress will fail at stresses much lower than those required to cause fracture in a single application of load. The key parameters are the range of stress variation and the number of its occurrences. Low-cycle fatigue, usually induced by mechanical and thermal loads, is distinguished from high-cycle fatigue, mainly associated with vibration or high number of small thermal fluctuations. Numerical models describing fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless piping steels under cyclic loading and their applicability for modelling of low-cycle-fatigue are discussed in this report. In order to describe the cyclic behaviour of the material for analysis with finite element method (FEM) based analysis code ABAQUS, the test data, i.e. stress-strain curves, have to be processed. A code to process the data all through the test duration was developed within this study. A description of this code is given also in this report. Input data for ABAQUS was obtained to describe both kinematic and isotropic hardening properties. Further, by combining the result data for various strain amplitudes a mathematic expression was be created which allows defining a parameter surface for cyclic (i.e. isotropic) hardening. Input data for any strain amplitude within the range of minimum and maximum strain amplitudes of the test data can be assessed with the help of the developed 3D stress-strain surface presentation. The modelling of the fatigue induced initiation and growth of cracks was not considered in this study. On the other hand, a considerable part of the fatigue life of nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components is spent in the phase preceding the initiation and growth of cracks. (au)

  17. A procedure to generate input data of cyclic softening and hardening for FEM analysis from constant strain amplitude fatigue tests in LCF regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarajaervi, U.; Cronvall, O. [VTT (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Fatigue is produced by cyclic application of stresses by mechanical or thermal loading. The metal subjected to fluctuating stress will fail at stresses much lower than those required to cause fracture in a single application of load. The key parameters are the range of stress variation and the number of its occurrences. Low-cycle fatigue, usually induced by mechanical and thermal loads, is distinguished from high-cycle fatigue, mainly associated with vibration or high number of small thermal fluctuations. Numerical models describing fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless piping steels under cyclic loading and their applicability for modelling of low-cycle-fatigue are discussed in this report. In order to describe the cyclic behaviour of the material for analysis with finite element method (FEM) based analysis code ABAQUS, the test data, i.e. stress-strain curves, have to be processed. A code to process the data all through the test duration was developed within this study. A description of this code is given also in this report. Input data for ABAQUS was obtained to describe both kinematic and isotropic hardening properties. Further, by combining the result data for various strain amplitudes a mathematic expression was be created which allows defining a parameter surface for cyclic (i.e. isotropic) hardening. Input data for any strain amplitude within the range of minimum and maximum strain amplitudes of the test data can be assessed with the help of the developed 3D stress-strain surface presentation. The modelling of the fatigue induced initiation and growth of cracks was not considered in this study. On the other hand, a considerable part of the fatigue life of nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components is spent in the phase preceding the initiation and growth of cracks. (au)

  18. Effect of test temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of wrought GlidCop AL25 (ITER grade zero, IGO) solutionized and aged CuCrZr, and cold-worked and aged and solutionized and aged Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C at strain rates between 4 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} and 0.06 s{sup {minus}1}. The measured room temperature electrical conductivity ranged from 64 to 90% IACS for the different alloys. All of the alloys were relatively insensitive to strain rate at room temperature, but the strain rate sensitivity of GlidCop Al25 increased significantly with increasing temperature. The CuNiBe alloys exhibited the best combination of high strength and high conductivity at room temperature. The strength of CuNiBe decreased slowly with increasing temperature. However, the ductility of CuNiBe decreased rapidly with increasing temperature due to localized deformation near grain boundaries, making these alloy heats unsuitable for typical structural applications above 300{degrees}C. The strength and uniform elongation of GlidCop Al25 decreased significantly with increasing temperature at a strain rate of 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}, whereas the total elongation was independent of test temperature. The strength and ductility of CuCrZr decreased slowly with increasing temperature.

  19. The Evaluation of the Effect of Strain Limits on the Physical Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomers Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Cyclic Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Dave; Murphy, Niall; Ekins, Ray; Jerrams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetorheological Elastomers (MREs) are “smart” materials whose physical properties are altered by the application of magnetic fields. In a previous study by the authors [1], variations in the physical properties of MREs have been evaluated when subjected to a range of magnetic field strengths for both uniaxial and biaxial cyclic tests. By applying the same magnetic field to similar samples, this paper investigates the effect of both the upper strain limit and the strain amplitude on the pro...

  20. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  1. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, Jo?o; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

    2017-01-01

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes st...

  2. The Sensitivity of Endodontic Enterococcus spp. Strains to Geranium Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łysakowska, Monika E; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Banaszek, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2015-12-21

    Enterococci are able to survive endodontic procedures and contribute to the failure of endodontic therapy. Thus, it is essential to identify novel ways of eradicating them from infected root canals. One such approach may be the use of antimicrobials such as plant essential oils. Enterococcal strains were isolated from endodontically treated teeth by standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of geranium essential oil was investigated by microdilution in 96-well microplates in Mueller Hinton Broth II. Biofilm eradication concentrations were checked in dentin tests. Geranium essential oil inhibited enterococcal strains at concentrations ranging from 1.8-4.5 mg/mL. No correlation was shown between resistance to antibiotics and the MICs of the test antimicrobials. The MICs of the test oil were lower than those found to show cytotoxic effects on the HMEC-1 cell line. Geranium essential oil eradicated enterococcal biofilm at concentrations of 150 mg/mL. Geranium essential oil inhibits the growth of endodontic enterococcal species at lower concentrations than those required to reach IC50 against the HMEC-1 cell line, and is effective against bacteria protected in biofilm at higher concentrations. In addition, bacteria do not develop resistance to essential oils. Hence, geranium essential oil represents a possible alternative to other antimicrobials during endodontic procedures.

  3. Intuitive intellectual property law: A nationally-representative test of the plagiarism fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2017-01-01

    Studies with convenience samples have suggested that the lay public's conception of intellectual property laws, including how the laws should regulate and why they should exist, are largely incommensurate with the actual intended purpose of intellectual property laws and their history in the United States. In this paper, we test whether these findings generalize to a more diverse and representative sample. The major findings from past work were replicated in the current study. When presented with several potential reasons for IP protection, the lay public endorsed plagiarism and felt that acknowledging the original source of a creative work should make copying that work permissible-viewpoints strongly divergent from lawmakers' intent and the law itself. In addition, we replicate the finding that lay people know remarkably little about intellectual property laws more generally and report little experience as users or creators of creative works.

  4. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  5. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  6. Modulation of virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains by Enterococcus faecium probiotic strain culture fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, Lia-Mara; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Voltsi, Chrysa; Bleotu, Coralia; Pelinescu, Diana; Mihaescu, Grigore; Lazar, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance drastically reduced the efficiency of conventional antibiotics and led to the reconsideration of the interspecies interactions in influencing bacterial virulence and response to therapy. The aim of the study was the investigation of the influence of the soluble and cellular fractions of Enterococcus (E.) faecium CMGB16 probiotic culture on the virulence and antibiotic resistance markers expression in clinical enteropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli strains. The 7 clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains, one standard E. coli ATCC 25,922 and one Bacillus (B.) cereus strains were cultivated in nutrient broth, aerobically at 37 °C, for 24 h. The E. faecium CMGB16 probiotic strain was cultivated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C in MRS (Man Rogosa Sharpe) broth, and co-cultivated with two pathogenic strains (B. cereus and E. coli O28) culture fractions (supernatant, washed sediment and heat-inactivated culture) for 6 h, at 37 °C. After co-cultivation, the soluble and cellular fractions of the probiotic strain cultivated in the presence of two pathogenic strains were separated by centrifugation (6000 rpm, 10 min), heat-inactivated (15 min, 100 °C) and co-cultivated with the clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains in McConkey broth, for 24 h, at 37 °C, in order to investigate the influence of the probiotic fractions on the adherence capacity and antibiotic susceptibility. All tested probiotic combinations influenced the adherence pattern of E. coli tested strains. The enteropathogenic E. coli strains susceptibility to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and quinolones was increased by all probiotic combinations and decreased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study demonstrates that the plurifactorial anti-infective action of probiotics is also due to the modulation of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility expression in E. coli pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two New Quadrilateral Elements Based on Strain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaiee-Pajand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two new quadrilateral elements are formulated to solve plane problems. Low sensitivity to geometric distortion, no parasitic shear error, rotational invariance, and satisfying the Felippa pure bending test are characteristics of these suggested elements. One proposed element is formulated by establishing equilibrium equations for the second-order strain field. The other suggested element is obtained by establishing equilibrium equations only for the linear part of the strain field. The number of the strain states decreases when the conditions among strain states are satisfied. Several numerical tests are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed elements. Famous elements, which were suggested by other researchers, are used as a means of comparison. It is shown that these novel elements pass the strong patch tests, even for extremely poor meshes, and one of them has an excellent accuracy and fast convergence in other complicated problems.

  8. Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle McCabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.

  9. Effectiveness and competing capacity of native Rhizobium strains evaluated in IX Region soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos D, Leticia; Mendez A, Edith; Pino N, Ines

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes reaches its optimum when the host plants are nodulated by highly competitive and effective Rhizobium strains. With the purpose of assessing competition and nitrogen fixing capacity of native Rhizobium leguminosarum bio-var trifolii strains, a greenhouse test was carried out using white clover (Trifolium re-pens) and four kinds of soils, which represent the main agroecological areas of the IX Region. Eleven strains were evaluated, they were both native and collected and were streptomycin sulphate antibiotic resistant. A nitrogen and a nitrogen-less without inoculation testers were used as controls. All pots received a solution of ammonium sulphate marked with 10% 15 N a.e, equivalent to 10 kg ha -1 of N. Rye-grass was used as reference crop, cv. Nu-i. In general, the evaluated strains were very efficient. After three or four cuts they became the only source of nitrogen for the plants. They were also very competitive, getting to over 70% of root infection with regard to those present in soils. In Curacautin and Tolten soils, biological nitrogen fixation begins later than other soils evaluated, which is coincident with soils having a higher nitrogen content. Symbiosis occurs when the soil nitrogen content exhausts or diminishes. (author)

  10. Application of fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Y.; Matsui, Y.; Kita, S.; Ide, H.; Tsukada, T.; Tsuji, H.

    2001-01-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developed using Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In order to evaluate the performance of fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, heat-up and performance tests at elevated temperature before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed in JMTR. (author)

  11. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  12. Occurrence of mannose resistant hemagglutinins in Escherichia coli strains isolated from porcine colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M; Osek, J

    1987-01-01

    Three-hundred and fifty-eight E. coli strains isolated from piglets were tested for the presence of hemagglutinins by the use of the active hemagglutination test with or without mannose. Additionally 86 strains from the mentioned number of strains were investigated for the presence of common fimbriae using the same method but growing the strains in media especially suited for the development of this kind of fimbriae. These 358 strains and additionally 202 E. coli strains were tested using antisera for 987P and K88 antigens. It was found, using the active hemagglutination test, that 51.4% of the strains were hemagglutinating. The hemagglutinating strains carried the K88 antigen. All these strains were isolated from new-born and weaned piglets with enterotoxic form of colibacillosis, called also E. coli diarrhea. From cases of this form of colibacillosis originated also 26.7% of the strains in which common fimbriae (type 1) were detected. This result was obtained when the BHI medium was used for cultivation. In case of TSA medium only 2.3% of strains were positive. No specific or common fimbriae were found in strains recovered from septic form of colibacillosis and oedema disease (called also enterotoxaemic form of colibacillosis). No strain of 560 examined showed the presence of fimbrial 987P antigen.

  13. Analysis of stress-strain behavior in Bi2223 composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M.; Osamura, K.; Nyilas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile test was carried out for Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy composite tapes at RT, 77 and 7 K. Two yielding points are observed in the stress-strain curves. From the stress-strain behavior of the components and critical current (I c ) as a function of tensile strain, it was found that the microscopic reason for these yieldings is attributed to yielding of Ag alloy and fracture of Bi2223, respectively. The strain at the second yielding has temperature dependence and it becomes larger with decreasing measured temperature. From the thermo-mechanical analysis, it can be explained by temperature dependence of compressive residual strain of Bi2223. Reversible recovery of I c was found during loading-unloading test. The relationship between the reversible strain limit and the intrinsic strain of Bi2223 was discussed

  14. Use of abrupt strain path change for determining subsequent yield surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuwabara, T.; Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    . In a biaxial tensile testing apparatus, a cruciform specimen is used, with the strains measured by a biaxial-strain gauge. Then, with the hydraulic pressure of two sets of opposing hydraulic cylinders servo-controlled independently, the testing apparatus can be used to prescribe an abrupt change of the strain...

  15. Detection and quantification of creep strain using process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) sorting modules trained with modeled resonance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Julieanne; Biedermann, Eric; Mayes, Alexander; Livings, Richard; Jauriqui, Leanne; Goodlet, Brent; Aldrin, John C.; Mazdiyasni, Siamack

    2018-04-01

    Process Compensated Resonant Testing (PCRT) is a full-body nondestructive testing (NDT) method that measures the resonance frequencies of a part and correlates them to the part's material and/or damage state. PCRT testing is used in the automotive, aerospace, and power generation industries via automated PASS/FAIL inspections to distinguish parts with nominal process variation from those with the defect(s) of interest. Traditional PCRT tests are created through the statistical analysis of populations of "good" and "bad" parts. However, gathering a statistically significant number of parts can be costly and time-consuming, and the availability of defective parts may be limited. This work uses virtual databases of good and bad parts to create two targeted PCRT inspections for single crystal (SX) nickel-based superalloy turbine blades. Using finite element (FE) models, populations were modeled to include variations in geometric dimensions, material properties, crystallographic orientation, and creep damage. Model results were verified by comparing the frequency variation in the modeled populations with the measured frequency variations of several physical blade populations. Additionally, creep modeling results were verified through the experimental evaluation of coupon geometries. A virtual database of resonance spectra was created from the model data. The virtual database was used to create PCRT inspections to detect crystallographic defects and creep strain. Quantification of creep strain values using the PCRT inspection results was also demonstrated.

  16. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  17. Evaluation of the automated system Vitek2 for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brazilian Gram-positive cocci strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves d'Azevedo

    Full Text Available Automated instruments offer many advantages for clinical laboratories. Nevertheless, they can have problems identifying and determining susceptibilities of some pathogens. Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux is an automated system that was recently introduced to Brazil. We evaluated the performance of this equipment for Brazilian isolates that had been characterized using reference identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Ninety-nine strains of Gram-positive cocci from a local reference center collection were analyzed, consisting of 50 coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (CoNS and 49 Enterococcus and related species. Vitek® 2 correctly identified 79.8% (79/99 of the isolates. Oxacillin resistance was detected in 76% (19/25 of resistant S. epidermidis strains and in 88% (22/25 of other resistant CoNS species strains. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 100% (20/20 of resistant Enterococcus and related species strains. Vitek® 2 performed very well for the identification of S. epidermidis and non-epidermidis staphylococci, and for the detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus and related species. However, the system needs improvement in order to provide reliable results for the characterization of some CoNS species, identification of Enterococcus and related species and for detecting oxacillin resistance in CoNS.

  18. Preliminary data on antibacterial activity of Echinacea purpurea-associated bacterial communities against Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, opportunistic pathogens of Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Maggini, Valentina; Bosi, Emanuele; Mocali, Stefano; Emiliani, Giovanni; Perrin, Elena; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-03-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (Bcc) represent a serious threat for immune-compromised patient affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) since they are resistant to many substances and to most antibiotics. For this reason, the research of new natural compounds able to inhibit the growth of Bcc strains has raised new interest during the last years. A source of such natural compounds is represented by medicinal plants and, in particular, by bacterial communities associated with these plants able to produce molecules with antimicrobial activity. In this work, a panel of 151 (endophytic) bacteria isolated from three different compartments (rhizospheric soil, roots, and stem/leaves) of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea were tested (using the cross-streak method) for their ability to inhibit the growth of 10 Bcc strains. Data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from the roots of E. purpurea are the most active in the inhibition of Bcc strains, followed by bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric soil, and endophytes from stem/leaf compartment. At the same time, Bcc strains of environmental origin showed a higher resistance toward inhibition than the Bcc strains with clinical (i.e. CF patients) origin. Differences in the inhibition activity of E. purpurea-associated bacteria are mainly linked to the environment -the plant compartment- rather than to their taxonomical position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  20. Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity of different types of honey tested on strains isolated from hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junie Lia M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of the study was to compare the antibacterial activity of several types of honey of different origins, against some bacterial resistant strains. The strains had been isolated from patients. The second aim was to discover the correlations between the antibacterial character of honey and the physico-chemical properties of the honey. Ten honey samples (polyfloral, linden, acacia, manna, and sunflower from the centre of Romania were tested to determine their antibacterial properties against the following bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial cultures in nutrient broth and the culture medium Mueller-Hinton agar were used. The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed using the disk diffusion method. All honey samples showed antibacterial activity on the isolated bacterial strains, in particular polyfloral (inhibition zone 13-21 mm in diameter - because it is the source of several plants, and manna (inhibition zone 13-19.5 mm in diameter, and sunflower (inhibition zone 14-18.5 mm in diameter. Pure honey has a significant antibacterial activity against some bacteria which are resistant to antibiotics. Bacterial strains differed in their sensitivity to honeys. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive. The present study revealed that honey antibacterial activity depends on the origin of the honey. We also found that there was a significant correlation between antibacterial activity of honeys and the colour of the honey but not between acidity and pH. The statistical analysis showed that the honey type influences the antibacterial activity (diameter of the bacterial strains inhibition zones.

  1. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Zingales

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape.

  2. What is behind the plastic strain rate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Grmela, M.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The plastic strain rate plays a central role in macroscopic models on elasto-viscoplasticity. In order to discuss the concept behind this quantity, we propose, first, a kinetic toy model to describe the dynamics of sliding layers representative of plastic deformation of single crystalline metals.

  3. Towards Intelligent Interpretation of Low Strain Pile Integrity Testing Results Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, De-Mi; Yan, Weizhong; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Lu, Lie-Min

    2017-10-25

    Low strain pile integrity testing (LSPIT), due to its simplicity and low cost, is one of the most popular NDE methods used in pile foundation construction. While performing LSPIT in the field is generally quite simple and quick, determining the integrity of the test piles by analyzing and interpreting the test signals (reflectograms) is still a manual process performed by experienced experts only. For foundation construction sites where the number of piles to be tested is large, it may take days before the expert can complete interpreting all of the piles and delivering the integrity assessment report. Techniques that can automate test signal interpretation, thus shortening the LSPIT's turnaround time, are of great business value and are in great need. Motivated by this need, in this paper, we develop a computer-aided reflectogram interpretation (CARI) methodology that can interpret a large number of LSPIT signals quickly and consistently. The methodology, built on advanced signal processing and machine learning technologies, can be used to assist the experts in performing both qualitative and quantitative interpretation of LSPIT signals. Specifically, the methodology can ease experts' interpretation burden by screening all test piles quickly and identifying a small number of suspected piles for experts to perform manual, in-depth interpretation. We demonstrate the methodology's effectiveness using the LSPIT signals collected from a number of real-world pile construction sites. The proposed methodology can potentially enhance LSPIT and make it even more efficient and effective in quality control of deep foundation construction.

  4. Stress analysis of HLW containers advanced test work Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. This document describes the activities performed between June and August 1989 forming the advanced test work phase of this project. This is the culmination of two years' analysis and test work to demonstrate whether the analytical ability exists to model containers subjected to realistic loads. Three mild steel containers were designed and manufactured to be one-third scale models of a realistic HLW container, modified to represent the effect of anisotropic loading and to facilitate testing. The containers were tested under a uniform external pressure and all failed by buckling in the mid-body region. The outer surface of each container was comprehensively strain-gauged to provide strain history data at all positions of interest. In parallel with the test work, Compas project partners, from five different European countries, independently modelled the behaviour of each of the containers using their computer codes to predict the failure pressure and produce strain history data at a number of specified locations. The first axisymmetric container was well modelled but predictions for the remaining two non-axisymmetric containers were much more varied, with differences of up to 50% occurring between failure predictions and test data

  5. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  6. The JRC Nanomaterials Repository: A unique facility providing representative test materials for nanoEHS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Sara; Cotogno, Giulio; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Pianella, Francesca; Roncaglia, Marco; Olsson, Heidi; Riego Sintes, Juan M; Crutzen, Hugues P

    2016-11-01

    The European Commission has established a Nanomaterials Repository that hosts industrially manufactured nanomaterials that are distributed world-wide for safety testing of nanomaterials. In a first instance these materials were tested in the OECD Testing Programme. They have then also been tested in several EU funded research projects. The JRC Repository of Nanomaterials has thus developed into serving the global scientific community active in the nanoEHS (regulatory) research. The unique Repository facility is a state-of-the-art installation that allows customised sub-sampling under the safest possible conditions, with traceable final sample vials distributed world-wide for research purposes. This paper describes the design of the Repository to perform a semi-automated subsampling procedure, offering high degree of flexibility and precision in the preparation of NM vials for customers, while guaranteeing the safety of the operators, and environmental protection. The JRC nanomaterials are representative for part of the world NMs market. Their wide use world-wide facilitates the generation of comparable and reliable experimental results and datasets in (regulatory) research by the scientific community, ultimately supporting the further development of the OECD regulatory test guidelines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity of the polypropylene to the strain rate: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Latif, A.; Aboura, Z.; Mosleh, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text.The main goal of this work is first to evaluate experimentally the strain rate dependent deformation of the polypropylene under tensile load; and secondly is to propose a model capable to appropriately describe the mechanical behavior of this material and especially its sensitivity to the strain rate. Several experimental tensile tests are performed at different quasi-static strain rates in the range of 10 -5 s -1 to 10 -1 s -1 . In addition to some relaxation tests are also conducted introducing the strain rate jumping state during testing. Within the framework of elastoviscoplasticity, a phenomenological model is developed for describing the non-linear mechanical behavior of the material under uniaxial loading paths. With the small strain assumption, the sensitivity of the polypropylene to the strain rate being of particular interest in this work, is accordingly taken into account. As a matter of fact, since this model is based on internal state variables, we assume thus that the material sensitivity to the strain rate is governed by the kinematic hardening variable notably its modulus and the accumulated viscoplastic strain. As far as the elastic behavior is concerned, it is noticed that such a behavior is slightly influenced by the employed strain rate rage. For this reason, the elastic behavior is classically determined, i.e. without coupling with the strain rate dependent deformation. It is obvious that the inelastic behavior of the used material is thoroughly dictated by the applied strain rate. Hence, the model parameters are well calibrated utilizing several experimental databases for different strain rates (10 -5 s -1 to 10 -1 s -1 ). Actually, among these experimental results, some experiments related to the relaxation phenomenon and strain rate jumping during testing (increasing or decreasing) are also used in order to more perfect the model parameters identification. To validate the calibrated model parameters, simulation tests are achieved

  8. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces ( S .) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens ) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies , and Streptomyces flavofuscus ), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus , and Streptomyces ambofaciens . Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers ( S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and β-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and β-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial β-gucosidase and

  9. Characterization of the failure in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under plane strain compression using full field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Failure by strain localization is commonly observed in geo-materials. Cracks are detected in Underground Research Laboratories (URL) on the walls of galleries (e.g., Andra in Meuse/Haute Marne laboratory, SCK-CEN in Mol), they have been induced by the stress relaxation that results from the excavation. The cracks represent material discontinuities which could impact the flow properties of the rock mass in some circumstances. Generally, experimental characterization of the localization in rocks is performed with classical axisymmetric triaxial compression tests. The effect of the confining pressure can be observed on several aspects: onset of localization, pattern of localization, porosity evolution inside bands or cracks aperture, grain scale mechanisms of deformation (e.g., [1]). However the history (time evolution) of the localization is not accessible because the observations are post-mortem. Strain field measurement and evolution in time of the strain field are particularly useful to study the strain localization (initiation of the deformation bands) and the post-localization regime. Such tools have been developed for soils (e.g., sand specimens in plane strain condition [2] or in triaxial conditions using X-ray tomography [3]). Similar developments for rocks are still difficult, especially because the pertinent confining pressure to reproduce in situ stresses are higher than for soils. We present here first results obtained in a new true triaxial apparatus that allows observation of the rock specimen under loading and especially the complex development of deformation bands and faults. As for [4] and [5], the three principal stresses are different. However, for selected tests discussed here, the intermediate stress is controlled in order to impose a plane strain condition (zero strain in this direction). Observation of a specimen under load is possible as one surface of the prismatic specimen, which is

  10. Biological assay of attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S

    1984-11-01

    Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.

  11. Model techniques for testing heated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described which may be used in the laboratory to measure strains of model concrete structures representing to scale actual structures of any shape or geometry, operating at elevated temperatures, for which time-dependent creep and shrinkage strains are dominant. These strains could be used to assess the distribution of stress in the scaled structure and hence to predict the actual behaviour of concrete structures used in nuclear power stations. Similar techniques have been employed in an investigation to measure elastic, thermal, creep and shrinkage strains in heated concrete models representing to scale parts of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactors. (author)

  12. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  13. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from winemaking environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências The principal aim of the present work is to assess the genetic diversity of fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains found in vineyards belonging to the Vinho Verde Region in order to create a strain collection representing the region’s biodiversity wealth as a basis for future strain selection and improvement programs. Validation of molecular techniques for accurate genotyping is an indispensable prerequisite for biogeographical surveys. Molecular ty...

  14. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  15. The Viability of the Lactobacillus Rhamnosus IL4.2 Strain in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability maintenance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IL4.2 strain in gastrointestinal conditions represents one of the most important characteristics regarding its use for obtaining probiotic products. The tests were performed with a cell suspension kept in 0.5% NaCl. The influence of pepsin (3 g/l at pH of 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3, as well as of pancreatin (1 g/l in the presence of bile salts (1.5, 2, 3 and 5 mg/ml were determined. The influence of casein and mucin, in a concentration of 1 g/l, was also established in the aforementioned conditions. It was observed that mucin presented a longer viability maintenance, fact also confirmed by the calculation of the mathematical parameters of viability and mortality, when mucin was either used or not, especially in the case of gastric transit. The results proved that the tested strain maintained its viability even at pH between 1.8 - 2 and at an even higher concentration, of 2 mg/ml of bile salts, but up to two hours as of the exposure to the conditions of the simulated small intestinal juice. Such results were also confirmed by the cumulated effect of the simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, the strain thus increasing its viability with an average of 10% in the presence of mucin.

  16. Pharmacodynamic modelling of in vitro activity of tetracycline against a representative, naturally occurring population of porcine Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    of Escherichia coli representative of those found in the Danish pig population, we compared the growth of 50 randomly selected strains. The observed net growth rates were used to describe the in vitro pharmacodynamic relationship between drug concentration and net growth rate based on E max model with three...... concentrations, and this decline was greater in susceptible strains than resistant strains. The lag phase, defined as the time needed for the strain to reach an OD600 value of 0.01, increased exponentially with increasing tetracycline concentration. The pharmacodynamic parameters confirmed that the [Formula: see...

  17. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  18. Economic Crisis and Marital Problems in Turkey: Testing the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Isik A.; Rankin, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applied the family stress model to the case of Turkey in the wake of the 2001 economic crisis. Using structural equation modeling and a nationally representative urban sample of 711 married women and 490 married men, we tested whether economic hardship and the associated family economic strain on families resulted in greater marital…

  19. Necking of anisotropic micro-films with strain-gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2008-01-01

    Necking of stubby micro-films of aluminum is investigated numerically by considering tension of a specimen with an initial imperfection used to onset localisation. Plastic anisotropy is represented by two different yield criteria and strain-gradient effects are accounted for using the visco......-plastic finite strain model. Furthermore, the model is extended to isotropic anisotropic hardening (evolving anisotropy). For isotropic hardening plastic anisotropy affects the predicted overall nominal stress level, while the peak stress remains at an overall logarithmic strain corresponding to the hardening...... exponent. This holds true for both local and nonlocal materials. Anisotropic hardening delays the point of maximum overall nominal stress....

  20. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  1. Breeding study of hyper citric acid strain by progressive heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihong; Hu Wei; Li Wenjian; Liu Jing; Wang Shuyang; Wei Zihao

    2013-01-01

    Heavy "1"2C"6"+ ion beams in various high doses were employed to irradiate H3001 strain for screening Aspergillus niger strain for hyper citric acid production. Three high-yield strains were obtained after shaker fermentation test. Among the three strains, the strain hw317 was implemented shaker fermentation for stability test and 10∼100 L pilot fermentation tank for citric acid productive maximization. Acid-base neutralization method was applied to determinate the content of citric acid in fermented liquid. The results showed that: when the secondary heavy ion "1"2C"6"+ dose was 857.8 Gy, both of the fatality rate (94.5%) and the positive mutation rate (8%) were highest. Through the shaker fermentation tests and 10∼100 L pilot fermentation test, one strain hw317 was screened and obtained for hyper citric acid production. Consequently, the final citric acid acidity can reach up to 19.2±0.2% with controlling fermentation cycle for 60 h. (authors)

  2. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  3. Clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A represent two phylogenetic lineages with differing pathogenicity-related properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihvonen Leila M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for ystA and ystB, lipopolysaccharide analysis, phage typing, human serum complement killing assay and analysis of the symptoms of the patients to characterize 298 clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates in order to evaluate their relatedness and pathogenic potential. Results A subset of 71 BT 1A strains, selected based on their varying LPS patterns, were subjected to detailed genetic analyses. The MLST on seven house-keeping genes (adk, argA, aroA, glnA, gyrB, thrA, trpE conducted on 43 of the strains discriminated them into 39 MLST-types. By Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS the strains clustered conclusively into two distinct lineages, i.e. Genetic groups 1 and 2. The strains of Genetic group 1 were more closely related (97% similarity to the pathogenic bio/serotype 4/O:3 strains than Genetic group 2 strains (95% similarity. Further comparison of the 16S rRNA genes of the BT 1A strains indicated that altogether 17 of the 71 strains belong to Genetic group 2. On the 16S rRNA analysis, these 17 strains were only 98% similar to the previously identified subspecies of Y. enterocolitica. The strains of Genetic group 2 were uniform in their pathogenecity-related properties: they lacked the ystB gene, belonged to the same LPS subtype or were of rough type, were all resistant to the five tested yersiniophages, were largely resistant to serum complement and did not ferment fucose. The 54 strains in Genetic group 1 showed much more variation in these properties. The most commonly detected LPS types were similar to the LPS types of reference strains with serotypes O

  4. Sensitivity Enhancement of FBG-Based Strain Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiya; Chen, Yiyang; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude; Li, Tianliang; Mao, Jian

    2018-05-17

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based strain sensor with a high-sensitivity is presented in this paper. The proposed FBG-based strain sensor enhances sensitivity by pasting the FBG on a substrate with a lever structure. This typical mechanical configuration mechanically amplifies the strain of the FBG to enhance overall sensitivity. As this mechanical configuration has a high stiffness, the proposed sensor can achieve a high resonant frequency and a wide dynamic working range. The sensing principle is presented, and the corresponding theoretical model is derived and validated. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed FBG-based strain sensor achieves an enhanced strain sensitivity of 6.2 pm/με, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis result. The strain sensitivity of the developed sensor is 5.2 times of the strain sensitivity of a bare fiber Bragg grating strain sensor. The dynamic characteristics of this sensor are investigated through the finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests. The developed sensor exhibits an excellent strain-sensitivity-enhancing property in a wide frequency range. The proposed high-sensitivity FBG-based strain sensor can be used for small-amplitude micro-strain measurement in harsh industrial environments.

  5. Gender and General Strain Theory: A Comparison of Strains, Mediating, and Moderating Effects Explaining Three Types of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry

    2017-01-01

    The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…

  6. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  7. Strain ageing in welds of nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterberg, R.; Karlsson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Static and dynamic strain ageing have been investigated on submerged-arc welds and repair welds from plates of the pressure vessel steel A 533B. The results permit the determination of the worst strain ageing conditions existing in a nuclear pressure vessel. Static strain ageing was investigated by means of data from tension tests, hardness measurements and Charpy-V impact properties for prestrained and aged material for ageing temperatures from room temperature to 350 deg C and ageing times up to 1000h. Dynamic strain ageing was investigated by tensile tests up to 350 deg C at different strain rates. At the most static strain ageing was found to increase the impact transition temperature from -75 deg C in the as-received condition to -55 deg C after prestraining and ageing for the plate material, from -35 to -10 deg C for the submerged arc weld and from -90 to -40 deg C for the repair weld. Approximately 10 deg C of the deleterious effect is due to the effect of ageing for the two former materials whereas the corresponding figure for the repair weld amounts to 35 deg C. The dynamic strain ageing is strongest at very low strain rates at temperatures just below 300 deg C. The effect of strain ageing can be reduced by stress relief heat treatment or by other means decreasing the content of nitrogen in solution. (author)

  8. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.

  9. Effect of plastic strain on elastic-plastic fracture toughness of SM490 carbon steel. Assessment by stress-based criterion for ductile crack initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Although the plastic strain induced in materials increases the mechanical strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness. In this study, the change in fracture toughness of SM490 carbon steel due to pre-straining was investigated using a stress-based criterion for ductile crack initiation. The specimens with blunt notch of various radiuses were used in addition to those with conventional fatigue pre-cracking. The degree of applied plastic strain was 5%, 10% or 20%. The fracture toughness was largest when the induced plastic strain was 5%, although it decreased for the plastic strains of 10% and 20%. The stress and strain distributions near the crack tip of fracture toughness test specimens was investigated by elastic-plastic finite element analyses using a well-correlated stress-strain curve for large strain. It was shown that the critical condition at the onset of the ductile crack was better correlated with the equivalent stress than the plastic strain at the crack tip. By using the stress-based criterion, which was represented by the equivalent stress and stress triaxiality, the change in the fracture toughness due to pre-straining could be reasonably explained. Based on these results, it was concluded that the stress-based criterion should be used for predicting the ductile crack initiation. (author)

  10. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; S. D. Snow

    2005-01-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates (10 to 200 per second) during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these materials under dynamic (impact) loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. The goal of the work presented in this paper was to improve understanding of moderate strain rate phenomena on these materials. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and relatively large test specimens (1/2-inch thick), initial test efforts focused on the tensile behavior of specific stainless steel materials during impact loading. Impact tests of 304L and 316L stainless steel test specimens at two different strain rates, 25 per second (304L and 316L material) and 50 per second (304L material) were performed for comparison to their quasi-static tensile test properties. Elevated strain rate stress-strain curves for the two materials were determined using the impact test machine and a ''total impact energy'' approach. This approach considered the deformation energy required to strain the specimens at a given strain rate. The material data developed was then utilized in analytical simulations to validate the final elevated stress-strain curves. The procedures used during testing and the results obtained are described in this paper

  11. A multiple antibiotic and serum resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae MB45 having novel dfrA30, is sensitive to ZnO QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Pinak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene cassette, designated dfrA30, within a class 1 integron in a facultatively oligotrophic, multiple antibiotic and human serum resistant test strain, MB45, in a population of oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the river Mahananda; and to test the efficiency of surface bound acetate on zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs as bactericidal agent on MB45. Methods Diluted Luria broth/Agar (10-3 media was used to cultivate the oligotrophic bacteria from water sample. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were selected by employing replica plate method. A rapid assay was performed to determine the sensitivity/resistance of the test strain to human serum. Variable region of class 1 integron was cloned, sequenced and the expression of gene coding for antibiotic resistance was done in Escherichia coli JM 109. Identity of culture was determined by biochemical phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on representative trimethoprim resistance-mediating DfrA proteins retrieved from GenBank. Growth kinetic studies for the strain MB45 were performed in presence of varied concentrations of ZnO QDs. Results and conclusions The facultatively oligotrophic strain, MB45, resistant to human serum and ten antibiotics trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, kanamycin and streptomycin, has been identified as a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A novel dfr gene, designated as dfrA30, found integrated in class 1 integron was responsible for resistance to trimethoprim in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MB45. The growth of wild strain MB45 was 100% arrested at 500 mg/L concentration of ZnO QDs. To our knowledge this is the first report on application of ZnO quantum dots to kill multiple antibiotics and serum resistant K. pneumoniae strain.

  12. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jason W; Simpson, Joshua B; Roach, Jeffrey; Kwintkiewicz, Jakub; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains ( L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001) at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress) showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene ( bsh ) revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143), while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  13. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010 of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains (L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001 at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143, while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  14. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorwade, C V; Ashcroft, I A; Silberschmidt, V V; Alghamdi, A S; Song, M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  15. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwade, C. V.; Alghamdi, A. S.; Ashcroft, I. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.; Song, M.

    2012-08-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  16. Fatigue Life of Stainless Steel in PWR Environments with Strain Holding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taesoon; Kim, Kyuhyung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myeonggyu; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many components and structures of nuclear power plants are exposed to the water chemistry conditions during the operation. Recently, as design life of nuclear power plant is expanded over 60 years, the environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) due to these water chemistry conditions has been considered as one of the important damage mechanisms of the safety class 1 components. Therefore, many studies to evaluate the effect of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments on fatigue life of materials have been conducted. Many EAF test results including Argonne National Laboratory’s consistently indicated the substantial reduction of fatigue life in the light water reactor environments. However, there is a discrepancy between laboratory test data and plant operating experience regarding the effects of environment on fatigue: while laboratory test data suggest huge accumulation of fatigue damage, very limited experience of cracking caused by the low cycle fatigue in light water reactor. These hold-time effect tests are preformed to characterize the effects of strain holding on the fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels in PWR environments in comparison with the existing fixed strain rate results. Low cycle fatigue life tests were conducted for the type 316 stainless steel in 310℃ air and PWR environments with triangular strain. In agreement with the previous reports, the LCF life was reduced in PWR environments. Also for the slower strain rate, the reduction of LCF life was greater than the faster strain rate. The LCF test conditions for the hold-time effects were determined by the references and consideration of actual plant transient. To simulate the heat-up and cooldown transient, sub-peak strain holding during the down-hill of strain amplitude was chosen instead of peak strain holding which used in the previous researches.

  17. An In-situ method for the study of strain broadening usingsynchrotronx-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu C.; Lynch, Peter A.; Cheary, Robert W.; Clark, Simon M.

    2006-12-15

    A tensonometer for stretching metal foils has beenconstructed for the study of strain broadening in x-ray diffraction lineprofiles. This device, which is designed for use on the powderdiffractometer in Station 2.3 at Daresbury Laboratory, allows in-situmeasurements to be performed on samples under stress. It can be used fordata collection in either transmission or reflection modes using eithersymmetric or asymmetric diffraction geometries. As a test case,measurements were carried out on a 18mum thick copper foil experiencingstrain levels of up to 5 percent using both symmetric reflection andsymmetric transmission diffraction. All the diffraction profilesdisplayed peak broadening and asymmetry which increased with strain. Themeasured profiles were analysed by the fundamental parameters approachusing the TOPAS peak fitting software. All the observed broadenedprofiles were modelled by convoluting a refineable diffraction profile,representing the dislocation and crystallite size broadening, with afixed instrumental profile pre-determined usinghigh quality LaB6reference powder. The de-convolution process yielded "pure" sampleintegral breadths and asymmetry results which displayed a strongdependence on applied strain and increased almost linearly with appliedstrain. Assuming crystallite size broadening in combination withdislocation broadening arising from fcc a/2<110>111 dislocations,we have extracted the variation of mechanic al property with strain. Theobservation of both peak asymmetry and broadening has been interpreted asa manifestation of a cellular structure with cell walls and cellinteriors possessing high and low dislocation densities.

  18. Resistance gene pool to co-trimoxazole in non-susceptible Nocardia strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eValdezate

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Nocardia spp. causes severe cutaneous, pulmonary and central nervous system infections. Against them, co-trimoxazole (SXT constitutes the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy. However, some Nocardia strains show resistance to SXT, but the underlying genetic basis is unknown. We investigated the presence of genetic resistance determinants and class 1-3 integrons in 76 SXT-resistant Nocardia strains by PCR and sequencing. By E-test, these clinical strains showed SXT MICs of ≥32:608 mg/L (ratio of 1:19 for trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole. They belonged to 12 species, being the main representatives N. farcinica (32%, followed by N. flavorosea (6.5%, N. nova (11.8%, N. carnea (10.5%, N. transvalensis (10.5% and Nocardia spp. (6.5%. The prevalence of resistance genes in the SXT-resistant strains was as follows: sul1 and sul2 93.4% and 78.9% respectively, dfrA(S1 14.7%, blaTEM-1 and blaZ 2.6% and 2.6% respectively, VIM-2 1.3%, aph(3´-IIIa 40.8%, ermA, ermB, mefA and msrD 2.6%, 77.6%, 14.4%, and 5.2% respectively, and tet(O, tet(M, and tet(L 48.6%, 25.0% and 3.9% respectively. Detected amino acid changes in GyrA were not related to fluoroquinolone resistance, but probably linked to species polymorphism. Class 1 and 3 integrons were found in 93.42% and 56.57% strains, respectively. Class 2 integrons and sul3 genes were not detected. Other mechanisms, different than dfrA(S1, dfrD, dfrF, dfrG and dfrK, could explain the strong trimethoprim resistance shown by the other 64 strains. For first time, resistance determinants commonly found in clinically important bacteria were detected in Nocardia spp. sul1, sul2, erm(B and tet(O were the most prevalent in the SXT-resistant strains. The similarity in their resistome could be due to a common genetic platform, in which these determinants are co-transferred

  19. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria...... of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates...... as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10...

  20. The Genotype MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 test as a quick indicator of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nisticò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a global emergency and a major public health problem, in some cases related to the appearance of strains of multi drug resistance (MDR and extensive drug resistance (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.The correct determination of antibiotic sensitivity profiles is therefore crucial to carry out appropriate treatment aimed to decrease the infectivity of each patient and to reduce mortality. The poor adherence to treatment by the patient or the use of therapies based on a single drug, as a result of incorrect requirements, promote the development of drug-resistance. Have some time on the market of molecular diagnostic tests that allow, quickly and directly from biological sample to search for resistance genes some key drugs of anti-TB therapy (Rifampicin and Isoniazid. One of the tests in question is the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 which can reveal the presence of genes for resistance to Isoniazid (INH and Rifampin (RMP.The loci analyzed are those corresponding to the rpoB gene for rifampicin, katG and inhA for isoniazid. Our study is based on the analysis of 83 strains of tubercular Mycobacteria identified and isolated from patients with tuberculosis disease and subjected to the tests sensitivity, searching for mutations and phenotypic susceptibility testing for Rifampicin and Isoniazid.The comparison of the results has shown that the results obtained using the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 test, were similar to the results obtained by the traditional susceptibility testing.

  1. 59Fe uptake by Salmonella typhimurium strains of different epidemiological sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabsch, W.; Reissbrodt, R.

    1985-01-01

    All Salmonella typhimurium strains tested were able to use iron from transferrin. In buffered nutrient broth - poor in iron-content - the strains were tested in 59 FeCl 3 and 59 Fe-transferrin uptake in different growth phases. In the early log phase the strains are able to catch the 59 Fe 3+ in a very great amount as it is necessary for the growth. The content of 59 Fe per cell was in the late log phase reduced until to a value, which seen to be enough for growth. The acquisition of 59 Fe-transferrin between the early and late log phase tested by 4 S. typhimurium strains was different. (author)

  2. The role of strain rate during deposition of CAP on Ti6Al4V by superplastic deformation-like method using high-temperature compression test machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdan, R.D.; Jauhari, I.; Hasan, R.; Masdek, N.R. Nik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation of superplastic deformation method for the deposition of carbonated-apatite (CAP) on the well-know titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V. This deposition process was carried out using high-temperature compression test machine, at temperature of 775 deg. C, different strain rates, and conducted along the elastic region of the sample. Before the process, titanium substrate was cryogenically treated in order to approach superplastic characteristic during the process. After the process, thin film of CAP was created on the substrate with the thickness from 0.71 μm to 1.42 μm. The resulted film has a high density of CAP that covered completely the surface of the substrate. From the stress-strain relation chart, it can be observed that as the strain rate decreases, the area under stress-strain chart also decreases. This condition influences the density of CAP layer on the substrate that as this area decreases, the density of CAP layer also decreases as also confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization. In addition, since the resulting layer of CAP is in the form of thin film, this layer did not alter the hardness of the substrate as measured by Vickers hardness test method. On the other hand, the resulting films also show a good bonding strength properties as the layer remain exist after friction test against polishing clothes for 1 h

  3. Influence of strain on dislocation core in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, L.; Godet, J.; Brochard, S.

    2018-05-01

    First principles, density functional-based tight binding and semi-empirical interatomic potentials calculations are performed to analyse the influence of large strains on the structure and stability of a 60? dislocation in silicon. Such strains typically arise during the mechanical testing of nanostructures like nanopillars or nanoparticles. We focus on bi-axial strains in the plane normal to the dislocation line. Our calculations surprisingly reveal that the dislocation core structure largely depends on the applied strain, for strain levels of about 5%. In the particular case of bi-axial compression, the transformation of the dislocation to a locally disordered configuration occurs for similar strain magnitudes. The formation of an opening, however, requires larger strains, of about 7.5%. Furthermore, our results suggest that electronic structure methods should be favoured to model dislocation cores in case of large strains whenever possible.

  4. An extended OpenSim knee model for analysis of strains of connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieswaran, M; Sikidar, Arnab; Goel, Anu; Joshi, Deepak; Kalyanasundaram, Dinesh

    2018-04-17

    OpenSim musculoskeletal models provide an accurate simulation environment that eases limitations of in vivo and in vitro studies. In this work, a biomechanical knee model was formulated with femoral articular cartilages and menisci along with 25 connective tissue bundles representing ligaments and capsules. The strain patterns of the connective tissues in the presence of femoral articular cartilage and menisci in the OpenSim knee model was probed in a first of its kind study. The effect of knee flexion (0°-120°), knee rotation (- 40° to 30°) and knee adduction (- 15° to 15°) on the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, lateral collateral ligaments and other connective tissues were studied by passive simulation. Further, a new parameter for assessment of strain namely, the differential inter-bundle strain of the connective tissues were analyzed to provide new insights for injury kinematics. ACL, PCL, LCL and PL was observed to follow a parabolic strain pattern during flexion while MCL represented linear strain patterns. All connective tissues showed non-symmetric parabolic strain variation during rotation. During adduction, the strain variation was linear for the knee bundles except for FL, PFL and TL. Strains higher than 0.1 were observed in most of the bundles during lateral rotation followed by abduction, medial rotation and adduction. In the case of flexion, highest strains were observed in aACL and aPCL. A combination of strains at a flexion of 0° with medial rotation of 30° or a flexion of 80° with rotation of 30° are evaluated as rupture-prone kinematics.

  5. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Lan, Tianqing; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The performances of five yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, while intermediate toxicity was represented by the hydrolysate with partial loading of pretreatment spent liquor. The zero toxicity was represented using the enzymatic hydrolysate produced from thoroughly washed SPORL lodgepole pine solids. The results indicate that strains D5A and YRH400 can tolerate the whole pretreated biomass slurry to produce 90.1 and 73.5% theoretical ethanol yield. Strains Y1528, YRH403, and FPL450 did not grow in whole hydrolysate cultures and were observed to have lower ethanol productivities than D5A and YRH400 on the hydrolysate with intermediate toxicity. Both YRH400 and YRH403 were genetically engineered for xylose fermentation but were not able to consume xylose efficiently in hydrolysate. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    yield strength to calculate these ratings. I set out to characterize the anisotropic nature of swaged metal. As expected, the tensile tests showed a difference between the axial and transverse tensile strength. The correlation was 12% difference in yield strength in the axial and transverse directions for strained material and 9% in strained and aged material. This means that the strength of the metal in the hoop (transverse) direction is approximately 10% stronger than in the axial direction, because the metal was work hardened during the swaging process. Therefore, the metal is more likely to fail in axial tension than in burst or collapse. I presented the findings from the microstructure examination, standard tensile tests, and SEM data. All of this data supported the findings of the mini-tensile tests. This information will help engineers set burst and collapse ratings and allow material scientists to predict the anisotropic characteristics of swaged steel tubes.

  7. Visualization of nanocrystal breathing modes at extreme strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Erzsi; Wittenberg, Joshua S.; Miller, Timothy A.; Lutker, Katie; Quirin, Florian; Lemke, Henrik; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Robinson, Joseph; Wen, Haidan; Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoscale dimensions in materials lead to unique electronic and structural properties with applications ranging from site-specific drug delivery to anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These functional properties often involve large-amplitude strains and structural modifications, and thus require an understanding of the dynamics of these processes. Here we use femtosecond X-ray scattering techniques to visualize, in real time and with atomic-scale resolution, light-induced anisotropic strains in nanocrystal spheres and rods. Strains at the percent level are observed in CdS and CdSe samples, associated with a rapid expansion followed by contraction along the nanosphere or nanorod radial direction driven by a transient carrier-induced stress. These morphological changes occur simultaneously with the first steps in the melting transition on hundreds of femtosecond timescales. This work represents the first direct real-time probe of the dynamics of these large-amplitude strains and shape changes in few-nanometre-scale particles.

  8. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  9. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  10. Strain localization and elastic-plastic coupling during deformation of porous sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Issen, Kathleen A. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering; Holcomb, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Olsson, William A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Ingraham, Mathew D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    2017-09-12

    Results of axisymmetric compression tests on weak, porous Castlegate Sandstone (Cretaceous, Utah, USA), covering a range of dilational and compactional behaviors, are examined for localization behavior. Assuming isotropy, bulk and shear moduli evolve as increasing functions of mean stress and Mises equivalent shear stress respectively, and as decreasing functions of work-conjugate plastic strains. Acoustic emissions events located during testing show onset of localization and permit calculation of observed shear and low-angle compaction localization zones, or bands, as localization commences. Total strain measured experimentally partitions into: A) elastic strain with constant moduli, B) elastic strain due to stress dependence of moduli, C) elastic strain due to moduli degradation with increasing plastic strain, and D) plastic strain. The third term is the elastic-plastic coupling strain, and though often ignored, contributes significantly to pre-failure total strain for brittle and transitional tests. Constitutive parameters and localization predictions derived from experiments are compared to theoretical predictions. In the brittle regime, predictions of band angles (angle between band normal and maximum compression) demonstrate good agreement with observed shear band angles. Compaction localization was observed in the transitional regime in between shear localization and spatially pervasive compaction, over a small range of mean stresses. In contrast with predictions however, detailed acoustic emissions analyses in this regime show low angle, compaction-dominated but shear-enhanced, localization.

  11. Pathogenesis of new strains of Newcastle disease virus from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains—1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenoty...

  12. Varying hemin concentrations affect Porphyromonas gingivalis strains differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Manabu; Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis requires heme to grow, however, heme availability and concentration in the periodontal pockets vary. Fluctuations in heme concentration may affect each P. gingivalis strain differently, however, this was never fully demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the effects of varying hemin concentrations in representative P. gingivalis strains. Throughout this study, representative P. gingivalis strains [FDC381 (type I), MPWIb-01 (type Ib), TDC60 (type II), ATCC49417 (type III), W83 (type IV), and HNA99 (type V)] were used and grown for 24 h in growth media under varying hemin concentrations (5 × , 1 × , 0.5 × , 0.1 × ). Samples were lysed and protein standardized. Arg-gingipain (Rgp), H2O2, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were subsequently measured. We focused our study on 24 h-grown strains which excluded MPWIb-01 and HNA99. Rgp activity among the 4 remaining strains varied with Rgp peaking at: 1 × for FDC381, 5 × for TDC60, 0.5 × for ATCC49417, 5 × and 0.5 × for W83. With regards to H2O2 and SOD amounts: FDC381 had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels varied; TDC60 had the lowest H2O2 amount at 1 × while SOD levels became higher in relation to hemin concentration; ATCC49417 also had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels were higher at 1 × and 0.5 × ; and W83 had statistically similar H2O2 and SOD amounts regardless of hemin concentration. Our results show that variations in hemin concentration affect each P. gingivalis strain differently. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  14. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M; Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B; Kapusta, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  15. Noncontacting-optical-strain device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Noncontacting-strain-measuring gauge and extensometer remotely measures the mechanical displacement along the entire length of a test specimen. Measurement is accomplished by continuous scanning of a reflected light from reflective bench markings or stripes previously affixed to the specimen.

  16. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pstress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pstressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  17. Microstrip patch antenna for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya Tchafa, F.; Huang, H.

    2018-06-01

    A patch antenna, consisting of a radiation patch, a dielectric substrate, and a ground plane, resonates at distinct fundamental frequencies that depend on the substrate dielectric constant and the dimensions of the radiation patch. Since these parameters change with the applied strain and temperature, this study investigates simultaneous strain and temperature sensing using a single antenna that has two fundamental resonant frequencies. The theoretical relationship between the antenna resonant frequency shifts, the temperature, and the applied strain was first established to guide the selection of the dielectric substrate, based on which an antenna sensor with a rectangular radiation patch was designed and fabricated. A tensile test specimen instrumented with the antenna sensor was subjected to thermo-mechanical tests. Experiment results validated the theoretical predictions that the normalized antenna resonant frequency shifts are linearly proportional to the applied strain and temperature changes. An inverse method was developed to determine the strain and temperature changes from the normalized antenna resonant frequency shifts, yielding measurement uncertainty of 0.4 °C and 17.22 μ \\varepsilon for temperature and strain measurement, respectively.

  18. Strain-based quench detection for a solenoid superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingzhe; Guan Mingzhi; Ma Lizhen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a non-electric quench detection method based on the strain gauge measurement of a superconducting solenoid magnet at cryogenic temperature under an intense magnetic field. Unlike the traditional voltage measurement of quench detection, the strain-based detection method utilizes low-temperature strain gauges, which evidently reduce electromagnetic noise and breakdown, to measure the magneto/thermo-mechanical behavior of the superconducting magnet during excitation. The magnet excitation, quench tests and trainings were performed on a prototype 5 T superconducting solenoid magnet. The transient strains and their abrupt changes were compared with the current, magnetic field and temperature signals collected during excitation and quench tests to indicate that the strain gauge measurements can detect the quench feature of the superconducting magnet. The proposed method is expected to be able to detect the quench of a superconducting coil independently or utilized together with other electrical methods. In addition, the axial quench propagation velocity of the solenoid is evaluated by the quench time lags among different localized strains. The propagation velocity is enhanced after repeated quench trainings. (paper)

  19. Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent strain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Danuso, M.

    2010-01-01

    To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as strain values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb 3 Sn cables to strain has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent strain to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial strain state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent strain model.

  20. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  1. High strain and strain-rate behaviour of PTFE/aluminium/tungsten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiss, John; Walley, Stephen; Proud, William; Cai Jing; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Conventional drop-weight techniques were modified to accommodate low-amplitude force transducer signals from low-strength, cold isostatically pressed 'heavy' composites of polytetrafluoroethylene, aluminum and tungsten (W). The failure strength, strain and the post-critical behavior of failed samples were measured for samples of different porosity and tungsten grain size. Unusual phenomenon of significantly higher strength (55 MPa) of porous composites (density 5.9 g/cm 3 ) with small W particles ( 3 ) with larger W particles (44 μm) at the same volume content of components was observed. This is attributed to force chains created by a network of small W particles. Interrupted tests at different levels of strain revealed the mechanisms of fracture under dynamic compression

  2. Formability analysis of sheet metals by cruciform testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, B.; Alkan, K.; Efe, M.

    2017-09-01

    Cruciform biaxial tests are increasingly becoming popular for testing the formability of sheet metals as they achieve frictionless, in-plane, multi-axial stress states with a single sample geometry. However, premature fracture of the samples during testing prevents large strain deformation necessary for the formability analysis. In this work, we introduce a miniature cruciform sample design (few mm test region) and a test setup to achieve centre fracture and large uniform strains. With its excellent surface finish and optimized geometry, the sample deforms with diagonal strain bands intersecting at the test region. These bands prevent local necking and concentrate the strains at the sample centre. Imaging and strain analysis during testing confirm the uniform strain distributions and the centre fracture are possible for various strain paths ranging from plane-strain to equibiaxial tension. Moreover, the sample deforms without deviating from the predetermined strain ratio at all test conditions, allowing formability analysis under large strains. We demonstrate these features of the cruciform test for three sample materials: Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy, DC-04 steel and Magnesium AZ31 alloy, and investigate their formability at both the millimetre scale and the microstructure scale.

  3. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Hulak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may result in the potential use of selected strains as starter, bioprotective or even probiotic cultures. This study focuses on potential use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from traditional Istrian cheese as starter cultures, by using methods that determine their proteolytic, lipolytic, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential, as well as their ability of acidification, autoaggregation and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Our results indicated that from 12 representative strains most revealed a low or moderate proteolytic activity as well as absence of lipolytic and haemolytic activities. From 12 strains, 5 of them showed a medium to strong acidification ability and lowered the pH of milk below 5.00 after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, almost all isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against Serratia marcescens, and lowest number of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The studied Lactobacillus strains revealed high survival rate in a simulated oral cavity and duodenum conditions, while the survival ability in a simulated gastric conditions was much lower. Ability to aggregate was low for all tested strains, after 3 hours and after 5 hours of incubation.

  4. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  5. Mechanical characterization of rocks at high strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic characterization in tension and compression of three rocks, Carrara marble, Onsernone gneiss and Peccia Marble, at high strain-rates. Two versions of a Split Hopkinson Bar have been used. The version for direct tension tests is installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, while the traditional version in compression is installed at the Laboratory of Dynamic Investigation of Materials of Lobachevsky State University. Results of the tests show a significantly strain-rate sensitive behaviour, exhibiting dynamic strength increasing with strain-rate. The experimental research has been developed in the frame of the Swiss-Russian Joint Research Program.

  6. Shape recovery and irrecoverable strain control in polyurethane shape-memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobushi, Hisaaki; Ejiri, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Syunichi; Hoshio, Kazumasa

    2008-01-01

    In shape-memory polymers, large strain can be fixed at a low temperature and thereafter recovered at a high temperature. If the shape-memory polymer is held at a high temperature for a long time, the irrecoverable strain can attain a new intermediate shape between the shape under the maximum stress and the primary shape. Irrecoverable strain control can be applied to the fabrication of a shape-memory polymer element with a complex shape in a simple method. In the present study, the influence of the strain-holding conditions on the shape recovery and the irrecoverable strain control in polyurethane shape-memory polymer is investigated by tension test of a film and three-point bending test of a sheet. The higher the shape-holding temperature and the longer the shape-holding time, the higher the irrecoverable strain rate. The equation that expresses the characteristics of the irrecoverable strain control is formulated

  7. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  8. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  9. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Čejková

    Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  10. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čejková, Darina; Strouhal, Michal; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M; Šmajs, David

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14), 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc), 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN) strain (Bosnia A) and one strain (Cuniculi A) of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC) were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites. The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes) were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5), DAL-1 (n = 4), and SS14 (n = 7), TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1), and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5). Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K), in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY), in genes involved in cell structure (murC), translation (prfA), general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA), and in seven hypothetical genes. Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  11. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongkyoo Choi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ. Material and Methods: A random population sample (N = 682 of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1; dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2; and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3, dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Results: Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37–49% vs. 7–13%. When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60–0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied, although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87–0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied. The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied was considerably lower (4–7% than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. Conclusions: The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain.

  12. Variation of Shrinkage Strain within the Depth of Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of shrinkage strain within beam depth was examined through four series of time-dependent laboratory experiments on unreinforced concrete beam specimens. Two types of beam specimens, horizontally cast and vertically cast, were tested; shrinkage variation was observed in the horizontally cast specimens. This indicated that the shrinkage variation within the beam depth was due to water bleeding and tamping during the placement of the fresh concrete. Shrinkage strains were measured within the beam depth by two types of strain gages, surface-attached and embedded. The shrinkage strain distribution within the beam depth showed a consistent tendency for the two types of gages. The test beams were cut into four sections after completion of the test, and the cutting planes were divided into four equal sub-areas to measure the aggregate concentration for each sub-area of the cutting plane. The aggregate concentration increased towards the bottom of the beam. The shrinkage strain distribution was estimated by Hobbs’ equation, which accounts for the change of aggregate volume concentration.

  13. Transcription and expression of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich proteins in different stages and strains: implications for rapid diagnostic tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for Plasmodium falciparum infection that target histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 are generally sensitive, their performance has been reported to be variable. One possible explanation for variable test performance is differences in expression level of PfHRP in different parasite isolates. METHODS: Total RNA and protein were extracted from synchronised cultures of 7 P. falciparum lines over 5 time points of the life cycle, and from synchronised ring stages of 10 falciparum lines. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and ELISA we investigated variations in the transcription and protein levels of pfhrp2, pfhrp3 and PfHRP respectively in the different parasite lines, over the parasite intraerythrocytic life cycle. RESULTS: Transcription of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 in different parasite lines over the parasite life cycle was observed to vary relative to the control parasite K1. In some parasite lines very low transcription of these genes was observed. The peak transcription was observed in ring-stage parasites. Pfhrp2 transcription was observed to be consistently higher than pfhrp3 transcription within parasite lines. The intraerythrocytic lifecycle stage at which the peak level of protein was present varied across strains. Total protein levels were more constant relative to total mRNA transcription, however a maximum 24 fold difference in expression at ring-stage parasites relative to the K1 strain was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of transcription of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3, and protein expression of PfHRP varied between different P. falciparum strains. This variation may impact on the detection sensitivity of PfHRP2-detecting RDTs.

  14. Strain-based failure criteria for steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Containment Integrity Division of the Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has been conducting a program to evaluate the performance of containment buildings with internal pressure. Sandia has suggested that in the absence of leakage past penetrations, containment buildings will fail by rupturing after large plastic strains are developed up to ultimate strain of the material. This paper represents a portion of work conducted at Ames Laboratory for Sandia, the objective of which was to identify fabrication details that may affect the performance of a containment building. Construction drawings for nine steel containment buildings were surveyed, and several significant strain concentration regions were identified by using recommendations from Sandia and Section NE-3217 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These following regions were identified as: eccentricities in stiffener patterns around penetrations, eccentricities in containment shell middle surface, flat plate covers used on spare penetrations, containment base connection details, and containment heads. Examples of each of these regions were analyzed by the finite-element method, by simplified equations or both. In the case of middle surface eccentricities, the strains were found to be self-limiting. Even though flat plates have primary strains, they are typically designed so as not to control. Bolts in the base connection have primary strains and may control. The circumferential compressive strains introduced at the knuckle during buckling of the containment head grow as the pressure increases, but are somewhat restricted by the meridional tension. Finally, three analysis techniques and their associated failure criteria for the analysis of containment strength are introduced. (orig.)

  15. Strain and displacement controls by fibre bragg grating and digital image correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    the test based on measurements performed directly on the test specimen. In this paper, fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are used to control a test. The FBG sensors offer the possibility of measuring strains inside the specimen, while the DIC system measures strains...

  16. Broiler genetic strain and sex effects on meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, K P; Schilling, M W; Corzo, A

    2011-05-01

    A randomized complete block design within a factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate the effect of strain and sex on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and sensory acceptability. Two broiler strains were reared: a commercially available strain (strain A) and a strain currently in the test phase (strain B) that has been genetically selected to maximize breast yield. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant using commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. Carcasses were deboned at 4 h postmortem. The left half of each breast was evaluated for pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and proximate analysis. The right side of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition. No interactions were observed throughout the study. Male broilers had a higher (P dressing percentage and breast meat yield when compared with females. Broilers from strain B presented a higher (P dressing percentage than those broilers corresponding to the commercially available broiler strain. At 24 h postmortem, female broilers presented a lower ultimate pH and higher Commission internationale de l'éclairage yellowness values (ventral side of the pectoralis major) when compared with male broilers. On average, no differences existed (P > 0.05) among treatments with respect to pH decline, cooking loss, shear values, and proximate composition. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among breast meat from the different strains with respect to consumer acceptability of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability, but breast meat from strain B was slightly preferred (P < 0.05) over that of strain A with respect to aroma. However, breast meat from both strains received scores in the range of "like slightly to like moderately." Overall data suggest that all treatments yielded high quality breast and thigh meat and strain cross did not present variability in terms of consumer acceptability.

  17. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus reuteri Strains on the Adhesion Characteristics of Selected Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder P; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kapila, Suman; Malik, Ravinder K

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion ability of probiotics is the key factor that decides their colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and potential to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, adhesion ability can be considered as a key determinant for probiotic efficacy. Presents study documents the antagonistic activity of viable/untreated, Lithium chloride (LiCl) treated or heat-killed forms of eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains on the adhesion characteristics of selected pathogens. All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace ( P strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5 M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cells and are highly antagonistic to pathogens tested in which surface associated proteins play an important role.

  18. A Combined Precipitation, Yield Stress, and Work Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Hopperstad, Odd Sture; Børvik, Tore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a combined precipitation, yield strength, and work hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys known as NaMo has been further developed to include the effects of strain rate and temperature on the resulting stress-strain behavior. The extension of the model is based on a comprehensive experimental database, where thermomechanical data for three different Al-Mg-Si alloys are available. In the tests, the temperature was varied between 20 °C and 350 °C with strain rates ranging from 10-6 to 750 s-1 using ordinary tension tests for low strain rates and a split-Hopkinson tension bar system for high strain rates, respectively. This large span in temperatures and strain rates covers a broad range of industrial relevant problems from creep to impact loading. Based on the experimental data, a procedure for calibrating the different physical parameters of the model has been developed, starting with the simplest case of a stable precipitate structure and small plastic strains, from which basic kinetic data for obstacle limited dislocation glide were extracted. For larger strains, when work hardening becomes significant, the dynamic recovery was linked to the Zener-Hollomon parameter, again using a stable precipitate structure as a basis for calibration. Finally, the complex situation of concurrent work hardening and dynamic evolution of the precipitate structure was analyzed using a stepwise numerical solution algorithm where parameters representing the instantaneous state of the structure were used to calculate the corresponding instantaneous yield strength and work hardening rate. The model was demonstrated to exhibit a high degree of predictive power as documented by a good agreement between predictions and measurements, and it is deemed well suited for simulations of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys where plastic deformation is carried out at various strain rates and temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of resilient abutment components on measured strain using dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D; Stanford, C M; Aquilino, S A

    1998-07-01

    Factors that affect transmission of strain from prostheses to bone may affect the long-term success of loaded implants. Current in vitro models are theoretically predictive (finite element modeling) or facsimile (photoelastic) in nature. A more clinically relevant in vitro model for strain evaluation should be investigated. This study attempted: (1) to validate a human cadaver bone model for vitro measurement of cortical bone strain, and (2) to evaluate the effect on cortical strain measurements of a resilient plastic component incorporated within a titanium implant in response to variable dynamic loading. Two IMZ (Interpore International) abutment alternatives were used: the titanium Abutment Complete and the polyoxymethylene Intra-mobile Element. The model system consisted of two implants placed in unfixed human cadaver ulna bone to simulate an implant bound edentulous region. Four biaxial rosette strain gauges simultaneously recorded cortical bone strain immediately mesial and distal to each implant. During experimentation a simulated prosthetic framework supported by either titanium or polyoxymethylene abutments was dynamically loaded 6 min from the terminal abutment along a cantilever extension. Cyclic nominal peak loads were applied with a materials testing machine at 20-N intervals from 20 to 200 N at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute. The protocol allowed frequency of load application to vary. A Newtonian linear correlation (r2 > or = 0.98) between load application and strain output was determined for each gauge position except for the terminal gauge located opposite the cantilever. Cortical strains recorded were within reported physiologic ranges involved in bone modeling and remodeling. Further, the polyoxymethylene abutment components did not result in reduction of peak microstrain at any gauge position. The Intra-mobile Element abutments, however, did increase the time required to complete 10 loading cycles when compared with the titanium Abutment

  20. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, João; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2017-04-25

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes strain synonymy and/or co-identity, strain categorization, habitat, accession numbers for molecular data, taxonomy and nomenclature notes according to three different classification schemes, hierarchical automatic classification, phylogenetic placement according to a selection of relevant studies (including this), and important bibliographic references. The database will be updated periodically, namely by adding new strains meeting the criteria for inclusion and by revising and adding up-to-date metadata for strains already listed. A global 16S rDNA-based phylogeny is provided in order to assist users when choosing the appropriate strains for their studies.

  1. Strain path and work-hardening behavior of brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakharova, N.A.; Fernandes, J.V.; Vieira, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic straining in metal forming usually includes changes of strain path, which are frequently not taken into account in the analysis of forming processes. Moreover, strain path change can significantly affect the mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of the material. For this reason, a combination of several simple loading test sequences is an effective way to investigate the dislocation microstructure of sheet metals under such forming conditions. Pure tension and rolling strain paths and rolling-tension strain path sequences were performed on brass sheets. A study of mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution during the simple and the complex strain paths was carried out, within a wide range of strain values. The appearance and development of deformation twinning was evident. It was shown that strain path change promotes the onset of premature twinning. The work-hardening behavior is discussed in terms of the twinning and dislocation microstructure evolution, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy

  2. Highly efficient decolorization of Malachite Green by a novel Micrococcus sp. strain BD15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin-Na; Zhao, Ming; Li, Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2011-08-01

    Malachite Green (MG) is used for a variety of applications but is also known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. In this study, a novel Micrococcus sp. (strain BD15) was observed to efficiently decolorize MG. The purposes of this study were to explore the optimal conditions for decolorization and to evaluate the potential use of this strain for MG decolorization. Optical microscope and UV-visible analyses were carried out to determine whether the decolorization was due to biosorption or biodegradation. A Plackett-Burman design was employed to investigate the effect of various parameters on decolorization, and response surface methodology was then used to explore the optimal decolorization conditions. Kinetics analysis and antimicrobial activity tests were also performed. The results indicated that the decolorization by the strain was mainly due to biodegradation. Concentrations of MG, urea, and yeast extract and inoculum size had significantly positive effects on MG decolorization, while concentrations of CuCl(2) and MgCl(2), and temperature had significantly negative effects. The interaction between different parameters could significantly affect decolorization, and the optimal conditions for decolorization were 1.0 g/L urea, 0.9 g/L yeast extract, 100 mg/L MG, 0.1 g/L inoculums (dry weight), and incubation at 25.2°C. Under the optimal conditions, 96.9% of MG was removed by the strain within 1 h, which represents highly efficient microbial decolorization. Moreover, the kinetic data for decolorization fit a second-order model well, and the strain showed a good MG detoxification capability. Based on the results of this study, we propose Micrococcus sp. strain BD15 as an excellent candidate strain for MG removal from wastewater.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  4. Micro-scale measurements of plastic strain field, and local contributions of slip and twinning in TWIP steels during in situ tensile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.K. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Doquet, V., E-mail: doquet@lms.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7649, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhang, Z.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-08-30

    In-situ tensile tests were carried out on Fe22Mn0.6C and Fe22Mn0.6C3Al (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels specimens covered with gold micro-grids. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were periodically captured. The latter were used for measurements of the plastic strain field, using digital image correlation (DIC). Although no meso-scale localization bands appeared, some areas were deformed three times more than average. Plastic deformation inside the grains was more heterogeneous in Fe22Mn0.6C, but at meso-scale, the degree of strain heterogeneity was not higher, at least up to 12% strain. Plastic deformation started from grain boundaries or annealing twin boundaries in both materials, due to a high elastic anisotropy of the grains. An original method based on DIC was developed to estimate the twin fraction in grains that exhibit a single set of slip/twin bands. Deformation twinning accommodated 60–80% of the plastic strain in some favorably oriented grains, from the onset of plastic flow in Fe22Mn0.6C, but was not observed in the Al-bearing steel until 12% strain. The back stress was important in both materials, but significantly higher in Fe22Mn0.6C.

  5. Micro-scale measurements of plastic strain field, and local contributions of slip and twinning in TWIP steels during in situ tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.K.; Doquet, V.; Zhang, Z.F.

    2016-01-01

    In-situ tensile tests were carried out on Fe22Mn0.6C and Fe22Mn0.6C3Al (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels specimens covered with gold micro-grids. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were periodically captured. The latter were used for measurements of the plastic strain field, using digital image correlation (DIC). Although no meso-scale localization bands appeared, some areas were deformed three times more than average. Plastic deformation inside the grains was more heterogeneous in Fe22Mn0.6C, but at meso-scale, the degree of strain heterogeneity was not higher, at least up to 12% strain. Plastic deformation started from grain boundaries or annealing twin boundaries in both materials, due to a high elastic anisotropy of the grains. An original method based on DIC was developed to estimate the twin fraction in grains that exhibit a single set of slip/twin bands. Deformation twinning accommodated 60–80% of the plastic strain in some favorably oriented grains, from the onset of plastic flow in Fe22Mn0.6C, but was not observed in the Al-bearing steel until 12% strain. The back stress was important in both materials, but significantly higher in Fe22Mn0.6C.

  6. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  7. Histophilus somni IbpA Fic cytotoxin is conserved in disease strains and most carrier strains from cattle, sheep and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekarias, B; O'Toole, D; Lehmann, J; Corbeil, L B

    2011-04-21

    Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis and arthritis, as well as a genital or upper respiratory carrier state in normal animals. However, differences in virulence factors among strains are not well studied. The surface and secreted immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA) Fic motif of H. somni causes bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) cells to retract, allowing virulent bacteria to cross the alveolar monolayer. Because H. somni IbpA is an important virulence factor, its presence was evaluated in different strains from cattle, sheep and bison to define whether there are syndrome specific markers and whether antigenic/molecular/functional conservation occurs. A few preputial carrier strains lacked IbpA by Western blotting but all other tested disease or carrier strains were IbpA positive. These positive strains had either both IbpA DR1/Fic and IbpA DR2/Fic or only IbpA DR2/Fic by PCR. IbpA Fic mediated cytotoxicity for BAT2 cells and sequence analysis of IbpA DR2/Fic from selected strains revealed conservation of sequence and function in disease and IbpA positive carrier strains. Passive protection of mice against H. somni septicemia with antibody to IbpA DR2/Fic, along with previous data, indicates that the IbpA DR1/Fic and/or DR2/Fic domains are candidate vaccine antigens for protection against many strains of H. somni. Since IbpA DR2/Fic is conserved in most carrier strains, they may be virulent if introduced to susceptible animals at susceptible sites. Conservation of the protective IbpA antigen in all disease isolates tested is encouraging for development of protective vaccines and diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of material creep behaviour for strain based life assessment applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, J H; Hurst, R C [EC JRC IAM, Petten (Netherlands); Bregani, F [ENEL, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    In this work the idea of using constant load uniaxial creep test results instead of constant stress results for developing a CDM creep model for the P92 material is demonstrated. Due to limited availability of creep test results this work is based on incomplete test data and a general stress rupture line. In spite of these limitations a material creep model was developed for use in a FE analysis. Using P91 material as an example, a method is proposed to account for differences in strain evolution as a function of stress which normally manifests itself as lower strain values at low stresses in a normalised time-strain plot. This allows the CDM model to be used both in FE analysis and in strain-based life assessment engineering calculations. (orig.) 3 refs.

  9. Prediction of material creep behaviour for strain based life assessment applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, J.H.; Hurst, R.C. [EC JRC IAM, Petten (Netherlands); Bregani, F. [ENEL, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    In this work the idea of using constant load uniaxial creep test results instead of constant stress results for developing a CDM creep model for the P92 material is demonstrated. Due to limited availability of creep test results this work is based on incomplete test data and a general stress rupture line. In spite of these limitations a material creep model was developed for use in a FE analysis. Using P91 material as an example, a method is proposed to account for differences in strain evolution as a function of stress which normally manifests itself as lower strain values at low stresses in a normalised time-strain plot. This allows the CDM model to be used both in FE analysis and in strain-based life assessment engineering calculations. (orig.) 3 refs.

  10. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  11. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes - design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulstrup Ane M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age. Methods and design We will use the Danish National Birth Cohort where 100.000 children are included at baseline. In the present study 49,340 pregnancies will be included. Multinomial logistic regression will be applied to estimate odds ratios for the outcomes: preterm; full term but small for gestational age; full term but large for gestational age, as a function of job-strain (high strain, active and passive versus low strain. In the analysis we control for maternal age, Body Mass Index, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, coffee consumption, type of work (manual versus non-manual, maternal serious disease and parents' heights as well as gestational age at interview. Discussion The prospective nature of the design and the high number of participants strengthen the study. The large statistical power allows for interpretable results regardless of whether or not the hypotheses are confirmed. This is, however, not a controlled study since all kinds of 'natural' interventions takes place throughout pregnancy (e.g. work absence, medical treatment and job-redesign. The analysis will be performed from a public health perspective. From this perspective, we are not primarily interested in the effect of job strain per se but if there is residual effect of job strain after naturally occurring preventive measures have been taken.

  12. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  13. Rupture prediction for induction bends under opening mode bending with emphasis on strain localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuya, Masaki; Sakanoue, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the opening mode of induction bends; this mode represents the deformation outside a bend. Bending experiments on induction bends are shown and the manner of failure of these bends was investigated. Ruptures occur at the intrados of the bends, which undergo tensile stress, and accompany the local reduction of wall thickness, i.e., necking that indicates strain localization. By implementing finite element analysis (FEA), it was shown that the rupture is dominated not by the fracture criterion of material but by the initiation of strain localization that is a deformation characteristic of the material. These ruptures are due to the rapid increase of local strain after the initiation of strain localization and suddenly reach the fracture criterion. For the evaluation of the deformability of the bends, a method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. We show that the yield surface shape and the true stress–strain relationship after uniform elongation have to be defined on the basis of the actual properties of the bend material. The von Mises yield criterion, which is commonly used in cases of elastic–plastic FEA, could not predict the rupture and overestimated the deformability. In contrast, a yield surface obtained by performing tensile tests on a biaxial specimen could predict the rupture. The prediction of the rupture was accomplished by an inverse calibration method that determined the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation. As an alternative to the inverse calibration, a simple extrapolation method of the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation which can predict the rupture is proposed. - Highlights: • A method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. • The yield surface shape and the true stress–strain have to be defined precisely. • The von Mises yield criterion overestimated the deformability. • The ruptures are due to the

  14. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  15. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Elena; Schifano, Emily; Motta, Sara; Sciubba, Fabio; Palleschi, Claudio; Mauri, Pierluigi; Perozzi, Giuditta; Uccelletti, Daniela; Devirgiliis, Chiara; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus , lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis . Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  16. Thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'Drosophila nebulosa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'D. nebulosa' is described, as well as some conclusions on the genetic nature of these differences are presented. The strains used in this experiment were MF 204, from 'Morro de Ferro', in Pocos de Caldas (MG) (one of the biggest radioactive anomalies in the world) whose radioresistance is due to its additive genetic components (Kratz, 1973 and 1975); 85(87) R, an induced radioresistant strain; and MF K a control 'pooled' strain obtained near 'Morro do Ferro'. Survival tests, 72 hours after temperature shocks, performed in the interval of 36 0 C to 39 0 C showed a decreasing gradient of thermoresistance with the following regression coefficients: MF 204 b= - 5,4; 85(87)R b= - 7,2 and MF K b= - 7,9. Bifactorial analysis (strains and sexes) performed at 38 0 C and 39 0 C confirmed differences among strains (P [pt

  17. Gender-specific differences in cannibalism between a laboratory strain and a field strain of a predatory mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revynthi, A M; Janssen, A; Egas, M

    2018-03-01

    Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior. We hypothesize that this should especially affect cannibalism by females, because they consume far more food. We tested these hypotheses by comparing males and females from two strains, one of which had been in culture for over 20 years, whereas the other was recently collected from the field. It is known that this predator can discriminate between kin and non-kin and prefers cannibalizing the latter, hence to construct lines with high relatedness we created isofemale lines of these two original strains. We subsequently tested to what extent the adult females and males of the original strains and the isofemale lines cannibalized conspecific larvae from the same strain/line in a closed system. Relatedness with the victims did not affect cannibalistic behavior, but males engaged more often in cannibalism than females, and females of the laboratory strain engaged more in cannibalism than those of the field strain, both in agreement with our ideas. We hypothesize that the difference in cannibalism between the two genders will increase when they have the alternative to disperse.

  18. Strain accumulation in a prototypic lmfbr nozzle: Experimental and analytical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, W.S.; Dhalia, A.K.; Berton, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    At an early stage in the design of the primary inlet nozzle for the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), it was predicted that the inelastic strain accumulation during elevated temperature operation (1050 0 F/566 0 C) would exceed the ASME Code design allowables. Therefore, a proof test of a prototypic FFTF IHX nozzle was performed in the Westinghouse Creep Ratcheting Test Facility (CRTF) to measure the ratchet strain increments during the most severe postulated FFTF plant thermal transients. In addition, analytical procedures similar to those used in the plant design, were used to predict strain accumulation in the CRTF nozzle. This paper describes how the proof test was successfully completed, and it shows that both the test measurements and analytical predictions confirm that the FFTF IHX nozzle, subjected to postulated thermal and mechanical loadings, complies with the ASME Code strain limits. Also, these results provide a measure of validation for the analytical procedures used in the design of FFTF as well as demonstrate the structural adequacy of the FFTF IHX primary inlet nozzle

  19. Chemical Profile of Monascus ruber Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed M. Moharram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical profile of Monascus ruber strains has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis. The colour intensity of the red pigment and secondary metabolic products of two M. ruber strains (AUMC 4066 and AUMC 5705 cultivated on ten different media were also studied. Metabolic products can be classified into four categories: anticholesterol, anticancer, food colouring, and essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Using GC/MS, the following 88 metabolic products were detected: butyric acid and its derivatives (25 products, other fatty acids and their derivatives (19 products, pyran and its derivatives (22 products and other metabolites (22 products. Among these, 32 metabolites were specific for AUMC 4066 strain and 34 for AUMC 5705 strain, whereas 22 metabolites were produced by both strains on different tested substrates. Production of some metabolites depended on the substrate used. High number of metabolites was recorded in the red pigment extract obtained by both strains grown on malt broth and malt agar. Also, 42 aroma compounds were recorded (4 alcohols, 2 benzaldehydes, 27 esters, 3 lactones, 1 phenol, 1 terpenoid, 3 thiol compounds and acetate-3-mercapto butyric acid. Thin layer chromatography and GC/MS analyses revealed no mycotoxin citrinin in any media used for the growth of the two M. ruber strains.

  20. Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Yield and Relaxation in DGEBA Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel K.; Reprogle, Riley C.; Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical response in uniaxial compression of two diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxies were studied. These were 828DEA (Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA)) and 828T403 (Epon 828 cured with Jeffamine T-403). Two types of uniaxial compression tests were performed: A) constant strain rate compression and B) constant strain rate compression followed by a constant strain relaxation. The peak (yield) stress was analyzed as a function of strain rate from Eyring theory for activation volume. Runs at different temperatures permitted the construction of a mastercurve, and the resulting shift factors resulted in an activation energy. Strain and hold tests were performed for a low strain rate where a peak stress was lacking and for a higher strain rate where the peak stress was apparent. Relaxation from strains at different places along the stress-strain curve was tracked and compared. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Strain-related acid production by oral streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Soet, JJ; Nyvad, Bente; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Acid production, in particular at low pH, is thought to be an important ecological determinant in dental caries. The aim of the present study was to determine the acid producing capability at different pH levels of 47 streptococcal strains, representing 9 species, isolated from human dental plaque....... The bacteria were grown until mid log-phase under anaerobic conditions and acid production was measured in a pH-stat system at pH 7.0, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.0. At all pH values, the mean velocity of acid production (V(ap)) by Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly higher (p... that of the other oral streptococci, including S. mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, S. intermedius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. vestibularis. However, the V(ap) of some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis, particularly at pH values of 7.0 and 6.0, exceeded that of some strains of S. mutans...

  2. Tests on mechanical behavior of 304 L stainless steel under constant stress associated with cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical analyses of structures, to be efficient, must incorporate materials behavior data. Among the mechanisms liable to cause collapse, progressive distortion (or ratcheting) has been the subject of only a few basic experiments, most of the investigations being theoretical. In order to get meaningful results to characterize materials behavior, an experimental study on ratcheting of austenitic steels has been undertaken at the C.E.A. This paper gives the first results of tests at room temperature on thin tubes of 304L steel submitted to an axial constant stress (primary stress) to which is added a cyclic shearing strain (secondary stress). The tests cover a large combination of the two loading modes. The main results consist of curves of cumulative iso-deformation in the primary and secondary stress field (Bree type diagrams). Results are given for plastic deformations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5% up to N=100 cycles

  3. Clay behaviour under thermal gradients elastic and plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintado, Xavier; Autio, Jorma; Punkkinen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The nuclear waste repositories will generate strong temperature gradients at the clay barrier. The heat and water transport generate volume change in the clay. An experimental work is proposed here. The clay reference is the MX-80. The test device imposes a fixed heat flow in one side of the sample and maintains constant the temperature on the other side. Two samples are tested for symmetry. The samples are unconfined and the total mass of water remains constant. This situation creates a strong thermal gradient in the samples. The final radial strains in some places of the sample, the total vertical strain and the water content distribution will be measured just at the end of the test and some weeks later in order to distinguish the elastic strains from the plastic strains. The test period mustn't be longer than two weeks because a large quantity of water loses through the rubber membrane and the heads of the sample. The maximum temperature reached in the cooper is 90 degrees because with higher temperature, the rubber membrane is damaged. This test is already simulated by a numerical code. Thermal, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-hydro-mechanical analyses are being done. These analyses allow studying the different fluxes inside the sample and its quantification. Water content distribution is compared with the water content calculated from the reference parameters in the clay. The water distribution and the change of diameter after the test will also be studied. This experimental work will allow to know what is the percentage of the strains elastic or plastic and check the mechanical model. The experimental diameter change is compared with the diameter change calculated from the reference parameters of the clay. (authors)

  4. Influence of the representation models of the stress-strain law on the LMFBR structures in an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Trombetti, T.; Blanche, Y.; Louvet, J.; Obry, P.

    1982-01-01

    Most of analysis involved in mechanical calculations related to explosive accidents in fast breeder reactor are now aware of the inadequacy of certain roug stress-strain laws to representing the correct behaviour of vessel materials. Indeed stress waves along the vessel walls deform the material at high strain rate with multiaxial loading or reverse loading. Recently different questions have been under investigation in France in this direction and the present study, performed in the frame of the agreement CNEN-CEA, is an example of the way how two very important factors (strain rate and strain hardening) may be taken into account in the consecutive equations of materials subject to dynamic deformations. Several parametric calculations have been carried out with the hydrodynamic structural codes ASTARTE 3/4 and SIRIUS, which are the Lagrangian validated codes now available at the CNEN and CEA Cadarache Computing Centres.Analysis was performed by comparing two reference calculations relating to the MARA 01 and COVA IT7 explosive tests with experimental data and with other calculations in which different values of the initial hardening and of the strain rates of the tank shell material were introduced. In general both codes give similar results; improvements of predicted axial and hoop strain and of impulses in water have been reached in certain cases but it is difficult to find a general trend and there is no ideal constitutive model: indeed the strain rate is not constant in time, in place and in direction and some parts of the vessels are uniaxially loaded while others are multiaxially loaded

  5. Influence of the representation models of the stress-strain law on the LMFBR structures in an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Trombetti, T.; Blanchet, Y.; Louvet, J.; Obry, P.

    1981-08-01

    Most of analysis involved in mechanical calculations related to explosive accidents in fast breeder reactors are now aware of the inadequacy of certain rough stress-strain laws to representing the correct behaviour of vessel materials. Indeed stress waves along the vessel walls deform the material at a high strain rate with multiaxial loading or reverse loading. Recently different questions have been under investigation in France in this direction and the present study, performed in the frame of the agreement CNEN-CEA, is an example of the way how two very important factors (strain rate and strain hardening) may be taken into account in the constitutive equations of materials subject to dynamic deformations. Several parametric calculations have been carried out with the hydrodynamic structural codes ASTARTE-3/4 and SIRIUS, which are the Lagrangian validated code now available at the CNEN and CEA-Cadarache computing centres. Analysis was performed by comparing two reference calculations relating to the MARA 01 and COVA IT7 explosive tests with experimental data and with other calculations in which different values of the initial hardening and of the strain rates of the tank shell material were introduced. In general both codes give similar results; improvements of predicted axial and hoop strains and of impulses in water have been reached in certain cases but it is difficult to find a general trend and there is no ideal constitutive model: indeed the strain rate is not constant in time, in place and in direction and some parts of the vessels are uniaxially loaded while others are multiaxially loaded

  6. Sequencing of emerging canine distemper virus strain reveals new distinct genetic lineage in the United States associated with disease in wildlife and domestic canine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Matthew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2015-12-18

    Recent outbreaks of canine distemper have prompted examination of strains from clinical samples submitted to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) Clinical Virology Lab. We previously described a new strain of CDV that significantly diverged from all genotypes reported to date including America 2, the genotype proposed to be the main lineage currently circulating in the US. The aim of this study was to determine when this new strain appeared and how widespread it is in animal populations, given that it has also been detected in fully vaccinated adult dogs. Additionally, we sequenced complete viral genomes to characterize the strain and determine if variation is confined to known variable regions of the genome or if the changes are also present in more conserved regions. Archived clinical samples were genotyped using real-time RT-PCR amplification and sequencing. The genomes of two unrelated viruses from a dog and fox each from a different state were sequenced and aligned with previously published genomes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using coding, non-coding and genome-length sequences. Virus neutralization assays were used to evaluate potential antigenic differences between this strain and a vaccine strain and mixed ANOVA test was used to compare the titers. Genotyping revealed this strain first appeared in 2011 and was detected in dogs from multiple states in the Southeast region of the United States. It was the main strain detected among the clinical samples that were typed from 2011-2013, including wildlife submissions. Genome sequencing demonstrated that it is highly conserved within a new lineage and preliminary serologic testing showed significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers between this strain and the strain commonly used in vaccines. This new strain represents an emerging CDV in domestic dogs in the US, may be associated with a stable reservoir in the wildlife population, and could facilitate vaccine

  7. Measurements and predictions of strain pole figures for uniaxially compressed stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.; Clausen, B.; Holden, T.M.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Strain pole figures representative of residual intergranular strains were determined from an -2.98% uniaxially compressed austenitic stainless steel sample. The measurements were made using neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The measurements were compared with predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent model and found to be in good agreement

  8. Measurements and predictions of strain pole figures for uniaxially compressed stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, C. [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: clarsson@cfl.rr.com; Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holden, T.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Strain pole figures representative of residual intergranular strains were determined from an -2.98% uniaxially compressed austenitic stainless steel sample. The measurements were made using neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The measurements were compared with predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent model and found to be in good agreement.

  9. Qualification of a truly distributed fiber optic technique for strain and temperature measurements in concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, J. M.; Salin, J.; Moreau, G.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Bertand, J.; Taillade, F.; Quiertant, M.; Benzarti, K.

    2011-04-01

    Structural health monitoring is a key factor in life cycle management of infrastructures. Truly distributed fiber optic sensors are able to provide relevant information on large structures, such as nuclear power plants or nuclear waste disposal facilities. The sensing chain includes an optoelectronic unit and a sensing cable made of one or more optical fibers. A new instrument based on Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), enables to perform temperature and strain measurements with a centimeter scale spatial resolution over hundred of meters and with a level of precision equal to 1 μ strain and 0.1 °C. Several sensing cables are designed with different materials targeting to last for decades, either embedded in the concrete or attached to the surface of the structure. They must ensure an optimal transfer of temperature and strain from the concrete matrix to the optical fiber. Based on the European guide FD CEN/TR 14748 "Non-destructive testing - Methodology for qualification of non-destructive tests", a qualification method was developed. Tests were carried out using various sensing cables embedded in the volume or fixed to the surface of plain concrete specimens and representative-scale reinforced concrete structural elements. Measurements were performed with an OFDR instrument, while mechanical solicitations were imposed to the concrete element. Preliminary experiments seem very promising since measurements performed with distributed sensing systems are found comparable to values obtained with conventional sensors used in civil engineering and with the Strength of Materials Modelling. Moreover, the distributed sensing system makes it possible to detect and localize cracks appearing in concrete during the mechanical loading.

  10. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  11. StrainSeeker: fast identification of bacterial strains from raw sequencing reads using user-provided guide trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosaare, Märt; Vaher, Mihkel; Kaplinski, Lauris; Möls, Märt; Andreson, Reidar; Lepamets, Maarja; Kõressaar, Triinu; Naaber, Paul; Kõljalg, Siiri; Remm, Maido

    2017-01-01

    Fast, accurate and high-throughput identification of bacterial isolates is in great demand. The present work was conducted to investigate the possibility of identifying isolates from unassembled next-generation sequencing reads using custom-made guide trees. A tool named StrainSeeker was developed that constructs a list of specific k -mers for each node of any given Newick-format tree and enables the identification of bacterial isolates in 1-2 min. It uses a novel algorithm, which analyses the observed and expected fractions of node-specific k -mers to test the presence of each node in the sample. This allows StrainSeeker to determine where the isolate branches off the guide tree and assign it to a clade whereas other tools assign each read to a reference genome. Using a dataset of 100 Escherichia coli isolates, we demonstrate that StrainSeeker can predict the clades of E. coli with 92% accuracy and correct tree branch assignment with 98% accuracy. Twenty-five thousand Illumina HiSeq reads are sufficient for identification of the strain. StrainSeeker is a software program that identifies bacterial isolates by assigning them to nodes or leaves of a custom-made guide tree. StrainSeeker's web interface and pre-computed guide trees are available at http://bioinfo.ut.ee/strainseeker. Source code is stored at GitHub: https://github.com/bioinfo-ut/StrainSeeker.

  12. Representing metarepresentations: is there theory of mind-specific cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-03-01

    What cognitive mechanisms underlie Theory of Mind? Some infer domain-specific Theory of Mind cognition based the pattern of children diagnosed with autism failing the False Belief test but passing the False Photograph test. However, we argue that the False Belief test entails various task demands the False Photograph task does not, including the necessity to represent a higher-order representation (a metarepresentation), thus confounding the inference of domain-specificity. Instead, a general difficulty that affects representations of metarepresentations might account for the seeming domain-specific failure. Here we find that False-Belief failing False-Photograph passing children fail the Meta Photograph test, a new photograph-domain test that requires subjects to represent a metarepresentation. We conclude that people who fail the False Belief test but pass the False Photograph test do not necessarily have a content-specific Theory of Mind deficit. Instead, the general ability to represent representations and metarepresentations might underlie Theory of Mind.

  13. Strain Echocardiography Improves Risk Prediction of Ventricular Arrhythmias After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaa, Kristina H; Grenne, Bjørnar L; Eek, Christian H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that strain echocardiography might improve arrhythmic risk stratification in patients after myocardial infarction (MI).......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that strain echocardiography might improve arrhythmic risk stratification in patients after myocardial infarction (MI)....

  14. Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Paulson, Joseph Nathaniel; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-03-21

    Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains ( Enterobacter cloacae , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum , and Chryseobacterium indologenes ) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots. By using a selective culture-dependent method to track the abundance of each strain, we investigated the role that each plays in community assembly on roots of axenic maize seedlings. Only the removal of E. cloacae led to the complete loss of the community, and C. pusillum took over. This result suggests that E. cloacae plays the role of keystone species in this model ecosystem. In planta and in vitro, this model community inhibited the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , indicating a clear benefit to the host. Thus, combined with the selective culture-dependent quantification method, our synthetic seven-species community representing the root microbiome has the potential to serve as a useful system to explore how bacterial interspecies interactions affect root microbiome assembly and to dissect the beneficial effects of the root microbiota on hosts under laboratory conditions in the future.

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with reduced susceptibiliy to carbapenems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ambretti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced susceptibility to carbapenems in Gram-negative pathogens is an emerging feature of the antibiotic-resistance phenomenom Reports about strains resistant to this class of antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae, particularly in Klebsiella pneumoniae, are increasing.The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems in Bologna area and to carry out the characterization of these strains.The study included isolates of K. pneumoniae that showed reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, as detected by an automated system (Vitek2, bioMérieux. Between January and May 2009, 26 strains were collected (mainly isolated from urinary samples.These isolates were tested for susceptibility to carbapenems by E-test, to define MIC values for meropenem and ertapenem. Moreover, to detect the production of metallo-beta lactamases (MBL and carbapenemases (KPC were respectively performed the Etest with imipenem and imipenem/EDTA (IPM-IPM/EDTA and the modified Hodge test. Susceptibility assays performed by E-test showed that 25/26 strains were susceptible to meropenem, while for ertapenem 20/26 strains resulted resistant.The modified Hodge test was positive for 1 strain, while all the isolates were negative to the IPM-IPM/EDTA E-test.These results show that, as recently reported, the majority of strains of K. pneumoniae exhibiting reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, especially to ertapenem, are characterized by the production of ESBLs, which likely is associated with the loss of porins. On the other side, one strain was found to produce KPC and this finding confirms that the diffusion of carbapenemases producing K. pneumoniae has also to be considered in this geographic area.

  16. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Lichenysin is produced by most Bacillus licheniformis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madslien, E H; Rønning, H T; Lindbäck, T; Hassel, B; Andersson, M A; Granum, P E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of lichenysin production in Bacillus licheniformis and to see whether this feature was restricted to certain genotypes. Secondly, we wanted to see whether cytotoxicity reflected the measured levels of lichenysin. Fifty-three genotyped strains of B. licheniformis, representing a wide variety of sources, were included. lchAA gene fragments were detected in all strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All 53 strains produced lichenysins with four molecular masses as confirmed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) analysis. The amounts of lichenysin varied more than two orders of magnitude between strains and were irrespective of genotype. Finally, there was a strong association between lichenysin concentrations and toxicity towards boar spermatozoa, erythrocytes and Vero cells. Lichenysin synthesis was universal among the 53 B. licheniformis strains examined. The quantities varied considerably between strains, but were not specifically associated with genotype. Cytotoxicity was evident at lichenysin concentrations above 10 μg ml(-1) , which is in accordance with previous studies. This study might be of interest to those working on B. licheniformis for commercial use as well as for authorities who make risk assessments of B. licheniformis when used as a food and feed additive. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  19. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.; Ngugi, David; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba Alawi, Wail; Kamau, Allan; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated

  20. Antiproliferation effects and antioxidant activity of two new Lactobacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The microorganisms most commonly used as probiotics are lactic acid bacteria, especially those of the genus Lactobacillus. In the present study, two Lactobacillus strains, L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44, previously isolated from mulberry silage, were characterized for their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. The antiproliferative effects of the strains were investigated using the MTT assay with breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, liver cancer (HepG2 and normal liver (Chang cell lines. The strains were tested for their antioxidant activity using the FRAP and ABTS methods. The results showed that the two Lactobacillus strains had good antiproliferative effects against both cancer cell lines tested, while their effects on the normal cells were weak. Based on the results of the antioxidant tests, the intact cells and cell-free extracts of the two Lactobacillus strains showed more than 135 and less than 50 µg trolox/ml of antioxidant activity, respectively. Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 can be considered as potential probiotic candidates for humans because of their antioxidant activity and antiproliferation effects against cancer cells.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Bioactivities of Lactobacillus Strains as Potential Probiotics for Humans and Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, P; Jahromi, M F; Liang, J B; Sieo, C C; Kalavathy, R; Idrus, Z; Ho, Y W

    2017-11-01

    Twelve previously isolated Lactobacillus strains were investigated for their in vitro bioactivities, including bile salt hydrolase (BSH), cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, enzyme activity, and biogenic amine production. Among them, only 4 strains showed relatively high BSH activity, whereas the rest exhibited low BSH activity. All 12 strains showed cholesterol-reducing and antioxidant activities, especially in their intact cells, which in most of the cases, the isolated strains were stronger in these activities than the tested commercial reference strains. None of the tested strains produced harmful enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase) or biogenic amines. Among the 12 strains, 3 strains were tested for their cytotoxic effects against 3 cancer cell lines, which exhibited strong cytotoxic effects, and they also showed selectivity in killing cancer cells when compared to normal cells. Hence, all 12 Lactobacillus strains could be considered good potential probiotic candidates because of their beneficial functional bioactivities. The Lactobacillus strains tested in this study could be considered good potential probiotic candidates for food/feed industry because of their beneficial functional bioactivities such as good cholesterol-reducing ability, high antioxidant activity, and good and selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Microcrack Evolution and Associated Deformation and Strength Properties of Sandstone Samples Subjected to Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Feng Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of micro-cracks in rocks under different strain rates is of great importance for a better understanding of the mechanical properties of rocks under complex stress states. In the present study, a series of tests were carried out under various strain rates, ranging from creep tests to intermediate strain rate tests, so as to observe the evolution of micro-cracks in rock and to investigate the influence of the strain rate on the deformation and strength properties of rocks. Thin sections from rock samples at pre- and post-failure were compared and analyzed at the microscale using an optical microscope. The results demonstrate that the main crack propagation in the rock is intergranular at a creep strain rate and transgranular at a higher strain rate. However, intergranular cracks appear mainly around the quartz and most of the punctured grains are quartz. Furthermore, the intergranular and transgranular cracks exhibit large differences in the different loading directions. In addition, uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on the unbroken rock samples in the creep tests. A comparison of the stress–strain curves of the creep tests and the intermediate strain rate tests indicate that Young’s modulus and the peak strength increase with the strain rate. In addition, more deformation energy is released by the generation of the transgranular cracks than the generation of the intergranular cracks. This study illustrates that the conspicuous crack evolution under different strain rates helps to understand the crack development on a microscale, and explains the relationship between the micro- and macro-behaviors of rock before the collapse under different strain rates.

  3. A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for the identification of Micrococcaceae strains involved in meat fermentations. Its application to naturally fermented Italian sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, L; Manzano, M; Aggio, D; Cantoni, C; Comi, G

    2001-05-01

    A new molecular method consisting of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of a small fragment from the 16S rRNA gene identified the Micrococcaceae strains isolated from natural fermented Italian sausages. Lactic acid bacteria, total aerobic mesophilic flora, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal enterococci were also monitored. Micrococcaceaea control strains from international collections were used to optimise the method and 90 strains, isolated from fermented sausages, were identified by biochemical tests and PCR-DGGE. No differences were observed between the methods used. The results reported in this paper prove that Staphylococcus xylosus is the main bacterium involved in fermented sausage production, representing, from the tenth day of ripening, the only Micrococcaceaea species isolated.

  4. Genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains from China assessed by PCR-based fingerprints to unravel host plant- and site-dependent distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qing-Yun; Yin, Yan-Ni; Yang, Wei; Heuer, Holger; Prior, Philippe; Guo, Jian-Hua; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat to crop production in China. A collection of 319 R. solanacearum strains isolated from 14 different diseased host plants collected in 15 Chinese provinces was investigated by BOX fingerprints in order to test the influence of the site and the host plant on their genetic diversity. Phylotype, fliC-RFLP patterns and biovar were determined for all strains and the sequevar for 39 representative strains. The majority of strains belonged to the Asian phylotype I, shared identical fliC-RFLP patterns and were assigned to four biovars (bv3:123; bv4:162; bv5:3; and bv6:11). Twenty strains were phylotype II, assigned to biovar 2, and had distinct fliC-RFLP patterns. BOX-PCR fingerprints generated from the genomic DNA of each strain revealed a high diversity of the phylotype I strains, where 28 types of BOX fingerprints could be distinguished. While many BOX clusters comprised isolates from different provinces and several host plants, some groups contained isolates that were plant or site specific. All phylotype II isolates originating from 10 provinces belonged to sequevar 1 and displayed identical BOX patterns as the potato brown rot strains from various regions of the world. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  7. A new analytical method for estimating lumped parameter constants of linear viscoelastic models from strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new function, the apparent elastic modulus strain-rate spectrum, E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ), for the derivation of lumped parameter constants for Generalized Maxwell (GM) linear viscoelastic models from stress-strain data obtained at various compressive strain rates ( \\dot{ɛ}). The E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function was derived using the tangent modulus function obtained from the GM model stress-strain response to a constant \\dot{ɛ} input. Material viscoelastic parameters can be rapidly derived by fitting experimental E_{app} data obtained at different strain rates to the E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function. This single-curve fitting returns similar viscoelastic constants as the original epsilon dot method based on a multi-curve global fitting procedure with shared parameters. Its low computational cost permits quick and robust identification of viscoelastic constants even when a large number of strain rates or replicates per strain rate are considered. This method is particularly suited for the analysis of bulk compression and nano-indentation data of soft (bio)materials.

  8. Characterization and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Carminati, Domenico; Burns, Patricia; Suàrez, Viviana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    Ninety-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian and Argentinean cheeses were evaluated for probiotic potential. After a preliminary subtractive screening based on the presence of msa and bsh genes, 27 strains were characterized. In general, the selected strains showed high resistance to lysozyme, good adaptation to simulated gastric juice, and a moderate to low bile tolerance. The capacity to agglutinate yeast cells in a mannose-specific manner, as well as the cell surface hydrophobicity was found to be variable among strains. Very high β-galactosidase activity was shown by a considerable number of the tested strains, whereas variable prebiotic utilization ability was observed. Only tetracycline resistance was observed in two highly resistant strains which harbored the tetM gene, whereas none of the strains showed β-glucuronidase activity or was capable of inhibiting pathogens. Three strains (Lp790, Lp813, and Lp998) were tested by in vivo trials. A considerable heterogeneity was found among a number of L. plantarum strains screened in this study, leading to the design of multiple cultures to cooperatively link strains showing the widest range of useful traits. Among the selected strains, Lp790, Lp813, and Lp998 showed the best probiotic potential and would be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of probiotic fermented foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new approach for structural health monitoring by applying anomaly detection on strain sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichias, Konstantinos; Pijpers, Richard; Meeuwissen, Erik

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems help to monitor critical infrastructures (bridges, tunnels, etc.) remotely and provide up-to-date information about their physical condition. In addition, it helps to predict the structure's life and required maintenance in a cost-efficient way. Typically, inspection data gives insight in the structural health. The global structural behavior, and predominantly the structural loading, is generally measured with vibration and strain sensors. Acoustic emission sensors are more and more used for measuring global crack activity near critical locations. In this paper, we present a procedure for local structural health monitoring by applying Anomaly Detection (AD) on strain sensor data for sensors that are applied in expected crack path. Sensor data is analyzed by automatic anomaly detection in order to find crack activity at an early stage. This approach targets the monitoring of critical structural locations, such as welds, near which strain sensors can be applied during construction and/or locations with limited inspection possibilities during structural operation. We investigate several anomaly detection techniques to detect changes in statistical properties, indicating structural degradation. The most effective one is a novel polynomial fitting technique, which tracks slow changes in sensor data. Our approach has been tested on a representative test structure (bridge deck) in a lab environment, under constant and variable amplitude fatigue loading. In both cases, the evolving cracks at the monitored locations were successfully detected, autonomously, by our AD monitoring tool.

  10. Identification of strain-rate and thermal sensitive material model with an inverse method

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Peroni, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical inverse method to extract material strength parameters from the experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates and temperatures. It will be shown that this procedure is particularly useful to analyse experimental results when the stress-strain fields in the specimen cannot be correctly described via analytical models. This commonly happens in specimens with no regular shape, in specimens with a regular shape when some instability phenomena occur (for example the necking phenomena in tensile tests that create a strongly heterogeneous stress-strain fields) or in dynamic tests (where the strain-rate field is not constant due to wave propagation phenomena). Furthermore the developed procedure is useful to take into account thermal phenomena generally affecting high strain-rate tests due to the adiabatic overheating related to the conversion of plastic work. The method presented requires strong effort both from experimental and numerical point of view, an...

  11. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  12. Clonal relationship among Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.

  13. Research on the novel FBG detection system for temperature and strain field distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-chao; Yang, Jin-hua

    2017-10-01

    In order to collect the information of temperature and strain field distribution information, the novel FBG detection system was designed. The system applied linear chirped FBG structure for large bandwidth. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed as a linear change in thickness, in order to have a different response at different locations. It can obtain the temperature and strain field distribution information by reflection spectrum simultaneously. The structure of novel FBG cover was designed, and its theoretical function is calculated. Its solution is derived for strain field distribution. By simulation analysis the change trend of temperature and strain field distribution were analyzed in the conditions of different strain strength and action position, the strain field distribution can be resolved. The FOB100 series equipment was used to test the temperature in experiment, and The JSM-A10 series equipment was used to test the strain field distribution in experiment. The average error of experimental results was better than 1.1% for temperature, and the average error of experimental results was better than 1.3% for strain. There were individual errors when the strain was small in test data. It is feasibility by theoretical analysis, simulation calculation and experiment, and it is very suitable for application practice.

  14. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Genotypic and Phenotypic Assessment of Hyaluronidase among Type Strains of a Select Group of Staphylococcal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Hart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases degrade hyaluronic acid, a major polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix of tissues, and are considered important for virulence in a number of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hyaluronidase among clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and among other Staphylococcus species. Spent media and chromosomal DNA were assessed for hyaluronidase activity and the absence or presence of a hyaluronidase gene (hysA by Southern analysis, respectively. All S. aureus strains examined exhibited at least one hybridizing band (half of the strains exhibited two or more hybridizing bands when probed for hysA and all but three of these strains produced hyaluronidase. In contrast, none of the type strains of 19 other species exhibited either hyaluronidase activity or hybridizing bands when probed for hysA. These data support the hypothesis that among members of the Staphylococcus genus only strains of S. aureus possess the enzyme hyaluronidase. This would suggest that hyaluronidase represents yet another potential virulence factor employed by S. aureus to cause disease and may represent a diagnostically important characteristic for distinguishing S. aureus from other members of this genus.

  16. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  17. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Comparative drug susceptibility study of five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemantkumar Somabhai Chaudhari; Prati Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To produce comparative data on a group of Trichomonas vaginalis clonal strains with varied drug responses using identical methods and materials. Methods: Five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were isolated from reference strain using agar plate technique. The variability of growth kinetic and susceptibility of clonal strain to metronidazole, tinidazole, satranidazole and nitazoxanide were observed in 96 well microtitre plate. Results: Among these clonal strains there was a good correlation between rates of growth with the relative susceptibility of the strains to drugs in vitro. Regarding metronidazole, tinidazole and satranidazole susceptibility, different degrees of susceptibility were determined. However, no difference in nitazoxanide susceptibility was found between the clonal strain tested and a reference strain.Conclusions: This is the first description of biological variability in clonal stock of Trichomonas vaginalis. Different degrees of drug susceptibility were determined among clonal strains tested. Further studies will be necessary to ascertain the importance of this variability in clinical infection.

  19. Benchmarking multi-dimensional large strain consolidation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestley, D.; Fredlund, M.D.; Van Zyl, D.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the consolidation of tailings slurries and dredged fills requires a more extensive formulation than is used for common (small strain) consolidation problems. Large strain consolidation theories have traditionally been limited to 1-D formulations. SoilVision Systems has developed the capacity to analyze large strain consolidation problems in 2 and 3-D. The benchmarking of such formulations is not a trivial task. This paper presents several examples of modeling large strain consolidation in the beta versions of the new software. These examples were taken from the literature and were used to benchmark the large strain formulation used by the new software. The benchmarks reported here are: a comparison to the consolidation software application CONDES0, Townsend's Scenario B and a multi-dimensional analysis of long-term column tests performed on oil sands tailings. All three of these benchmarks were attained using the SVOffice suite. (author)

  20. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR