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Sample records for strain-specific preferential consumption

  1. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  2. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (pmusic (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Manipulation of GABA in the ventral pallidum, but not the nucleus accumbens, induces intense, preferential, fat consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, Ignacio R; Patel, Zaid I; Luviano, Jennifer A; Stratford, Thomas R; Wirtshafter, David

    2014-08-15

    Injections of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline into the medial ventral pallidum (VPm) induce marked increases in food intake, but nothing is known about the way in which these injections alter the distribution of intake in a macronutrient selection situation. We investigated this topic by adapting rats to a diet containing independent sources of protein, carbohydrate and fat, and then examining the effects of intra-VPm bicuculline on diet selection. Under these conditions, bicuculline produced a massive, preferential increase in fat intake with subjects consuming a mean of 97% of their calories from fat. Furthermore, all treated subjects ate fat before any other macronutrient, suggesting that the animals' behavior was directed selectively toward this dietary component even before consumption had begun. Similar effects were not observed following food deprivation, which exerted its largest effect on carbohydrate intake. To compare the intra-VPm bicuculline response to that seen after activation of GABA receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), a major source of projections to the VPm, we conducted similar experiments with intra-AcbSh injections of muscimol and baclofen. These injections also enhanced food intake, but did not reproduce the selective preference for fat seen after intra-VPm bicuculline. These experiments provide the first demonstration of preferential enhancement of fat intake following manipulations of a nonpeptide neurotransmitter. Since mean intakes of fat under baseline conditions and after deprivation tended to be lower than those of carbohydrates, it seems unlikely that the effects of intra-VPm bicuculline are related to the intrinsic "rewarding" properties of fat, but might rather reflect the induction of a state of "fat craving." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotics, D–Lactic acidosis, oxidative stress and strain specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease. The promotion of probiotics is often made in the absence of quality scientific and clinically plausible data. The latest incursions into the probiotic market of claims have posited the amelioration of oxidative stress via potent antioxidant attributes or limiting the administration of probiotics to those species that do not produce D-Lactic acid (i.e., claims that D-Lactic acid acidosis is linked to chronic health conditions) or are strain-specific (shaping an industry point of difference) for appraising a therapeutic effect. Evidence-based research should guide clinical practice, as there is no place in science and medicine that supports unsubstantiated claims. Extravagant industry based notions continue to fuel the imprimatur of distrust and skepticism that is leveled by scientists and clinicians at an industry that is already rife with scientific and medical distrust and questionable views on probiotics. Ignoring scientifically discordant data, when sorting through research innovations and false leads relevant to the actions of probiotics, drives researcher discomfit and keeps the bar low, impeding the progress of knowledge. Biologically plausible posits are obligatory in any research effort; companies formulating probiotics often exhibit a lack of analytical understanding that then fuels questionable investigations failing to build on research capacity. PMID:28080206

  5. Probiotics, D-Lactic acidosis, oxidative stress and strain specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Coulson, Samantha; Thomsen, Michael; Nguyen, Tony; Hall, Sean

    2017-07-04

    The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease. The promotion of probiotics is often made in the absence of quality scientific and clinically plausible data. The latest incursions into the probiotic market of claims have posited the amelioration of oxidative stress via potent antioxidant attributes or limiting the administration of probiotics to those species that do not produce D-Lactic acid (i.e., claims that D-Lactic acid acidosis is linked to chronic health conditions) or are strain-specific (shaping an industry point of difference) for appraising a therapeutic effect. Evidence-based research should guide clinical practice, as there is no place in science and medicine that supports unsubstantiated claims. Extravagant industry based notions continue to fuel the imprimatur of distrust and skepticism that is leveled by scientists and clinicians at an industry that is already rife with scientific and medical distrust and questionable views on probiotics. Ignoring scientifically discordant data, when sorting through research innovations and false leads relevant to the actions of probiotics, drives researcher discomfit and keeps the bar low, impeding the progress of knowledge. Biologically plausible posits are obligatory in any research effort; companies formulating probiotics often exhibit a lack of analytical understanding that then fuels questionable investigations failing to build on research capacity.

  6. Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Ewart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital gene expression (DGE profiling has become an established tool to study RNA expression. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of small RNA DGE profiles from two different rat strains (BN-Lx and SHR from six different rat tissues (spleen, liver, brain, testis, heart, kidney. We describe the expression patterns of known and novel micro (miRNAs and piwi-interacting (piRNAs. Results We confirmed the expression of 588 known miRNAs (54 in antisense orientation and identified 56 miRNAs homologous to known human or mouse miRNAs, as well as 45 new rat miRNAs. Furthermore, we confirmed specific A to I editing in brain for mir-376a/b/c and identified mir-377 as a novel editing target. In accordance with earlier findings, we observed a highly tissue-specific expression pattern for all tissues analyzed. The brain was found to express the highest number of tissue-specific miRNAs, followed by testis. Notably, our experiments also revealed robust strain-specific differential miRNA expression in the liver that is caused by genetic variation between the strains. Finally, we identified two types of germline-specific piRNAs in testis, mapping either to transposons or in strand-specific clusters. Conclusions Taken together, the small RNA compendium described here advances the annotation of small RNAs in the rat genome. Strain and tissue-specific expression patterns furthermore provide a strong basis for studying the role of small RNAs in regulatory networks as well as biological process like physiology and neurobiology that are extensively studied in this model system.

  7. Normal modal preferential consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available beyond the basic (propositional) KLM postulates, thereby making use of the additional expressivity provided by modal logic. In particular, we show that the additional constraints we impose on the preferential semantics ensure that the rule...

  8. Preferential role restrictions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ., Pozzato, G.: ALC+T : a preferential exten- sion of description logics. Fundamenta Informaticae 96(3), 341–372 (2009) 15. Giordano, L., Olivetti, N., Gliozzi, V., Pozzato, G.: A minimal model semantics for nonmonotonic reasoning. In: Proc. JELIA. pp. 228...

  9. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  10. The impact of strain-specific immunity on Lyme disease incidence is spatially heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchikian, Camilo E; Nadelman, Robert B; Nowakowski, John; Schwartz, Ira; Wormser, Gary P; Brisson, Dustin

    2017-12-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence. The estimated reduction in the number of Lyme disease cases is greater in epidemiologic models that explicitly include the spatial distribution of Lyme disease cases reported at the county level than those that utilize nationwide data. strain-specific immunity has the greatest epidemiologic impact in geographic areas with the highest Lyme disease incidence due to the greater proportion of people that have been previously infected and have developed strain-specific immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Strain-Specific Features of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Their Impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chiao; Caggianiello, Graziano; van Swam, Iris I; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strain-specific probiotic effects that are typically observed. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains, SF2A35B and Lp90, have an obvious ropy phenotype, implying high extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production levels. In this work, we set out to identify the genes involved in EPS production in these L. plantarum strains and to demonstrate their role in EPS production by gene deletion analysis. A model L. plantarum strain, WCFS1, and its previously constructed derivative that produced reduced levels of EPS were included as reference strains. The constructed EPS-reduced derivatives were analyzed for the abundance and sugar compositions of their EPS, revealing cps2-like gene clusters in SF2A35B and Lp90 responsible for major EPS production. Moreover, these mutant strains were tested for phenotypic characteristics that are of relevance for their capacity to interact with the host epithelium in the intestinal tract, including bacterial surface properties as well as survival under the stress conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (acid and bile stress). In addition, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and immunomodulatory capacities of the EPS-negative derivatives and their respective wild-type strains were compared, revealing strain-specific impacts of EPS on the immunomodulatory properties. Taken together, these experiments illustrate the importance of EPS in L. plantarum strains as a strain-specific determinant in host interaction. This study evaluates the role of extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the determination of the cell surface properties of these bacteria and their capacity to interact with their environment, including their

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains exhibit differential and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvubu, Nontobeko Eunice; Pillay, Balakrishna; Gamieldien, Junaid; Bishai, William; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-12-01

    Although pulmonary epithelial cells are integral to innate and adaptive immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, global transcriptomic changes in these cells remain largely unknown. Changes in gene expression induced in pulmonary epithelial cells infected with M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN, F11, F28, Beijing and Unique genotypes were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform generated 50 bp reads that were mapped to the human genome (Hg19) using Tophat (2.0.10). Differential gene expression induced by the different strains in infected relative to the uninfected cells was quantified and compared using Cufflinks (2.1.0) and MeV (4.0.9), respectively. Gene expression varied among the strains with the total number of genes as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (1187), Beijing (1252), F11 (1639), F28 (870), Unique (886) and H37Rv (1179). A subset of 292 genes was commonly induced by all strains, where 52 genes were down-regulated while 240 genes were up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes were compared among the strains and the number of induced strain-specific gene signatures were as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (138), Beijing (52), F11 (255), F28 (55), Unique (186) and H37Rv (125). Strain-specific molecular gene signatures associated with functional pathways were observed only for the Unique and H37Rv strains while certain biological functions may be associated with other strain signatures. This study demonstrated that strains of M. tuberculosis induce differential gene expression and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells. Specific signatures induced by clinical strains of M. tuberculosis can be further explored for novel host-associated biomarkers and adjunctive immunotherapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  15. Strain-specific patterns of autonomic nervous system activity and heart failure susceptibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Usiene, Irmute; Harrigal, Chivonne; Lee, Joon Sup; Kubota, Toru; Feldman, Arthur M; London, Barry

    2002-06-01

    Transgenic mice are widely used to study cardiac function, but strain-dependent differences in autonomic nervous system activity (ANSA) have not been explored. We compared 1) short-term pharmacological responses of cardiac rhythm in FVB vs. C57Black6/SV129 wild-type mice and 2) long-term physiological dynamics of cardiac rhythm and survival in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha transgenic mice with heart failure (TNF-alpha mice) on defined backgrounds. Ambulatory telemetry electrocardiographic recordings and response to saline, adrenergic, and cholinergic agents were examined in FVB and C57Black6/SV129 mice. In FVB mice, baseline heart rate (HR) was higher and did not change after injection of isoproterenol or atropine but decreased with propranolol. In C57Black6/SV129 mice, HR did not change with propranolol but increased with isoproterenol or atropine. Mean HR, but not indexes of HR variability, was an excellent predictor of response to autonomic agents. The proportion of surviving animals was higher in TNF-alpha mice on an FVB background than on a mixed FVB/C57Black6 background. The homeostatic states of ANSA are strain specific, which can explain the interstrain differences in mean HR, pharmacological responses, and survival of animals with congestive heart failure. Strain-specific differences should be considered in selecting the strains of mice used for transgenic and gene targeting experiments.

  16. Site and strain-specific variation in gut microbiota profiles and metabolism in experimental mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Friswell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM of mammals is a complex microbial consortium, the composition and activities of which influences mucosal development, immunity, nutrition and drug metabolism. It remains unclear whether the composition of the dominant GTM is conserved within animals of the same strain and whether stable GTMs are selected for by host-specific factors or dictated by environmental variables.The GTM composition of six highly inbred, genetically distinct strains of mouse (C3H, C57, GFEC, CD1, CBA nu/nu and SCID was profiled using eubacterial -specific PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR of feces. Animals exhibited strain-specific fecal eubacterial profiles that were highly stable (c. >95% concordance over 26 months for C57. Analyses of mice that had been relocated before and after maturity indicated marked, reproducible changes in fecal consortia and that occurred only in young animals. Implantation of a female BDF1 mouse with genetically distinct (C57 and Agoutie embryos produced highly similar GTM profiles (c. 95% concordance between mother and offspring, regardless of offspring strain, which was also reflected in urinary metabolite profiles. Marked institution-specific GTM profiles were apparent in C3H mice raised in two different research institutions.Strain-specific data were suggestive of genetic determination of the composition and activities of intestinal symbiotic consortia. However, relocation studies and uterine implantation demonstrated the dominance of environmental influences on the GTM. This was manifested in large variations between isogenic adult mice reared in different research institutions.

  17. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries...

  18. Strain-specific outcomes of repeated social defeat and chronic fluoxetine treatment in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Carboni, Lucia; Andreoli, Michela; Michielin, Francesca; Ballottari, Alice; Arban, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Social stress is a risk factor for affective disorders in vulnerable individuals. Although the biological nature of stress susceptibility/resilience remains to be elucidated, genetic variation is considered amongst the principal contributors to brain disorders. Furthermore, genetic predisposition may be determinant for the therapeutic outcome, as proposed for antidepressant treatments. In the present studies we compared the inherently diverse genetic backgrounds of 2 mouse strains by assessing the efficacy of a chronic antidepressant treatment in a repeated social stress procedure. C57BL/6J and BalbC mice underwent 10-day social defeats followed by 28-day fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/mL, p.o.). In C57BL/6J, most of the social defeat-induced changes were of metabolic nature including persistently altered feed efficiency and decreased abdominal fat stores that were ameliorated by fluoxetine. BalbC mouse behavior was persistently affected by social defeat both in the social avoidance and the forced swim tests, and in either procedure it was restored by chronic fluoxetine, whereas their endocrine parameters were mostly unaffected. The highlighted strain-specific responsivity to the metabolic and behavioral consequences of social defeat and to the chronic antidepressant treatment offers a promising research tool to further explore the underlying neural mechanisms and genetic basis of stress susceptibility and treatment response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic determination of the mosaic structure of bacterial genomes: species backbone versus strain-specific loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrault-Jacquemard A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public databases now contain multitude of complete bacterial genomes, including several genomes of the same species. The available data offers new opportunities to address questions about bacterial genome evolution, a task that requires reliable fine comparison data of closely related genomes. Recent analyses have shown, using pairwise whole genome alignments, that it is possible to segment bacterial genomes into a common conserved backbone and strain-specific sequences called loops. Results Here, we generalize this approach and propose a strategy that allows systematic and non-biased genome segmentation based on multiple genome alignments. Segmentation analyses, as applied to 13 different bacterial species, confirmed the feasibility of our approach to discern the 'mosaic' organization of bacterial genomes. Segmentation results are available through a Web interface permitting functional analysis, extraction and visualization of the backbone/loops structure of documented genomes. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we performed a precise analysis of the mosaic organization of three E. coli strains and functional characterization of the loops. Conclusion The segmentation results including the backbone/loops structure of 13 bacterial species genomes are new and available for use by the scientific community at the URL: http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/mosaic.

  20. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...

  1. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY)

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor; Pratiwi Pujilestari Sudarmono; Asmarani Kusumawati; Anis Karuniawati

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR) is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4), B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle...

  2. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  3. Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro

  4. Strain-Specificity and Disease-Specificity of Probiotic Efficacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne V. McFarland

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAs the use and diversity of probiotic products expands, the choice of an appropriate type of probiotic is challenging for both medical care professionals and the public alike. Two vital factors in choosing the appropriate probiotic are often ignored, namely, the probiotic strain-specificity and disease-specificity for efficacy. Reviews and meta-analyses often pool together different types of probiotics, resulting in misleading conclusions of efficacy.MethodsA systematic review of the literature (1970–2017 assessing strain-specific and disease-specific probiotic efficacy was conducted. Trials were included for probiotics with an identifiable strain (either single strain or mixtures of strains that had at least two randomized, controlled trials for each type of disease indication. The goal was to determine if probiotic strains have strain and/or disease-specific efficacy.ResultsWe included 228 trials and found evidence for both strain specificity and disease specificity for the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Significant efficacy evidence was found for 7 (70% of probiotic strain(s among four preventive indications and 11 (65% probiotic strain(s among five treatment indications. Strain-specific efficacy for preventing adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea was clearly demonstrated within the Lactobacillus species [e.g., by the mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+®, by L. casei DN114001 (Actimel® and by Lactobacillus reuteri 55730], while other Lactobacillus strains did not show efficacy. Significant disease-specific variations in efficacy was demonstrated by L. rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745, as well as other probiotic strains.ConclusionStrong evidence was found supporting the hypothesis that the efficacy of probiotics is both strain-specific and disease-specific. Clinical guidelines and meta-analyses need to recognize the

  5. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  6. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  7. Concept model semantics for DL preferential reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ., Olivetti, N., Gliozzi, V., Pozzato, G.: ALC +T : a preferential exten- sion of description logics. Fund. Informatica 96(3), 341{372 (2009) 7. Kraus, S., Lehmann, D., Magidor, M.: Nonmonotonic reasoning, preferential mod- els and cumulative logics. Arti...

  8. Semantic foundation for preferential description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Description logics are a well-established family of knowledge representation formalisms in Artificial Intelligence. Enriching description logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities, especially preferential reasoning as developed by Lehmann...

  9. Strain specific variation of outer membrane proteins of wild Yersinia pestis strains subjected to different growth temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Yersinia pestis strains isolated from humans and one laboratory strain (EV76 were grown in rich media at 28§C and 37§C and their outer membrane protein composition compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page. Several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 34 kDa to 7 kDa were observed to change in relative abundance in samples grown at different temperatures. At least seven Y. pestis outer membrane proteins showed a temperature-dependent and strain-specific behaviour. Some differences between the outer membrane proteins of full-pathogenic wild isolates and the EV76 strain could aldso be detected and the relevance of this finding on the use of laboratory strains as a reference to the study of Y. pestis biological properties is discuted.

  10. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus ferm...... FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9 respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5. They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p ... that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Strain-specific variation in a soilborne phytopathogenic fungus for the expression of genes involved in pH signal transduction pathway, pathogenesis and saprophytic survival in response to environmental pH changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, Stéphanie; Lebreton, Lionel; Gracianne, Cécile; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Boutin, Morgane; Marchi, Muriel; Gazengel, Kévin; Sarniguet, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) causes take-all, a wheat root disease. In an original strain-specific way, a previous study indicates that inside the Ggt species, some strains grow preferentially at acidic pH and other strains at neutral/alkaline pH. The most important mechanism for a fungal response to the environmental pH is the Pal pathway which integrates the products of the six pal genes and the transcription factor PacC. To evaluate whether the Ggt strain-specific growth in function of the ambient pH is mediated via the Pal pathway, a transcriptional study of the genes encoding this pathway was carried out. This study provided the first evidence that the pH signalling pathway similar to those described in other fungi operated in Ggt. The pacC gene was induced at neutral pH whatever the strain. In an original way, the expression of Ggt genes coding for the different Pal proteins depended on the strain and on the ambient pH. In the strain growing better at acidic pH, few pal genes were pH-regulated, and some were overexpressed at neutral pH when regulated. In the strain growing better at neutral pH, underexpression of most of the pal genes at neutral pH occurred. The strains displayed higher gene expression in the ambient pH that unfavoured their growth as if it was a compensation system. All pH taken together, a globally weaker Pal transcript level occurred in the strains that were less sensitive to acidic pH, and on the contrary, the strain growing better on neutral pH showed higher Pal mRNA levels. The expression of genes involved in pathogenesis and saprophytic growth was also regulated by the ambient pH and the strain: each gene displayed a specific pH-regulation that was similar between strains. But all pH taken together, the global transcript levels of four out of six genes were higher in the strain growing better on neutral pH. Altogether, for the first time, the results show that inside a species, conditions affecting

  12. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  13. A generalized theory of preferential linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-12-01

    There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.

  14. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  15. Comparing perceptual and preferential decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilh, Gilles; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    Perceptual and preferential decision making have been studied largely in isolation. Perceptual decisions are considered to be at a non-deliberative cognitive level and have an outside criterion that defines the quality of decisions. Preferential decisions are considered to be at a higher cognitive level and the quality of decisions depend on the decision maker's subjective goals. Besides these crucial differences, both types of decisions also have in common that uncertain information about the choice situation has to be processed before a decision can be made. The present work aims to acknowledge the commonalities of both types of decision making to lay bare the crucial differences. For this aim we examine perceptual and preferential decisions with a novel choice paradigm that uses the identical stimulus material for both types of decisions. This paradigm allows us to model the decisions and response times of both types of decisions with the same sequential sampling model, the drift diffusion model. The results illustrate that the different incentive structure in both types of tasks changes people's behavior so that they process information more efficiently and respond more cautiously in the perceptual as compared to the preferential task. These findings set out a perspective for further integration of perceptual and preferential decision making in a single ramework.

  16. Identifikasi Brucella abortus Isolat Lokal dengan Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN SPECIFIC-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus Strain Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (BaSS-PCR is a single multiplex PCRtechnique which able to identify and differentiate between Brucella abortus field strains (biovar 1, 2, and4, B. abortus vaccine strains, Brucella species, and non-Brucella species. In this study, BaSS-PCR wasapplied to identify local isolates of B. abortus in order to investigate the B. abortus strains that infectedcattle in Indonesia. Fifty local strains of B.abortus isolated from infected cattle in Java (Jakarta andBandung, South Sulawesi (Maros, East Nusa Tenggara (Kupang and Belu were used in this study. TheDNA bands were observed by agarose gel in the presence of ethidium bromide. Identification was performedbased on the size and number of DNA products amplified by PCR from each isolates. The results showedthat the 50 isolates were of B. abortus field strains. This finding showed that the cause of bovine brucellosisin Indonesia is B. abortus field strains.

  17. Preferential attachment in evolutionary earthquake networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Soghra; Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Darooneh, Amir Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Earthquakes as spatio-temporal complex systems have been recently studied using complex network theory. Seismic networks are dynamical networks due to addition of new seismic events over time leading to establishing new nodes and links to the network. Here we have constructed Iran and Italy seismic networks based on Hybrid Model and testified the preferential attachment hypothesis for the connection of new nodes which states that it is more probable for newly added nodes to join the highly connected nodes comparing to the less connected ones. We showed that the preferential attachment is present in the case of earthquakes network and the attachment rate has a linear relationship with node degree. We have also found the seismic passive points, the most probable points to be influenced by other seismic places, using their preferential attachment values.

  18. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  19. Reverse preferential spread in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Tani, Seiichi; Miyoshi, Naoto; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Large-degree nodes may have a larger influence on the network, but they can be bottlenecks for spreading information since spreading attempts tend to concentrate on these nodes and become redundant. We discuss that the reverse preferential spread (distributing information inversely proportional to the degree of the receiving node) has an advantage over other spread mechanisms. In large uncorrelated networks, we show that the mean number of nodes that receive information under the reverse preferential spread is an upper bound among any other weight-based spread mechanisms, and this upper bound is indeed a logistic growth independent of the degree distribution.

  20. Defeasible modes of inference: A preferential perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available . Hence UM = f(Mi; wj) j i 2 f1; 2g; j 2 f1; 2; 3; 4gg. We construct a preferential model (Definition 4) in which to check the satisfiability and truth of a few sentences. The purpose is to illustrate the semantics of our notion of defea- sibility... exceptional situations would the pile be on while the cooler is off, e.g. during a serious malfunction (states s7 and s8). In the preferential model P depicted above, one can check that s6 2 Jh^ p p f:hK: at s6 we have a hazardous situ- ation...

  1. Bifidobacterium breve M-16V as a Probiotic for Preterm Infants: A Strain-Specific Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye-Jape, Gayatri; Rao, Shripada; Simmer, Karen; Patole, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    Bifidobacterium breve M-16V has been used as a probiotic in preterm infants. Probiotic strain-specific data are essential to guide clinical practice. To assess effects of B breve M-16V in preterm neonates. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of B breve M-16V in preterm infants was conducted. Multiple databases, proceedings of Pediatric Academy Society, and other relevant conferences were searched in September 2016 and on January 5, 2017. Five RCTs (n = 482) and 4 non-RCTs (n = 2496) were included. Of the 5 RCTs, 4 carried high/unclear risk of bias in many domains. Meta-analysis (fixed effects model) of RCTs showed no significant benefits on stage ≥2 necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, mortality, and postnatal age at full feeds. Meta-analysis of non-RCTs showed significant benefits on (1) late-onset sepsis-3 studies (n = 2452), odds ratio = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.45-0.71), P breve M-16V. On Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation analysis, the overall quality of evidence was deemed very low. Current evidence is limited regarding the potential of B breve M-16V in preterm neonates. Adequately powered, preferably cluster RCTs are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669 once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment.

  3. Strain-specific consumption and transformation of alga-derived dissolved organic matter by members of the Limnohabitans-C and Polynucleobacter-B clusters of Betaproteobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, K.; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Grossart, H. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 11 (2017), s. 4519-4535 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacterial community composition * fresh- water reservoir * free amino-acids * extracellular products * marine-bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 5.395, year: 2016

  4. The Probabilistic Nature of Preferential Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieskamp, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has developed a variety of theories explaining when and why people's decisions under risk deviate from the standard economic view of expected utility maximization. These theories are limited in their predictive accuracy in that they do not explain the probabilistic nature of preferential choice, that is, why an individual makes…

  5. Preferential flow from pore to landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.; Larsbo, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, we give a brief personal overview of some recent progress in quantifying preferential flow in the vadose zone, based on our own work and those of other researchers. One key challenge is to bridge the gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (i.e. pore to Darcy scales) and the scales of interest for management (i.e. fields, catchments, regions). We present results of recent studies that exemplify the potential of 3-D non-invasive imaging techniques to visualize and quantify flow processes at the pore scale. These studies should lead to a better understanding of how the topology of macropore networks control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow under variable initial and boundary conditions. Extrapolation of this process knowledge to larger scales will remain difficult, since measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these larger scales are lacking. Recent work suggests that the application of key concepts from percolation theory could be useful in this context. Investigation of the larger Darcy-scale heterogeneities that generate preferential flow patterns at the soil profile, hillslope and field scales has been facilitated by hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help to parameterize models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  6. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for strain-specific exometabolomic responses of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi to grazing by the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey L Poulson-Ellestad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi forms massive blooms and plays a critical role in global elemental cycles, sequestering significant amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide on geological time scales via production of calcium carbonate coccoliths and emitting dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP which has the potential for increasing atmospheric albedo. Because grazing in pelagic systems is a major top-down force structuring microbial communities, the influence of grazers on E. huxleyi populations has been of interest to researchers. Roles of DMSP (and related metabolites in interactions between E. huxleyi and protist grazers have been investigated, however, little is known about the release of other metabolites that may influence, or be influenced by, such grazing interactions. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry in an untargeted approach to survey the suite of low molecular weight compounds released by four different E. huxleyi strains in response to grazing by the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Overall, a strikingly small number of metabolites were detected from E. huxleyi and O. marina cells, but these were distinctly informative to construct metabolic footprints. At most, E. huxleyi strains shared 25% of released metabolites. Furthermore, there appeared to be no unified metabolic response in E. huxleyi strains to grazing; rather these responses were strain specific. Concentrations of several metabolites also positively correlated with grazer activities, including grazing, ingestion, and growth rates; however, no single metabolite responded uniformly across all strains of E. huxleyi tested. Regardless, grazing clearly transformed the constituents of dissolved organic matter produced by these marine microbes. This study addresses several technical challenges, and presents a platform to further study the influence of chemical cues in aquatic systems and demonstrates the impact of strain diversity and grazing on the complexity of

  8. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Tripathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  9. Preferential acceleration in collisionless supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainebach, K.; Eichler, D.; Schramm, D.

    1979-01-01

    The preferential acceleration and resulting cosmic ray abundance enhancements of heavy elements (relative to protons) are calculated in the collisionless supernova shock acceleration model described by Eichler in earlier work. Rapidly increasing enhancements up to several tens times solar ratios are obtained as a function of atomic weight over charge at the time of acceleration. For material typical of hot phase interstellar medium, good agreement is obtained with the observed abundance enhancements

  10. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    to a limited body of empirical research on the effects of projected climate changes on forestry pathosystems, and is the first to investigate interactions between Norway spruce and E. polonica. The results indicate the potential for future climate changes to alter the impact of forest pathogens with implications for productivity, while highlighting the need for a strain-specific level of understanding of the disease agents.

  11. A novel system for tracking social preference dynamics in mice reveals sex- and strain-specific characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netser, Shai; Haskal, Shani; Magalnik, Hen; Wagner, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    employed our new experimental system to unravel previously unidentified sex- and strain-specific differences in the dynamics of social behavior in mice. Thus, the system presented here facilitates a more thorough and detailed analysis of social behavior in small rodent models, enabling a better comparison between strains and treatments.

  12. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition among Malian children immunized with a blood-stage malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available The blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, comprised of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 and the adjuvant system AS02A, had strain-specific efficacy against clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum with the vaccine strain 3D7 AMA1 sequence. To evaluate a potential correlate of protection, we measured the ability of participant sera to inhibit growth of 3D7 and FVO strains in vitro using high-throughput growth inhibition assay (GIA testing. Sera from 400 children randomized to receive either malaria vaccine or a control rabies vaccine were assessed at baseline and over two annual malaria transmission seasons after immunization. Baseline GIA against vaccine strain 3D7 and FVO strain was similar in both groups, but more children in the malaria vaccine group than in the control group had 3D7 and FVO GIA activity ≥15% 30 days after the last vaccination (day 90 (49% vs. 16%, p<0.0001; and 71.8% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.02. From baseline to day 90, 3D7 GIA in the vaccine group was 7.4 times the mean increase in the control group (p<0.0001. In AMA1 vaccinees, 3D7 GIA activity subsequently returned to baseline one year after vaccination (day 364 and did not correlate with efficacy in the extended efficacy time period to day 730. In Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates, there was a slight suggestion of an association between 3D7 GIA activity and increased risk of clinical malaria between day 90 and day 240. We conclude that vaccination with this AMA1-based malaria vaccine increased inhibition of parasite growth, but this increase was not associated with allele-specific efficacy in the first malaria season. These results provide a framework for testing functional immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria in field trials, and will help to guide similar analyses for next-generation malaria vaccines. Clinical trials registry: This clinical trial was registered on clinicaltrials

  13. Preferential Attachment in Online Networks: Measurement and Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunegis, J; Blattner, M; Moser, C.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an empirical study of the preferential attachment phenomenon in temporal networks and show that on the Web, networks follow a nonlinear preferential attachment model in which the exponent depends on the type of network considered. The classical preferential attachment model for networks

  14. Preferential treatment and exemption policy impacts energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the preferential treatment and exemption policy of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for State and State Agencies which creates an anticompetitive and restraint of trade attitude in California against the development of alternative energy resources by the private sector when such development competes directly with state owned power generation under the State Water and Central Valley Water Projects, particularly in the area of water and power supply. The existing state water policy fails to address the effects of global warming and the adverse potential of the greenhouse effect in California, i.e. rising tides can seriously impact sea water intrusion problems of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Area by not only flooding agricultural lands in the Delta and Central Valley, but impacting the supply of water to large population areas in Southern and Northern California, especially when coupled with drought conditions. The California investigative research results herein reported demonstrates the fallacy of a preferential treatment and exemption policy in a free market economy, especially when such policy creates the potential for excessive state budget burdens upon the public in the face of questionable subsidies to special interest, i.e., allowing the resulting windfall profits to be passed onto major utilities and commingled at the expense of public interest so as to undermine the financial means for development of alternative energy resources. The cited Congressional and State Legislative Laws which provide the ways and means to resolve any energy or water resource problems are only as good as the enforcement and the commitment by the executive branch of government and the lawmakers to up-hold existing laws

  15. Genome sequences of lower Great Lakes Microcystis sp. reveal strain-specific genes that are present and expressed in western Lake Erie blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony Meyer

    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M. wesenbergii LE013-01 and one from upstream Lake St. Clair (M. cf aeruginosa LSC13-02, and compared these data to the genomes of seventeen Microcystis spp. from across the globe as well as one metagenome and seven metatranscriptomes from a 2014 Lake Erie Microcystis bloom. For the publically available strains analyzed, the core genome is ~1900 genes, representing ~11% of total genes in the pan-genome and ~45% of each strain's genome. The flexible genome content was related to Microcystis subclades defined by phylogenetic analysis of both housekeeping genes and total core genes. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that the flexible genome is linked to the core genome of the Microcystis species complex. The majority of strain-specific genes were present and expressed in bloom communities in Lake Erie. Roughly 8% of these genes from the lower Great Lakes are involved in genome plasticity (rapid gain, loss, or rearrangement of genes and resistance to foreign genetic elements (such as CRISPR-Cas systems. Intriguingly, strain-specific genes from Microcystis cultured from around the world were also present and expressed in the Lake Erie blooms, suggesting that the Microcystis pangenome is truly global. The presence and expression of flexible genes, including strain-specific genes, suggests that strain-level genomic diversity may be important in maintaining Microcystis abundance during bloom events.

  16. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  17. Modeling online social networks based on preferential linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hai-Bo; Chen Jun; Guo Jin-Li

    2012-01-01

    We study the phenomena of preferential linking in a large-scale evolving online social network and find that the linear preference holds for preferential creation, preferential acceptance, and preferential attachment. Based on the linear preference, we propose an analyzable model, which illustrates the mechanism of network growth and reproduces the process of network evolution. Our simulations demonstrate that the degree distribution of the network produced by the model is in good agreement with that of the real network. This work provides a possible bridge between the micro-mechanisms of network growth and the macrostructures of online social networks

  18. The response dynamics of preferential choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gregory J; Johnson, Joseph G

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquity of psychological process models requires an increased degree of sophistication in the methods and metrics that we use to evaluate them. We contribute to this venture by capitalizing on recent work in cognitive science analyzing response dynamics, which shows that the bearing information processing dynamics have on intended action is also revealed in the motor system. This decidedly "embodied" view suggests that researchers are missing out on potential dependent variables with which to evaluate their models-those associated with the motor response that produces a choice. The current work develops a method for collecting and analyzing such data in the domain of decision making. We first validate this method using widely normed stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (Experiment 1), and demonstrate that curvature in response trajectories provides a metric of the competition between choice options. We next extend the method to risky decision making (Experiment 2) and develop predictions for three popular classes of process model. The data provided by response dynamics demonstrate that choices contrary to the maxim of risk seeking in losses and risk aversion in gains may be the product of at least one "online" preference reversal, and can thus begin to discriminate amongst the candidate models. Finally, we incorporate attentional data collected via eye-tracking (Experiment 3) to develop a formal computational model of joint information sampling and preference accumulation. In sum, we validate response dynamics for use in preferential choice tasks and demonstrate the unique conclusions afforded by response dynamics over and above traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed network generation based on preferential attachment in ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Azadbakht (Keyvan); N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGeneration of social networks using Preferential Attachment (PA) mechanism is proposed in the Barabasi-Albert model. In this mechanism, new nodes are introduced to the network sequentially and they attach to the existing nodes preferentially where the preference can be based on the

  20. Early detection of preferential channeling in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane applications often experience fouling, which prevent uniform flow distribution through the feed water compartments, i.e. preferential channeling may occur. This research shows the effect of preferential channeling on energy generation from mixing salt water and fresh water using reverse

  1. Preferentially Cytotoxic Constituents of Andrographis paniculata and their Preferential Cytotoxicity against Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sullim; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anticancer agents based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the 70% EtOH extract of the crude drug Andrographis Herba (aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata), used in Japanese Kampo medicines, killed PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM). Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract led to the isolation of 21 known compounds consisting of six labdane-type diterpenes (11, 15, 17-19, 21), six flavones (5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 20), three flavanones (2, 6, 16), two sterols (3, 8), a fatty acid (1), a phthalate (4), a triterpene (9), and a monoterpene (13). Among them, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) displayed the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells with PC50 values of 10.0 μM and 9.27 μM, respectively. Microscopical observation, double staining with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO), and flow cytometry with propidium iodide/annexin V double staining indicated that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) triggered apoptosis-like cell death in NDM with an amino acids and/or serum-sensitive mode.

  2. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  3. Pre-crisis mouse cells show strain-specific covariation in the amount of 54-kilodalton phosphoprotein and in susceptibility to transformation by simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Blanck, G; Pollack, R E

    1983-09-01

    We have used several inbred mouse strains to examine the role of the 54-kilodalton (kDa) cellular phosphoprotein in transformation by the papovavirus simian virus 40. We have measured the endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein in cells obtained from these inbred mouse strains. To study the effect of passage, cell cultures were measured for amount of the 54-kDa phosphoprotein at the 2nd and 12th passages. In the absence of any transforming agent, the amount of endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein in early pre-crisis mouse cells varied in a strain-specific way. Transformation frequency varied coordinately with endogenous 54-kDa expression. Mouse strains whose cells produced a high level of endogenous 54-kDa phosphoprotein on passage did not further increase its expression after simian virus 40 transformation.

  4. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary......Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have...

  5. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness...... of the relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land...

  6. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargués Tobella, A; Reese, H; Almaw, A; Bayala, J; Malmer, A; Laudon, H; Ilstedt, U

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands. Trees in dryland landscapes increase soil infiltrability and preferential flow Termite mounds in association with trees further enhance preferential flow.

  7. The effect of trees on preferential flow and soil infiltrability in an agroforestry parkland in semiarid Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargués Tobella, A.; Reese, H.; Almaw, A.; Bayala, J.; Malmer, A.; Laudon, H.; Ilstedt, U.

    2014-04-01

    Water scarcity constrains the livelihoods of millions of people in tropical drylands. Tree planting in these environments is generally discouraged due to the large water consumption by trees, but this view may neglect their potential positive impacts on water availability. The effect of trees on soil hydraulic properties linked to groundwater recharge is poorly understood. In this study, we performed 18 rainfall simulations and tracer experiments in an agroforestry parkland in Burkina Faso to investigate the effect of trees and associated termite mounds on soil infiltrability and preferential flow. The sampling points were distributed in transects each consisting of three positions: (i) under a single tree, (ii) in the middle of an open area, and (iii) under a tree associated with a termite mound. The degree of preferential flow was quantified through parameters based on the dye infiltration patterns, which were analyzed using image analysis of photographs. Our results show that the degree of preferential flow was highest under trees associated with termite mounds, intermediate under single trees, and minimal in the open areas. Tree density also had an influence on the degree of preferential flow, with small open areas having more preferential flow than large ones. Soil infiltrability was higher under single trees than in the open areas or under trees associated with a termite mound. The findings from this study demonstrate that trees have a positive impact on soil hydraulic properties influencing groundwater recharge, and thus such effects must be considered when evaluating the impact of trees on water resources in drylands.

  8. Conceptualization of preferential flow for hillslope stability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukemilks, Karlis; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Saks, Tomas; Brunner, Philip

    2018-03-01

    This study uses two approaches to conceptualize preferential flow with the goal to investigate their influence on hillslope stability. Synthetic three-dimensional hydrogeological models using dual-permeability and discrete-fracture conceptualization were subsequently integrated into slope stability simulations. The slope stability simulations reveal significant differences in slope stability depending on the preferential flow conceptualization applied, despite similar small-scale hydrogeological responses of the system. This can be explained by a local-scale increase of pore-water pressures observed in the scenario with discrete fractures. The study illustrates the critical importance of correctly conceptualizing preferential flow for slope stability simulations. It further demonstrates that the combination of the latest generation of physically based hydrogeological models with slope stability simulations allows for improvement to current modeling approaches through more complex consideration of preferential flow paths.

  9. Emergence of global preferential attachment from local interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Menghui; Fan Ying; Wu Jinshan; Di Zengru; Gao Liang

    2010-01-01

    Global degree/strength-based preferential attachment is widely used as an evolution mechanism of networks. But it is hard to believe that any individual can get global information and shape the network architecture based on it. In this paper, it is found that the global preferential attachment emerges from the local interaction models, including the distance-dependent preferential attachment (DDPA) evolving model of weighted networks (Li et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 72), the acquaintance network model (Davidsen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 128701) and the connecting nearest-neighbor (CNN) model (Vazquez 2003 Phys. Rev. E 67 056104). For the DDPA model and the CNN model, the attachment rate depends linearly on the degree or vertex strength, whereas for the acquaintance network model, the dependence follows a sublinear power law. It implies that for the evolution of social networks, local contact could be more fundamental than the presumed global preferential attachment.

  10. Preferential attachment in the evolution of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elofsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological networks show some characteristics of scale-free networks. Scale-free networks can evolve through preferential attachment where new nodes are preferentially attached to well connected nodes. In networks which have evolved through preferential attachment older nodes should have a higher average connectivity than younger nodes. Here we have investigated preferential attachment in the context of metabolic networks. Results The connectivities of the enzymes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli were determined and representatives for these enzymes were located in 11 eukaryotes, 17 archaea and 46 bacteria. E. coli enzymes which have representatives in eukaryotes have a higher average connectivity while enzymes which are represented only in the prokaryotes, and especially the enzymes only present in βγ-proteobacteria, have lower connectivities than expected by chance. Interestingly, the enzymes which have been proposed as candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than the other enzymes. Furthermore, It was found that new edges are added to the highly connected enzymes at a faster rate than to enzymes with low connectivities which is consistent with preferential attachment. Conclusion Here, we have found indications of preferential attachment in the metabolic network of E. coli. A possible biological explanation for preferential attachment growth of metabolic networks is that novel enzymes created through gene duplication maintain some of the compounds involved in the original reaction, throughout its future evolution. In addition, we found that enzymes which are candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than other enzymes. This indicates that while new enzymes are attached preferentially to highly connected enzymes, these highly connected enzymes have sometimes been introduced into the E. coli genome by horizontal gene transfer. We speculate

  11. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  12. Preferential flow through intact soil cores: Effects of matrix head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, H.W.; Gaber, H.M.; Wraith, J.M.; Huwe, B.; Inskeep, W.P.

    1999-12-01

    Continuous soil pores may act as pathways for preferential flow depending on their size and water status (filled or drained), the latter being largely controlled by the soil matrix head (h). The literature contains a wide range of proposed minimal pore sizes that may contribute to preferential flow. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between h (and corresponding pore sizes) and preferential solute transport in a naturally structured soil. Tracer ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O and pentafluorobenzoic acid, [PFBA]) miscible displacement experiments were performed at several h values in intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 30-cm length) using an apparatus especially suited to maintain constant h while collecting large effluent volumes. To test for the occurrence of preferential flow, observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) were evaluated for physical nonequilibrium (PNE) using a comparison between fitted local equilibrium (PNE) and PNE models. Fitting results of the observed BTCs indicated absence of PNE in all solute transport experiments at h {le} {minus}10 cm. Experiments at h {ge} {minus}5 cm consistently exhibited PNE conditions, indicating the presence of preferential flow. These results suggest that soil pores with effective radii of 150 {micro}m and smaller (water-filled at h = {minus}10 cm) do not contribute to preferential flow. Observed pore water velocities were not indicative of the presence or absence of preferential flow conditions. Continuous measurements of soil water content ({theta}) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) revealed that at h = {minus}10 cm, <2% of the soil volume had drained.

  13. A rapid NMR-based method for discrimination of strain-specific cell wall teichoic acid structures reveals a third backbone type in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Satoru; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2017-03-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is capable of producing strain-specific structures of cell wall teichoic acid (WTA), an anionic polysaccharide found in the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall. In this study, we established a rapid, NMR-based procedure to discriminate WTA structures in this species, and applied it to 94 strains of L. plantarum. Six previously reported glycerol- and ribitol-containing WTA subtypes were successfully identified from 78 strains, suggesting that these were the dominant structures. However, the level of structural variety differed markedly among bacterial sources, possibly reflecting differences in strain-level microbial diversity. WTAs from eight strains were not identified based on NMR spectra and were classified into three groups. Structural analysis of a partial degradation product of an unidentified WTA produced by strain TUA 1496L revealed that the WTA was 1-O-β-d-glucosylglycerol. Two-dimensional NMR analysis of the polymer structure showed phosphodiester bonds between C-3 and C-6 of the glycerol and glucose residues, suggesting a polymer structure of 3,6΄-linked poly(1-O-β-d-glucosyl-sn-glycerol phosphate). This is the third WTA backbone structure in L. plantarum, following 3,6΄-linked poly(1-O-α-d-glucosyl-sn-glycerol phosphate) and 1,5-linked poly(ribitol phosphate). © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Interspecific cooperation: enhanced growth, attachment and strain-specific distribution in biofilms through Azospirillum brasilense-Pseudomonas protegens co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Salcedo, Florencia; Maroniche, Guillermo; Keel, Christoph; Valverde, Claudio; Creus, Cecilia M

    2016-10-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria belonging to Azospirillum and Pseudomonas genera are major inhabitants of the rhizosphere. Both are increasingly commercialized as crops inoculants. Interspecific interaction in the rhizosphere is critical for inoculants aptness. The objective of this work was to evaluate Azospirillum and Pseudomonas interaction in mixed biofilms by co-cultivation of the model strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and Pseudomonas protegens CHA0. The results revealed enhanced growth of both strains when co-cultured in static conditions. Moreover, Sp245 biofilm formed in plastic surfaces was increased 2-fold in the presence of CHA0. Confocal microscopy revealed highly structured mixed biofilms showing Sp245 mainly on the bottom and CHA0 towards the biofilm surface. In addition, A. brasilense biofilm was thicker and denser when co-cultured with P. protegens. In a colony-colony interaction assay, Sp245 changed nearby CHA0 producing small colony phenotype, which accounts for a diffusible metabolite mediator; though CHA0 spent medium did not affect Sp245 colony phenotype. Altogether, these results point to a cooperative interaction between A. brasilense Sp245 and P. protegens CHA0 in which both strains increase their static growth and produce structured mixed biofilms with a strain-specific distribution. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  16. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  17. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  18. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  19. Current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nick

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we give an overview of current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone. A review of the literature suggests that current generation models do not fully reflect the present state of process understanding and empirical knowledge of preferential flow. We believe that the development of improved models will be stimulated by the increasingly widespread application of novel imaging technologies as well as future advances in computational power and numerical techniques. One of the main challenges in this respect is to bridge the large gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (pore to Darcy scales) and the scale of interest for management (fields, catchments, regions). Studies at the pore scale are being supported by the development of 3-D non-invasive imaging and numerical simulation techniques. These studies are leading to a better understanding of how macropore network topology and initial/boundary conditions control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow. Extrapolation of this knowledge to larger scales would require support from theoretical frameworks such as key concepts from percolation and network theory, since we lack measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these large scales. Linked hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data enable investigation of the larger-scale heterogeneities that can generate preferential flow patterns at pedon, hillslope and field scales. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help in parameterizing models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  20. Preferential ascus discharge during cross maturation in Sordaria brevicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D J; Bond, D J

    1974-02-01

    Crosses involving spore color mutants of Sordaria brevicollis all showed a decline in the frequency of second division asymmetric asci (2:2:2:2's) as the cross matured. This decline was due to the preferential maturation and/or discharge of these asci. The proportion of spindle overlap and recombinational asci within the group did not change as shown by ascus dissection. The preferential discharge was also found to occur in two-point crosses where the asci did not contain wild-type spores.

  1. A Weighted Evolving Network with Community Size Preferential Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Zhiwei; Shan Erfang

    2010-01-01

    Community structure is an important characteristic in real complex network. It is a network consists of groups of nodes within which links are dense but among which links are sparse. In this paper, the evolving network include node, link and community growth and we apply the community size preferential attachment and strength preferential attachment to a growing weighted network model and utilize weight assigning mechanism from BBV model. The resulting network reflects the intrinsic community structure with generalized power-law distributions of nodes' degrees and strengths.

  2. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Srutkova

    Full Text Available Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis.Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952 and CCDM 372 (Bl 372 were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo.The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum.We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD.

  3. A strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR for Australian rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses uncovers a new recombinant virus variant in rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R N; Mahar, J E; Read, A J; Mourant, R; Piper, M; Huang, N; Strive, T

    2018-04-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI.1a strain, GI.1a-K5 (also known as 08Q712), was released nationwide in March 2017 as a supplementary tool for wild rabbit management. To discriminate between these lagoviruses, a highly sensitive strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed, which allows fast, cost-effective and sensitive detection of the four pathogenic lagoviruses currently known to be circulating in Australia. In addition, we developed a universal RT-qPCR assay to be used in conjunction with the multiplex assay that broadly detects all four viruses and facilitates quantification of viral RNA load in samples. These assays enable rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic lagoviruses in the Australian context. Using these assays, a novel recombinant lagovirus was detected in rabbit tissue samples, which contained the non-structural genes of GI.1a-Aus and the structural genes of GI.2. This variant was also recovered from the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The impact of this novel recombinant on Australian wild lagomorph populations and its competitiveness in relation to circulating field strains, particularly GI.2, requires further studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Sensitivity of the green alga Pediastrum duplex Meyen to allelochemicals is strain-specific and not related to co-occurrence with allelopathic macrophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Eigemann

    Full Text Available Interspecific differences in the response of microalgae to stress have numerous ecological implications. However, little is known of intraspecific sensitivities and the potential role of local genetic adaptation of populations. We compared the allelochemical sensitivity of 23 Pediastrum duplex Meyen strains, a common component of the freshwater phytoplankton. In order to test for local genetic adaptation, strains were isolated from water bodies with and without the allelopathically-active submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum. Strains were assigned to P. duplex on the basis of cell shape and colony morphology and only P. duplex strains that belonged to the same lineage in an ITS rDNA phylogeny were used. Inhibition of strain growth rates and maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured after exposure to tannic acid (TA and co-culture with Myriophyllum spicatum. Growth rate inhibition varied over one order of magnitude between the P. duplex strains. There was no correlation between the presence of Myriophyllum in the source location and the sensitivity of the strains to TA or the presence of Myriophyllum, suggesting that at least strong unidirectional local adaptation to Myriophyllum had not taken place in the studied water bodies. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II of TA exposed algae decreased, whereas the yield of algae exposed to M. spicatum was slightly higher than that of the controls. The ranking of P. duplex strain sensitivities differed between the types of exposure (single additions of TA versus co-existence with M. spicatum and the parameter measured (growth rate versus maximum quantum yield, emphasizing the importance of measuring multiple traits when analysing strain-specific sensitivities towards allelochemicals. The observation that sensitivities to allelochemicals vary widely among strains of a single freshwater algal species should be taken into account if evaluating ecological consequences of allelopathic

  5. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of /=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children.

  6. Novel polymorphisms within the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus in rat: a putative genetic basis for strain-specific allelic gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The imprinted iodothyronine deiodinase-III (Dio3 thyroid hormone metabolizing gene exhibits paternal expression in most fetal tissues, yet exhibits aberrant, maternal expression in the hippocampus in F1 offspring of Sprague Dawley (SD x Brown Norway (BN rats. The maternal hippocampal expression is associated with lower Dio3 mRNA levels specifically in the hippocampus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms between the SD and BN parent strains cause this aberrant allelic Dio3 expression and contribute to behavioral sequelae of higher thyroid hormone levels locally in the hippocampus, including anxiety-related behavior. We mapped and sequenced the Dio3 gene and several previously unmapped regions in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus that could regulate imprinting of the Dio3 gene. In the Dio3 promoter we identified four novel polymorphisms between the BN and SD strains. Next we took advantage of the fact that the Long Evans (LE strain exhibits identical polymorphisms as the SD strain in the region 5’ and including the Dio3 gene. By reciprocally crossing LE and BN strains we tested the relationship among Dio3 promoter region polymorphisms and Dio3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Aberrant strain-specific hippocampal Dio3 allelic expression replicated in the LE-BN reciprocal crosses, suggesting that hippocampal-specific imprinting of the Dio3 gene is not the result of a unique genetic or epigenetic characteristic of the SD rat strain, or a unique epistatic interaction between SD and BN. To our knowledge no other studies have reported a genetic x epigenetic interaction of genetic origin in the brain.

  7. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Ann Sattler

    Full Text Available A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350 in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days. With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  8. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3) cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5) cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7) cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5) cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  9. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  10. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  11. Preferential interactions and the effect of protein PEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Kasimova, Marina Robertovna

    2015-01-01

    enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active...

  12. Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianjun; Gao Ziyou; Sun Huijun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

  13. Growth of preferential attachment random graphs via continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preferential attachment processes have a long history dating back at least to Yule ... We remark that some connections to branching and continuous-time Markov ..... convenience, we provide a short proof of Lemma 2.1 in the general form in ...

  14. The impact of preferential procurement in South African construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of preferential procurement in South African construction industry. ... The outcome of this study shows that there are problems in the implementation of PPPFA during tendering and procurement processes and procedures for achieving success in government projects. Key words: HDIs, PPPFA, Policies, ...

  15. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  16. Estimating preferential flow in karstic aquifers using statistical mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Angel A; Padilla, Ingrid; Macchiavelli, Raul; Vesper, Dorothy J; Meeker, John D; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers are highly productive groundwater systems often associated with conduit flow. These systems can be highly vulnerable to contamination, resulting in a high potential for contaminant exposure to humans and ecosystems. This work develops statistical models to spatially characterize flow and transport patterns in karstified limestone and determines the effect of aquifer flow rates on these patterns. A laboratory-scale Geo-HydroBed model is used to simulate flow and transport processes in a karstic limestone unit. The model consists of stainless steel tanks containing a karstified limestone block collected from a karst aquifer formation in northern Puerto Rico. Experimental work involves making a series of flow and tracer injections, while monitoring hydraulic and tracer response spatially and temporally. Statistical mixed models (SMMs) are applied to hydraulic data to determine likely pathways of preferential flow in the limestone units. The models indicate a highly heterogeneous system with dominant, flow-dependent preferential flow regions. Results indicate that regions of preferential flow tend to expand at higher groundwater flow rates, suggesting a greater volume of the system being flushed by flowing water at higher rates. Spatial and temporal distribution of tracer concentrations indicates the presence of conduit-like and diffuse flow transport in the system, supporting the notion of both combined transport mechanisms in the limestone unit. The temporal response of tracer concentrations at different locations in the model coincide with, and confirms the preferential flow distribution generated with the SMMs used in the study. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  18. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  19. Separation of enantiomers by continuous preferential crystallization: Experimental realization using a coupled crystallizer configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The experimental realization of a continuous preferential crystallization process, consisting of two mixed-flow crystallizers coupled via crystal-free liquid exchange streams and with only the liquid phases operating continuously, is addressed. Experiments in triplicate, using the conglomerate....... Successful enantioseparation by crystal growth, with the repeatability being within ±10% deviation, was obtained. However, slow crystal growth, due to a low surface integration rate, led to a negligible consumption of the desired enantiomer added in the feed solution, resulting in low productivities....... Productivities, yields, and purities of solid products were influenced by the morphological differences in the seed crystals. Due to irregularly shaped seed crystals, increase in the productivities and yields were achieved in the L-Tank. Lower purities of solid products from the L-Tank compared to purities...

  20. A new method for the characterization of strain-specific conformational stability of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant PrPSc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirisinu

    Full Text Available Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrP(Sc, a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrP(C. Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrP(Sc. However, PrP(Sc is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrP(C and PrP(Sc by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA was then developed by measuring PrP(Sc solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl](1/2 values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl](1/2 values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M, followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M. In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrP(Sc, we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrP(Sc aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrP(Sc conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc and that it is a valuable tool

  1. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  2. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  3. Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...

  4. Preferential growth in FeCoV/Ti:N multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The preferential growth in Fe{sub 0.50}Co{sub 0.48}V{sub 0.02}/Ti:N multilayers was studied by X-ray diffraction. X-ray specular reflectometry and subsequent simulation of the spectra was used to extract information about the thickness and interface roughness of individual layers. The investigation gives structural information about the material combination and its potential for the use of neutron polarizers. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  5. Bioclogging in Porous Media: Preferential Flow Paths and Anomalous Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, M.; Carrel, M.; Morales, V.; Derlon, N.; Beltran, M. A.; Morgenroth, E.; Kaufmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microorganisms held together by an extracellular polymeric substance that enables surface colonization. In porous media (e.g. soils, trickling filters etc.) biofilm growth has been shown to affect the hydrodynamics in a complex fashion at the pore-scale by clogging individual pores and enhancing preferential flow pathways and anomalous transport. These phenomena are a direct consequence of microbial growth and metabolism, mass transfer processes and complex flow velocity fields possibly exhibiting pronounced three-dimensional features. Despite considerable past work, however, it is not fully understood how bioclogging interacts with flow and mass transport processes in porous media. In this work we use imaging techniques to determine the flow velocities and the distribution of biofilm in a porous medium. Three-dimensional millimodels are packed with a transparent porous medium and a glucose solution to match the optical refractive index. The models are inoculated with planktonic wildtype bacteria and biofilm cultivated for 60 h under a constant flow and nutrient conditions. The pore flow velocities in the increasingly bioclogged medium are measured using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The three-dimensional spatial distribution of the biofilm within the pore space is assessed by imaging the model with X-Ray microtomography. We find that biofilm growth increases the complexity of the pore space, leading to the formation of preferential flow pathways and "dead" pore zones. The probability of persistent high and low velocity regions (within preferential paths resp. stagnant flow regions) thus increases upon biofilm growth, leading to an enhancement of anomalous transport. The structural data seems to indicate that the largest pores are not getting clogged and carry the preferential flow, whereas intricated structures develop in the smallest pores, where the flow becomes almost stagnant. These findings may be relevant for

  6. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  7. Preferential adsorption of uranium ions in aqueous solutions by polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Masako; Ichimura, Kunihiro; Fujishige, Shoei; Kato, Masao

    1981-01-01

    Amidoxime fiber and triazine fiber were prepared by chemical modification of commercially available polyacrylonitril fiber. It was found that the Amidoxime fiber is efficient to adsorb uranium ions in the artificial sea water. The efficiency of the preferential adsorption decreases by treatment the material with an acid-or an alkaline-solution. The triazine fiber adsorbs uranium ions only in aqueous solutions of such uranyl acetate, in the absence of other ions. In the artificial sea water, it adsorbs other ions instead of uranium. The preferential adsorption of uranium ions was further investigated with a series of polystyrenesulfonamides. Among the polystyrene derivatives, those having carboxyl groups, derived from imino diacetic acid (PSt-Imi), β-alanine (PSt-Ala), glycine (PSt-Gly), and sarcosine (PSt-Sar) were qualified for further discussion. However, it was found that the amount of adsorption of uranium ions by PSt-Imi decreases with increasing the volume of the artificial sea water and/or the duration of the treatment. Taking into account the facts, the preferential adsorption of uranium ions by PSt-Imi in aqueous solution was discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Formal requirements for exclusion of the preferential right to shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A preferential subscription right to shares is a subjective property right of a shareholder based on which he or she has a preferential right of subscription to shares from a new issue in proportion to the number of fully paid-in shares of that class he or she holds on the date of adoption of the decision on issuing of shares compared with the total number of shares of that class. However, this right of a shareholder can be completely or partially excluded, if formal and substantial requirements for such exclusion are met. This paper focuses primarily on analysis of formal requirements for exclusion envisaged by the Serbian Law on Companies with a brief review of EU law and comparative law. According to the Serbian Law on Companies, there are three formal requirements for exclusion of a preferential subscription right: 1. shares are issued through the offer for which there is no obligation to publish a prospectus; 2. there is a written proposal for exclusion from the Board of Directors, or of the Supervisory Board if a company has a two-tier management system; 3. the exclusion is based on a decision of the General Meeting of the Joint-stock company. With regards formal requirements, the paper concentrates on several weaknesses of the Serbian Law on Companies which considerably undermine the position of the so-called small shareholders.

  9. Preferential and Non-Preferential Approaches to Trade Liberalization in East Asia: What Differences Do Utilization Rates and Reciprocity Make?

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Jayant

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on the impacts of free trade agreements (FTAs) in East Asia have assumed full utilization of preferences. The evidence suggests that this assumption is seriously in error, with the estimated uptake particularly low in East Asia. In this paper, we assume a more realistic utilization rate in estimating impacts. We find that actual utilization rates significantly diminish the benefits from preferential liberalization, but in a non-linear way. Reciprocity is an important motivati...

  10. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  11. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.; Li, Yan; Cathles, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  12. Using DC electrical resistivity tomography to quantify preferential flow in fractured rock environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    May, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . This investigation aims to identify preferential flow paths in fractured rock environments. Time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (TLERT, Lund Imaging System), is regarded as a suitable method for identifying preferential water flow....

  13. Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Debieche, T.H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification

  14. Numerical modeling of the effect of preferential flow on hillslope hydrology and slope stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of the influence of preferential flow on landslide-triggering in potentially unstable slopes. Preferential flow paths (e.g., cracks, macropores, fissures, pipes, etc.) commonly exists in slopes. Flow velocities in preferential flow paths can be

  15. Innovation and nested preferential growth in chess playing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, J. I.; Jo, H.-H.; Schaigorodsky, A. L.; Billoni, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    Complexity develops via the incorporation of innovative properties. Chess is one of the most complex strategy games, where expert contenders exercise decision making by imitating old games or introducing innovations. In this work, we study innovation in chess by analyzing how different move sequences are played at the population level. It is found that the probability of exploring a new or innovative move decreases as a power law with the frequency of the preceding move sequence. Chess players also exploit already known move sequences according to their frequencies, following a preferential growth mechanism. Furthermore, innovation in chess exhibits Heaps' law suggesting similarities with the process of vocabulary growth. We propose a robust generative mechanism based on nested Yule-Simon preferential growth processes that reproduces the empirical observations. These results, supporting the self-similar nature of innovations in chess are important in the context of decision making in a competitive scenario, and extend the scope of relevant findings recently discovered regarding the emergence of Zipf's law in chess.

  16. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  17. Stationary and nonstationary properties of evolving networks with preferential linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezewski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Networks evolving by preferential attachment of both external and internal links are investigated. The rate of adding an external link is assumed to depend linearly on the degree of a preexisting node to which a new node is connected. The process of creating an internal link, between a pair of existing vertices, is assumed to be controlled entirely by the vertex that has more links than the other vertex in the pair, and the rate of creation of such a link is assumed to be, in general, nonlinear in the degree of the more strongly connected vertex. It is shown that degree distributions of networks evolving only by creating internal links display for large degrees a nonstationary power-law decay with a time-dependent scaling exponent. Nonstationary power-law behaviors are numerically shown to persist even when the number of nodes is not fixed and both external and internal connections are introduced, provided that the rate of preferential attachment of internal connections is nonlinear. It is argued that nonstationary effects are not unlikely in real networks, although these effects may not be apparent, especially in networks with a slowly varying mean degree

  18. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ''an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'' It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research

  19. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  20. Affecting factors of preferential flow in the forest of the Three Gorges area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinhua; ZHANG Hongjiang; HE Fan; QI Shenglin; SUN Yanhong; ZHANG Youyan; SHI Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the factors affecting preferential flow,a 2.9 m-long,2.6 m-deep soil profile was dug in the Quxi watershed,Yangtze River.To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow,the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.Soil physical and infiltration characteristics were also measured to study their effect on preferential flow.The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area,namely gradually dropping rain,even rain,sudden rain and peak rain.Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.It was determined that with different rainfall types,preferential flow appeared at different times,occurring first in peak rain,followed by sudden rain,gradually dropping rain,and then even rain.Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.In the studied area,the coarse soil particles increased with the soil depth,and for the deeper soil layer,the coarse particles promote the formation of preferential flow.Preferential flow accelerates the steady infiltration rate in the 83-110 cm soil horizon,and the quickly moving water in this horizon also enhanced the further formation and development of preferential flow.

  1. Protein-solvent preferential interactions, protein hydration, and the modulation of biochemical reactions by solvent components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timasheff, Serge N

    2002-07-23

    Solvent additives (cosolvents, osmolytes) modulate biochemical reactions if, during the course of the reaction, there is a change in preferential interactions of solvent components with the reacting system. Preferential interactions can be expressed in terms of preferential binding of the cosolvent or its preferential exclusion (preferential hydration). The driving force is the perturbation by the protein of the chemical potential of the cosolvent. It is shown that the measured change of the amount of water in contact with protein during the course of the reaction modulated by an osmolyte is a change in preferential hydration that is strictly a measure of the cosolvent chemical potential perturbation by the protein in the ternary water-protein-cosolvent system. It is not equal to the change in water of hydration, because water of hydration is a reflection strictly of protein-water forces in a binary system. There is no direct relation between water of preferential hydration and water of hydration.

  2. Monkeys preferentially process body information while viewing affective displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Machado, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Despite evolutionary claims about the function of facial behaviors across phylogeny, rarely are those hypotheses tested in a comparative context-that is, by evaluating how nonhuman animals process such behaviors. Further, while increasing evidence indicates that humans make meaning of faces by integrating contextual information, including that from the body, the extent to which nonhuman animals process contextual information during affective displays is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) process dynamic affective displays of conspecifics that included both facial and body behaviors. Contrary to hypotheses that they would preferentially attend to faces during affective displays, monkeys looked for longest, most frequently, and first at conspecifics' bodies rather than their heads. These findings indicate that macaques, like humans, attend to available contextual information during the processing of affective displays, and that the body may also be providing unique information about affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Network evolution by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2011-06-01

    The mathematical framework for small-world networks proposed in a seminal paper by Watts and Strogatz sparked a widespread interest in modeling complex networks in the past decade. However, most of research contributing to static models is in contrast to real-world dynamic networks, such as social and biological networks, which are characterized by rearrangements of connections among agents. In this paper, we study dynamic networks evolved by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges. The total numbers of vertices and edges of the network are conserved, but edges are continuously rewired according to the nonlinear preference. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents α and β, the network structures in stationary states display a distinct behavior, depending only on β. For β>1, the network is highly heterogeneous with the emergence of starlike structures. For β<1, the network is widely homogeneous with a typical connectivity. At β=1, the network is scale free with an exponential cutoff.

  4. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  5. Seeking a preferential option for the rural poor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Dew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From colonial times well into the twentieth century (and, unfortunately, even beyond the man/land relationship in Latin America has been markedly unjust. Small numbers of families have owned large tracts of the best land, while large numbers of poor families have struggled with tiny plots of marginal land or labored on the estates of the rich. Chile was no exception to this pattern. Thus, its experiment with land reform in the 1960s and 1970s, the setback of reform under the military in the 1970s and 1980s, and the resumption of reform under democrats in the 1990s, may provide lessons for the rest of Latin America. Is a preferential option for the rural poor still possible in a neoliberal economic system? In Chile, the answer is a qualified “yes”

  6. Personalized recommendation based on preferential bidirectional mass diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Gao, Tianrun; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Yang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Recommendation system provides a promising way to alleviate the dilemma of information overload. In physical dynamics, mass diffusion has been used to design effective recommendation algorithms on bipartite network. However, most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on unidirectional mass diffusion from collected objects to uncollected objects, while overlooking the opposite direction, leading to the risk of similarity estimation deviation and performance degradation. In addition, they are biased towards recommending popular objects which will not necessarily promote the accuracy but make the recommendation lack diversity and novelty that indeed contribute to the vitality of the system. To overcome the aforementioned disadvantages, we propose a preferential bidirectional mass diffusion (PBMD) algorithm by penalizing the weight of popular objects in bidirectional diffusion. Experiments are evaluated on three benchmark datasets (Movielens, Netflix and Amazon) by 10-fold cross validation, and results indicate that PBMD remarkably outperforms the mainstream methods in accuracy, diversity and novelty.

  7. A preferential coating technique for fabricating large, high quality optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, S.G.; Cockerton, S.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge facing optic manufacturers is the fabrication of large mirrors (>1 m) with minimal residual slope errors (<0.5 μrad rms). We present a differential coating method with the potential to satisfy such exacting technical demands. Iterative cycles of measurement using the Diamond-NOM, followed by preferential deposition, were performed on a 1200 mm long, silicon mirror. The applied coatings were observed to reduce the optical slope and figure errors from 1.62 to 0.44 μrad rms, and from 208 to 13 nm rms, respectively. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercially available products, of direct benefit to the Synchrotron, Free Electron Laser, Astronomy, Space, and Laser communities, who all require state-of-the-art optics.

  8. An algorithm for preferential selection of spectroscopic targets in LEGUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Lépine, Sébastien; Deng Licai; Chen Yuqin; Fu Xiaoting; Gao Shuang; Li Jing; Liu Chao; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Grillmair, Carl J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Han Zhanwen; Hou Jinliang; Lee, Hsu-Tai; Liu Xiaowei; Pan Kaike; Sellwood, J. A.; Wang Hongchi

    2012-01-01

    We describe a general target selection algorithm that is applicable to any survey in which the number of available candidates is much larger than the number of objects to be observed. This routine aims to achieve a balance between a smoothly-varying, well-understood selection function and the desire to preferentially select certain types of targets. Some target-selection examples are shown that illustrate different possibilities of emphasis functions. Although it is generally applicable, the algorithm was developed specifically for the LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE) survey that will be carried out using the Chinese Guo Shou Jing Telescope. In particular, this algorithm was designed for the portion of LEGUE targeting the Galactic halo, in which we attempt to balance a variety of science goals that require stars at fainter magnitudes than can be completely sampled by LAMOST. This algorithm has been implemented for the halo portion of the LAMOST pilot survey, which began in October 2011.

  9. Complex networks as an emerging property of hierarchical preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Laurence, Edward; Allard, Antoine; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J.

    2015-12-01

    Real complex systems are not rigidly structured; no clear rules or blueprints exist for their construction. Yet, amidst their apparent randomness, complex structural properties universally emerge. We propose that an important class of complex systems can be modeled as an organization of many embedded levels (potentially infinite in number), all of them following the same universal growth principle known as preferential attachment. We give examples of such hierarchy in real systems, for instance, in the pyramid of production entities of the film industry. More importantly, we show how real complex networks can be interpreted as a projection of our model, from which their scale independence, their clustering, their hierarchy, their fractality, and their navigability naturally emerge. Our results suggest that complex networks, viewed as growing systems, can be quite simple, and that the apparent complexity of their structure is largely a reflection of their unobserved hierarchical nature.

  10. Preferential emission into epsilon-near-zero metamaterial [Invited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Jacob, Zubin; Menon, Vinod M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial to control spontaneous emission from Zinc-Oxide (ZnO) excitons. The ENZ material consists of alternating layers of silver and alumina with subwavelength thicknesses, resulting in an effective medium where one of the components of the dielectric constant approach zero between 370nm-440nm wavelength range. Bulk ZnO with photoluminescence maximum in the ENZ regime was deposited via atomic layer deposition to obtain a smooth film with near field coupling to the ENZ metamaterial. Preferential emission from the ZnO layer into the metamaterial with suppression of forward emission by 90% in comparison to ZnO on silicon is observed. We attribute this observation to the presence of dispersionless plasmonic modes in the ENZ regime as shown by the results of theoretical modeling presented here. Integration of ENZ metamaterials with light emitters is an attractive platform for realizing a low threshold subwavelength laser

  11. Cyclosporin A preferentially attenuates skeletal slow-twitch muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyabara E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, is associated with muscle regeneration via NFATc1/GATA2-dependent pathways. However, it is not clear whether calcineurin preferentially affects the regeneration of slow- or fast-twitch muscles. We investigated the effect of a calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, on the morphology and fiber diameter of regenerating slow- and fast-twitch muscles. Adult Wistar rats (259.5 ± 9 g maintained under standard conditions were treated with CsA (20 mg/kg body weight, ip for 5 days, submitted to cryolesion of soleus and tibialis anterior (TA muscles on the 6th day, and then treated with CsA for an additional 21 days. The muscles were removed, weighed, frozen, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Cryolesion did not alter the body weight gain of the animals after 21 days of regeneration (P = 0.001 and CsA significantly reduced the body weight gain (15.5%; P = 0.01 during the same period. All treated TA and soleus muscles showed decreased weights (17 and 29%, respectively, P < 0.05. CsA treatment decreased the cross-sectional area of both soleus and TA muscles of cryoinjured animals (TA: 2108 ± 930 vs 792 ± 640 µm²; soleus: 2209 ± 322 vs 764 ± 439 m²; P < 0.001. Histological sections of both muscles stained with Toluidine blue revealed similar regenerative responses after cryolesion. In addition, CsA was able to minimize these responses, i.e., centralized nuclei and split fibers, more efficiently so in TA muscle. These results indicate that calcineurin preferentially plays a role in regeneration of slow-twitch muscle.

  12. Preferential inclusion of extrachromosomal genetic elements in yeast meiotic spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1980-09-01

    During meiosis and sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extrachromosomal traits are efficiently transmitted to haploid spores. Although the pattern of inheritance of chromosomal traits reflects the mechanism of regular chromosomal segregation in meiosis, it is not known what processes are reflected by the efficient inheritance of extrachromosomal traits. Because extrachromosomal genetic elements in yeast are present in multiple copies, perpetuation of an extrachromosomal trait could occur by the passive envelopment of a subset of copies or by an active sequestering of all or a subset of copies within the four spores. We show that only subsets of the four extrachromosomal nucleic acids commonly found in yeast are transmitted through meiosis--55% of mitochondrial DNA copies, 82% of the 2-micron DNA plasmids, and about 70% of the L and M double-stranded RNAs. However, electron micrographs of serial sections through yeast asci indicate that the four spore enclose only 30% of the total ascus material. Thus these extrachromosomal elements are preferentially included within the spores, indicating that their inheritance is not a random process. Transmission of mitochondrial DNA can be accounted for by the observed enclosure of 52% of the mitochondrial volume within the spores. The high transmission frequencies of the double-stranded RNAs (which exist as virus-like particles in the cytoplasm) and 2-micron DNA must indicate that either these nucleic acids are actively recruited from the cytoplasm by some mechanism or they are associated in some way with the nucleus during meiosis.

  13. Maximum entropy networks are more controllable than preferential attachment networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Lvlin; Small, Michael; Lao, Songyang

    2014-01-01

    A maximum entropy (ME) method to generate typical scale-free networks has been recently introduced. We investigate the controllability of ME networks and Barabási–Albert preferential attachment networks. Our experimental results show that ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same size and the same degree distribution. Moreover, the control profiles are used to provide insight into control properties of both classes of network. We identify and classify the driver nodes and analyze the connectivity of their neighbors. We find that driver nodes in ME networks have fewer mutual neighbors and that their neighbors have lower average degree. We conclude that the properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. Hence, subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks of the same degree distribution. - Highlights: • The controllability of maximum entropy (ME) and Barabási–Albert (BA) networks is investigated. • ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same degree distribution. • The properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. • Subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks

  14. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Michael J.; Albelda, M. Teresa; Frias, Juan C.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron; Arai, Andrew E.; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  15. Effect of reactor heat transfer limitations on CO preferential oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X.; Besser, R. S.

    Our recent studies of CO preferential oxidation (PrOx) identified systematic differences between the characteristic curves of CO conversion for a microchannel reactor with thin-film wall catalyst and conventional mini packed-bed lab reactors (m-PBR's). Strong evidence has suggested that the reverse water-gas-shift (r-WGS) side reaction activated by temperature gradients in m-PBR's is the source of these differences. In the present work, a quasi-3D tubular non-isothermal reactor model based on the finite difference method was constructed to quantitatively study the effect of heat transport resistance on PrOx reaction behavior. First, the kinetic expressions for the three principal reactions involved were formed based on the combination of experimental data and literature reports and their parameters were evaluated with a non-linear regression method. Based on the resulting kinetic model and an energy balance derived for PrOx, the finite difference method was then adopted for the quasi-3D model. This model was then used to simulate both the microreactor and m-PBR's and to gain insights into their different conversion behavior. Simulation showed that the temperature gradients in m-PBR's favor the reverse water-gas-shift (r-WGS) reaction, thus causing a much narrower range of permissible operating temperature compared to the microreactor. Accordingly, the extremely efficient heat removal of the microchannel/thin-film catalyst system eliminates temperature gradients and efficiently prevents the onset of the r-WGS reaction.

  16. Short-ranged memory model with preferential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L.; Perotti, Juan I.; Almeira, Nahuel; Billoni, Orlando V.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we introduce a variant of the Yule-Simon model for preferential growth by incorporating a finite kernel to model the effects of bounded memory. We characterize the properties of the model combining analytical arguments with extensive numerical simulations. In particular, we analyze the lifetime and popularity distributions by mapping the model dynamics to corresponding Markov chains and branching processes, respectively. These distributions follow power laws with well-defined exponents that are within the range of the empirical data reported in ecologies. Interestingly, by varying the innovation rate, this simple out-of-equilibrium model exhibits many of the characteristics of a continuous phase transition and, around the critical point, it generates time series with power-law popularity, lifetime and interevent time distributions, and nontrivial temporal correlations, such as a bursty dynamics in analogy with the activity of solar flares. Our results suggest that an appropriate balance between innovation and oblivion rates could provide an explanatory framework for many of the properties commonly observed in many complex systems.

  17. Functional hierarchy underlies preferential connectivity disturbances in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Repovs, Grega; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-01-12

    Schizophrenia may involve an elevated excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown how this regulatory disturbance maps onto neuroimaging findings. To address this issue, we implemented E/I perturbations within a neural model of large-scale functional connectivity, which predicted hyperconnectivity following E/I elevation. To test predictions, we examined resting-state functional MRI in 161 schizophrenia patients and 164 healthy subjects. As predicted, patients exhibited elevated functional connectivity that correlated with symptom levels, and was most prominent in association cortices, such as the fronto-parietal control network. This pattern was absent in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 73). To account for the pattern observed in schizophrenia, we integrated neurobiologically plausible, hierarchical differences in association vs. sensory recurrent neuronal dynamics into our model. This in silico architecture revealed preferential vulnerability of association networks to E/I imbalance, which we verified empirically. Reported effects implicate widespread microcircuit E/I imbalance as a parsimonious mechanism for emergent inhomogeneous dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  18. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Michael J., E-mail: mjlipinski12@gmail.com [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Albelda, M. Teresa [GIBI2" 3" 0, Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Imagen, IIS La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Frias, Juan C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain); Anderson, Stasia A. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Arai, Andrew E. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Epstein, Stephen E. [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  19. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  20. Partial preferential chromosome pairing is genotype dependent in tetraploid rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Peter M; Arens, Paul; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, G Danny; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Santos Leonardo, Tiago; Wissink, Patrick; Zheng, Chaozhi; van Geest, Geert; Visser, Richard G F; Krens, Frans A; Smulders, Marinus J M; Maliepaard, Chris

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognised that polyploid species do not always neatly fall into the categories of auto- or allopolyploid, leading to the term 'segmental allopolyploid' to describe everything in between. The meiotic behaviour of such intermediate species is not fully understood, nor is there consensus as to how to model their inheritance patterns. In this study we used a tetraploid cut rose (Rosa hybrida) population, genotyped using the 68K WagRhSNP array, to construct an ultra-high-density linkage map of all homologous chromosomes using methods previously developed for autotetraploids. Using the predicted bivalent configurations in this population we quantified differences in pairing behaviour among and along homologous chromosomes, leading us to correct our estimates of recombination frequency to account for this behaviour. This resulted in the re-mapping of 25 695 SNP markers across all homologues of the seven rose chromosomes, tailored to the pairing behaviour of each chromosome in each parent. We confirmed the inferred differences in pairing behaviour among chromosomes by examining repulsion-phase linkage estimates, which also carry information about preferential pairing and recombination. Currently, the closest sequenced relative to rose is Fragaria vesca. Aligning the integrated ultra-dense rose map with the strawberry genome sequence provided a detailed picture of the synteny, confirming overall co-linearity but also revealing new genomic rearrangements. Our results suggest that pairing affinities may vary along chromosome arms, which broadens our current understanding of segmental allopolyploidy. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  2. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  3. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  4. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  5. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. II. Strain-specificity of the suppressive activity of serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune low responder mouse donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.H.; Tung, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    IgE antibody production in mice of high and low IgE responder phenotypes, respectively, can be appreciably enhanced in magnitude after low-dose whole-body x irradiation. Such enhanced responses, as well as adoptive secondary IgE responses, can be markedly suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum in low responder strains, but not in high responder strains. The studies presented here demonstrate that the suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum on IgE antibody production is strain specific. This is true even in reciprocal combinations of low IgE responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice, in which it was shown that serum capable of suppressing mice of the isologous strain was ineffective in diminishing IgE antibody production in the other low responder strain. Absence of suppressive activity in CFA-immune sera obtained from H-2 haplotypes while sharing many similarities in the background genome and, conversely, effective suppressive activity of H-2 congenic donor sera when H-2-identities between donor and recipient mice existed, strongly suggested a role, at least in part, of H-2 genes in dictating the strain specificity of such suppressive activity. Additional experiments provided evidence for a possible role of macrophages in catabolism of the active molecules in CFA-immune sera. These observations, together with those presented in the preceding paper, may provide valuable insight toward successful development of appropriate manipulations that could ultimately convert high IgE responder individuals into low responders

  6. Preferential flow in water-repellent sandy soils : model development and lysimeter experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.

    1996-01-01


    When water enters a water-repellent topsoil, preferential flow paths develop and the flow bypasses a large part of the unsaturated zone. Therefore, preferential flow caused by water- repellency is expected to accelerate solute leaching to the groundwater. In soils with water-repellent

  7. Spreading dynamics of an e-commerce preferential information model on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei; Liu, Xiongding

    2017-02-01

    In order to study the influence of the preferential degree and the heterogeneity of underlying networks on the spread of preferential e-commerce information, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-beneficial model based on scale-free networks. The spreading dynamics of the preferential information are analyzed in detail using the mean-field theory. We determine the basic reproductive number and equilibria. The theoretical analysis indicates that the basic reproductive number depends mainly on the preferential degree and the topology of the underlying networks. We prove the global stability of the information-elimination equilibrium. The permanence of preferential information and the global attractivity of the information-prevailing equilibrium are also studied in detail. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical results.

  8. KEPLER EXOPLANET CANDIDATE HOST STARS ARE PREFERENTIALLY METAL RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Laughlin, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We find that Kepler exoplanet candidate (EC) host stars are preferentially metal rich, including the low-mass stellar hosts of small-radius ECs. The last observation confirms a tentative hint that there is a correlation between the metallicity of low-mass stars and the presence of low-mass and small-radius exoplanets. In particular, we compare the J-H-g-r color-color distribution of Kepler EC host stars with a control sample of dwarf stars selected from the ∼150, 000 stars observed during Q1 and Q2 of the Kepler mission but with no detected planets. We find that at J - H = 0.30 characteristic of solar-type stars, the average g-r color of stars that host giant ECs is 4σ redder than the average color of the stars in the control sample. At the same J - H color, the average g-r color of solar-type stars that host small-radius ECs is indistinguishable from the average color of the stars in the control sample. In addition, we find that at J - H = 0.62 indicative of late K dwarfs, the average g-r color of stars that host small-radius ECs is 4σ redder than the average color of the stars in the control sample. These offsets are unlikely to be caused by differential reddening, age differences between the two populations, or the presence of giant stars in the control sample. Stellar models suggest that the first color offset is due to a 0.2 dex enhancement in [Fe/H] of the giant EC host population at M * ∼ 1 M sun , while Sloan photometry of M 67 and NGC 6791 suggests that the second color offset is due to a similar [Fe/H] enhancement of the small-radius EC host population at M * ∼ 0.7 M sun . These correlations are a natural consequence of the core-accretion model of planet formation.

  9. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  10. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Najeeb M.; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G.; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A.; Malek, Joel A.; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26735499

  11. Preferential Price and Trade Tied Aid in Fiji: Implications on Price ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pacific island countries (PICs) have been receiving the highest percapita aid .... dimension of the preferential price by examining the role of forecast price as an ..... Abbot, D and S. Pollard (2004) Hardship and Poverty in the Pacific, Asian.

  12. Inert Carbon Nanoparticles for the Assessment of Preferential Flow in Saturated Dual-Permeability Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Zhao, Yushi; Lei, Guanglun; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Cathles, Lawrence M.

    2017-01-01

    appropriately, nanoparticles together with a chemical tracer can assess the preferential flow in heterogeneous environments. The results also implement the dual tracer tests in heterogeneous environments by simultaneously injecting chemical and nanoparticle

  13. A summary of the theory of the preferential sputtering of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.; Harrison, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Preferential sputtering of alloys arises from mass differences, chemical binding differences and bombardment-induced gibbsian segregation. The relations underlying the mass effect, the chemical binding effect and bombardment-induced gibbsian segregation in binary alloys are given. (Auth.)

  14. Quantification of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153 in the rhizosphere of maize by strain-specific real-time PCR unaffected by the variability of DNA extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Felten, Andreas; Défago, Geneviève; Maurhofer, Monika

    2010-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113 and CHA0 are well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) often used as model strains in biocontrol experiments. To monitor their persistence in large scale field experiments, culture-independent methods are needed. In this study, a strain-specific real-time PCR quantification tool was developed based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) for P. fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153. Differences in DNA extraction efficiencies from rhizosphere samples were circumvented using plasmid APA9 as internal standard to normalize C(T) values after real-time amplification. The detection limits of the real-time PCR assays for all three strains were approximately 10 cells for genomic DNA and 10(4)cells/g rhizosphere for maize samples grown in different natural soils. Population sizes of the three strains in the rhizosphere of maize measured by the new real-time PCR approaches were similar to those measured by most probable number (MPN)-PCR. A persistence study of the three strains indicated that the strains persisted differently over a period of 5weeks. In conclusion the newly developed real-time PCR approach is a fast and resource efficient method for monitoring individual biocontrol strains in natural soil, which makes it an apt quantification tool for future large-scale field experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  17. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone is of great importance for an appropriate land use management strategy. The quantification and prediction of water and solute fluxes through the vadose zone can help to improve management practices in order to limit potential risk on our fresh water resources. Water related solute transport and residence time is strongly affected by preferential flow paths in the soil. Water flow in soils depends on soil properties and site factors (climate or experiment conditions, land use) and are therefore important factors to understand preferential solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However our understanding and knowledge of which on-site properties or conditions define and enhance preferential flow and transport is still poor and mostly limited onto laboratory experimental conditions (small column length and steady state boundary conditions). Within the TERENO SOILCan lysimeter network, which was designed to study the effects of climate change on soil functions, a bromide tracer was applied on 62 lysimeter at eight different test sites between Dec. 2013 and Jan. 2014. The TERENO SOILCan infrastructure offers the unique possibility to study the occurrence of preferential flow and transport of various soil types under different natural transient hydrological conditions and land use (crop, bare and grassland) at eight TERENO SOILCan observatories. Working with lysimeter replicates at each observatory allows defining the spatial variability of preferential transport and flow. Additionally lysimeters in the network were transferred within and between observatories in order to subject them to different rainfall and temperature regimes and enable us to relate the soil type susceptibility of preferential flow and transport not only to site specific physical and land use properties, but also to different transient boundary conditions. Comparison and statistical analysis between preferential flow indicators 5

  18. TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissowski Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

  19. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  20. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  1. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2014-01-01

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  2. Value Creation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taillard, Marie; Voyer, Benjamin; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    An effect of the digital economy has been to provide consumers with almost unlimited ways to customize their consumption activities. They can craft each consumption experience to fit specific contexts, needs, emotions and other factors. A teenager’s night out is documented and shared with her...

  3. The Listeria monocytogenes Bile Stimulon under Acidic Conditions Is Characterized by Strain-Specific Patterns and the Upregulation of Motility, Cell Wall Modification Functions, and the PrfA Regulon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia-Oropeza, Veronica; Orsi, Renato H.; Guldimann, Claudia; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes uses a variety of transcriptional regulation strategies to adapt to the extra-host environment, the gastrointestinal tract, and the intracellular host environment. While the alternative sigma factor SigB has been proposed to be a key transcriptional regulator that facilitates L. monocytogenes adaptation to the gastrointestinal environment, the L. monocytogenes' transcriptional response to bile exposure is not well-understood. RNA-seq characterization of the bile stimulon was performed in two L. monocytogenes strains representing lineages I and II. Exposure to bile at pH 5.5 elicited a large transcriptomic response with ~16 and 23% of genes showing differential transcription in 10403S and H7858, respectively. The bile stimulon includes genes involved in motility and cell wall modification mechanisms, as well as genes in the PrfA regulon, which likely facilitate survival during the gastrointestinal stages of infection that follow bile exposure. The fact that bile exposure induced the PrfA regulon, but did not induce further upregulation of the SigB regulon (beyond that expected by exposure to pH 5.5), suggests a model where at the earlier stages of gastrointestinal infection (e.g., acid exposure in the stomach), SigB-dependent gene expression plays an important role. Subsequent exposure to bile induces the PrfA regulon, potentially priming L. monocytogenes for subsequent intracellular infection stages. Some members of the bile stimulon showed lineage- or strain-specific distribution when 27 Listeria genomes were analyzed. Even though sigB null mutants showed increased sensitivity to bile, the SigB regulon was not found to be upregulated in response to bile beyond levels expected by exposure to pH 5.5. Comparison of wildtype and corresponding ΔsigB strains newly identified 26 SigB-dependent genes, all with upstream putative SigB-dependent promoters. PMID:29467736

  4. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  5. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  6. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...

  7. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Jonny; Yoshioka, Mayumi; Tanaka, Keitaro; Nishida, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex in male mice (12-15 weeks old) using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688, and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151, and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix, and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis, and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle, and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  8. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  9. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  10. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  11. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  12. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  13. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  14. Preferential flow in the vadose zone and interface dynamics: Impact of microbial exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biting; Pales, Ashley R.; Clifford, Heather M.; Kupis, Shyla; Hennessy, Sarah; Liang, Wei-Zhen; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; Finneran, Kevin T.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2018-03-01

    In the hydrological cycle, the infiltration process is a critical component in the distribution of water into the soil and in the groundwater system. The nonlinear dynamics of the soil infiltration process yield preferential flow which affects the water distribution in soil. Preferential flow is influenced by the interactions between water, soil, plants, and microorganisms. Although the relationship among the plant roots, their rhizodeposits and water transport in soil has been the subject of extensive study, the effect of microbial exudates has been studied in only a few cases. Here the authors investigated the influence of two artificial microbial exudates-catechol and riboflavin-on the infiltration process, particularly unstable fingered flow, one form of preferential flow. Flow experiments investigating the effects of types and concentrations of microbial exudates on unstable fingered flow were conducted in a two-dimensional tank that was filled with ASTM

  15. How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns from the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Morgan, Jeff; Adams, Krystyna

    2017-06-01

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: (1) Inbound medical tourism to Canada's public hospitals; (2) Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; (3) Canadian patients opting to go abroad for medical tourism; and (4) Canadian patients traveling abroad with a Canadian surgeon. These patterns of medical tourism affect preferential access to health care by Canadians by circumventing domestic regulation of care, creating jurisdictional tensions over the provision of health care, and undermining solidarity with the Canadian health system.

  16. Kinds and meaning of preferential credits for development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mickiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the paper was of preferential credits granted in two periods, that means after Poland’s accession to the European Union (2004-2006 and in the period after introduction of new legal regulations (2007-2010. The institution responsible for realisation of preferential credits was Agency of Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture which delegated its rights to banks. The credit policy in first period of our functioning in the European Union relied on gradual ending old legal regulations, not compliant with EU standards and undertaking activities in adaptation of Polish agriculture to standards obeyed in EU-15 Member States. Directions of preferential credits granting were changed in 2007. There were introduced 7 credit lines which aim was improvement of production efficiency, better use of production base in agricultural farms and acceleration of agrarian changes. The biggest beneficiaries of structural pensions were young farmers and farmers who wanted to increase the size of their farms.

  17. Inert Carbon Nanoparticles for the Assessment of Preferential Flow in Saturated Dual-Permeability Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2017-06-07

    Knowledge of preferential flow in heterogeneous environments is essential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, geothermal energy extraction, and successful sequestration of chemical waste and carbon dioxide. Dual tracer tests using nanoparticles with a chemical tracer could indicate the preferential flow. A dual-permeability model with a high permeable core channel surrounded by a low permeable annulus was constructed and used to determine the viability of an inert carbon nanoparticle tracer for this application. A series of column experiments were conducted to demonstrate how this nanoparticle tracer can be used to implement the dual tracer tests in heterogeneous environments. The results indicate that, with the injection rate selected and controlled appropriately, nanoparticles together with a chemical tracer can assess the preferential flow in heterogeneous environments. The results also implement the dual tracer tests in heterogeneous environments by simultaneously injecting chemical and nanoparticle tracers.

  18. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  19. When and where does preferential flow matter - from observation to large scale modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Leistert, Hannes; Steinbrich, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Preferential flow can be of relevance in a wide range of soils and the interaction of different processes and factors are still difficult to assess. As most studies (including our own studies) focusing on the effect of preferential flow are based on relatively high precipitation rates, there is always the question how relevant preferential flow is under natural conditions, considering the site specific precipitation characteristics, the effect of the drying and wetting cycle on the initial soil water condition and shrinkage cracks, the site specific soil properties, soil structure and rock fragments, and the effect of plant roots and soil fauna (e.g. earthworm channels). In order to assess this question, we developed the distributed, process-based model RoGeR (Runoff Generation Research) to include a large number relevant features and processes of preferential flow in soils. The model was developed from a large number of process based research and experiments and includes preferential flow in roots, earthworm channels, along rock fragments and shrinkage cracks. We parameterized the uncalibrated model at a high spatial resolution of 5x5m for the whole state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany using LiDAR data, degree of sealing, landuse, soil properties and geology. As the model is an event based model, we derived typical event based precipitation characteristics based on rainfall duration, mean intensity and amount. Using the site-specific variability of initial soil moisture derived from a water balance model based on the same dataset, we simulated the infiltration and recharge amounts of all event classes derived from the event precipitation characteristics and initial soil moisture conditions. The analysis of the simulation results allowed us to extracts the relevance of preferential flow for infiltration and recharge considering all factors above. We could clearly see a strong effect of the soil properties and land-use, but also, particular for clay rich soils a

  20. Introduction to the Special Issue: Precarious Solidarity-Preferential Access in Canadian Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2017-06-01

    Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries.

  1. Statistical properties and attack tolerance of growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zonghua; Lai Yingcheng; Ye Nong

    2002-01-01

    We consider growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment and address two questions: (1) what is the effect of temporal fluctuations in the number of new links acquired by the network? and (2) what is the network tolerance against random failures and intentional attacks? We find that the fluctuations generally have little effect on the network properties, although they lead to a plateau behavior for small degrees in the connectivity distribution. Formulas are derived for the evolution and distribution of the network connectivity, which are tested by numerical simulations. Numerical study of the effect of failures and attacks suggests that networks constructed under algebraic preferential attachment are more robust than scale-free networks

  2. Preferential Solvation of Silver (I) Bromate in Methanol-Dimethylsulfoxide Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, S.; Kalidas, C.

    1984-06-01

    The solubiltiy of silver bromate, the Gibbs transfer energy of Ag+ and BrO3- and the solvent transport number in methanol-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures are reported. The solubility of silver bromate increases with addition of DMSO. The Gibbs energy of transfer of the silver ion (based on the ferrocene reference method) decreases, while that of the bromate ion becomes slightly negative with the addition of DMSO. The solvent transport number A passes through a maximum (⊿ = 1.0 at XDMSO = 0.65. From these results, it is concluded that the silver ion is preferentially solvated by DMSO whereas the bromate ion shows no preferential solvation.

  3. Consequences of preferential flow in cracking clay soils for contamination-risk of shallow aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Bronswijk, J.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to asses the contamination risk of aquifers covered with cracking clay soils, with special emphasis on preferential flow through shrinkage cracks. A water extraction area was divided into units with homogeneous soil types and hydrological conditions. For each unit, a

  4. Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was

  5. Preferential selection based on degree difference in the spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changwei; Dai, Qionglin; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Haihong

    2017-10-01

    Strategy evolution in spatial evolutionary games is generally implemented through imitation processes between individuals. In most previous studies, it is assumed that individuals pick up one of their neighbors randomly to learn from. However, by considering the heterogeneity of individuals' influence in the real society, preferential selection is more realistic. Here, we introduce a preferential selection mechanism based on degree difference into spatial prisoner's dilemma games on Erdös-Rényi networks and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks and investigate the effects of the preferential selection on cooperation. The results show that, when the individuals prefer to choose the neighbors who have small degree difference with themselves to imitate, cooperation is hurt by the preferential selection. In contrast, when the individuals prefer to choose those large degree difference neighbors to learn from, there exists optimal preference strength resulting in the maximal cooperation level no matter what the network structure is. In addition, we investigate the robustness of the results against variations of the noise, the average degree and the size of network in the model, and find that the qualitative features of the results are unchanged.

  6. Identification of Homophily and Preferential Recruitment in Respondent-Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Aronow, Peter M; Zeng, Li; Li, Jianghong

    2018-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing procedure used in epidemiologic research on hidden or hard-to-reach populations in which subjects recruit others via their social networks. Estimates from RDS studies may have poor statistical properties due to statistical dependence in sampled subjects' traits. Two distinct mechanisms account for dependence in an RDS study: homophily, the tendency for individuals to share social ties with others exhibiting similar characteristics, and preferential recruitment, in which recruiters do not recruit uniformly at random from their network alters. The different effects of network homophily and preferential recruitment in RDS studies have been a source of confusion and controversy in methodological and empirical research in epidemiology. In this work, we gave formal definitions of homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that neither is identified in typical RDS studies. We derived nonparametric identification regions for homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that these parameters were not identified unless the network took a degenerate form. The results indicated that claims of homophily or recruitment bias measured from empirical RDS studies may not be credible. We applied our identification results to a study involving both a network census and RDS on a population of injection drug users in Hartford, Connecticut (2012-2013). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Preferential aerosolization of bacteria in bioaerosols generated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, P; Turgeon, N; Gauthier-Levesque, L; Duchaine, C

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about how bacteria are aerosolized in terms of whether some bacteria will be found in the air more readily than others that are present in the source. This report describes in vitro experiments to compare aerosolization rates (also known as preferential aerosolization) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, using two nebulization conditions. A consortium of five bacterial species was aerosolized in a homemade chamber. Aerosols generated with a commercial nebulizer and a homemade bubble-burst aerosol generator were compared. Data suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was preferentially aerosolized in comparison to Moraxella catarrhalis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis, independently of the method of aerosolization. Bacterial integrity of Strep. suis was more preserved compared to other bacteria studied as revealed with PMA-qPCR. We reported the design of an aerosol chamber and bubble-burst generator for the in vitro study of preferential aerosolization. In our setting, preferential aerosolization was influenced by bacterial properties instead of aerosolization mechanism. These findings could have important implications for predicting the composition of bioaerosols in various locations such as wastewater treatment plants, agricultural settings and health care settings. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Using Dye Tracer for Visualization of Preferential Flow at Macro- and Microscales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Němeček, K.; Kodeš, V.; Žigová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2012), s. 287-295 ISSN 1539-1663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : dye tracer * preferential flow * soil types * macro- and microsccale Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2012

  9. Effects of Soil Compaction and Organic Carbon Content on Preferential Flow in Loamy Field Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Moldrup, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    2015-01-01

    Preferential flow and transport through macropores affects plant water use efficiency and enhances leaching of agrochemicals and the transport of colloids, thereby increasing the risk for contamination of groundwater resources. As part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program this study...

  10. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy : Mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, Marten R.; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I.; van der Hilst, Christian S.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Prins, Ted R.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with

  11. Preferential semantics for action specification in first-order modal action logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, Jan; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    In this paper we investigate preferential semantics for declarative specifications in a First Order Modal Action Logic. We address some well known problems: the frame problem, the qualification problem and the ramification problem. We incorporate the assumptions that are inherent to both the frame

  12. Using the dye tracer for visualization of preferential flow in macro and micro-scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Němeček, K.; Kodeš, V.; Fér, M.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Žigová, Anna; Jakšík, O.; Kočárek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : dye tracer * preferential flow * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  13. Evidence for preferential flux flow at the grain boundaries of superconducting RF-quality niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Z.-H.; Lee, P. J.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2018-04-01

    The question of whether grain boundaries (GBs) in niobium can be responsible for lowered operating field (B RF) or quality factor (Q 0) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is still controversial. Here, we show by direct DC transport across planar GBs isolated from a slice of very large-grain SRF-quality Nb that vortices can preferentially flow along the grain boundary when the external magnetic field lies in the GB plane. However, increasing the misalignment between the GB plane and the external magnetic field vector markedly reduces preferential flux flow along the GB. Importantly, we find that preferential GB flux flow is more prominent for a buffered chemical polished than for an electropolished bi-crystal. The voltage-current characteristics of GBs are similar to those seen in low angle grain boundaries of high temperature superconductors where there is clear evidence of suppression of the superconducting order parameter at the GB. While local weakening of superconductivity at GBs in cuprates and pnictides is intrinsic, deterioration of current transparency of GBs in Nb appears to be extrinsic, since the polishing method clearly affect the local GB degradation. The dependence of preferential GB flux flow on important cavity preparation and experimental variables, particularly the final chemical treatment and the angle between the magnetic field and the GB plane, suggests two more reasons why real cavity performance can be so variable.

  14. Winning the competition for supplier resources: The role of preferential resource allocation from suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the competition between buying firms for the supplier’s competitive resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine how indirect capabilities – the ability to access external resources – can help in obtaining preferential resource allocation from suppliers.

  15. 19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control of the customs authority of the intermediate country; (ii) Did not enter into the commerce of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment. 10.233 Section 10.233 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  16. The dynamics of power laws : fitness and aging in preferential attachment trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garavaglia, A.; van der Hofstad, R.W.; Woeginger, G.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous-time branching processes describe the evolution of a population whose individuals generate a random number of children according to a birth process. Such branching processes can be used to understand preferential attachment models in which the birth rates are linear functions. We are

  17. Effects of long-term use of the preferential COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam on growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, B.M.C.; Uilenreef, J.J.; Bergmann, W.; Meijer, E.; van Rietbergen, B.; van der Staay, F.J.; van Weeren, P.R.; Wolschrijn, C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Meloxicam, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, is a commonly used nSAID in pigs. Besides having potential side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, this type of drug might potentially affect osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, processes relevant to growing pigs. Therefore, the effects of long-term

  18. Effects of long-term use of the preferential COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam on growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Ben M C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372825788; Uilenreef, Joost J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483095X; Bergmann, Willie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36275585X; Meijer, Ellen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375288015; van Rietbergen, Bert; van der Staay, Franz Josef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653; Weeren, P René van; Wolschrijn, Claudia F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271539496

    2017-01-01

    Meloxicam, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, is a commonly used NSAID in pigs. Besides having potential side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, this type of drug might potentially affect osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, processes relevant to growing pigs. Therefore, the effects of long-term

  19. Hypoxia preferentially destroys GABAergic neurons in developing rat neocortex explants in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H. J.; Ruijter, J. M.; Wolters, P. S.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypoxic ischemia before or during the human birth process preferentially destroys GABAergic nerve cells, particularly in the neocortex, was tested in a tissue culture model system. To that end, rat neocortex explants dissected from 6-day-old rat pups and cultured to a

  20. Common mycorrhizal networks amplify competition by preferential mineral nutrient allocation to large host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly; Janos, David P

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi interconnect plants in common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) which can amplify competition among neighbors. Amplified competition might result from the fungi supplying mineral nutrients preferentially to hosts that abundantly provide fixed carbon, as suggested by research with organ-cultured roots. We examined whether CMNs supplied (15) N preferentially to large, nonshaded, whole plants. We conducted an intraspecific target-neighbor pot experiment with Andropogon gerardii and several AM fungi in intact, severed or prevented CMNs. Neighbors were supplied (15) N, and half of the target plants were shaded. Intact CMNs increased target dry weight (DW), intensified competition and increased size inequality. Shading decreased target weight, but shaded plants in intact CMNs had mycorrhizal colonization similar to that of sunlit plants. AM fungi in intact CMNs acquired (15) N from the substrate of neighbors and preferentially allocated it to sunlit, large, target plants. Sunlit, intact CMN, target plants acquired as much as 27% of their nitrogen from the vicinity of their neighbors, but shaded targets did not. These results suggest that AM fungi in CMNs preferentially provide mineral nutrients to those conspecific host individuals best able to provide them with fixed carbon or representing the strongest sinks, thereby potentially amplifying asymmetric competition below ground. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Surface morphology and preferential orientation growth of TaC crystals formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xiang, E-mail: Xiong228@sina.co [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Zhaoke; Huang Baiyun; Li Guodong [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zheng Feng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao Peng; Zhang Hongbo [State Key Lab for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-04-02

    TaC film was deposited on (002) graphite sheet by isothermal chemical vapor deposition using TaCl{sub 5}-Ar-C{sub 3}H{sub 6} mixtures, with deposition temperature 1200 {sup o}C and pressure about 200 Pa. The influence of deposition position (or deposition rate) on preferential orientation and surface morphology of TaC crystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The deposits are TaC plus trace of C. The crystals are large individual columns with pyramidal-shape at deposition rate of 32.4-37.3 {mu}m/h, complex columnar at 37.3-45.6 {mu}m/h, lenticular-like at 45.6-54.6 {mu}m/h and cauliflower-like at 54.6-77.3 {mu}m/h, with <001>, near <001>, <110> and no clear preferential orientation, respectively. These results agree in part with the preditions of the Pangarov's model of the relationship between deposition rate and preferential growth orientation. The growth mechanism of TaC crystals in <001>, near <001>, <111> and no clear preferential orientation can be fairly explained by the growth parameter {alpha} with Van der Drift's model, deterioration model and Meakin model. Furthermore, a nucleation and coalescence model is also proposed to explain the formation mechanism of <110> lenticular-like crystals.

  2. Exploring the antecedents of preferential customer treatment by suppliers: a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttinger, Lisa; Schiele, Holger; Schröer, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to understand the factors that influence a supplier’s choice to treat selected customers more preferentially than others. Suppliers often lack the resources to treat all their customers equally, instead having to make choices to treat some customers as preferred. Empirical

  3. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...... aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes...

  4. Seafood Consumption and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Atar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed relationship between healthy life and seafood consumption. Seafood consumption provide with predicting some chronic diseases, regular diet and a healthy eating habit. Fish and seafood have been promoted as healthy eating by health organizations in many countries all over the world. Seafood includes many important fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. These have been shown to cause significant biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Especially omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids have been prevented some major diseases; such as CHD, cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 173-176

  5. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  6. The influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering of the Rocca Pitigliana landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Bogaard, Thom; Bakker, Mark; Berti, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    The fast pore water pressure response to rain events is an important triggering factor for slope instability. The fast pressure response may be caused by preferential flow that bypasses the soil matrix. Currently, most of the hydro-mechanical models simulate pore water pressure using a single-permeability model, which cannot quantify the effects of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering. Previous studies showed that a model based on the linear-diffusion equation can simulate the fast pressure propagation in near-saturated landslides such as the Rocca Pitigliana landslide. In such a model, the diffusion coefficient depends on the degree of saturation, which makes it difficult to use the model for predictions. In this study, the influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and slope stability is investigated with a 1D dual-permeability model coupled with an infinite-slope stability approach. The dual-permeability model uses two modified Darcy-Richards equations to simultaneously simulate the matrix flow and preferential flow in hillslopes. The simulated pressure head is used in an infinite-slope stability analysis to identify the influence of preferential flow on the fast pressure response and landslide triggering. The dual-permeability model simulates the height and arrival of the pressure peak reasonably well. Performance of the dual-permeability model is as good as or better than the linear-diffusion model even though the dual-permeability model is calibrated for two single pulse rain events only, while the linear-diffusion model is calibrated for each rain event separately. In conclusion, the 1D dual-permeability model is a promising tool for landslides under similar conditions.

  7. The fictional transition of the preferential orientation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, J.S.; Leroy, W.P.; Depla, D.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental study of the microstructural and textural evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films is of great importance given that the crystallographic properties are intimately related to their extrinsic or functional properties. In order to study these properties, YSZ thin films were obtained using dual magnetron sputtering. The results of a polar plot graph, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, seem to indicate a transition from [200] out-of-plane preferential orientation to [111], indicating a dependence on composition and yttrium target–substrate (Y T–S) distance at low pressure. However, no transition is identified at high pressure, showing only [111] out-of-plane orientation, independent of composition and Y T–S distance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates a tilt in the columnar structure of the film but no other microstructural change is in evidence, possibly related to the growth transition from [200] to [111]. Pole figures were used to clarify the texture transition in the YSZ thin films. These results indicate that there is indeed no transition in the preferential orientation of the films from [200] to [111] but a tilt of the [200] orientation towards the zirconium source. Detailed study using pole figures and SEM, clearly indicated that no growth zone transition was present and the effect is caused by geometrical configuration, contradicting expectations from standard θ/2θ XRD measurements. - Highlights: ► Study of the preferential orientation of Yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films ► Comparison of the preferential orientation at two different chamber pressures ► Correlation with the energy per adparticle and the extended structure zone model ► Use of pole figures analyses to clarify the change in the preferential orientation

  8. The fictional transition of the preferential orientation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, J.S., E-mail: Jerika.Lamas@UGent.be; Leroy, W.P.; Depla, D.

    2012-12-15

    The fundamental study of the microstructural and textural evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films is of great importance given that the crystallographic properties are intimately related to their extrinsic or functional properties. In order to study these properties, YSZ thin films were obtained using dual magnetron sputtering. The results of a polar plot graph, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, seem to indicate a transition from [200] out-of-plane preferential orientation to [111], indicating a dependence on composition and yttrium target-substrate (Y T-S) distance at low pressure. However, no transition is identified at high pressure, showing only [111] out-of-plane orientation, independent of composition and Y T-S distance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates a tilt in the columnar structure of the film but no other microstructural change is in evidence, possibly related to the growth transition from [200] to [111]. Pole figures were used to clarify the texture transition in the YSZ thin films. These results indicate that there is indeed no transition in the preferential orientation of the films from [200] to [111] but a tilt of the [200] orientation towards the zirconium source. Detailed study using pole figures and SEM, clearly indicated that no growth zone transition was present and the effect is caused by geometrical configuration, contradicting expectations from standard {theta}/2{theta} XRD measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the preferential orientation of Yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the preferential orientation at two different chamber pressures Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation with the energy per adparticle and the extended structure zone model Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of pole figures analyses to clarify the change in the preferential orientation.

  9. Preferential transport of isoproturon at a plot scale and a field scale tile-drained site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Flühler, Hannes

    2001-06-01

    Irrigation experiments using the tracers Brilliant Blue (BB) and Bromide (Br) were conducted on three plots of 1.4×1.4 m 2 (plot scale) and a field scale subsurface drained test site (900 m 2) to clarify mechanisms causing rapid transport of surface applied Isoproturon (IPU) during preferential flow events. One of the small plots (site 10) and the field scale test site are located on the same field. One day after irrigation of the plot scale sites the Br and IPU concentration in two vertical soil profiles as well as the macroporousity on separate profiles and hydraulic properties of single macropores were determined. During irrigation of the field scale test site discharge, soil moisture as well as the concentration of IPU and Br in the drainage outlet were measured. Preferential flow in deep penetrating earthworm burrows caused a fast breakthrough of IPU and Br into the tile drain (1.2 m depth) at the field scale site as well as leaching of IPU into the subsoil (>0.8 m) at site 10. The results suggest a hierarchy of preconditions for the occurrence of preferential flow events of which a sufficient number of deep penetrating macropores interconnected to the soil surface seems to be the most important one. Moreover there is evidence that facilitated transport of IPU attached to mobile soil particles occurred during the preferential flow events at the field scale site and site 10. The susceptibility for preferential flow as well as the susceptibility for facilitated transport appear to be intrinsic properties of the investigated soil.

  10. Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Closson, Chet; Matthis, Andrea L.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Engevik, Amy C.; Zavros, Yana; Ottemann, Karen M.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (106) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (106) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby biases

  11. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  12. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  13. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  14. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  16. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  17. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  18. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  19. The Ideology of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article opts for a return to a critique of the ideology of consumption. Following Slavoj Žižek it argues that what must be addressed in present-day consumer-capitalism is the level of the superego. Superego is not about living up to certain norms/standards; rather, superego fits consumerism...

  20. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  1. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  2. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...... from both ecology and economics with focus on some important predecessors for ecological economics. I conclude with reflections on how to proceed with consumption studies to provide the basis for promoting more sustainable life patterns....

  3. Origin of preferential flow and its controlling factors on emission potential using numerical simulations and lab experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baviskar, S.M.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    We believe the unsaturated and heterogeneous nature of landfills leads to the emergence of preferential pathways of water and dissolved compounds through the waste body. In this research we explore the origin of preferential flow in a porous media with a deterministic numerical model. In this model

  4. THE DISTRIBUTION OF PREFERENTIAL PATHS AND ITS RELATION TO THE SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE THREE GORGES AREA, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjiang ZHANG; Jinhua CHENG; Yuhu SHI; Yun CHENG

    2007-01-01

    To study the characteristics of the distribution of the preferential paths and the affecting factors in the Three Gorges area, four soil profiles were dug to observe the distribution of preferential paths in the Quxi watershed in the Yangtze River basin. The Morisita exponential test method was used to examine the distribution type of preferential paths. The physical properties and infiltration characteristics of the soil were also measured to evaluate their relationship to preferential paths. The results showed that in this area, preferential paths clustered and mainly distributed in the 80-100 cm soil layer, and along the interface between the weathered layer and semi-weathered layer. There were more non-capillary pores in the 83-110 cm layer than in the other layers. It can be derived that most non-capillary pores in this layer were preferential paths caused by geological processes and rotten plant roots. The percentage of coarse soil particles increased with the depth of the soil layer. In the deeper soil layer, the coarse soil particles helped the formation of preferential paths. The fastest steady infiltration rate was observed in the of 83-110cm layer, which is inferred to be due to the greater number of preferential paths.

  5. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a first estimate of fuelwood consumption for the island of Newfoundland for the period April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978. Available literature was reviewed and an assessment made on the existing data collection systems on fuelwood consumption used by the various forestry agencies in the province. A personal interview telephone survey on fuelwood use was conducted for most parts of the Island that had access to wood supplies. Householders were asked how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of wood burning unit used, other sources of heat used, reasons for burning wood, employment, distance travelled to obtain wood, and expected consumption in 1978-79 compared to 1977-78. It was found that the estimated number of households burning wood increased to ca 32,000 in 1977-78. There was a further estimated increase to about 39,500 in 1978-79. In 1977-78, it was estimated that 461,571 stacked cubic metres of fuelwood were consumed on the Island. This was broken down into 318,916 m/sup 3/ of softwood and 142,655 m/sup 3/ of hardwood. Although the statistical methodology used may have led to an overestimate of the volume of wood consumed, the criteria used in the selection of households had the opposite effect in that the volume consumed by a large number of casual wood burners (less than 3 stacked m/sup 3/) was omitted from the estimate. Fuelwood consumption accounted for anywhere from 1% to 77% of the calculated allowable annual cut for the various forest management units on the Island for 1977-78. Overall, fuelwood consumption estimated by the survey accounted for 8% of the estimated allowable annual cut. Use of wood as a fuel is expected to continue increasing and it is recommended that estimates of consumption be periodically updated so that forest management plans can make adequate provision for this demand in future. 5 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Preferential Alignment of Hydroxyapatite Crystallites in Nanocomposites with Chemically Disintegrated Silk Fibroin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Rei; Wang Li; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Senna, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals were prepared at room temperature by a coprecipitation method from Ca(OH) 2 and H 3 PO 4 , in the presence of chemically disintegrated silk fibroin (SF). Adsorbed amounts of cations on SF and crystallinity of HAp in the composite were increased by the chemical disintegration of SF higher order structure. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystallites along the longitudinal direction of ca. 150nm SF fibril was observed. These changes due to disintegration of SF were discussed in terms of the chemical interaction between HAp and SF. The resulted composite with preferential alignment of HAp nanocrystals is a good candidate as a starting material for bone substitutes

  7. Brain tumor initiating cells adapt to restricted nutrition through preferential glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavahan, William A; Wu, Qiulian; Hitomi, Masahiro; Rahim, Nasiha; Kim, Youngmi; Sloan, Andrew E; Weil, Robert J; Nakano, Ichiro; Sarkaria, Jann N; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Li, Meizhang; Lathia, Justin D; Rich, Jeremy N; Hjelmeland, Anita B

    2013-10-01

    Like all cancers, brain tumors require a continuous source of energy and molecular resources for new cell production. In normal brain, glucose is an essential neuronal fuel, but the blood-brain barrier limits its delivery. We now report that nutrient restriction contributes to tumor progression by enriching for brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) owing to preferential BTIC survival and to adaptation of non-BTICs through acquisition of BTIC features. BTICs outcompete for glucose uptake by co-opting the high affinity neuronal glucose transporter, type 3 (Glut3, SLC2A3). BTICs preferentially express Glut3, and targeting Glut3 inhibits BTIC growth and tumorigenic potential. Glut3, but not Glut1, correlates with poor survival in brain tumors and other cancers; thus, tumor initiating cells may extract nutrients with high affinity. As altered metabolism represents a cancer hallmark, metabolic reprogramming may maintain the tumor hierarchy and portend poor prognosis.

  8. A Novel Preferential Diffusion Recommendation Algorithm Based on User’s Nearest Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommender system is a very efficient way to deal with the problem of information overload for online users. In recent years, network based recommendation algorithms have demonstrated much better performance than the standard collaborative filtering methods. However, most of network based algorithms do not give a high enough weight to the influence of the target user’s nearest neighbors in the resource diffusion process, while a user or an object with high degree will obtain larger influence in the standard mass diffusion algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel preferential diffusion recommendation algorithm considering the significance of the target user’s nearest neighbors and evaluate it in the three real-world data sets: MovieLens 100k, MovieLens 1M, and Epinions. Experiments results demonstrate that the novel preferential diffusion recommendation algorithm based on user’s nearest neighbors can significantly improve the recommendation accuracy and diversity.

  9. [Characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil in Northeast China under different tillage patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Yan; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Luo, Jin-Ming; Yang, Xue-Ming

    2008-07-01

    By using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques, the characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil under no-tillage (NT) and fall moldboard plow (MP) were compared after six years continuous management. The results showed that the infiltration rate was higher under NT than under MP. When the infiltration reached steady, the infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration capacity under NT were 1.35 and 1.44 times as high as those under MP, respectively. The penetration depth of methylene blue reached a depth of 43 cm in NT soil, being 16 cm deeper than that in MP soil. Comparing with MP soil, NT soil had better development of pore structure and more biological pores, and presented better preferential flow character, which were of importance for water infiltration and soil and water conservation.

  10. Epidemic propagation on adaptive coevolutionary networks with preferential local-world reconnecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping; Gong Yong-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In the propagation of an epidemic in a population, individuals adaptively adjust their behavior to avoid the risk of an epidemic. Differently from existing studies where new links are established randomly, a local link is established preferentially in this paper. We propose a new preferentially reconnecting edge strategy depending on spatial distance (PR-SD). For the PR-SD strategy, the new link is established at random with probability p and in a shortest distance with the probability 1 − p. We establish the epidemic model on an adaptive network using Cellular Automata, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by numerical simulations. The results show that the smaller the value of parameter p, the more difficult the epidemic spread is. The PR-SD strategy breaks long-range links and establishes as many short-range links as possible, which causes the network efficiency to decrease quickly and the propagation of the epidemic is restrained effectively. (general)

  11. THE EFFECT OF PREFERENTIAL TRADE AREAS (PTAs IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF REGIONALISM: THE CASE OF ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Al-Faqiih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regionalism particularly in the matter of preferential trade area is not an old fashion debate, but it becomes a prominent feature and a popular tool for global trading system. However, it does not mean that the regionalism might always bring benefit for any actor especially in terms of every national interest in the region. This paper would elaborate the effect of preferential trade area (PTAs establishment on the economic interest of ASEAN countries member. Through literature study, this paper concludes that the PTAs produce many positive benefits for the ASEAN countries member. The flexibility of partnerships and coverage selection under PTAs has helped ASEAN solve the crisis and increase efficiency as well as stimulate the main goal of global fair trade by expanding economic linkages. Thus, it could be said that PTAs enhance the multilateralism under the WTO system

  12. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  13. Videogames, consumption and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ETXEBERRIA VALERDI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing success and use of videogames is a reality in our current society, being 54% of the total consumption of audiovisual or interactive entertainment in Spain in 2007. One of the aspects to be taken into consideration, with respect to the education of children, is the implication for consumption in relation to videogames. The violence portrayed in these games is one of the main topics of debate in the literature about and studies on the effects of videogames on children’s behaviour. However, it is not just a question of protecting minors against the risks of videogames use without control and care exercised by parents or educators. For many years now, despite the risks involved in their use, videogames have been used as another medium in education itself.

  14. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some of the cu...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design.......The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some...

  15. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  16. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  17. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplemetary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of familiy expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N=641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  18. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuelwood consumption increased in Newfoundland in the 1970's, but although cutting permits were issued for Crown land, most forests were privately leased and no overall figures were available on the annual cut for domestic use. A personal interview telephone survey was therefore implemented in which householders were questioned on how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of stove and wood used, expected consumption in 1978-79, other sources of heat, employment, and distance travelled to obtain wood. Survey methods and results obtained are presented. Woodburning households increased from about 22,000 before 1973 to about 32,000 in 1977-78 and a further increase to about 39,500 was expected in 1978-79. In 1977-78, 462,571 stacked cubic metres of roundwood were burned on the island. Softwood comprised 69% of this total.

  19. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  20. Preferential emission of photon emulsion nuclei in high energy nuclear disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Bhattacharjee, B.; Goswami, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to observe such preferential emission, if any, in the CNO group of photo emulsion nuclei. Here the angle between any two slow (β b = 3,4,5 and 6. Assuming the fragments to be emitted isotropically as expected from evaporation theory, possible angles between any two tracks are computed separately for disintegrating centres with the same number of N b

  1. Separation of Enantiomers by Preferential Crystallization: Mathematical Modeling of a Coupled Crystallizer Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Skovby, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the separation of enantiomers by simultaneous preferential crystallization in a coupled crystallizer configuration is developed. The model was validated against experimental data for a chemical model compound, the conglomerate forming system of asparagine monohydrate....... The racemic compound and the pure enantiomer can be separated simultaneously in each crystallizer, having sufficient enrichment of the pure enantiomer in the feed solution. The model can also be extended to represent a fully continuous separation process taking into account the continuous supply...

  2. Self-potential monitoring of a thermal pulse advecting through a preferential flow path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S. J.; Revil, A.

    2014-11-01

    There is a need to develop new non-intrusive geophysical methods to detect preferential flow paths in heterogeneous porous media. A laboratory experiment is performed to non-invasively localize a preferential flow pathway in a sandbox using a heat pulse monitored by time-lapse self-potential measurements. Our goal is to investigate the amplitude of the intrinsic thermoelectric self-potential anomalies and the ability of this method to track preferential flow paths. A negative self-potential anomaly (-10 to -15 mV with respect to the background signals) is observed at the surface of the tank after hot water is injected in the upstream reservoir during steady state flow between the upstream and downstream reservoirs of the sandbox. Repeating the same experiment with the same volume of water injected upstream, but at the same temperature as the background pore water, produces a negligible self-potential anomaly. The negative self-potential anomaly is possibly associated with an intrinsic thermoelectric effect, with the temperature dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient, or with an apparent thermoelectric effect associated with the temperature dependence of the electrodes themselves. We model the experiment in 3D using a finite element code. Our results show that time-lapse self-potential signals can be used to track the position of traveling heat flow pulses in saturated porous materials, and therefore to find preferential flow pathways, especially in a very permeable environment and in real time. The numerical model and the data allows quantifying the intrinsic thermoelectric coupling coefficient, which is on the order of -0.3 to -1.8 mV per degree Celsius. The temperature dependence of the streaming potential during the experiment is negligible with respect to the intrinsic thermoelectric coupling. However, the temperature dependence of the potential of the electrodes needs to be accounted for and is far from being negligible if the electrodes

  3. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Conseq...

  4. Comments on possible preferential order-disorder in A-15 compounds based upon Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The possible existence of preferential B-site disorder in A-15 compounds recently claimed on the basis of x-ray powder diffraction data but questioned from the viewpoint of known phase diagrams is examined for some Nb-based compounds of this type. It is concluded that x-ray powder data do not allow the determination of both order and compositional variables as suggested, and the latter must therefore be determined by some other method. (author)

  5. Preferential Trade Agreements and the Law and Politics of GATT Article XXIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2010-01-01

    The tasks Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) perform are expressed in their scope and covered issues, thus in order to be WTO compatible these aspects of PTAs should comply with the relevant WTO rules. This paper examines which aspects of PTAs can violate these rules and therefore can be challe...... be challenged before the WTO Dis-pute Settlement Body, who may initiate such cases and why there hasn´t been more cases dealing with this im-portant issue....

  6. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  7. Solution thermodynamics and preferential solvation of sulfamethazine in (methanol + water) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Almanza, Ovidio A.; Martínez, Fleming; Peña, María A.; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Acree, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) was measured in (methanol + water) mixtures. • SMT solubility was correlated with Jouyban–Acree model. • Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of dissolution of SMT were calculated. • Non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed for SMT. • Preferential solvation of SMT by methanol was analyzed by using the IKBI method. - Abstract: The solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) in {methanol (1) + water (2)} co-solvent mixtures was determined at five different temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The sulfonamide exhibited its highest mole fraction solubility in pure methanol (δ 1 = 29.6 MPa 1/2 ) and its lowest mole fraction solubility in water (δ 2 = 47.8 MPa 1/2 ) at each of the five temperatures studied. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate/predict the solubility values. The respective apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were obtained from the solubility data through the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. Apparent thermodynamic quantities of mixing were also calculated for this drug using values of the ideal solubility reported in the literature. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was noted for SMT in plots of both the enthalpy vs. Gibbs energy of mixing and the enthalpy vs. entropy of mixing. These plots suggest two different trends according to the slopes obtained when the composition of the mixtures changes. Accordingly, the mechanism for SMT transfer processes in water-rich mixtures from water to the mixture with 0.70 in mass fraction of methanol is entropy driven. Conversely, the mechanism is enthalpy driven in mixtures whenever the methanol composition exceeds 0.70 mol fraction. An inverse Kirkwood–Buff integral analysis of the preferential solvation of SMT indicated that the drug is preferentially solvated by water in water-rich mixtures but is preferentially solvated by methanol in methanol-rich mixtures.

  8. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  9. Post-learning hippocampal dynamics promote preferential retention of rewarding events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthias J.; Ritchey, Maureen; Wang, Shao-Fang; Doss, Manoj K.; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-01-01

    Reward motivation is known to modulate memory encoding, and this effect depends on interactions between the substantia nigra/ ventral tegmental area complex (SN/VTA) and the hippocampus. It is unknown, however, whether these interactions influence offline neural activity in the human brain that is thought to promote memory consolidation. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the effect of reward motivation on post-learning neural dynamics and subsequent memory for objects that were learned in high- or low-reward motivation contexts. We found that post-learning increases in resting-state functional connectivity between the SN/VTA and hippocampus predicted preferential retention of objects that were learned in high-reward contexts. In addition, multivariate pattern classification revealed that hippocampal representations of high-reward contexts were preferentially reactivated during post-learning rest, and the number of hippocampal reactivations was predictive of preferential retention of items learned in high-reward contexts. These findings indicate that reward motivation alters offline post-learning dynamics between the SN/VTA and hippocampus, providing novel evidence for a potential mechanism by which reward could influence memory consolidation. PMID:26875624

  10. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  11. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  12. Effects of preferential concentration on direct radiation transmission in a turbulent duct flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Kim, Ji Hoon; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2017-11-01

    Inertial particles in turbulent flows preferentially concentrate, giving rise to spatial and temporal fluctuations of particle number density that affect radiation transmission through the medium. Positive particle correlations enhance direct transmission when compared to the exponential attenuation predicted by the Beer's Law for randomly distributed particles. In the context of a particle based solar receiver, this work studies the effects of preferential concentration and optical depth on direct transmission through a particle laden turbulent duct flow. Time resolved measurements of transmission through the mixture were performed for various particle loadings and Reynolds numbers, thus varying particle correlation lengths, optical depth and concentration fluctuations. These measurements were made using a photodiode to record the transmission of a collimated laser beam along the wall bisector of the duct. A synchronized high-speed camera provided particle positions along most of the beam path. Average and fluctuating radiation transmission results are compared to predictions derived from the imaged number density fields and to simplified analytical models. Simplified models are able to capture the correct trends with varying loading and preferential concentration. This work is funded by the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, Grant #DE-NA0002373-1.

  13. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  14. Preferential transfer of certain plasma membrane proteins onto T and B cells by trogocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Daubeuf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available T and B cells capture antigens via membrane fragments of antigen presenting cells (APC in a process termed trogocytosis. Whether (and how a preferential transfer of some APC components occurs during trogocytosis is still largely unknown. We analyzed the transfer onto murine T and B cells of a large panel of fluorescent proteins with different intra-cellular localizations in the APC or various types of anchors in the plasma membrane (PM. Only the latter were transferred by trogocytosis, albeit with different efficiencies. Unexpectedly, proteins anchored to the PM's cytoplasmic face, or recruited to it via interaction with phosphinositides, were more efficiently transferred than those facing the outside of the cell. For proteins spanning the PM's whole width, transfer efficiency was found to vary quite substantially, with tetraspanins, CD4 and FcRgamma found among the most efficiently transferred proteins. We exploited our findings to set immunodiagnostic assays based on the capture of preferentially transferred components onto T or B cells. The preferential transfer documented here should prove useful in deciphering the cellular structures involved in trogocytosis.

  15. Geostatistical integration and uncertainty in pollutant concentration surface under preferential sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grisotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on environmental statistics, with the aim of estimating the concentration surface and related uncertainty of an air pollutant. We used air quality data recorded by a network of monitoring stations within a Bayesian framework to overcome difficulties in accounting for prediction uncertainty and to integrate information provided by deterministic models based on emissions meteorology and chemico-physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Several authors have proposed such integration, but all the proposed approaches rely on representativeness and completeness of existing air pollution monitoring networks. We considered the situation in which the spatial process of interest and the sampling locations are not independent. This is known in the literature as the preferential sampling problem, which if ignored in the analysis, can bias geostatistical inferences. We developed a Bayesian geostatistical model to account for preferential sampling with the main interest in statistical integration and uncertainty. We used PM10 data arising from the air quality network of the Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardy Region (Italy and numerical outputs from the deterministic model. We specified an inhomogeneous Poisson process for the sampling locations intensities and a shared spatial random component model for the dependence between the spatial location of monitors and the pollution surface. We found greater predicted standard deviation differences in areas not properly covered by the air quality network. In conclusion, in this context inferences on prediction uncertainty may be misleading when geostatistical modelling does not take into account preferential sampling.

  16. Telomerase and Tel1p Preferentially Associate with Short Telomeres in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Michelle; Tuzon, Creighton T.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In diverse organisms, telomerase preferentially elongates short telomeres. We generated a single short telomere in otherwise wild-type (WT) S. cerevisiae cells. The binding of the positive regulators Ku and Cdc13p was similar at short and WT-length telomeres. The negative regulators Rif1p and Rif2p were present at the short telomere, although Rif2p levels were reduced. Two telomerase holoenzyme components, Est1p and Est2p, were preferentially enriched at short telomeres in late S/G2 phase, the time of telomerase action. Tel1p, the yeast ATM-like checkpoint kinase, was highly enriched at short telomeres from early S through G2 phase and even into the next cell cycle. Nonetheless, induction of a single short telomere did not elicit a cell-cycle arrest. Tel1p binding was dependent on Xrs2p and required for preferential binding of telomerase to short telomeres. These data suggest that Tel1p targets telomerase to the DNA ends most in need of extension. PMID:17656141

  17. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, R; Mukilan, R

    2016-05-01

    Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students.

  18. PAFit: A Statistical Method for Measuring Preferential Attachment in Temporal Complex Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Pham

    Full Text Available Preferential attachment is a stochastic process that has been proposed to explain certain topological features characteristic of complex networks from diverse domains. The systematic investigation of preferential attachment is an important area of research in network science, not only for the theoretical matter of verifying whether this hypothesized process is operative in real-world networks, but also for the practical insights that follow from knowledge of its functional form. Here we describe a maximum likelihood based estimation method for the measurement of preferential attachment in temporal complex networks. We call the method PAFit, and implement it in an R package of the same name. PAFit constitutes an advance over previous methods primarily because we based it on a nonparametric statistical framework that enables attachment kernel estimation free of any assumptions about its functional form. We show this results in PAFit outperforming the popular methods of Jeong and Newman in Monte Carlo simulations. What is more, we found that the application of PAFit to a publically available Flickr social network dataset yielded clear evidence for a deviation of the attachment kernel from the popularly assumed log-linear form. Independent of our main work, we provide a correction to a consequential error in Newman's original method which had evidently gone unnoticed since its publication over a decade ago.

  19. Modelling rapid subsurface flow at the hillslope scale with explicit representation of preferential flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhöfer, J.; Zehe, E.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid lateral flow processes via preferential flow paths are widely accepted to play a key role for rainfall-runoff response in temperate humid headwater catchments. A quantitative description of these processes, however, is still a major challenge in hydrological research, not least because detailed information about the architecture of subsurface flow paths are often impossible to obtain at a natural site without disturbing the system. Our study combines physically based modelling and field observations with the objective to better understand how flow network configurations influence the hydrological response of hillslopes. The system under investigation is a forested hillslope with a small perennial spring at the study area Heumöser, a headwater catchment of the Dornbirnerach in Vorarlberg, Austria. In-situ points measurements of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and dye staining experiments at the plot scale revealed that shrinkage cracks and biogenic macropores function as preferential flow paths in the fine-textured soils of the study area, and these preferential flow structures were active in fast subsurface transport of artificial tracers at the hillslope scale. For modelling of water and solute transport, we followed the approach of implementing preferential flow paths as spatially explicit structures of high hydraulic conductivity and low retention within the 2D process-based model CATFLOW. Many potential configurations of the flow path network were generated as realisations of a stochastic process informed by macropore characteristics derived from the plot scale observations. Together with different realisations of soil hydraulic parameters, this approach results in a Monte Carlo study. The model setups were used for short-term simulation of a sprinkling and tracer experiment, and the results were evaluated against measured discharges and tracer breakthrough curves. Although both criteria were taken for model evaluation, still several model setups

  20. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1 significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB or chemotaxis (ΔcheY. ΔmotB (10(6 failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6 colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites

  1. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  2. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  3. Consumption of the Epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Schmidt, Henrik; Damsgaard, Tine E

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the extent of ulceration and the presence of epidermal involvement that theoretically precede ulceration (consumption of epidermis, COE) or seen subsequent to inflammation (reactive epidermal hyperplasia or re-epithelialization) allowed better prognostic...... supports that the proliferation drive is noninflammatory. In contrast, the presence of re-epithelialization and/or reactive epidermal hyperplasia demonstrated an 18% (95% CI: 6–53, P = 0.0021) increased density of neutrophils compared with tumor with no evidence of these possibly prolonged late......, effacement, or reactive hyperplasia of the surrounding epidermis....

  4. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    mobile, religiously committed communities to the opportunities and perils presented by modernisation. It also tells us something about the debates concerning the meanings and practices of Islam within an aggressive, globalised, secularised modernity. In Malaysia this is an especially intriguing issue...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  5. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike

    to be tackled, including climate change water pollution and water scarcity, soil degradation,eutrophication of water bodies, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. With respect to a growing world population and demographic change, problems are predicted to become more serious in the future; for example...... on a variety of issues, including agriculture and the food supply, the availability of and access to food, physical activity, welfare and social benefits, sound environmental production and consumption, fiscal policies, the role of individual consumer decision-making, public procurement and public provision...

  6. A Theory on Fashion Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ma; Huijing Shi; Lihua Chen; Yiping Luo

    2012-01-01

    Both the theory of top-down penetration of fashion consumption (Veblen - Simmel model) and the theory of bottom-up fashion consumption have been found consistent with the consumer behavior in the China¡¯s fashion consumer market and the trend of such behavior keeps growing. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a study on fashion consumption to meet the needs of the development of real life and fashion consumption. Firstly, we describe the content of fashion consumption, discuss the connota...

  7. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  8. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  9. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Han, Y.S.; Wang, J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  11. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly MPI for Metals Research), Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Han, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  12. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  13. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere: Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. These Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). The conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. The expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. The theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions. - Highlights: • A theoretical study of a new four-channel lidar concept is offered. • Preferential particle orientation detection could be realized with minor device modifications. • The proposed configuration is optimized to balance inversion uncertainties. • Circular polarized beam is demonstrated to provide the best noise performance. • Operation with ultra-short pulses is proposed to quantify particle number density

  14. Characterization of the preferential movement of elements during sputtering of binary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarya, F.

    1982-01-01

    The knowledge of the physics of ion bombardment effects has matured considerably during the last decade. This has generated an ever increasing number of new applications and the subsequent need for better understanding of the collisional interaction, especially in bombardment of multicomponent materials. This research investigates the near-surface composition changes due to the preferential movement of target elements in binary systems under ion bombardment. The Monte-Carlo code EVOLVE, which has been developed at the University of Maryland for ion transport studies, has been utilized for these investigations. The effects of differences in three key parameters, surface binding energy, displacement energy, and mass of target elements have been studied. It has been observed that in the absence of any binding energy differences, the effect of the mass difference of target elements is contrary to the previously commonly held belief that the lighter target elements tend to be preferentially implanted inward relative to the heavier elements. Cases are presented where preferential inward movement of the heavier elements were observed. Further studies were carried out using EVOLVE and it has been observed that the heavier elements, while having shorter path length relative to the lighter elements, have a longer projected penetration depth. Due to the lack of standard reference materials (SRM's) for studing ion bombardment effects, quantitative comparison of results obtained using different techniques has been unreliable. In an effort to help resolve this need, multilayered thin-film structures (prepared for SRM use) have been studied using both experimental techniques and computer simulaton. The characteristics of those structures which are useful for SMR application, such as layer thickness, layer periodicity, and interface widths are presented

  15. Scale-free behavior of networks with the copresence of preferential and uniform attachment rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Angelica; Sacerdote, Laura; Yang, Shuyi

    2018-05-01

    Complex networks in different areas exhibit degree distributions with a heavy upper tail. A preferential attachment mechanism in a growth process produces a graph with this feature. We herein investigate a variant of the simple preferential attachment model, whose modifications are interesting for two main reasons: to analyze more realistic models and to study the robustness of the scale-free behavior of the degree distribution. We introduce and study a model which takes into account two different attachment rules: a preferential attachment mechanism (with probability 1 - p) that stresses the rich get richer system, and a uniform choice (with probability p) for the most recent nodes, i.e. the nodes belonging to a window of size w to the left of the last born node. The latter highlights a trend to select one of the last added nodes when no information is available. The recent nodes can be either a given fixed number or a proportion (αn) of the total number of existing nodes. In the first case, we prove that this model exhibits an asymptotically power-law degree distribution. The same result is then illustrated through simulations in the second case. When the window of recent nodes has a constant size, we herein prove that the presence of the uniform rule delays the starting time from which the asymptotic regime starts to hold. The mean number of nodes of degree k and the asymptotic degree distribution are also determined analytically. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on the parameters of the model is performed.

  16. Spatial connectivity in a highly heterogeneous aquifer: From cores to preferential flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Zheng, C.; Wilson, C.; Tick, G.R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Gorelick, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates connectivity in a small portion of the extremely heterogeneous aquifer at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi. A total of 19 fully penetrating soil cores were collected from a rectangular grid of 4 m by 4 m. Detailed grain size analysis was performed on 5 cm segments of each core, yielding 1740 hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates. Three different geostatistical simulation methods were used to generate 3-D conditional realizations of the K field for the sampled block. Particle tracking calculations showed that the fastest particles, as represented by the first 5% to arrive, converge along preferential flow paths and exit the model domain within preferred areas. These 5% fastest flow paths accounted for about 40% of the flow. The distribution of preferential flow paths and particle exit locations is clearly influenced by the occurrence of clusters formed by interconnected cells with K equal to or greater than the 0.9 decile of the data distribution (10% of the volume). The fraction of particle paths within the high-K clusters ranges from 43% to 69%. In variogram-based K fields, some of the fastest paths are through media with lower K values, suggesting that transport connectivity may not require fully connected zones of relatively homogenous K. The high degree of flow and transport connectivity was confirmed by the values of two groups of connectivity indicators. In particular, the ratio between effective and geometric mean K (on average, about 2) and the ratio between the average arrival time and the arrival time of the fastest particles (on average, about 9) are consistent with flow and advective transport behavior characterized by channeling along preferential flow paths. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Preferential production and transport of grass-derived pyrogenic carbon in NE-Australian savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Gustavo; Goodrick, Iain; Wurster, Christopher; Nelson, Paul N.; Wynn, Jonathan; Bird, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the main factors driving fire regimes in grasslands and savannas is critical to better manage their biodiversity and functions. Moreover, improving our knowledge on pyrogenic carbon (PyC) dynamics, including formation, transport and deposition, is fundamental to better understand a significant slow-cycling component of the global carbon cycle, particularly as these ecosystems account for a substantial proportion of the area globally burnt. However, a thorough assessment of past fire regimes in grass-dominated ecosystems is problematic due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal record of sediments. It is therefore critical to adopt appropriate sampling and analytical methods to allow the acquisition of reliable data and information on savanna fire dynamics. This study uses hydrogen pyrolysis (HyPy) to quantify PyC abundance and stable isotope composition (δ13C) in recent sediments across 38 micro-catchments covering a wide range of mixed C3/C4 vegetation in north Queensland, Australia. We exploited the contrasting δ13C values of grasses (i.e. C4; δ13C >-15‰) and woody vegetation (i.e. C3; δ13C <-24‰) to assess the preferential production and transport of grass-derived PyC in savanna ecosystems. Analyses were conducted on bulk and size-fractionated samples to determine the fractions into which PyC preferentially accumulates. Our data show that the δ13C value of PyC in the sediments is decoupled from the δ13C value of total organic carbon, which suggests that a significant component of PyC may be derived from incomplete grass combustion, even when the proportion of C4 grass biomass in the catchment was relatively small. Furthermore, we conducted 16 experimental burns that indicate that there is a comminution of PyC produced in-situ to smaller particles, which facilitates the transport of this material, potentially affecting its preservation potential. Savanna fires preferentially burn the grass understory rather than large trees, leading to

  18. Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    May, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available , N Jovanovic2 and A Rozanov1 University of Stellenbosch1 and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)2 Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography Introduction... of slow and fast flowing pathways. Materials and Methods TABLE 1 DATE, TIME AND WEATHER CONDITIONS DURING RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY SURVEY Survey No. Date Start time End time Precipitation (mm) Description KB001 8/27/2010 12H00 13H40 0.0 Sunny KB002 8...

  19. Pressure-induced preferential growth of nanocrystals in amorphous Nd9Fe85B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Li Wei; Sun Hongyu; Li Hui; Zhang Xiangyi; Li Xiaohong; Liu Baoting

    2008-01-01

    Control over the growth and crystallographic orientation of nanocrystals in amorphous alloys is of particular importance for the development of advanced nanocrystalline materials. In the present study, Nd 2 Fe 14 B nanocrystals with a strong crystallographic texture along the [410] direction have been produced in Nd-lean amorphous Nd 9 Fe 85 B 6 under a high pressure of 6 GPa at 923 K. This is attributed to the high pressure inducing the preferential growth of Nd 2 Fe 14 B nanocrystals in the alloy. The present study demonstrates the potential application of high-pressure technology in controlling nanocrystalline orientation in amorphous alloys

  20. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-09-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Consequently, the bacteria are selectively killed on the cathode surface. However, the cell experiment suggested that the level of ROS is safe for normal mammalian cells.

  1. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  2. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Heavy antibiotic users are those individuals with the highest exposure to antibiotics. They play an important role as contributors to the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance. We applied different methods to identify and characterize the group of heavy antibiotic users in Spain as well...... as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages...... purchased per year. Heavy antibiotic users were identified according to Lorenz curves and characterized by age, gender, and their antimicrobial prescription profile. Lorenz curves demonstrated substantial differences in the individual use of antimicrobials. Heavy antibiotic users (5% of individuals...

  3. RCA : resource consumptions accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Rodriguez Lucas de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Devido à grande concorrência do mercado o controle de custos passa a ser peça fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão quanto à redução dos custos, visando uma lucratividade maior por parte das empresas. Essa dissertação trata sobre um novo modelo de custos, o RCA – Resource Consumption Accounting, que ainda não foi adotado por nenhuma empresa. Esse novo método de custeio foi aplicado como modelo piloto em uma empresa Americana onde os resultados foram favoráveis a ele em relação aos modelo...

  4. α-chymotrypsin in water-acetone and water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: Effect of preferential solvation and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated water/organic solvent sorption and residual enzyme activity to simultaneously monitor preferential solvation/hydration of protein macromolecules in the entire range of water content at 25°C. We applied this approach to estimate protein destabilization/stabilization due to the preferential interactions of bovine pancreatic α-chymotrypsin with water-acetone (moderate-strength H-bond acceptor) and water-DMSO (strong H-bond acceptor) mixtures. There are three concentration regimes for the dried α-chymotrypsin. α-Chymotrypsin is preferentially hydrated at high water content. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At intermediate water content, the dehydrated α-chymotrypsin has a higher affinity for acetone/DMSO than for water. Residual enzyme activity is minimal in this concentration range. The acetone/DMSO molecules are preferentially excluded from the protein surface at the lowest water content, resulting in preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity in the water-poor acetone is ∼80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. This effect is very small for the water-poor DMSO. Two different schemes are operative for the hydrated enzyme. At high and intermediate water content, α-chymotrypsin exhibits preferential hydration. However, at intermediate water content, in contrast to the dried enzyme, the initially hydrated α-chymotrypsin possesses increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, no residual enzyme activity was observed. Preferential binding of DMSO/acetone to α-chymotrypsin was detected. Our data clearly demonstrate that the hydrogen bond accepting ability of organic solvents and the protein hydration level constitute key factors in determining the stability of protein-water-organic solvent systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Grandparental Child Care in Europe: Evidence for Preferential Investment in More Certain Kin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of kin selection and parental investment predict stronger investment in children and grandchildren by women and maternal kin. Due to paternity uncertainty, parental and grandparental investments along paternal lineages are based on less certain genetic relatedness with the children and grandchildren. Additionally, the hypothesis of preferential investment (Laham, Gonsalkorale, and von Hippel, 2005 predicts investment to vary according to available investment options. Two previous studies have tested this hypothesis with small samples and conflicting results. Using the second wave of the large and multinational Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, collected in 2006–07, we study the preferential investment hypothesis in contemporary Europe based on self-reported grandparental provision of child care. We predict that 1 maternal grandmothers provide most care for their grandchildren, followed by maternal grandfathers, paternal grandmothers and last by paternal grandfathers; 2 maternal grandfathers and paternal grandmothers provide equal amounts of care when the latter do not have grandchildren via a daughter; 3 women who have grandchildren via both a daughter and a son will look after the children of the daughter more; and 4 men who have grandchildren via both a daughter and a son will look after the children of the daughter more. Results support all four hypotheses and provide evidence for the continuing effects of paternity uncertainty in contemporary kin behavior.

  6. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  7. Preferential selection based on strategy persistence and memory promotes cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Huang, Changwei; Dai, Qionglin

    2018-06-01

    Strategy imitation plays a crucial role in evolutionary dynamics when we investigate the spontaneous emergence of cooperation under the framework of evolutionary game theory. Generally, when an individual updates his strategy, he needs to choose a role model whom he will learn from. In previous studies, individuals choose role models randomly from their neighbors. In recent works, researchers have considered that individuals choose role models according to neighbors' attractiveness characterized by the present network topology or historical payoffs. Here, we associate an individual's attractiveness with the strategy persistence, which characterizes how frequently he changes his strategy. We introduce a preferential parameter α to describe the nonlinear correlation between the selection probability and the strategy persistence and the memory length of individuals M into the evolutionary games. We investigate the effects of α and M on cooperation. Our results show that cooperation could be promoted when α > 0 and at the same time M > 1, which corresponds to the situation that individuals are inclined to select their neighbors with relatively higher persistence levels during the evolution. Moreover, we find that the cooperation level could reach the maximum at an optimal memory length when α > 0. Our work sheds light on how to promote cooperation through preferential selection based on strategy persistence and a limited memory length.

  8. Dependence of crystallite formation and preferential backbone orientations on the side chain pattern in PBDTTPD polymers

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman

    2014-11-26

    (Figure Presented) Alkyl substituents appended to the π-conjugated main chain account for the solution-processability and film-forming properties of most π-conjugated polymers for organic electronic device applications, including field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Beyond film-forming properties, recent work has emphasized the determining role that side-chain substituents play on polymer self-assembly and thin-film nanostructural order, and, in turn, on device performance. However, the factors that determine polymer crystallite orientation in thin-films, implying preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate, are a matter of some debate, and these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. In this report, we show how systematic changes in the side-chain pattern of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers can (i) influence the propensity of the polymer to order in the π-stacking direction, and (ii) direct the preferential orientation of the polymer crystallites in thin films (e.g., "face-on" vs "edge-on"). Oriented crystallites, specifically crystallites that are well-ordered in the π-stacking direction, are believed to be a key contributor to improved thin-film device performance in both FETs and BHJ solar cells.

  9. Simulation study of soil water and heat dynamics at two sites with significant preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Dohnal, M.; Tesar, M.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical models based on two hydraulically contrasting flow domains coupled through a simple transfer formula have become a useful tool for modeling both water flow and associated substance transport in structured soils. A comparative numerical study focused on the preferential flow effects on the soil heat transport is presented. Sites located in two different headwater catchments were included. Experimental catchment Liz is situated in a forested mountain area of Sumava Mts. in the southern part of the Czech Republic (altitude: 830 m, mean annual temperature: 6.3°C, mean annual precipitation: 861 mm). Uhlirska catchment is located in the north-west of the Czech Republic in Jizera Mts. and is currently undergoing reforestation (altitude: 820 m, mean annual temperature: 4.6°C, mean annual precipitation: 1400 mm). Both sites are instrumented for monitoring of the relevant meteorological and hydrological variables, as well as the soil moisture and temperature distribution. Changes of the soil water content and temperature during vegetation season were simulated. Model performance was qualitatively evaluated and shown to replicate the field measurements. The soils' heat budgets and the preferential flow effect thereon was compared and analyzed.

  10. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  11. Preferential binding effects on protein structure and dynamics revealed by coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Jacobs, D. J.; Farmer, B. L.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of preferential binding of solute molecules within an aqueous solution on the structure and dynamics of the histone H3.1 protein is examined by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. The knowledge-based residue-residue and hydropathy-index-based residue-solvent interactions are used as input to analyze a number of local and global physical quantities as a function of the residue-solvent interaction strength (f). Results from simulations that treat the aqueous solution as a homogeneous effective solvent medium are compared to when positional fluctuations of the solute molecules are explicitly considered. While the radius of gyration (Rg) of the protein exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on solvent interaction over a wide range of f within an effective medium, an abrupt collapse in Rg occurs in a narrow range of f when solute molecules rapidly bind to a preferential set of sites on the protein. The structure factor S(q) of the protein with wave vector (q) becomes oscillatory in the collapsed state, which reflects segmental correlations caused by spatial fluctuations in solute-protein binding. Spatial fluctuations in solute binding also modify the effective dimension (D) of the protein in fibrous (D ˜ 1.3), random-coil (D ˜ 1.75), and globular (D ˜ 3) conformational ensembles as the interaction strength increases, which differ from an effective medium with respect to the magnitude of D and the length scale.

  12. Integration of HIV in the Human Genome: Which Sites Are Preferential? A Genetic and Statistical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana; Moreira, Elsa; Sequeira, Inês J.; Rodrigues, António S.; Rueff, José; Brás, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal fragile sites (FSs) are loci where gaps and breaks may occur and are preferential integration targets for some viruses, for example, Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, HPV16, HPV18, and MLV vectors. However, the integration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Giemsa bands and in FSs is not yet completely clear. This study aimed to assess the integration preferences of HIV in FSs and in Giemsa bands using an in silico study. HIV integration positions from Jurkat cells were used and two nonparametric tests were applied to compare HIV integration in dark versus light bands and in FS versus non-FS (NFSs). The results show that light bands are preferential targets for integration of HIV-1 in Jurkat cells and also that it integrates with equal intensity in FSs and in NFSs. The data indicates that HIV displays different preferences for FSs compared to other viruses. The aim was to develop and apply an approach to predict the conditions and constraints of HIV insertion in the human genome which seems to adequately complement empirical data. PMID:27294106

  13. Anther-preferential expressing gene PMR is essential for the mitosis of pollen development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqin; Xu, Ya; Ling, Sheng; Liu, Shasha; Yao, Jialing

    2017-06-01

    Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice. Here, we reported an anther-preferential expressing gene in rice, PMR (Pollen Mitosis Relative), playing an essential role in male gametogenesis. When PMR gene was suppressed via RNAi, the mitosis of microspore was severely damaged, and the plants formed unmatured pollens containing only one or two nucleuses at the anthesis, ultimately leading to serious reduction of pollen fertility and seed-setting. The CRISPR mutants, pmr-1 and pmr-2, both showed the similar defects as the PMR-RNAi lines. Further analysis revealed that PMR together with its co-expressing genes were liable to participate in the regulation of DNA metabolism in the nucleus, and affected the activities of some enzymes related to the cell cycle. We finally discussed that unknown protein PMR contained the PHD, SWIB and Plus-3 domains and they might have coordinating functions in regulation pathway of the pollen mitosis in rice.

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Bi2Te3 core fibers with preferentially oriented nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi2Te3-based materials have been reported to be one of the best room-temperature thermoelectric materials, and it is a challenge to substantially improve their thermoelectric properties. Here novel Bi2Te3 core fibers with borosilicate glass cladding were fabricated utilizing a modified molten core drawing method. The Bi2Te3 core of the fiber was found to consist of hexagonal polycrystalline nanosheets, and polycrystalline nanosheets had a preferential orientation; in other words, the hexagonal Bi2Te3 lamellar cleavage more tended to be parallel to the symmetry axis of the fibers. Compared with a homemade 3-mm-diameter Bi2Te3 rod, the polycrystalline nanosheets’ preferential orientation in the 89-μm-diameter Bi2Te3 core increased its electrical conductivity, but deduced its Seebeck coefficient. The Bi2Te3 core exhibits an ultrahigh ZT of 0.73 at 300 K, which is 232% higher than that of the Bi2Te3 rod. The demonstration of fibers with oriented nano-polycrystalline core and the integration with an efficient fabrication technique will pave the way for the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric fibers.

  15. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether the dopamine D2 receptor regulates the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, the a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase of b-waves evoked by low intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces the amplitude of b-waves and completely diminishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina. PMID:25393815

  16. Preferential solvation of fluorenone and 4-hydroxyfluorenone in binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozefowicz, Marek; Heldt, Janina R.

    2003-01-01

    Preferential solvation of fluorenone and 4-hydroxyfluorenone in binary solvent mixtures has been studied using steady-state spectroscopic measurements. This study concerns the solvent-induced shift of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of both molecules in two solvent mixtures, i.e., cyclohexane-tetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane-ethanol. The first system contains polar solute molecules, fluorenone and 4-hydroxyfluorenone, in a mixture of polar aprotic (tetrahydrofuran) and non-polar (cyclohexane) solvents. In the second solvents mixture, hydrogen bonding with solute molecules (ethanol) may occur. The results of spectroscopic measurements are analysed using theoretical models of Bakshiev, Mazurenko and Suppan which describe preferential solvation phenomena. In the case of cyclohexane-tetrahydrofuran mixtures, the deviation from linearity in the absorption and fluorescence solvatochromic shifts vs. the solution polarity is due to non-specific dipolar solvent-solute interactions. For cyclohexane-ethanol binary mixtures, both non-specific and specific (hydrogen bond and proton-relay tautomerization) interactions contribute to the observed solvatochromism

  17. Dynamic preferential allocation to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi explains fungal succession and coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Benedicte; Lee, Charlotte T

    2018-02-01

    Evidence accumulates about the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in shaping plant communities, but little is known about the factors determining the biomass and coexistence of several types of AM fungi in a plant community. Here, using a consumer-resource framework that treats the relationship between plants and fungi as simultaneous, reciprocal exploitation, we investigated what patterns of dynamic preferential plant carbon allocation to empirically-defined fungal types (on-going partner choice) would be optimal for plants, and how these patterns depend on successional dynamics. We found that ruderal AM fungi can dominate under low steady-state nutrient availability, and competitor AM fungi can dominate at higher steady-state nutrient availability; these are conditions characteristic of early and late succession, respectively. We also found that dynamic preferential allocation alone can maintain a diversity of mutualists, suggesting that on-going partner choice is a new coexistence mechanism for mutualists. Our model can therefore explain both mutualist coexistence and successional strategy, providing a powerful tool to derive testable predictions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Preferential microRNA targeting revealed by in vivo competitive binding and differential Argonaute immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Stanislas; Leierseder, Simon; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Kuster, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2017-09-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been described to simultaneously inhibit hundreds of targets, albeit to a modest extent. It was recently proposed that there could exist more specific, exceptionally strong binding to a subgroup of targets. However, it is unknown, whether this is the case and how such targets can be identified. Using Argonaute2-ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation and in vivo competitive binding assays, we demonstrate for miRNAs-21, -199-3p and let-7 exceptional regulation of a subset of targets, which are characterized by preferential miRNA binding. We confirm this finding by analysis of independent quantitative proteome and transcriptome datasets obtained after miRNA silencing. Our data suggest that mammalian miRNA activity is guided by preferential binding of a small set of 3'-untranslated regions, thereby shaping a steep gradient of regulation between potential targets. Our approach can be applied for transcriptome-wide identification of such targets independently of the presence of seed complementary sequences or other predictors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Preferential site occupancy of alloying elements in TiAl-based phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, David, E-mail: david.holec@unileoben.ac.at; Reddy, Rajeev K.; Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-05-28

    First principles calculations are used to study the preferential occupation of ternary alloying additions into the binary Ti-Al phases, namely, γ-TiAl, α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al, β{sub o}-TiAl, and B19-TiAl. While the early transition metals (TMs, group IVB, VB, and VIB elements) prefer to substitute for Ti atoms in the γ-, α{sub 2}-, and B19-phases, they preferentially occupy Al sites in the β{sub o}-TiAl. Si is, in this context, an anomaly, as it prefers to sit on the Al sublattice for all four phases. B and C are shown to prefer octahedral Ti-rich interstitial positions instead of substitutional incorporation. The site preference energy is linked with the alloying-induced changes of energy of formation, hence alloying-related (de)stabilisation of the phases. We further show that the phase-stabilisation effect of early TMs on β{sub o}-phase has a different origin depending on their valency. Finally, an extensive comparison of our predictions with available theoretical and experimental data (which is, however, limited mostly to the γ-phase) shows a consistent picture.

  20. The Dynamics of Power laws: Fitness and Aging in Preferential Attachment Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Alessandro; van der Hofstad, Remco; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Continuous-time branching processes describe the evolution of a population whose individuals generate a random number of children according to a birth process. Such branching processes can be used to understand preferential attachment models in which the birth rates are linear functions. We are motivated by citation networks, where power-law citation counts are observed as well as aging in the citation patterns. To model this, we introduce fitness and age-dependence in these birth processes. The multiplicative fitness moderates the rate at which children are born, while the aging is integrable, so that individuals receives a finite number of children in their lifetime. We show the existence of a limiting degree distribution for such processes. In the preferential attachment case, where fitness and aging are absent, this limiting degree distribution is known to have power-law tails. We show that the limiting degree distribution has exponential tails for bounded fitnesses in the presence of integrable aging, while the power-law tail is restored when integrable aging is combined with fitness with unbounded support with at most exponential tails. In the absence of integrable aging, such processes are explosive.

  1. Preferential repair of nuclear matrix associated DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenders, L.H.F.; Kesteren, A.C. van; Bussmann, C.J.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair patches in the genome of xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group C was investigated by determining the molecular weight distribution of repair labeled DNA and prelabeled DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients after treatment with the dimer-specific endonuclease V of bacteriophage T 4 . The results suggest that DNA-repair synthesis in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group C occurs in localized regions of the genome. Analysis of the spatial distribution of ultraviolet-induced repair patches in DNA loops attached to the nuclear matrix revealed that in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group C repair patches are preferentially situated near the attachment sites of DNA loops at the nuclear matrix. In normal human fibroblasts the authors observed no enrichment of repair-labeled DNA at the nuclear matrix and repair patches appeared to be distributed randomly along the DNA loops. The enrichment of repair-labeled DNA at the nuclear matrix in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group C may indicate that the residual DNA-repair synthesis in these cells occurs preferentially in regions of the genome. (Auth.)

  2. Preferential Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors as a Nonhormonal Method of Emergency Contraception: A Look at the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Erich A; Gandhi, Mona

    2016-04-01

    To review the literature surrounding the use of preferential cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors as an alternative form of emergency contraception. MEDLINE (1950 to February 2014) was searched using the key words cyclooxygenase or COX-2 combined with contraception, emergency contraception, or ovulation. Results were limited to randomized control trials, controlled clinical trials, and clinical trials. Human trials that measured the effects of COX inhibition on female reproductive potential were included for review. The effects of the COX-2 inhibitors rofecoxib, celecoxib, and meloxicam were evaluated in 6 trials. Each of which was small in scope, enrolled women of variable fertility status, used different dosing regimens, included multiple end points, and had variable results. Insufficient evidence exists to fully support the use of preferential COX-2 inhibitors as a form of emergency contraception. Although all trials resulted in a decrease in ovulatory cycles, outcomes varied between dosing strategies and agents used. A lack of homogeneity in these studies makes comparisons difficult. However, success of meloxicam in multiple trials warrants further study. Larger human trials are necessary before the clinical utility of this method of emergency contraception can be fully appreciated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A cocaine context renews drug seeking preferentially in a subset of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Benjamin T; O'Donnell, Elizabeth G; Aurbach, Elyse L; Robinson, Terry E

    2014-11-01

    Addiction is characterized by a high propensity for relapse, in part because cues associated with drugs can acquire Pavlovian incentive motivational properties, and acting as incentive stimuli, such cues can instigate and invigorate drug-seeking behavior. There is, however, considerable individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Discrete and localizable reward cues act as much more effective incentive stimuli in some rats ('sign-trackers', STs), than others ('goal-trackers', GTs). We asked whether similar individual variation exists for contextual cues associated with cocaine. Cocaine context conditioned motivation was quantified in two ways: (1) the ability of a cocaine context to evoke conditioned hyperactivity and (2) the ability of a context in which cocaine was previously self-administered to renew cocaine-seeking behavior. Finally, we assessed the effects of intra-accumbens core flupenthixol, a nonselective dopamine receptor antagonist, on context renewal. In contrast to studies using discrete cues, a cocaine context spurred greater conditioned hyperactivity, and more robustly renewed extinguished cocaine seeking in GTs than STs. In addition, cocaine context renewal was blocked by antagonism of dopamine receptors in the accumbens core. Thus, contextual cues associated with cocaine preferentially acquire motivational control over behavior in different individuals than do discrete cues, and in these individuals the ability of a cocaine context to create conditioned motivation for cocaine requires dopamine in the core of the nucleus accumbens. We speculate that different individuals may be preferentially sensitive to different 'triggers' of relapse.

  4. Quantifying Preferential Flow and Seasonal Storage in an Unsaturated Fracture-Facial Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Malek-Mohammadi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Preferential flow through deep unsaturated zones of fractured rock is hydrologically important to a variety of contaminant transport and water-resource issues. The unsaturated zone of the English Chalk Aquifer provides an important opportunity for a case study of unsaturated preferential flow in isolation from other flow modes. The chalk matrix has low hydraulic conductivity and stays saturated, owing to its fine uniform pores and the wet climate of the region. Therefore the substantial fluxes observed in the unsaturated chalk must be within fractures and interact minimally with matrix material. Price et al. [2000] showed that irregularities on fracture surfaces provide a significant storage capacity in the chalk unsaturated zone, likely accounting for volumes of water required to explain unexpected dry-season water-table stability during substantial continuing streamflow observed by Lewis et al. [1993] In this presentation we discuss and quantify the dynamics of replenishment and drainage of this unsaturated zone fracture-face storage domain using a modification of the source-responsive model of Nimmo [2010]. This model explains the processes in terms of two interacting flow regimes: a film or rivulet preferential flow regime on rough fracture faces, active on an individual-storm timescale, and a regime of adsorptive and surface-tension influences, resembling traditional diffuse formulations of unsaturated flow, effective mainly on a seasonal timescale. The modified model identifies hydraulic parameters for an unsaturated fracture-facial domain lining the fractures. Besides helping to quantify the unsaturated zone storage described by Price et al., these results highlight the importance of research on the topic of unsaturated-flow relations within a near-fracture-surface domain. This model can also facilitate understanding of mechanisms for reinitiation of preferential flow after temporary cessation, which is important in multi-year preferential flow through deep

  5. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  6. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  7. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  8. Survey on food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1979-01-01

    Critical pathway approach is one of the methods for estimating discharge limits of radioactive nuclides into an environment. In connection with this it is presented that a term of 'critical group' is in danger of leading to the misunderstanding of 'dangerous group'. However, in fact, the present discharge is limited to a level as low as practicable. Therefore, on the evaluation of intermal radiation dose for such a low release, a term of 'reference group' should be recommended instead of critical group. In order to select reasonably 'the reference group', it was proposed to calculate 'effective whole body dose-equivalent limit', which was recommended by ICRP publication 26. It is a convenient method to sum up individual weighed dose of each critical organ by using the value of a ratio obtained from Wt as a weighing factor. Finally instructions for the survey on food consumption and the results were summarized on the basis of ten-years survey experiences in coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture. (author)

  9. Controlled surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films for preferential protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Zhuang, Hao; Schlemper, Christoph; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Wenjun; Jiang, Xin

    2014-02-04

    Diamond and SiC both process extraordinary biocompatible, electronic, and chemical properties. A combination of diamond and SiC may lead to highly stable materials, e.g., for implants or biosensors with excellent sensing properties. Here we report on the controllable surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films and its effect on protein adsorption. For systematic and high-throughput investigations, novel diamond/β-SiC composite films with gradient composition have been synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the diamond/β-SiC ratio of the composite films shows a continuous change from pure diamond to β-SiC over a length of ∼ 10 mm on the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was employed to unveil the surface termination of chemically oxidized and hydrogen treated surfaces. The surface chemistry of the composite films was found to depend on diamond/β-SiC ratio and the surface treatment. As observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, albumin and fibrinogen were preferentially adsorbed from buffer: after surface oxidation, the proteins preferred to adsorb on diamond rather than on β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of proteins adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. By contrast, for hydrogen-treated surfaces, the proteins preferentially adsorbed on β-SiC, leading to a decreasing amount of albumin adsorbed on the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The mechanism of preferential protein adsorption is discussed by considering the hydrogen bonding of the water self-association network to OH-terminated surfaces and the change of the polar surface energy component, which was determined according to the van Oss method. These results suggest that the diamond/β-SiC gradient film can be a promising material for biomedical applications which

  10. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Cuthbert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is presented and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via preferential flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in preferential flow pathways due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil and to a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010 is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  11. Frontiers in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...

  12. Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders and sur...

  13. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  14. Second-home electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Christensen, M.S.; Jensen, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more...

  15. Second-home electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Risoe, Systems Analysis Department, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, Morten S.; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik [Esbensen Consulting Engineers, Carl Jacobsens Vej 25D, DK-2500 Valby (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Danish Building Research Institute, Department of Energy and Environment, University of Aalborg, P.O. Box 119, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark)

    2008-01-15

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes. (author)

  16. Second-home electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Christensen, Morten S.; Jensen, Ole Michael; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes

  17. Receptor-isoform-selective insulin analogues give tissue-preferential effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Bouman, Stephan D; Sørensen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The relative expression patterns of the two IR (insulin receptor) isoforms, +/- exon 11 (IR-B/IR-A respectively), are tissue-dependent. Therefore we have developed insulin analogues with different binding affinities for the two isoforms to test whether tissue-preferential biological effects can...... be attained. In rats and mice, IR-B is the most prominent isoform in the liver (> 95%) and fat (> 90%), whereas in muscles IR-A is the dominant isoform (> 95%). As a consequence, the insulin analogue INS-A, which has a higher relative affinity for human IR-A, had a higher relative potency [compared with HI...... (human insulin)] for glycogen synthesis in rat muscle strips (26%) than for glycogen accumulation in rat hepatocytes (5%) and for lipogenesis in rat adipocytes (4%). In contrast, the INS-B analogue, which has an increased affinity for human IR-B, had higher relative potencies (compared with HI...

  18. Preferential Production and Transport of Grass-Derived Pyrogenic Carbon in NE-Australian Savanna Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Saiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the main factors driving fire regimes in grasslands and savannas is critical to better manage their biodiversity and functions. Moreover, improving our knowledge on pyrogenic carbon (PyC dynamics, including formation, transport and deposition, is fundamental to better understand a significant slow-cycling component of the global carbon cycle, particularly as these ecosystems account for a substantial proportion of the area globally burnt. However, a thorough assessment of past fire regimes in grass-dominated ecosystems is problematic due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal record of sediments. It is therefore critical to adopt appropriate sampling and analytical methods to allow the acquisition of reliable data and information on savanna fire dynamics. This study uses hydrogen pyrolysis (HyPy to quantify PyC abundance and stable isotope composition (δ13C in recent sediments across 38 micro-catchments covering a wide range of mixed C3/C4 vegetation in north Queensland, Australia. We exploited the contrasting δ13C values of grasses (i.e., C4; δ13C > −15‰ and woody vegetation (i.e., C3; δ13C < −24‰ to assess the preferential production and transport of grass-derived PyC in savanna ecosystems. Analyses were conducted on bulk and size-fractionated samples to determine the fractions into which PyC preferentially accumulates. Our data show that the δ13C value of PyC in the sediments is decoupled from the δ13C value of total organic carbon, which suggests that a significant component of PyC may be derived from incomplete grass combustion, even when the proportion of C4 grass biomass in the catchment was relatively small. Furthermore, we conducted 16 experimental burns that indicate that there is a comminution of PyC produced in-situ to smaller particles, which facilitates the transport of this material, potentially affecting its preservation potential. Savanna fires preferentially burn the grass understory rather than

  19. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...

  20. Nanofibrillar scaffolds induce preferential activation of Rho GTPases in cerebral cortical astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Volkan Mujdat; Ayres, Virginia M; Khan, Adeel A; Ahmed, Ijaz; Shreiber, David I; Meiners, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cortical astrocyte responses to polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds versus poly-L-lysine (PLL)-functionalized planar glass, unfunctionalized planar Aclar coverslips, and PLL-functionalized planar Aclar surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The physical properties of the cell culture environments were evaluated using contact angle and surface roughness measurements and compared. Astrocyte morphological responses, including filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fiber formation, and stellation were imaged using atomic force microscopy and phalloidin staining for F-actin. Activation of the corresponding Rho GTPase regulators was investigated using immunolabeling with Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. Astrocytes cultured on the nanofibrillar scaffolds showed a unique response that included stellation, cell–cell interactions by stellate processes, and evidence of depression of RhoA. The results support the hypothesis that the extracellular environment can trigger preferential activation of members of the Rho GTPase family, with demonstrable morphological consequences for cerebral cortical astrocytes. PMID:22915841

  1. The preferential orientation and lattice misfit of the directionally solidified Fe-Al-Ta eutectic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chunjuan; Wang, Pei; Yang, Meng; Wen, Yagang; Ren, Chiqiang; Wang, Songyuan

    2018-01-01

    Fe-Al intermetallic compound has been paid more attentions recently in many fields such as aeronautic, aerospace, automobile, energy and chemical engineering, and so on. In this paper Fe-Al-Ta eutectic was prepared by a modified Bridgman directional solidification technique, and it is found that microstructure of the Fe-Al-Ta eutectic alloy transforms from the broken-lamellar eutectic to cellular eutectic with the increase of the solidification rate. In the cellular eutectic structure, the fibers are parallel to each other within the same grain, but some fibers are deviated from the original orientation at the grain boundaries. To study the crystallographic orientation relationship (OR) between the two phases, the preferential orientation of the Fe-Al-Ta eutectic alloy at the different solidification rates was studied by Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED). Moreover, the lattice misfit between Fe2Ta(Al) Laves phase and Fe(Al,Ta) matrix phase was calculated.

  2. Stratification of TAD boundaries reveals preferential insulation of super-enhancers by strong boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yixiao; Lazaris, Charalampos; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Lozano, Aurelie; Kambadur, Prabhanjan; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Aifantis, Iannis; Tsirigos, Aristotelis

    2018-02-07

    The metazoan genome is compartmentalized in areas of highly interacting chromatin known as topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs are demarcated by boundaries mostly conserved across cell types and even across species. However, a genome-wide characterization of TAD boundary strength in mammals is still lacking. In this study, we first use fused two-dimensional lasso as a machine learning method to improve Hi-C contact matrix reproducibility, and, subsequently, we categorize TAD boundaries based on their insulation score. We demonstrate that higher TAD boundary insulation scores are associated with elevated CTCF levels and that they may differ across cell types. Intriguingly, we observe that super-enhancers are preferentially insulated by strong boundaries. Furthermore, we demonstrate that strong TAD boundaries and super-enhancer elements are frequently co-duplicated in cancer patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that super-enhancers insulated by strong TAD boundaries may be exploited, as a functional unit, by cancer cells to promote oncogenesis.

  3. Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP) for detecting choroidal neovascularization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Yair; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Brimacombe, Judith A; Crompton, R Michael; Duh, Yi-Jing; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Heier, Jeffrey S; Ip, Michael S; Loewenstein, Anat; Packo, Kirk H; Stur, Michael; Toaff, Techiya

    2005-10-01

    To assess the ability of the Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) to detect recent-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD. Prospective, comparative, concurrent, nonrandomized, multicenter study. Eligible participants' study eyes had a corrected visual acuity of 20/160 or better and either untreated CNV from AMD diagnosed within the last 60 days or an intermediate stage of AMD. After obtaining consent, visual acuity with habitual correction, masked PHP testing, stereoscopic color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography were performed. Photographs and angiograms were evaluated by graders masked to diagnosis and PHP results. The reading center's diagnosis determined if the patient was categorized as having intermediate AMD or neovascular AMD. A successful study outcome was defined a priori as a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 80%. Of 185 patients who gave consent to be enrolled, 11 (6%) had PHP results judged to be unreliable. An additional 52 were not included because they did not meet all eligibility criteria. Of the remaining 122 patients, 57 had an intermediate stage of AMD and 65 had neovascular AMD. The sensitivity to detect newly diagnosed CNV using PHP testing was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-90%). The specificity to differentiate newly diagnosed CNV from the intermediate stage of AMD using PHP testing was 88% (95% CI, 76%-95%). Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter testing can detect recent-onset CNV resulting from AMD and can differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that monitoring with PHP should detect most cases of CNV of recent onset with few false-positive results at a stage when treatment usually would be beneficial. Thus, this monitoring should be considered in the management of the

  4. Imaging Preferential Flow Pathways of Contaminants from Passive Acid Mine Drainage Mitigation Sites Using Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N.; Mount, G.; Terry, N.; Herndon, E.; Singer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Critical Zone represents the surficial and shallow layer of rock, air, water, and soil where most interactions between living organisms and the Earth occur. Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal extraction can influence both biological and geochemical processes across this zone. Conservative estimates suggest that more than 300 million gallons of AMD are released daily, making this acidic solution of water and contaminants a common issue in areas with legacy or current coal extraction. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) provides a rapid and minimally invasive method to identify and monitor contaminant pathways from AMD remediation systems in the subsurface of the Critical Zone. The technique yields spatially continuous data of subsurface resistivity that can be inverted to determine electrical conductivity as a function of depth. Since elevated concentrations of heavy metals can directly influence soil conductivity, ERI data can be used to trace the flow pathways or perhaps unknown mine conduits and transport of heavy metals through the subsurface near acid mine drainage sources. This study aims to examine preferential contaminant migration from those sources through substrate pores, fractures, and shallow mine workings in the near subsurface surrounding AMD sites in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. We utilize time lapse ERI measures during different hydrologic conditions to better understand the variability of preferential flow pathways in relation to changes in stage and discharge within the remediation systems. To confirm ERI findings, and provide constraint to geochemical reactions occurring in the shallow subsurface, we conducted Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrometry analysis of groundwater samples from boreholes along the survey transects. Through these combined methods, we can provide insight into the ability of engineered systems to contain and isolate metals in passive acid mine drainage treatment systems.

  5. Liposomal Fasudil, a Rho-Kinase Inhibitor, for Prolonged Pulmonary Preferential Vasodilation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Nilesh; Shaik, Imam H.; Mehvar, Reza; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Oka, Masahiko; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Komatsu, Masanobu; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2013-01-01

    Current pharmacological interventions for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) require continuous infusions, multiple inhalations, or oral administration of drugs that act on various pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, invasive methods of administration, short duration of action, and lack of pulmonary selectivity result in noncompliance and poor patient outcomes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that encapsulation of an investigational anti-PAH molecule fasudil (HA-1077), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, into liposomal vesicles results in prolonged vasodilation in distal pulmonary arterioles. Liposomes were prepared by hydration and extrusion method and fasudil was loaded by ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Liposomes were then characterized for various physicochemical properties. Optimized formulations were tested for pulmonary absorption and their pharmacological efficacy in a monocrotaline (MCT) induced rat model of PAH. The entrapment efficiency of optimized liposomal fasudil formulations was between 68.1±0.8% and 73.6±2.3%, and the cumulative release at 37°C was 98–99% over a period of 5 days. Compared to intravenous (IV) fasudil, a ~10 fold increase in the terminal plasma half-life was observed when liposomal fasudil was administered as aerosols. The t1/2 of IV fasudil was 0.39±0.12 h. and when given as liposomes via pulmonary route, the t1/2 extended to 4.71±0.72 h. One h after intratracheal instillation of liposomal fasudil, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) was reduced by 37.6±5.7% and continued to decrease for about 3 h, suggesting that liposomal formulations produced pulmonary preferential vasodilation in MCT induced PAH rats. Overall, this study established the proof-of-principle that aerosolized liposomal fasudil is a feasible option for a non-invasive, controlled release and pulmonary preferential treatment of PAH. PMID:23353807

  6. Spatial information is preferentially processed by the distal part of CA3: implication for memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Atucha, Erika; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2018-07-16

    For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas. Here, we tested if distal CA3 preferentially processes spatial information, which would suggest a segregation of the spatial information along the proximodistal axis of CA3. We used a high-resolution imaging technique based on the detection of the expression of the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We showed that distal CA3 is strongly recruited in a newly designed delayed nonmatching-to-location task with high memory demands in rats, while proximal CA3 is not. These results indicate a functional segregation of CA3 that mirrors the one reported in CA1, and suggest the existence of a distal CA3- proximal CA1 spatial subnetwork. These findings bring further evidence for the existence of 'specialized' spatial and non-spatial subnetworks segregated along the proximodistal axis of the hippocampus and put forward the 'segregated' view of information processing in the hippocampus as a reasonable alternative to the well-accepted 'integrated' view, according to which spatial and non-spatial information are systematically integrated in the hippocampus to form episodic memory. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Preferential localization of 3H-pentosanpolysulphate to the urinary tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, B.; Tengblad, A.; Dencker, L.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous glycosaminoglycans probably have a protective effect in the urinary tract, e.g. against stone formation. The synthetic sulphated polysaccharide pentosanpolysulphate (PPS) has been suggested to exert a similar protective effect e.g. by inhibition of crystallization and bacterial anti-adhesion. We have studied the distribution in rats of tritium-labelled PPS. Chromatography showed this material to contain two distinct peaks with approximate molecular weight around 2.700 (60-70%) and 1.000 (30-40%) daltons. PPS was administered orally and intravenously (5 mg/kg b.wt) to Sprague-Dawley rats, which were killed 1 and 4 hours later, respectively, and subjected to whole-body autoradiography. Autoradiograms of sections from intravenously injected rats showed an extensive distribution of radioactivity in the whole animal, with a notable labelling of connective tissues, while bone and cartilage had low activity. There was upper intestine activity, suggesting some hepatic excretion. The most conspicuous finding, however, was the high concentration in urine and a preferential localization of activity corresponding to the lining of the urinary tract (pelvis, ureter, and bladder). The distribution was similar, but the activity lower after oral administration. After vigorous rinsing, with saline, the radioactivity was still retained in the bladder wall. High amount of radioactivity could be rinsed off by 0.5 M saline. Chromatography of the rinsing solution showed presence of both fractions of PPS previously found in the injection solution. No other peak of activity was found. Since PPS of molecular weight 2.700 and 1.000 is preferentially located to the surface epithelium of the urinary tract in rats, the effects of PPS in urinary tract diseases could depend on surface coating of the epithelium and/or urinary concentrations of PPS. (EG)

  8. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  9. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Szpiro, A; Kim, S Y; Sheppard, L

    2015-06-01

    Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate.

  10. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A.; Szpiro, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Sheppard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate. PMID:29576734

  11. Balancing practicality and hydrologic realism: a parsimonious approach for simulating rapid groundwater recharge via unsaturated-zone preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of preferential flow on recharge and contaminant transport poses a considerable challenge to water-resources management. Typical hydrologic models require extensive site characterization, but can underestimate fluxes when preferential flow is significant. A recently developed source-responsive model incorporates film-flow theory with conservation of mass to estimate unsaturated-zone preferential fluxes with readily available data. The term source-responsive describes the sensitivity of preferential flow in response to water availability at the source of input. We present the first rigorous tests of a parsimonious formulation for simulating water table fluctuations using two case studies, both in arid regions with thick unsaturated zones of fractured volcanic rock. Diffuse flow theory cannot adequately capture the observed water table responses at both sites; the source-responsive model is a viable alternative. We treat the active area fraction of preferential flow paths as a scaled function of water inputs at the land surface then calibrate the macropore density to fit observed water table rises. Unlike previous applications, we allow the characteristic film-flow velocity to vary, reflecting the lag time between source and deep water table responses. Analysis of model performance and parameter sensitivity for the two case studies underscores the importance of identifying thresholds for initiation of film flow in unsaturated rocks, and suggests that this parsimonious approach is potentially of great practical value.

  12. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  13. Preferential adsorption of polycarboxylate superplasticizers on cement and silica fume in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schröfl, Ch.; Gruber, M.; Plank, J.

    2012-01-01

    UHPC is fluidized particularly well when a blend of MPEG- and APEG-type PCEs is applied. Here, the mechanism for this behavior was investigated. Testing individual cement and micro silica pastes revealed that the MPEG-PCE disperses cement better than silica whereas the APEG-PCE fluidizes silica particularly well. This behavior is explained by preferential adsorption of APEG-PCE on silica while MPEG-PCEs exhibit a more balanced affinity to both cement and silica. Adsorption data obtained from individual cement and micro silica pastes were compared with those found for the fully formulated UHPC containing a cement/silica blend. In the UHPC formulation, both PCEs still exhibit preferential and selective adsorption similar as was observed for individual cement and silica pastes. Preferential adsorption of PCEs is explained by their different stereochemistry whereby the carboxylate groups have to match with the steric position of calcium ions/atoms situated at the surfaces of cement hydrates or silica.

  14. Refinement by Rietveld method of a rolled sheet Al-Mg-Si 6063 alloy with preferential orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrio, J.A.G.; Hattori, C.S.; Miranda, L.F.; Domingues Junior, N.I.; Lima, N.B.; Couto, A.A.; Aguiar, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rietveld refinement of a sample with preferential orientation was accomplished using data of X ray diffraction of a rolled 6063 aluminum alloy. The refinement of the preferential orientation by spherical harmonic was accomplished using a symmetry of sample mmm (rolling) until the order of 8 and was compared with experimental pole figures. The four pole figures presented indicate a sharp texture of the planes (111), (200), (220) and (311). The calculated pole figures obtained from the refinement of the X ray diffraction spectrum can incur in mistakes of preferential orientation. This happens because the measure is restricted to the planes parallel to the surface without inference to the symmetry of the sample. (author)

  15. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  16. Muslim consumption and anti-consumption in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    in Malaysia became the subject of increasing consumer activism and I explore how Malaysian federal state institutions, Islamic organizations and consumers respond to and are affected by calls to boycott (anti-consumption) and boycott (consumption) a range of products. More specifically, this article examines...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....

  17. The intersubjectivity of family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    identity and family scape, I analyze how family members negotiate purchase decisions, and relate to each other’s preferences and desires, as well as those of other families. I consider how family members' interrelations as consumers and long-term negotiations over symbolic meanings of consumption......This study of everyday consumption is based on an ethnographic fieldwork conducted among four Danish middle-class families in Copenhagen, from which an illustrative example of family car purchase is drawn. By introducing two new concepts to the study of family consumption; intra-family consumer...

  18. Determinants and patterns of soft drink consumption in young adults: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, Libby; Irwin, Melissa; King, Lesley; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2009-10-01

    To explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding caloric soft drinks in a group of young adults attending university and to identify opportunities for a health promotion intervention aimed at reducing consumption. In-depth, semi-structured focus groups segmented by gender. Sydney, Australia. Undergraduate University of Sydney students aged 18-30 years (n 35). Social and environmental cues, intrinsic qualities of beverages and personal health beliefs were identified as important influences on consumption. Social cues included settings in which alcohol is usually consumed, socialising with friends, and family influences. Environmental cues included purchasing of fast foods, and ready availability, preferential pricing and promotion of caloric beverages. Reinforcing intrinsic qualities of caloric soft drinks included taste, sugar and caffeine content, and their association with treats and rewards. Major gender differences as well as variations in individual readiness for behaviour change were observed. Raising awareness of the sugar content of various beverages and the potential health impacts associated with their consumption was considered important. The findings provide new insights with important implications for policy and practice, and suggest that there is considerable scope for promoting awareness in this group. Carefully designed social marketing campaigns highlighting the health issues and addressing social and environmental cues relating to caloric soft drink consumption are required. There is a need for gender-differentiated intervention programmes which are both informational and appealing to young adults. Further research is warranted, particularly to investigate beverage consumption relating to fast-food meal deals and young adults' consumption patterns in more depth.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of the glucose transporter gene Slc2a1 by β-hydroxybutyrate underlies preferential glucose supply to the brain of fasted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Sato-Miyata, Yukiko; Funakoshi, Masabumi; Nishito, Yasumasa; Aigaki, Toshiro; Hara, Takahiko

    2017-01-01

    We carried out liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of metabolites in mice. Those metabolome data showed that hepatic glucose content is reduced, but that brain glucose content is unaffected, during fasting, consistent with the priority given to brain glucose consumption during fasting. The molecular mechanisms for this preferential glucose supply to the brain are not fully understood. We also showed that the fasting-induced production of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) enhances expression of the glucose transporter gene Slc2a1 (Glut1) via histone modification. Upon β-OHB treatment, Slc2a1 expression was up-regulated, with a concomitant increase in H3K9 acetylation at the critical cis-regulatory region of the Slc2a1 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells and NB2a neuronal cells, shown by quantitative PCR analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the Hdac2 gene increased Slc2a1 expression, suggesting that it is one of the responsible histone deacetylases (HDACs). These results confirm that β-OHB is a HDAC inhibitor and show that β-OHB plays an important role in fasting-induced epigenetic activation of a glucose transporter gene in the brain. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preferential Flow Paths Allow Deposition of Mobile Organic Carbon Deep into Soil B Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Most of our understanding of soil carbon (C) dynamics derives from the top 10 to 20 cm, although globally the majority of the bulk soil C pool is found below those depths. Mineral associated C in deep soil is more stable than that held in surface horizons, and its long-term persistence may contribute to sequestration of anthropogenic C. Carbon can enter deep soil horizons in multiple ways: through biologically-mediated or abiotic physical mixing, illuviation, root inputs, or through a physical disturbance that would cause the burial of an originally shallow organic horizon. In this study, we investigated the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the transport and stabilization of soil C in tropical rainforest volcanic soils, where high rainfall, a highly productive forest, and dominance of highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals contribute to large soil C stocks at depth with long mean residence times. DOM plays an important role in many biological and chemical processes in soils, including nutrient transfer within and across ecosystems. Carbon storage in these soils is linked to movement of both DOC and particulate organic C along infiltration pathways. Climate and soil mineralogical properties create the right conditions for C to be pumped from the organic horizons where microbial activity is highest, to deep mineral horizons, where the potential for stabilization is greatest. High rainfall preserves hydrated short-range order minerals that are subject to strong shrinkage during occasional drought periods. The resulting cracks in subsurface B horizons become pathways for DOM complexed with Fe and Al moving in soil solution during subsequent wet periods. Preferential flow of these organically rich solutes and/or colloids moves C to depth where C, Fe and Al are preferentially deposited on near-vertical crack surfaces and along near-horizonal flow surfaces at horizon boundaries. Long-term deposition forms discontinuous Fe- and OM-cemented lamella that serve to

  2. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  3. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  4. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  5. Influence of macroporosity on preferential solute and colloid transport in unsaturated field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cey, Edwin E; Rudolph, David L; Passmore, Joanna

    2009-06-26

    Transport of solutes and colloids in soils, particularly those subject to preferential flow along macropores, is important for assessing the vulnerability of shallow groundwater to contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate flow and transport phenomena for dissolved and colloid tracers during large infiltration events in partially saturated, macroporous soils. Controlled tracer infiltration tests were completed at two field sites in southern Ontario. A tension infiltrometer (TI) was used to infiltrate water with dissolved Brilliant Blue FCF dye simultaneously with 3.7 microm and 0.53 microm diameter fluorescent microspheres. Infiltration was conducted under maximum infiltration pressure heads ranging from -5.2 to -0.4 cm. All infiltration test sites were excavated to examine and photograph dye-stained flow patterns, map soil features, and collect samples for microsphere enumeration. Results indicated that preferential transport of dye and microspheres via macropores occurred when maximum pressure heads were greater than -3.0 cm, and the corresponding infiltration rates exceeded 2.0 cm h(-1). Dye and microspheres were detected at depths greater than 70 cm under the highest infiltration rates from both sites. Microsphere concentrations in the top 5-10 cm of soil decreased by more than two orders of magnitude relative to input concentrations, yet remained relatively constant with depth thereafter. There was some evidence for increased retention of the 3.7 microm microspheres relative to the 0.53 microm microspheres, particularly at lower infiltration pressures where straining and attachment mechanisms are most prevalent. Microspheres were observed within dye stained soil matrix surrounding individual macropores, illustrating the significance of capillary pressures in controlling the vertical migration of both tracers in the vicinity of the macropores. Overall, microsphere distributions closely followed the dye patterns, with microsphere

  6. The gsdf gene locus harbors evolutionary conserved and clustered genes preferentially expressed in fish previtellogenic oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Aude; Le Gac, Florence; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    The gonadal soma-derived factor (GSDF) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is conserved in teleostean fish species. Gsdf is specifically expressed in the gonads, and gene expression is restricted to the granulosa and Sertoli cells in trout and medaka. The gsdf gene expression is correlated to early testis differentiation in medaka and was shown to stimulate primordial germ cell and spermatogonia proliferation in trout. In the present study, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment conserved among vertebrates although no gsdf-related gene is detected on the corresponding genomic region in tetrapods. We demonstrate using quantitative RT-PCR that most of the genes localized in the synteny are specifically expressed in medaka gonads. Gsdf is the only gene of the synteny with a much higher expression in the testis compared to the ovary. In contrast, gene expression pattern analysis of the gsdf surrounding genes (nup54, aff1, klhl8, sdad1, and ptpn13) indicates that these genes are preferentially expressed in the female gonads. The tissue distribution of these genes is highly similar in medaka and zebrafish, two teleostean species that have diverged more than 110 million years ago. The cellular localization of these genes was determined in medaka gonads using the whole-mount in situ hybridization technique. We confirm that gsdf gene expression is restricted to Sertoli and granulosa cells in contact with the premeiotic and meiotic cells. The nup54 gene is expressed in spermatocytes and previtellogenic oocytes. Transcripts corresponding to the ovary-specific genes (aff1, klhl8, and sdad1) are detected only in previtellogenic oocytes. No expression was detected in the gonocytes in 10 dpf embryos. In conclusion, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment harboring evolutionary conserved genes in vertebrates. These genes are preferentially expressed in previtelloogenic oocytes, and thus, they

  7. A novel physical eco-hydrological model concept for preferential flow based on experimental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; van Schaik, Loes; Graeff, Thomas; Zehe, Erwin

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow through macropores often determines hydrological characteristics - especially regarding runoff generation and fast transport of solutes. Macropore settings may yet be very different in nature and dynamics, depending on their origin. While biogenic structures follow activity cycles (e.g. earth worms) and population conditions (e.g. roots), pedogenic and geogenic structures may depend on water stress (e.g. cracks) or large events (e.g. flushed voids between skeleton and soil pipes) or simply persist (e.g. bedrock interface). On the one hand, such dynamic site characteristics can be observed in seasonal changes in its reaction to precipitation. On the other hand, sprinkling experiments accompanied by tracers or time-lapse 3D Ground-Penetrating-Radar are suitable tools to determine infiltration patterns and macropore configuration. However, model representation of the macropore-matrix system is still problematic, because models either rely on effective parameters (assuming well-mixed state) or on explicit advection strongly simplifying or neglecting interaction with the diffusive flow domain. Motivated by the dynamic nature of macropores, we present a novel model approach for interacting diffusive and advective water, solutes and energy transport in structured soils. It solely relies on scale- and process-aware observables. A representative set of macropores (data from sprinkling experiments) determines the process model scale through 1D advective domains. These are connected to a 2D matrix domain which is defined by pedo-physical retention properties. Water is represented as particles. Diffusive flow is governed by a 2D random walk of these particles while advection may take place in the macropore domain. Macropore-matrix interaction is computed as dissipation of the advective momentum of a particle by its experienced drag from the matrix domain. Through a representation of matrix and macropores as connected diffusive and advective domains for water

  8. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  9. CREATING VALUE WITHIN CONSUMPTION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gârdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of culture consumption is a particular concern within the modern marketing theory. Culture can be seen as representing a body of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, symbols etc, developed in a certain period of time by a group of individuals, items transmitted with the help of a social learning process to other generations within the group. Thus, the consumption of culture will identify itself with the consumption of any product, service or a combination of them, directly resulted as manifestation of culture, expressions of artistic creativity specific for a certain cultural space. The present paper proposes the analysis of the phenomenon referring to the culture consumption in terms of specific characteristics. The paper reviews the features specific to the modern consumer of culture, the relationship that exists between the individuals’ level of education and the culture consumption and value creation process or augmentation of the intrinsic value of an artistic product as a result of the contribution that the culture consumer can bring himself. The authors highlight the fact that within extremely complex processes which are defining the culture consumption, consumers can assume an active role, becoming on their turn co-participants in the cultural goods and services value creation and transmission. The modern consumer benefits more than ever from the advantages offered by the information technology, being called to respond to major challenges of the postmodernism paradigm in terms of culture consumption. Globalization and other social economic and politic phenomena have profoundly changed the reports between individual and culture, between self and other members of the society, causing synthesis and essential transformations of culture consumption, of culture consumers typologies, and not least of the very forms of artistic expression related to cultural goods and services.

  10. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  11. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  12. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  13. Determinants of Organic Products Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased environmental awareness and the growing desire for safer foods to health made the organic products category one of the most growing in the food sector. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most significant socioeconomic variables that influence the frequency of organic products consumption, and for that, it was based on a quantitative-descriptive study with a probability sample of 400 individuals, residing of the urban area of Campo Grande/MS, Brazil, responsible, alone or not, for food purchasing in family. As a tool for data collection, was used a structured questionnaire developed from socioeconomic variables and frequency of consumption of organic products. For the data analysis was performed statistical/econometric tests with the STATA 11.0 statistical software, using Multinomial Logit model (MNL, addition to verification of the explanatory variables effect on the probability of the consumption frequency levels of organic products through the Relative Risk Ratio (RRR, and was analyzed the Marginal Effect (ME exercised by the explanatory variables in each frequency level of organic products consumption. The results showed that the explanatory variables gender, education and economic class were statistically significant in the probability of an individual belong to some of the levels of consumption (rare, occasional and frequent over never having consumed organic products, being higher frequency of consumption when the consumer is female, have higher education or is of higher economic class.

  14. Liberated PKA Catalytic Subunits Associate with the Membrane via Myristoylation to Preferentially Phosphorylate Membrane Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillo, Shane E; Xiong, Wei-Hong; Takahashi, Maho; Miao, Sheng; Andrade, Adriana L; Fortin, Dale A; Yang, Guang; Qin, Maozhen; Smoody, Barbara F; Stork, Philip J S; Zhong, Haining

    2017-04-18

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has diverse functions in neurons. At rest, the subcellular localization of PKA is controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA upon activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in neuronal dendrites causes a significant percentage of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) molecules to be released from the regulatory subunit (PKA-R). Liberated PKA-C becomes associated with the membrane via N-terminal myristoylation. This membrane association does not require the interaction between PKA-R and AKAPs. It slows the mobility of PKA-C and enriches kinase activity on the membrane. Membrane-residing PKA substrates are preferentially phosphorylated compared to cytosolic substrates. Finally, the myristoylation of PKA-C is critical for normal synaptic function and plasticity. We propose that activation-dependent association of PKA-C renders the membrane a unique PKA-signaling compartment. Constrained mobility of PKA-C may synergize with AKAP anchoring to determine specific PKA function in neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HARP preferentially co-purifies with RPA bound to DNA-PK and blocks RPA phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jinhua; Yusufzai, Timur

    2014-05-01

    The HepA-related protein (HARP/SMARCAL1) is an ATP-dependent annealing helicase that is capable of rewinding DNA structures that are stably unwound due to binding of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). HARP has been implicated in maintaining genome integrity through its role in DNA replication and repair, two processes that generate RPA-coated ssDNA. In addition, mutations in HARP cause a rare disease known as Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. In this study, we purified HARP containing complexes with the goal of identifying the predominant factors that stably associate with HARP. We found that HARP preferentially interacts with RPA molecules that are bound to the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). We also found that RPA is phosphorylated by DNA-PK in vitro, while the RPA-HARP complexes are not. Our results suggest that, in addition to its annealing helicase activity, which eliminates the natural binding substrate for RPA, HARP blocks the phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-PK.

  16. Preferential binding of yeast Rad4-Rad23 complex to damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, L.E.T.; Verhage, R.A.; Brouwer, J.

    1998-01-01

    The yeast Rad4 and Rad23 proteins form a complex that is involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Their function in this process is not known yet, but genetic data suggest that they act in an early step in NER. We have purified an epitope-tagged Rad4.Rad23 (tRad4. Rad23) complex from yeast cells, using a clone overproducing Rad4 with a hemagglutinin-tag at its C terminus. tRad4.Rad23 complex purified by both conventional and immuno-affinity chromatography complements the in vitro repair defect of rad4 and rad23 mutant extracts, demonstrating that these proteins are functional in NER. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we show preferential binding of the tRad4.Rad23 complex to damaged DNA in vitro. UV-irradiated, as well as N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene-treated DNA, is efficiently bound by the protein complex. These data suggest that Rad4.Rad23 interacts with DNA damage during NER and may play a role in recognition of the damage

  17. Counter-regulating on the Internet: Threat elicits preferential processing of positive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, Hannah; Sassenberg, Kai; Fetterman, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The Internet is a central source of information. It is increasingly used for information search in self-relevant domains (e.g., health). Self-relevant topics are also associated with specific emotions and motivational states. For example, individuals may fear serious illness and feel threatened. Thus far, the impact of threat has received little attention in Internet-based research. The current studies investigated how threat influences Internet search. Threat is known to elicit the preferential processing of positive information. The self-directed nature of Internet search should particularly provide opportunities for such processing behavior. We predicted that during Internet search, more positive information would be processed (i.e., allocated more attention to) and more positive knowledge would be acquired under threat than in a control condition. Three experiments supported this prediction: Under threat, attention is directed more to positive web pages (Study 1) and positive links (Study 2), and more positive information is acquired (Studies 1 and 3) than in a control condition. Notably, the effect on knowledge acquisition was mediated by the effect on attention allocation during an actual Internet search (Study 1). Thus, Internet search under threat leads to selective processing of positive information and dampens threatened individuals' negative affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Motile hepatocellular carcinoma cells preferentially secret sugar metabolism regulatory proteins via exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lu, Shaohua; Zhou, Ye; Meng, Kun; Chen, Zhipeng; Cui, Yizhi; Shi, Yunfeng; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are deliverers of critically functional proteins, capable of transforming target cells in numerous cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesize that the motility of HCC cells can be featured by comparative proteome of exosomes. Hence, we performed the super-SILAC-based MS analysis on the exosomes secreted by three human HCC cell lines, including the non-motile Hep3B cell, and the motile 97H and LM3 cells. More than 1400 exosomal proteins were confidently quantified in each MS analysis with highly biological reproducibility. We justified that 469 and 443 exosomal proteins represented differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 97H/Hep3B and LM3/Hep3B comparisons, respectively. These DEPs focused on sugar metabolism-centric canonical pathways per ingenuity pathway analysis, which was consistent with the gene ontology analysis on biological process enrichment. These pathways included glycolysis I, gluconeogenesis I and pentose phosphate pathways; and the DEPs enriched in these pathways could form a tightly connected network. By analyzing the relative abundance of proteins and translating mRNAs, we found significantly positive correlation between exosomes and cells. The involved exosomal proteins were again focusing on sugar metabolism. In conclusion, motile HCC cells tend to preferentially export more sugar metabolism-associated proteins via exosomes that differentiate them from non-motile HCC cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Aminopropyltransferases involved in polyamine biosynthesis localize preferentially in the nucleus of plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Belda-Palazón

    Full Text Available Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus.

  20. Rapid and preferential activation of the c-jun gene during the mammalian UV response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devary, Y.; Gottlieb, R.A.; Lau, L.F.; Karin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure of mammalian cells to DNA-damaging agents leads to activation of a genetic response known as the UV response. Because several previously identified UV-inducible genes contain AP-1 binding sites within their promoters, we investigated the induction of AP-1 activity by DNA-damaging agents. We found that expression of both c-jun and c-fos, which encode proteins that participate in formation of the AP-1 complex, is rapidly induced by two different DNA-damaging agents: UV and H2O2. Interestingly, the c-jun gene is far more responsive to UV than any other immediate-early gene that was examined, including c-fos. Other jun and fos genes were only marginally affected by UV or H2O2. Furthermore, UV is a much more efficient inducer of c-jun than phorbol esters, the standard inducers of c-jun expression. This preferential response of the c-jun gene is mediated by its 5' control region and requires the TPA response element, suggesting that this element also serves as an early target for the signal transduction pathway elicited by DNA damage. Both UV and H2O2 lead to a long-lasting increase in AP-1 binding activity, suggesting that AP-1 may mediate the induction of other damage-inducible genes such as human collagenase

  1. Non-preferential fuelling of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Barros, L Felipe

    2014-06-15

    There is abundant evidence that glycolysis and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump are functionally coupled, and it is thought that the nature of the coupling is energetic, with glycolysis providing the ATP that fuels the pump. This notion has been instrumental to current models of brain energy metabolism. However, structural and biophysical considerations suggest that the pump should also have access to mitochondrial ATP, which is much more abundant. In the present study, we have investigated the source of ATP that fuels the Na(+) pump in astrocytes, taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of recently available FRET nanosensors for glucose, lactate and ATP. The activity of the Na(+) pump was assessed in parallel with the Na(+)-sensitive dye SBFI AM (Na(+)-binding benzofuran isophthalate acetoxymethyl ester). OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) inhibition resulted in bulk ATP depletion and a 5-fold stimulation of glycolytic flux, in spite of which Na(+) pumping was inhibited by 90%. Mathematical modelling of ATP dynamics showed that the observed pump failure is inconsistent with preferential fuelling of the Na(+) pump by glycolytic ATP. We conclude that the nature of the functional coupling between the Na(+) pump and the glycolytic machinery is not energetic and that the pump is mainly fuelled by mitochondrial ATP.

  2. Thermodynamics, maximum power, and the dynamics of preferential river flow structures at the continental scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.

  3. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  4. Arctigenin preferentially induces tumor cell death under glucose deprivation by inhibiting cellular energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Qi, Chunting; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhang, Haohao; Hu, Lihong; Yuan, Junying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-08-15

    Selectively eradicating cancer cells with minimum adverse effects on normal cells is a major challenge in the development of anticancer therapy. We hypothesize that nutrient-limiting conditions frequently encountered by cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors might provide an opportunity for developing selective therapy. In this study, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of a natural compound, arctigenin, in regulating tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that arctigenin selectively promoted glucose-starved A549 tumor cells to undergo necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In doing so, arctigenin elevated cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked cellular energy metabolism in the glucose-starved tumor cells. We also demonstrated that cellular ROS generation was caused by intracellular ATP depletion and played an essential role in the arctigenin-induced tumor cell death under the glucose-limiting condition. Furthermore, we combined arctigenin with the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and examined their effects on tumor cell growth. Interestingly, this combination displayed preferential cell-death inducing activity against tumor cells compared to normal cells. Hence, we propose that the combination of arctigenin and 2DG may represent a promising new cancer therapy with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mean First Passage Time of Preferential Random Walks on Complex Networks with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates, both theoretically and numerically, preferential random walks (PRW on weighted complex networks. By using two different analytical methods, two exact expressions are derived for the mean first passage time (MFPT between two nodes. On one hand, the MFPT is got explicitly in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix associated with the transition matrix of PRW. On the other hand, the center-product-degree (CPD is introduced as one measure of node strength and it plays a main role in determining the scaling of the MFPT for the PRW. Comparative studies are also performed on PRW and simple random walks (SRW. Numerical simulations of random walks on paradigmatic network models confirm analytical predictions and deepen discussions in different aspects. The work may provide a comprehensive approach for exploring random walks on complex networks, especially biased random walks, which may also help to better understand and tackle some practical problems such as search and routing on networks.

  6. Preferential killing of cancer cells and activated human T cells using ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Cory; Layne, Janet; Feris, Kevin; Wingett, Denise [Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Punnoose, Alex; Reddy, K M; Coombs, Isaac; Coombs, Andrew [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States)], E-mail: denisewingett@boisestate.edu

    2008-07-23

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being recognized for their potential utility in biological applications including nanomedicine. Here we examine the response of normal human cells to ZnO nanoparticles under different signaling environments and compare it to the response of cancerous cells. ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong preferential ability to kill cancerous T cells ({approx}28-35 x) compared to normal cells. Interestingly, the activation state of the cell contributes toward nanoparticle toxicity, as resting T cells display a relative resistance while cells stimulated through the T cell receptor and CD28 costimulatory pathway show greater toxicity in direct relation to the level of activation. Mechanisms of toxicity appear to involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with cancerous T cells producing higher inducible levels than normal T cells. In addition, nanoparticles were found to induce apoptosis and the inhibition of reactive oxygen species was found to be protective against nanoparticle induced cell death. The novel findings of cell selective toxicity, towards potential disease causing cells, indicate a potential utility of ZnO nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer and/or autoimmunity.

  7. Preferential control of basal dendritic protrusions by EphB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kayser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The flow of information between neurons in many neural circuits is controlled by a highly specialized site of cell-cell contact known as a synapse. A number of molecules have been identified that are involved in central nervous system synapse development, but knowledge is limited regarding whether these cues direct organization of specific synapse types or on particular regions of individual neurons. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the majority of glutamatergic synapses occur on mushroom-shaped protrusions called dendritic spines. Changes in the morphology of these structures are associated with long-lasting modulation of synaptic strength thought to underlie learning and memory, and can be abnormal in neuropsychiatric disease. Here, we use rat cortical slice cultures to examine how a previously-described synaptogenic molecule, the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates dendritic protrusion morphology in specific regions of the dendritic arbor in cortical pyramidal neurons. We find that alterations in EphB2 signaling can bidirectionally control protrusion length, and knockdown of EphB2 expression levels reduces the number of dendritic spines and filopodia. Expression of wild-type or dominant negative EphB2 reveals that EphB2 preferentially regulates dendritic protrusion structure in basal dendrites. Our findings suggest that EphB2 may act to specify synapse formation in a particular subcellular region of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  8. Telecoupled governance of land use change: Sustainable palm oil conservation benefits limited by preferential certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, R.; Carlson, K. M.; Gibbs, H.; Noojipady, P.; Burns, D.; Morton, D. C.; Walker, N.; Paoli, G.; Kremen, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dozens of trans-national corporations have made public commitments to purchase only zero-deforestation palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Eco-certification is a basic requirement of most such forest-related procurement policies, and >20% of palm oil was certified in 2015.While the impact of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations has never been tested, such evaluation is critical to inform improvements of voluntary sustainability initiatives. Here, we use a new, comprehensive data set of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified and non-certified oil palm plantation boundaries (191,561 km2) in Indonesia, the leading global producer of palm oil to generate robust spatio-temporal estimates of certification's impact on deforestation and fires from 2000-2014. We find that certification reduced forest cover loss embodied in RSPO certified palm oil through two mechanisms. Certification had a significant protective effect, which lowered plantation deforestation rates by 29%.However, due to preferential certification of plantations developed before 2000, little forest was available for protection; forest area conserved totaled 56±4.9 km2. Our models suggest that increased adoption of RSPO certification may reduce the ability of palm oil companies to selectively certify previously cleared regions, and consequently strengthen the role of certification in protecting the tropical forests at greatest risk from agricultural encroachment. We reflect upon the complex interactions between traditional government policies, and emerging market-based governance structures in this telecoupled system.

  9. Enhancement of GABAergic transmission by zolpidem, an imidazopyridine with preferential affinity for type I benzodiazepine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggio, G; Concas, A; Corda, M G; Serra, M

    1989-02-28

    The effect of zolpidem, an imidazopyridine derivative with high affinity at the type I benzodiazepine recognition site, on the function of the GABAA/ionophore receptor complex was studied in vitro. Zolpidem, mimicking the action of diazepam, increased [3H]GABA binding, enhanced muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake and reduced [35S]TBPS binding in rat cortical membrane preparations. Zolpidem was less effective than diazepam on the above parameters. Zolpidem induced a lower increase of [3H]GABA binding (23 vs. 35%) and muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake (22 vs. 40%) and a smaller decrease of [35S]TBPS binding (47 vs. 77%) than diazepam. The finding that zolpidem enhanced the function of GABAergic synapses with an efficacy qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of diazepam suggests that this compound is a partial agonist at the benzodiazepine recognition site. Thus, our results are consistent with the view that the biochemical and pharmacological profile of a benzodiazepine recognition site ligand reflects its efficacy to enhance GABAergic transmission. Whether the preferential affinity of zolpidem at the type I site is involved in its atypical biochemical and pharmacological profile remains to be clarified.

  10. Preferential responses in amygdala and insula during presentation of facial contempt and disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Dimalta, Savino; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Scarabino, Tommaso; Giannatempo, Giuseppe; Nardini, Marcello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2006-10-01

    Some authors consider contempt to be a basic emotion while others consider it a variant of disgust. The neural correlates of contempt have not so far been specifically contrasted with disgust. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural networks involved in the processing of facial contempt and disgust in 24 healthy subjects. Facial recognition of contempt was lower than that of disgust and of neutral faces. The imaging data indicated significant activity in the amygdala and in globus pallidus and putamen during processing of contemptuous faces. Bilateral insula and caudate nuclei and left as well as right inferior frontal gyrus were engaged during processing of disgusted faces. Moreover, direct comparisons of contempt vs. disgust yielded significantly different activations in the amygdala. On the other hand, disgusted faces elicited greater activation than contemptuous faces in the right insula and caudate. Our findings suggest preferential involvement of different neural substrates in the processing of facial emotional expressions of contempt and disgust.

  11. Coercion, autonomy, and the preferential option for the poor in the ethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycox, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    The debate concerning whether to legalize and regulate the global market in human organs is hindered by a lack of adequate bioethical language. The author argues that the preferential option for the poor, a theological category, can provide the grounding for an inductive moral epistemology adequate for reforming the use of culturally Western bioethical language. He proposes that the traditional, Western concept of bioethical coercion ought to be modified and expanded because the conditions of the market system, as viewed from the perspective of organ vendors systemically deprived of access to sufficient resources, are sufficiently exploitative as to diminish the possibility of these vendors giving informed consent. Moreover, empirical studies conducted by professionals in medicine, sociology, psychiatry, economics, and medical anthropology continue to contribute support to the growing interdisciplinary consensus that functionally coercive structural factors exert the most significant influence upon a vendor's decision to sell an organ within any market, regardless of legality or degree of regulation. Therefore any proposal to legalize and regulate the organ market remains patently unethical because doing so would likely function to constrain further the agency of poor potential vendors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Depth distribution of preferential flow patterns in a sandy loam soil as affected by tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Petersen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-tracer studies using the anionic dye Brilliant Blue FCF were conducted on a structured sandy loam soil (Typic Agrudalf. 25 mm of dye solution was applied to the surface of 11 1.6 x 1.6 m field plots, some of which had been subjected to conventional seed bed preparation (harrowing while others had been rotovated to either 5 or 15 cm depth before sowing. The soil was excavated to about 160 cm depth one or two days after dye application. Flow patterns and structural features appearing on vertical or horizontal cross sections were examined and photographed. The flow patterns were digitized, and depth functions for the number of activated flow pathways and the degree of dye coverage were calculated. Dye was found below 100 cm depth on 26 out of 33 vertical cross sections made in conventionally tilled plots showing that preferential flow was a prevailing phenomenon. The depth-averaged number of stained flow pathways in the 25-100 cm layer was significantly smaller in a plot rotovated to 5 cm depth than in a conventionally tilled plot, both under relatively dry initial soil conditions and when the entire soil profiles were initially at field capacity. There were no examples of dye penetration below 25 cm depth one month after deep rotovation. Distinct horizontal structures in flow patterns appearing at 20-40 cm depth coupled with changes in flow domains indicated soil layering with abrupt changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties.

  13. Heterogeneous Ribosomes Preferentially Translate Distinct Subpools of mRNAs Genome-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Fujii, Kotaro; Kovary, Kyle M; Genuth, Naomi R; Röst, Hannes L; Teruel, Mary N; Barna, Maria

    2017-07-06

    Emerging studies have linked the ribosome to more selective control of gene regulation. However, an outstanding question is whether ribosome heterogeneity at the level of core ribosomal proteins (RPs) exists and enables ribosomes to preferentially translate specific mRNAs genome-wide. Here, we measured the absolute abundance of RPs in translating ribosomes and profiled transcripts that are enriched or depleted from select subsets of ribosomes within embryonic stem cells. We find that heterogeneity in RP composition endows ribosomes with differential selectivity for translating subpools of transcripts, including those controlling metabolism, cell cycle, and development. As an example, mRNAs enriched in binding to RPL10A/uL1-containing ribosomes are shown to require RPL10A/uL1 for their efficient translation. Within several of these transcripts, this level of regulation is mediated, at least in part, by internal ribosome entry sites. Together, these results reveal a critical functional link between ribosome heterogeneity and the post-transcriptional circuitry of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. A preferential design approach for energy-efficient and robust implantable neural signal processing hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Chiel, Hillel J; Bhunia, Swarup

    2009-01-01

    For implantable neural interface applications, it is important to compress data and analyze spike patterns across multiple channels in real time. Such a computational task for online neural data processing requires an innovative circuit-architecture level design approach for low-power, robust and area-efficient hardware implementation. Conventional microprocessor or Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips would dissipate too much power and are too large in size for an implantable system. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware design approach, referred to as "Preferential Design" that exploits the nature of the neural signal processing algorithm to achieve a low-voltage, robust and area-efficient implementation using nanoscale process technology. The basic idea is to isolate the critical components with respect to system performance and design them more conservatively compared to the noncritical ones. This allows aggressive voltage scaling for low power operation while ensuring robustness and area efficiency. We have applied the proposed approach to a neural signal processing algorithm using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and observed significant improvement in power and robustness over conventional design.

  16. B chromosome in Plantago lagopus Linnaeus, 1753 shows preferential transmission and accumulation through unusual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manoj K.; Kour, Gurmeet; Kaul, Sanjana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plantago lagopus is a diploid (2n = 2x =12) weed belonging to family Plantaginaceae. We reported a novel B chromosome in this species composed of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and other repetitive elements. In the present work, presence of B chromosome(s) was confirmed through FISH on root tip and pollen mother cells. Several experiments were done to determine the transmission of B chromosome through male and female sex tracks. Progenies derived from the reciprocal crosses between plants with (1B) and without (0B) B chromosomes were studied. The frequency of B chromosome bearing plants was significantly higher than expected, in the progeny of 1B female × 0B male. Thus, the B chromosome seems to have preferential transmission through the female sex track, which may be due to meiotic drive. One of the most intriguing aspects of the present study was the recovery of plants having more chromosomes than the standard complement of 12 chromosomes. Such plants were isolated from the progenies of B chromosome carrying plants. The origin of these plants can be explained on the basis of a two step process; formation of unreduced gametes in 1B plants and fusion of unreduced gametes with the normal gametes or other unreduced gametes. Several molecular techniques were used which unequivocally confirmed similar genetic constitution of 1B (parent) and plants with higher number of chromosomes. PMID:28919970

  17. Cytotoxic T cells are preferentially activated in the duodenal epithelium from patients with florid coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Caroline; Burri, Philipp; Bähler, Peter; Straumann, Alex; Müller-Schenker, Beatrice; Birrer, Stefan; Mueller, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Villous atrophy and increased numbers of intraepithelial T cells in duodenal biopsies represent a hallmark of coeliac disease. In the present study, an attempt has been made to define whether cytotoxic cell subsets are activated in situ in the affected mucosa of susceptible individuals early after ingestion of a gluten-containing diet. Duodenal biopsies from 11 patients with coeliac disease who repeatedly underwent endoscopic biopsy after ingestion of individually dosed amounts of gluten were used for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. To identify the cell subsets expressing perforin mRNA and protein, in situ hybridization and FACS analyses were performed on cells isolated from fresh biopsies. Compared with normal mucosa, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes containing perforin mRNA and protein increased significantly in tissue samples showing moderate or florid coeliac disease and closely paralleled the severity of morphological alteration, whereas the frequency of perforin-expressing lamina propria lymphocytes increased only moderately. Cells isolated from florid biopsies that expressed perforin mRNA and protein were preferentially T-cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta T cells. The increase in both the absolute number and the percentage of lymphocytes expressing perforin mRNA indicates in situ activation of lymphocytes within the epithelial compartment in florid coeliac disease upon ingestion of a gluten-containing diet in patients predisposed to coeliac disease. Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

  18. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib (R115777) preferentially inhibits in vitro autonomous erythropoiesis of polycythemia vera patient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larghero, Jérôme; Gervais, Nathalie; Cassinat, Bruno; Rain, Jean-Didier; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Padua, Rose Ann; Chomienne, Christine; Rousselot, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder with primary expansion of the red cell mass leading to an increased risk of thrombosis and less frequently to myelofibrosis and secondary acute leukemia. Standard therapies include cytoreduction with either phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents and antithrombotic drugs. Because long-term exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy may increase the risk of acute transformation, new therapeutic options are needed. Tipifarnib is a nonpeptidomimetic inhibitor of farnesyl transferase that was developed as a potential inhibitor of RAS signaling. In the present study we report that tipifarnib used at pharmacologically achievable concentrations strongly inhibits the erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) autonomous growth that characterizes patients with PV. Moreover, at low tipifarnib concentrations (0.15 muM), the inhibitory effect was preferentially observed in PV BFU-E progenitors and not in normal BFU-E progenitors and was not rescued by erythropoietin (EPO). Thus tipifarnib may specifically target PV stem cells and may be of clinical interest in the treatment of patients with PV.

  19. Support Effects in the Gold-Catalyzed Preferential Oxidation of CO

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanova, S.

    2010-04-08

    The study of support effects on the gold-catalyzed preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen (PROX reaction) is possible only with careful control of the gold particle size, which is facilitated by the application of the direct anionic exchange method. Catalytic evaluation of thermally stable gold nanoparticles, with an average size of around 3 nm on a variety of supports (alumina, titania, zirconia, or ceria), clearly shows that the influence of the support on the CO oxidation rate is of primary importance under CO+O 2 conditions and that this influence becomes secondary in the presence of hydrogen. The impact of the support surface structure on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity, and catalyst activation/deactivation is investigated in terms of oxygen vacancies, oxygen mobility, OH groups, and surface area on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity and catalyst activation/deactivation. It allows the identification of key morphological and structural features of the support to ensure high activity and selectivity in the gold-catalyzed PROX reaction. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang W.; Lee, Hyemi; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Williams, Brent; Powers, John; Santos, Troy Dos; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Park, Heon Joo

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, and significantly enhanced the radiation-induced growth delay of FSaII tumors (s.c.) in the legs of C3H mice. Both metformin and ionizing radiation activated AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR and suppression of its downstream effectors such as S6K1 and 4EBP1, a crucial signaling pathway for proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in vitro as well as in the in vivo tumors. Conclusion: Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and eradicates radioresistant cancer stem cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR. PMID:22500211

  1. Type II and III Taste Bud Cells Preferentially Expressed Kainate Glutamate Receptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Cil-Han; Kim, Se-Nyun; Chung, Ki-Myung; Cho, Young-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2009-12-01

    Glutamate-induced cobalt uptake reveals that non-NMDA glutamate receptors (GluRs) are present in rat taste bud cells. Previous studies involving glutamate induced cobalt staining suggest this uptake mainly occurs via kainate type GluRs. It is not known which of the 4 types of taste bud cells express subunits of kainate GluR. Circumvallate and foliate papillae of Sprague-Dawley rats (45~60 days old) were used to search for the mRNAs of subunits of non-NMDA GluRs using RT-PCR with specific primers for GluR1-7, KA1 and KA2. We also performed RT-PCR for GluR5, KA1, PLCbeta2, and NCAM/SNAP 25 in isolated single cells from taste buds. Taste epithelium, including circumvallate or foliate papilla, express mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1. However, non-taste tongue epithelium expresses no subunits of non-NMDA GluRs. Isolated single cell RT-PCR reveals that the mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1 are preferentially expressed in Type II and Type III cells over Type I cells.

  2. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.H.; Sorof, S. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ{sub 2}, and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA{sub 2} and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, ({sup 3}H)PGA{sub 1} bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 {mu}M (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of ({sup 3}H)PGA{sup 1} correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins.

  3. PREFERENTIAL SECRETION OF INDUCIBLE HSP70 BY VITILIGO MELANOCYTES UNDER STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenson, Jeffrey A.; Flood, Kelsey; Klarquist, Jared; Eby, Jonathan M.; Koshoffer, Amy; Boissy, Raymond E.; Overbeck, Andreas; C.Tung, Rebecca; Poole, I. Caroline Le

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Inducible HSP70 (HSP70i) chaperones peptides from stressed cells, protecting them from apoptosis. Upon extracellular release, HSP70i serves an adjuvant function, enhancing immune responses to bound peptides. We questioned whether HSP70i differentially protects control and vitiligo melanocytes from stress and subsequent immune responses. We compared expression of HSP70i in skin samples, evaluated the viability of primary vitiligo and control melanocytes exposed to bleaching phenols, and measured secreted HSP70i. We determined whether HSP70i traffics to melanosomes to contact immunogenic proteins by cell fractionation, western blotting, electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Viability of vitiligo and control melanocytes was equally affected under stress. However, vitiligo melanocytes secreted increased amounts of HSP70i in response to MBEH, corroborating with aberrant HSP70i expression in patient skin. Intracellular HSP70i colocalized with melanosomes, and more so in response to MBEH in vitiligo melanocytes. Thus whereas either agent is cytotoxic to melanocytes, MBEH preferentially induces immune responses to melanocytes. PMID:24354861

  4. Preferential killing of cancer cells and activated human T cells using ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, Cory; Layne, Janet; Feris, Kevin; Wingett, Denise; Punnoose, Alex; Reddy, K M; Coombs, Isaac; Coombs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being recognized for their potential utility in biological applications including nanomedicine. Here we examine the response of normal human cells to ZnO nanoparticles under different signaling environments and compare it to the response of cancerous cells. ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong preferential ability to kill cancerous T cells (∼28-35 x) compared to normal cells. Interestingly, the activation state of the cell contributes toward nanoparticle toxicity, as resting T cells display a relative resistance while cells stimulated through the T cell receptor and CD28 costimulatory pathway show greater toxicity in direct relation to the level of activation. Mechanisms of toxicity appear to involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with cancerous T cells producing higher inducible levels than normal T cells. In addition, nanoparticles were found to induce apoptosis and the inhibition of reactive oxygen species was found to be protective against nanoparticle induced cell death. The novel findings of cell selective toxicity, towards potential disease causing cells, indicate a potential utility of ZnO nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer and/or autoimmunity

  5. Angular dependence of preferential sputtering and composition in aluminum--copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeck, P.J.; Harper, J.M.E.; Fryer, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The copper concentration in aluminum--copper alloys can be altered by ion bombardment during film deposition. We have measured the sputtering yields of aluminum and copper in Al--Cu alloys as a function of the Cu concentration (5--13 at. %) and the angle of ion incidence (0--40 0 from normal). During deposition, the films were partially resputtered by 500-eV Ar + ion bombardment from a Kaufman ion source. We found that the Cu sputtering yield decreases by up to a factor of 10 in the alloy, relative to elemental Cu. The Al sputtering yield remains close to the elemental value. The net effect is a strong preferential sputtering of Al relative to Cu, which enhances the Cu concentration in an ion bombarded film. The Al/Cu sputtering yield ratio for normal incidence ion bombardment ranges from 3 to 5 as a function of Cu concentration. This ratio decreases with increasing angle of incidence to as low as 2 for 40 0 incident ions. However, since a higher fraction of the film is resputtered from a sloping surface, a higher Cu concentration is found on a sloping surface relative to a flat surface. These results show that in multicomponent film deposition under ion bombardment, the film composition will vary as a function of the surface topography. We will also show how the level of argon left trapped in the films varies inversely with respect to the ion flux

  6. Preferential superior surface motion in wear simulations of the Charité total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreham-Voss, Curtis M; Vicars, Rachel; Hall, Richard M; Brown, Thomas D

    2012-06-01

    Laboratory wear simulations of the dual-bearing surface Charité total disc replacement (TDR) are complicated by the non-specificity of the device's center of rotation (CoR). Previous studies have suggested that articulation of the Charité preferentially occurs at the superior-bearing surface, although it is not clear how sensitive this phenomenon is to lubrication conditions or CoR location. In this study, a computational wear model is used to study the articulation kinematics and wear of the Charité TDR. Implant wear was found to be insensitive to the CoR location, although seemingly non-physiologic endplate motion can result. Articulation and wear were biased significantly to the superior-bearing surface, even in the presence of significant perturbations of loading and friction. The computational wear model provides novel insight into the mechanics and wear of the Charité TDR, allowing for better interpretation of in vivo results, and giving useful insight for designing future laboratory physical tests.

  7. Highly preferential association of NonF508del CF mutations with the M470 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, B M; Bonizzato, A; Bombieri, C; Pompei, F; Gabaldo, M; Ciccacci, C; Begnini, A; Holubova, A; Zorzi, P; Piskackova, T; Macek, M; Castellani, C; Modiano, G; Pignatti, P F

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous findings on random individuals, we hypothesized a preferential association of CF causing mutations with the M allele of the M470V polymorphic site of the CFTR gene. We have determined the M/V-CF mutation haplotype in a series of 201 North East Italian and 73 Czech CF patients who were not F508del homozygotes, as F508del was already known to be fully associated with the M allele. Out of 358 not F508del CF genes, 84 carried the V allele and 274 the less common M allele. In the N-E Italian population, MM subjects have a risk of carrying a CF causing mutation 6.9x greater than VV subjects when F508del is excluded and 15.4x when F508del is included. In the Czech population a similar, although less pronounced, association is observed. Besides the possible biological significance of this association, the possibility of exploiting it for a pilot screening program has been explored in a local North East Italian population for which CF patients were characterized for their CF mutation. General M470V genotyping followed by common CF mutation screening limited to couples in which each partner carries at least one M allele would need testing only 39% of the couples, which contribute 89% of the total risk, with a cost benefit.

  8. Preferential Concentration Of Solid Particles In Turbulent Horizontal Circular Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehee; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2017-11-01

    In particle-laden turbulent pipe flow, turbophoresis can lead to a preferential concentration of particles near the wall. To investigate this phenomenon, one-way coupled Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed. Fully-developed turbulent pipe flow of the carrier fluid (air) is at Reτ = 200 based on the pipe radius and the mean friction velocity, whereas the Stokes numbers of the particles (solid) are St+ = 0.1 , 1 , 10 based on the mean friction velocity and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The computational domain for particle simulation is extended along the axial direction by duplicating the domain of the fluid simulation. By doing so, particle statistics in the spatially developing region as well as in the fully-developed region can be obtained. Accumulation of particles has been noticed at St+ = 1 and 10 mostly in the viscous sublayer, more intensive in the latter case. Compared with other authors' previous results, our results suggest that drag force on the particles should be computed by using an empirical correlation and a higher-order interpolation scheme even in a low-Re regime in order to improve the accuracy of particle simulation. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A01002981).

  9. Revisiting the origin of the preferential π-π stacking conformation of the (+)-8-phenylmenthyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capim, Saulo L.; Santana, Sidney R.; Oliveira, Boaz G. de; Rocha, Gerd B.; Vasconcellos, Mario L.A.A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report a theoretical study aiming to revisit the origin of the preferential π-π stacking conformation of the (+)-8-phenylmenthyl acrylate (2). For this, we have applied several DFT and ab initio methods to calculate local minimum geometries, vibrational frequencies, thermochemical properties and 1 H NMR chemical shifts for 2 and the model compound 3-phenylpropyl acrylate (3). We have observed that the MPW1B95 functional was the most suitable method to explain 1 H NMR experimental data which show the stacking conformation of 2 (2S) is more stable that trans conformation (2T) and the stacking conformation of 3 (3S) is less stable that trans conformation (3T). After that, geometrical and energetic features of the intermolecular complex benzene...methylacrylate (4) have also been studied using MPW1B95 method. From our results, we have noticed that both steric and dispersion effects play a key role in the conformational equilibrium of 2. (author)

  10. Young macaques (Macaca fascicularis) preferentially bias attention towards closer, older, and better tool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2018-05-12

    Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners. All infants and juveniles, but only 49% of mature individuals carried out interacted with tool users. Macaques predominantly obtained food by scrounging or stealing, suggesting maximizing scrounging opportunities motivates interactions with tool users. However, while interactions by adults was limited to obtaining food, young macaques and particularly infants also watched tool users and explored objects, indicating additional interest in tool use itself. We then ran matrix correlations to identify interaction biases, and what attributes of tool users influenced these. Biases correlated with social affiliation, but macaques also preferentially targeted tool users that potentially increase scrounging and learning opportunities. Results suggest that social structure may constrain social learning, but the motivation to bias interactions towards tool users to maximize feeding opportunities may also socially modulate learning by facilitating close proximity to better tool users, and further interest in tool-use actions and materials, especially during development.

  11. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  12. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  13. Effects of long-term use of the preferential COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam on growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Ben M C; Uilenreef, Joost J; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Meijer, Ellen; van Rietbergen, Bert; van der Staay, Franz Josef; Weeren, P René van; Wolschrijn, Claudia F

    2017-11-25

    Meloxicam, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, is a commonly used NSAID in pigs. Besides having potential side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, this type of drug might potentially affect osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, processes relevant to growing pigs. Therefore, the effects of long-term meloxicam treatment on growing pigs were studied. Twelve piglets (n=6 receiving daily meloxicam 0.4 mg/kg orally from 48 until 110 days of age; n=6 receiving only applesauce (vehicle control)) were subjected to visual and objective gait analysis by pressure plate measurements at several time points. Following euthanasia a complete postmortem examination was performed and samples of the talus and distal tibia, including the distal physis, were collected. Trabecular bone microarchitecture was analysed by microCT scanning, bone stiffness by compression testing and growth plate morphology using light microscopy. Animals were not lame and gait patterns did not differ between the groups. Pathological examination revealed no lesions compatible with known side effects of NSAIDs. Trabecular bone microarchitecture and growth plate morphology did not differ between the two groups. The findings of this in vivo study reduce concerns regarding the long-term use of meloxicam in young, growing piglets. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  15. Preferential adsorption of NH3 gas molecules on MWCNT defect sites probed using in situ Raman spectroscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chimowa, George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preferential adsorption of NH(sub3) gas molecules on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that the full widths at half maximum of the G band and the intensity ratio I(sub2D...

  16. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  17. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  18. The Limits to Buying Stability in Tibet: Tibetan Representation and Preferentiality in China's Contemporary Public Employment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín); A. Zenz (Adrian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBased on an entirely unexplored source of data, this paper analyses the evolution of Tibetan representation and preferentiality within public employment recruitment across all Tibetan areas from 2007 to 2015. While recruitment collapsed after the end of the job placement system (fenpei)

  19. Preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli occurs mainly at the perceptual and conscious stages of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacikowski, P; Ehrsson, H H

    2016-04-01

    Self-related stimuli, such as one's own name or face, are processed faster and more accurately than other types of stimuli. However, what remains unknown is at which stage of the information processing hierarchy this preferential processing occurs. Our first aim was to determine whether preferential self-processing involves mainly perceptual stages or also post-perceptual stages. We found that self-related priming was stronger than other-related priming only because of perceptual prime-target congruency. Our second aim was to dissociate the role of conscious and unconscious factors in preferential self-processing. To this end, we compared the "self" and "other" conditions in trials where primes were masked or unmasked. In two separate experiments, we found that self-related priming was stronger than other-related priming but only in the unmasked trials. Together, our results suggest that preferential access to the self-concept occurs mainly at the perceptual and conscious stages of the stimulus processing hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  1. Modelling the Preferential Solvation of Ferulic Acid in {2-Propanol (1 + Water (2} Mixtures at 298.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Jouyban 1,2, Fleming Martínez 3 *

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently Haq et al. reported the equilibrium solubility in {2-propanol (1 + water (2} mixtures at several temperatures with some numerical correlation analysis. Nevertheless, no attempt was made to evaluate the preferential solvation of this compound by the solvents. Methods: Preferential solvation of ferulic acid in the saturated mixtures at 298.15 K was analyzed based on the inverse Kirkwood-Buff integrals as described in the literature. Results: Ferulic acid is preferentially solvated by water in water-rich mixtures (0.00 < x1 < 0.19 but preferentially solvated by 2-propanol in mixtures with composition 0.19 < x1 < 1.00. Conclusion: These results could be interpreted as a consequence of hydrophobic hydration around the non-polar groups of the solute in the former case (0.00 < x1 < 0.19. Moreover, in the last case (0.19 < x1 < 1.00, the observed trend could be a consequence of the acid behavior of ferulic acid in front to 2-propanol molecules because this cosolvent is more basic than water as described by the respective solvatochromic parameters.

  2. Investigation on the combined operation of water gas shift and preferential oxidation reactor system on the kW scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connell, M.; Kolb, G.A.; Schelhaas, K.P.; Schuerer, J.; Tiemann, D.; Keller, S.; Reinhard, D.; Hessel, V.

    2010-01-01

    A 5 kWel water gas shift reactor was integrated with a 5 kWel preferential oxidation reactor for the purposes of reducing the carbon monoxide levels in a reformate exit stream to levels below 100 ppm. The integrated system worked best at partial load with CO concentrations being reduced to 40 ppm at

  3. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  4. [Food consumption patterns among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela Paniagua, S M; Pérez Milena, A; Pérula de Torres, L A; Fernández García, J A; Maldonado Alconada, J

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for the establishment of healthy eating habits. The objective was to analyze food consumption patterns among adolescents and their relationship with family and social factors. Multicentre observational cross-sectional descriptive study using a food frequency questionnaire for the last week. It was answered anonymously. The adolescent's age/gender, parents' studies/occupation and school's location/type were included. The population sample was composed of 1,095 adolescents in sixth grade at primary schools from an Andalusian region. They were chosen by polietapic random sampling that distinguished between public/private and capital/provincial schools. 1,005 surveys were analyzed. The mean age is 11.45 (SD: 0.59). Fifty-three percent were male. The intake of dairy products (only two-thirds taken daily), pasta, fruit and vegetables (daily consumption of 30%) is deficient. Sixty-four point five percent consume legumes weekly. Fish consumption is equal to meat, with a preference for poultry. More than half consume red meat daily. Olive oil is preferred. The intake of "empty calories" (fast food, candies, soft drink) is high. Through multivariate analysis the existence of clusters of healthy and unhealthy foods, related to the social status of the parents and the type of school, is proved. A healthy diet based on the nutritional pyramid is not the consumption pattern in the adolescents surveyed. There is a low consumption of diary products, legumes, fruits and vegetables. There is a relationship between the social class of the family and consumption patterns (healthy and unhealthy). Health strategies are needed to modify such inappropriate consumption.

  5. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  6. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all

  7. Bacillus subtilis strain specificity affects performance improvement in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhayat, L; Jacquier, V; Brinch, K S; Nielsen, P; Nelson, A; Geraert, P-A; Devillard, E

    2017-07-01

    The study reports the effects on broiler performance of a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain, which is phylogenetically not closely related to already well-described strains of B. subtilis. In the first experiment, birds were reared in battery cages and exposed to C. perfringens. An increase in growth performance was observed with the strain when compared to the challenged animals. Three additional growth trials were conducted to 35 d of age, in different rearing conditions (genetic breeds, corn-soybean meal-based diet with or without animal proteins, in presence or absence of phytase, on fresh or used litter) to investigate the efficacy and the specificity of this new B. subtilis strain on the improvement of BWG and FCR of broilers in comparison with a B. subtilis-based DFM already used in the field. Whatever the rearing conditions tested, the new B. subtilis strain led to an average 3.2% improvement in feed conversion ratio or bodyweight. Comparatively, the commercial Bacillus strain significantly improved broiler performance in only one trial out of 3 with an average improvement reaching 2%. All these results indicate that this new B. subtilis strain consistently improves broiler performances. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  9. Strain specific transcriptional response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Mi-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB, a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a significant health problem worldwide with a third of the world population infected and nearly nine million new cases claiming 1.1 million deaths every year. The outcome following infection by Mtb is determined by a complex and dynamic host-pathogen interaction in which the phenotype of the pathogen and the immune status of the host play a role. However, the molecular mechanism by which Mtb strains induce different responses during intracellular infection of the host macrophage is not fully understood. To explore the early molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, we studied the transcriptional responses of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM to infection with two clinical Mtb strains, CDC1551 and HN878. These strains have previously been shown to differ in their virulence/immunogenicity in the mouse and rabbit models of pulmonary TB. Results In spite of similar intracellular growth rates, we observed that compared to HN878, infection by CDC1551 of BMM was associated with an increased global transcriptome, up-regulation of a specific early (6 hours immune response network and significantly elevated nitric oxide production. In contrast, at 24 hours post-infection of BMM by HN878, more host genes involved in lipid metabolism, including cholesterol metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis were up-regulated, compared to infection with CDC1551. In association with the differences in the macrophage responses to infection with the 2 Mtb strains, intracellular CDC1551 expressed higher levels of stress response genes than did HN878. Conclusions In association with the early and more robust macrophage activation, intracellular CDC1551 cells were exposed to a higher level of stress leading to increased up-regulation of the bacterial stress response genes. In contrast, sub-optimal activation of macrophages and induction of a dysregulated host cell lipid metabolism favored a less stressful intracellular environment for HN878. Our findings suggest that the ability of CDC1551 and HN878 to differentially activate macrophages during infection probably determines their ability to either resist host cell immunity and progress to active disease or to succumb to the host protective responses and be driven into a non-replicating latent state in rabbit lungs.

  10. Immobilization induced osteopenia is strain specific in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodberg, Andreas; Vegger, Jens Bay; Jensen, Michael Vinkel

    2015-01-01

    systemic effects on bone. Female mice from four inbred mouse strains (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6 J, DBA/2 J, and C3H/HeN) were injected unilaterally with BTX (n = 10/group) or unilaterally with saline (n = 10/group). Mice were euthanized after 21 days, and the bone properties evaluated using μCT, DXA, bone...... resolution μCT we found no evidence of a systemic effect on any of the microstructural parameters of the contralateral limb. Likewise, there was no evidence of a systemic effect on the bone strength in any mouse strain. We did, however, find a small systemic effect on aBMD in DBA/2 J and C3H/HeN mice...

  11. Clostridial Strain-Specific Characteristics Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr-Hellec, Sophia; Klein, Geraldine L; Delannoy, Johanne; Ferraris, Laurent; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Butel, Marie José; Aires, Julio

    2018-04-01

    We aimed at identifying potential bacterial factors linking clostridia with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity, and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC preterm neonates (PN) and control PNs. When strain characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups. Strains isolated from NEC PN were characterized by a higher viability at 30°C ( P = 0.03) and higher aerotolerance ( P = 0.01), suggesting that NEC strains may have a competitive and/or survival advantage in the environmental gastrointestinal tract conditions of NEC PN. Heat-treated NEC bacteria induced higher production of interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells ( P = 0.03), suggesting proinflammatory activity. In vitro , bacteria, bacterial components, and fecal filtrates showed variable cytotoxic effects affecting the cellular network and/or cell viability, without specific association with NEC or control samples. Altogether, our data support the existence of a specific clostridial strain signature associated with NEC. IMPORTANCE Clostridia are part of the commensal microbiota in preterm neonates (PN). However, microbiota analyses by culture and metagenomics have linked necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and intestinal colonization with clostridial species. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific characteristics that may be shared by clostridia associated with NEC compared to commensal clostridia. Therefore, our goal was to identify specific bacterial factors linking clostridial strains with NEC. We report the existence of a specific bacterial signature associated with NEC and propose that activation of the innate immune response may be a unifying causative mechanism for the development of NEC independent of a specific pathogenic organism. The present study provides new insights into NEC pathophysiology that are needed for better diagnostics and strategies for implementing prevention of the disease. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Immobilization induced osteopenia is strain specific in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lodberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization causes rapid and massive bone loss. By comparing Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-induced bone loss in mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds we investigated whether the genetic background had an influence on the severity of the osteopenia. Secondly, we investigated whether BTX had systemic effects on bone. Female mice from four inbred mouse strains (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6 J, DBA/2 J, and C3H/HeN were injected unilaterally with BTX (n = 10/group or unilaterally with saline (n = 10/group. Mice were euthanized after 21 days, and the bone properties evaluated using μCT, DXA, bone histomorphometry, and mechanical testing. BTX resulted in substantially lower trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV and trabecular thickness in all mouse strains. The deterioration of BV/TV was significantly greater in C57BL/6 J (−57% and DBA/2 J (−60% than in BALB/cJ (−45% and C3H/HeN (−34% mice. The loss of femoral neck fracture strength was significantly greater in C57BL/6 J (−47% and DBA/2 J (−45% than in C3H (−25% mice and likewise the loss of mid-femoral fracture strength was greater in C57BL/6 J (−17%, DBA/2 J (−12%, and BALB/cJ (−9% than in C3H/HeN (−1% mice, which were unaffected. Using high resolution μCT we found no evidence of a systemic effect on any of the microstructural parameters of the contralateral limb. Likewise, there was no evidence of a systemic effect on the bone strength in any mouse strain. We did, however, find a small systemic effect on aBMD in DBA/2 J and C3H/HeN mice. The present study shows that BTX-induced immobilization causes the greatest loss of cortical and trabecular bone in C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J mice. A smaller loss of bone microstructure and fracture strength was seen in BALB/cJ mice, while the bone microstructure and fracture strength of C3H/HeN mice were markedly less affected. This indicates that BTX-induced loss of bone is mouse strain dependent. We found only minimal systemic effects of BTX.

  13. Performance evaluation and comparison of fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell based on steam or autothermal reforming and on CO preferential oxidation or selective methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercolino, Giuliana; Ashraf, Muhammad A.; Specchia, Vito; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of different fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell stack. • Steam or autothermal reforming + CO selective methanation or preferential oxidation. • Reforming of different hydrocarbons: gasoline, light diesel oil, natural gas. • 5 kW e net systems comparison via energy efficiency and primary fuel rate consumed. • Highest net efficiency: steam reformer + CO selective methanation based system. - Abstract: The performances of four different auxiliary power unit (APU) schemes, based on a 5 kW e net proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) stack, are evaluated and compared. The fuel processor section of each APU is characterized by a reformer (autothermal ATR or steam SR), a non-isothermal water gas shift (NI-WGS) reactor and a final syngas catalytic clean-up step: the CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor or the CO selective methanation (SMET) one. Furthermore, three hydrocarbon fuels, the most commonly found in service stations (gasoline, light diesel oil and natural gas) are considered as primary fuels. The comparison is carried out examining the results obtained by a series of steady-state system simulations in Aspen Plus® of the four different APU schemes by varying the fed fuel. From the calculated data, the performance of CO-PROX is not very different compared to that of the CO-SMET, but the performance of the SR based APUs is higher than the scheme of the ATR based APUs. The most promising APU scheme with respect to an overall performance target is the scheme fed with natural gas and characterized by a fuel processor chain consisting of SR, NI-WGS and CO-SMET reactors. This processing reactors scheme together with the fuel cell section, notwithstanding having practically the same energy efficiency of the scheme with SR, NI-WGS and CO-PROX reactors, ensures a less complex scheme, higher hydrogen concentration in the syngas, lower air mass rate consumption, the absence of nitrogen in the syngas and higher potential

  14. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  16. Prediction of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Walton, D.J.; Hoskins, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Distributors of natural gas need to predict future consumption in order to purchase a sufficient supply on contract. Distributors that offer their customers equal payment plans need to predict the consumption of each customer 12 months in advance. Estimates of previous consumption are often used for months when meters are inaccessible, or bimonthly-read meters. Existing methods of predicting natural gas consumption, and a proposed new method for each local region are discussed. The proposed model distinguishes the consumption load factors from summer to other seasons by attempting to adjust them by introducing two parameters. The problem is then reduced to a quadratic programming problem. However, since it is not necessary to use both parameters simultaneously, the problem can be solved with a simple iterative procedure. Results show that the new model can improve the two-equation model to a certain scale. The adjustment to heat load factor can reduce the error of prediction markedly while that to base load factor influences the error marginally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Children's media consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at providing an insight into media consumption among children in Serbia. A consumer survey was conducted to examine differences in children's consumption of various advertising media based on their age, gender and hometown. The research findings revealed significant differences between the two age cohorts in the three out of four tested media categories (TV, print, radio and Internet. On the other hand, the research findings also revealed variations in consumption of radio and print media, and no difference in the consumption of television and Internet between boys and girls. Finally, the research findings suggested significant differences in the consumption of Internet among children living in five cities in Serbia. Though the sample included more than 700 children it cannot be considered strictly representative for the whole country since the survey was conducted in urban areas only. However, the greatest value of this study comes from the fact that the research was placed in Serbia as a transitional society of the Western Balkans which has been seriously underrepresented in the main body of contemporary marketing theory and research studies. Therefore, one of the main goals of this paper was to make a contribution to better understanding of local conditions that might influence marketing decisions when communicating with children as a specific target group on Serbian market.

  18. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  19. A local mechanism by which alcohol consumption causes cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect may have been overlooked because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer. Here I discuss that the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on the cells lining the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells. Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of DNA-damaging agents (e.g., acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). Alcohol consumption may increase the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of alcohol is important to reinforce the epidemiological evidence and to raise public awareness of the strong link between alcohol consumption and cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  1. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  2. Palatable Food Consumption in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘external eating’). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘food responsiveness’), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home...

  3. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  4. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  5. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  6. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Changing practices of energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  8. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  9. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  10. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs (G/CCGGAAGTGACGTCA) Preferentially Bound by GABPα and CREB Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Vinson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X4-N1-30-X4) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif (C/GCCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif (C/GCGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif. PMID:23050235

  11. Cellular location of rat muscle ferritins and their preferential loss during cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Roboz, M; McKown, M J; Pardridge, W M; Zak, R

    1984-04-10

    Heart and other muscles of the rat contain two forms of ferritin separable in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cellular location of the fast- and slow-migrating ferritins was investigated using primary cultures of hindlimb skeletal muscle, and isolated myocardial cell populations. Muscle and non-muscle cells were isolated in good yield from hearts of adult rats pretreated with large doses of iron to increase their ferritin content. In virtually all cases, the isolated muscle cells contained traces only of the fast-migrating species and the non-muscle cells contained small amounts of the slow-migrating ferritin. During cell isolation, 90-100% of both ferritins was lost and could be recovered in the perfusates and solutions employed, while one third of the total tissue protein, and a larger percentage of creatine phosphokinase, was recovered in the isolated cells. Primary cultures of thigh muscle from adult rats which had differentiated into multi-nucleated myotubes, were incubated for 1-3 days with chelated iron. These cells contained substantial amounts of the electrophoretically fast migrating ferritin, with its characteristic larger Stokes' radius (determined by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). None of the slow-migrating ferritin species was detected, although hindlimb muscle from iron-treated rats contained both forms. It is concluded that the fast-migrating ferritin of muscle, which is much larger and more asymmetric than other ferritins, is confined to the muscle cell population, while the other form is predominantly or exclusively in the non-muscle cells. Both ferritins are lost preferentially over other proteins during procedures which injure muscle tissue.

  12. Preferential recruitment of the basolateral amygdala during memory encoding of negative scenes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak; Girard, Todd A; Pukay-Martin, Nicole; Monson, Candice

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of functional neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. However, an emerging body of studies indicates that separable functions are subserved by discrete amygdala subregions. The basolateral subdivision (BLA), as compared with the centromedial amygdala (CMA), plays a unique role in learning and memory-based processes for threatening events, and alterations to the BLA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PTSD. We assessed whether PTSD is associated with differential involvement of the BLA versus the CMA during successful encoding of emotionally charged events. Participants with PTSD (n=11) and a trauma-exposed comparison (TEC) group (n=11) viewed a series of photos that varied in valence (negative versus positive) and arousal (high versus low) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, participants completed an old/new recognition memory test. Using analytic methods based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping, PTSD was associated with greater activation of the BLA, as compared to the CMA, during successful encoding of negative scenes, a finding which was not observed in the TEC group. Moreover, this memory-related activity in the BLA independently predicted PTSD status. Contrary to hypotheses, there was no evidence of altered BLA activity during memory encoding of high arousing relative to low arousing scenes. Task-related brain activation in PTSD does not appear to be consistent across the entire amygdala. Importantly, memory-related processing of negative information in PTSD is associated with preferential recruitment of the BLA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-07-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress.

  14. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Carroll

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU. However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and

  15. Importance of Pulmonary Vein Preferential Fibrosis for Atrial Fibrillation Promotion in Hypertensive Rat Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Yamashita, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Hayami, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary veins (PVs) play an important role as the substrate for AF and triggers of AF. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural remodelling of the PVs and its effect on promoting AF in hypertensive (HT) rat hearts. Eighteen-week-old Dahl salt-sensitive HT rats and their controls were used for histological and immunohistological analyses, and electrophysiological studies were performed in Langendorff perfused hearts. Masson-trichrome staining revealed that hypertension significantly increased the fibrosis in the PVs, particularly in subendocardial and perivascular areas, compared with that in control rats, however, at this early stage of hypertension, left atrial fibrosis was not prominent. In the HT rat hearts with PVs, electrical stimulation significantly increased the number of repetitive atrial firing and atrial tachycardia inducibility, which significantly diminished after the excision of the PVs. An immunofluorescent analysis revealed that HT rats had PV specific endocardial smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive cells with remarkable proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was lacking in the left atrial structures of the control and the HT rats. Pretreatment with imatinib, a PDGF receptor activity blocker, in HT rats reduced the αSMA-positive cell proliferation and fibrosis in the PVs and also induced a significant reduction in VEGF expression. Also, the drug pretreatment effectively prevented repetitive atrial firing promotion without affecting the blood pressure. PV preferential fibrosis might play an important role in the arrhythmogenic substrate of AF in HT rat hearts. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Empirical Investigation of Preferential Attachment Among Influential Members of a Large Artificial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADERICK P. PABICO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One among the many questions in social network analysis is how links form among members of Internet-mediated social network (ISN, where most members are usually anonymous, while link formation (i.e., interactions between members are facilitated only by non-personal communication technologies. Researchers offer preferential attachment (PA as a possible mechanism that can explain the behaviour of link formation, not only for real-world communities, but for artificial communities, such as ISNs, as well. PA suggests that members choose to be linked with members characterized with many links who are considered “central” to the community. This is because it is believed that central members can be relied to as a channel, if not the source themselves, of information, of wealth, or of any other kind of currency that the community is using. In this paper, the link formation process of members of one large ISN was examined to look for empirical evidences of PA among members who were clustered together according to the order of magnitude of their number of links at the global level. Members whose initial number of links that totals only up to ten thousand exhibit the opposite of PA, while members whose initial number of links that sums greater than ten thousand exhibit PA. This means that the lower bound for initial links for PA, at least for this particular ISN, is 10,000. Additionally, for those members whose link formation follow the PA mechanism, the order of magnitude of the rate of increase in their number of links is proportional to the order of magnitude of their initial number of links.

  17. Is attention based on spatial contextual memory preferentially guided by low spatial frequency signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Buckley, Alice; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies) along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contributes to memory-guided orienting of attention. In particular, we asked whether global, low-spatial frequency (LSF) inputs play a dominant role in triggering contextual memories in order to facilitate the processing of the upcoming target stimulus. We explored this question over four experiments. The first experiment replicated the LSF advantage reported in perceptual discrimination tasks by showing that participants were faster and more accurate at matching a low spatial frequency version of a scene, compared to a high spatial frequency version, to its original counterpart in a forced-choice task. The subsequent three experiments tested the relative contributions of low versus high spatial frequencies during memory-guided covert spatial attention orienting tasks. Replicating the effects of memory-guided attention, pre-exposure to scenes associated with specific spatial memories for target locations (memory cues) led to higher perceptual discrimination and faster response times to identify targets embedded in the scenes. However, either high or low spatial frequency cues were equally effective; LSF signals did not selectively or preferentially contribute to the memory-driven attention benefits to performance. Our results challenge a generalized model that LSFs activate contextual memories, which in turn bias attention and facilitate perception.

  18. Preferential localization of Lactococcus lactis cells entrapped in a caseinate/alginate phase separated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Lucie; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ouaali, Fahima; Degraeve, Pascal; Waché, Yves; Saurel, Rémi; Oulahal, Nadia

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to entrap bioprotective lactic acid bacteria in a sodium caseinate/sodium alginate aqueous two-phase system. Phase diagram at pH=7 showed that sodium alginate and sodium caseinate were not miscible when their concentrations exceeded 1% (w/w) and 6% (w/w), respectively. The stability of the caseinate/alginate two-phase system was also checked at pH values of 6.0 and 5.5. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LAB3 cells were added in a 4% (w/w) caseinate/1.5% (w/w) alginate two-phase system at pH=7. Fluorescence microscopy allowed to observe that the caseinate-rich phase formed droplets dispersed in a continuous alginate-rich phase. The distribution of bacteria in such a system was observed by epifluorescence microscopy: Lc. lactis LAB3 cells stained with Live/Dead(®) Baclight kit™ were located exclusively in the protein phase. Since zeta-potential measurements indicated that alginate, caseinate and bacterial cells all had an overall negative charge at pH 7, the preferential adhesion of LAB cells was assumed to be driven by hydrophobic effect or by depletion phenomena in such biopolymeric systems. Moreover, LAB cells viability was significantly higher in the ternary mixture obtained in the presence of both caseinate and alginate than in single alginate solution. Caseinate/alginate phase separated systems appeared thus well suited for Lc. lactis LAB3 cells entrapment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Social influence on selection behaviour: Distinguishing local- and global-driven preferential attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-01-01

    Social influence drives human selection behaviours when numerous objects competing for limited attentions, which leads to the 'rich get richer' dynamics where popular objects tend to get more attentions. However, evidences have been found that, both the global information of the whole system and the local information among one's friends have significant influence over the one's selection. Consequently, a key question raises that, it is the local information or the global information more determinative for one's selection? Here we compare the local-based influence and global-based influence. We show that, the selection behaviour is mainly driven by the local popularity of the objects while the global popularity plays a supplementary role driving the behaviour only when there is little local information for the user to refer to. Thereby, we propose a network model to describe the mechanism of user-object interaction evolution with social influence, where the users perform either local-driven or global-driven preferential attachments to the objects, i.e., the probability of an objects to be selected by a target user is proportional to either its local popularity or global popularity. The simulation suggests that, about 75% of the attachments should be driven by the local popularity to reproduce the empirical observations. It means that, at least in the studied context where users chose businesses on Yelp, there is a probability of 75% for a user to make a selection according to the local popularity. The proposed model and the numerical findings may shed some light on the study of social influence and evolving social systems.

  20. Digestion of thyroglobulin with purified thyroid lysosomes: preferential release of iodoamino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, T.; Yoshinari, M.; Rawitch, A.B.; Taurog, A.

    1987-01-01

    [ 131 I]Thyroglobulin [( 131 I]Tg), prepared by either enzymatic iodination of human goiter Tg in vitro or isolation from the thyroids of rats previously injected with 131 I, was digested with a solubilized enzyme mixture prepared from purified hog thyroid lysosomes. The digestion was performed at 37 C for 24 h under nitrogen at pH 5.0 in the presence of 4 mM dithiothreitol. Under these conditions the release of free [ 131 I] iodoamino acids (MIT, DIT, T4, and T3) was quantitatively very similar to that observed with a standard pronase digestion procedure. To determine whether other amino acids in Tg were released as quantitatively as the iodoamino acids, free amino acids in the lysosomal digest were measured, and total free amino acid release was compared with a similar analysis performed after digestion of [ 131 I]Tg with 6 N HCl. Total amino acid release was much less complete than iodoamino acid release, indicating preferential release of iodoamino acids from Tg by lysosomal digestion. Analysis of the lysosomal digest by HPLC on a size exclusion column indicated that Tg was degraded to peptides with a mol wt less than 4000. Assuming that the in vitro lysosomal digestion system represents a valid model for the physiological proteolytic system that degrades Tg, the results of the present study suggest that a substantial portion of the Tg in the thyroid is not degraded to free amino acids and that peptide fragments of Tg are normally present in the thyroid. In such a case, the fate and possible physiological activity of these fragments require further elucidation

  1. The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples by preferential ion exchange separation from calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroto; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Honda, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Toshimasa; Higuchi, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples involves a difficulty in the separation and purification of strontium from large amounts of calcium. The principal technique employed in this study is based on a cation exchange separation after preferential chelation of calcium over strontium by EDTA. The alkaline earth fraction separated from samples is dissolved in 1.2 M HCl and an equivalent amount of EDTA is added. The solution is passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ion exchange column at a flow rate of 20 ml/min after the pH has been adjusted to 5.1. A fraction of calcium retained on the resin is eluted out with 1.8 l of 2 w/v% EDTA solution at pH 5.1. Then the strontium is eluted with 450 ml of 2 M HCl. The strontium carbonate is precipitated, and the chemical yield is determined. After standing for 14 days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of 90 Sr - 90 Y, the activity of 89 Sr + 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured. Then the activity of 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured by milking the 90 Y. The proposed procedure has been applied to sea water, soil and various ash samples of vegetables, seaweeds and daily foods. The results obtained are in good agreement with those by a classical fuming nitric acid precipitation method. The detection limits are 0.1 pCi/l for 10 l of sea water, 10 pCi/kg for 100 g of soil and 1 pCi/kg-fresh for 20 g ash samples, respectively. (author)

  2. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy; Lo, Ming; Lanteri, Marion; Dutra, Joseph; Zarbock, Katie; Silveira, Paola; Rourke, Tracy; Ma, Zhong-Min; Fritts, Linda; O'Connor, Shelby; Busch, Michael; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology

  3. Active and Passive 3D Vector Radiative Transfer with Preferentially-Aligned Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, I. S.; Munchak, S. J.; Pelissier, C.; Kuo, K. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    To support the observation of clouds and precipitation using combinations of radars and radiometers, a forward model capable of representing diverse sensing geometries for active and passive instruments is necessary for correctly interpreting and consistently combining multi-sensor measurements from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne platforms. As such, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) uses Monte Carlo integration to produce radar reflectivities and radiometric brightness temperatures for three-dimensional cloud and precipitation input fields. This radiative transfer framework is capable of efficiently sampling Gaussian antenna beams and fully accounting for multiple scattering. By relying on common ray-tracing tools, gaseous absorption models, and scattering properties, the model reproduces accurate and consistent radar and radiometer observables. While such a framework is an important component for simulating remote sensing observables, the key driver for self-consistent radiative transfer calculations of clouds and precipitation is scattering data. Research over the past decade has demonstrated that spheroidal models of frozen hydrometeors cannot accurately reproduce all necessary scattering properties at all desired frequencies. The discrete dipole approximation offers flexibility in calculating scattering for arbitrary particle geometries, but at great computational expense. When considering scattering for certain pristine ice particles, the Extended Boundary Condition Method, or T-Matrix, is much more computationally efficient; however, convergence for T-Matrix calculations fails at large size parameters and high aspect ratios. To address these deficiencies, we implemented the Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix Method (IITM). A brief overview of ARTS and IITM will be given, including details for handling preferentially-aligned hydrometeors. Examples highlighting the performance of the model for simulating space-based and airborne measurements

  4. Preferential retrotransposition in aging yeast mother cells is correlated with increased genome instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Melissa N; Scannapieco, Alison E; Au, Pak Ho; Dorsey, Savanna; Royer, Catherine A; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2015-10-01

    Retrotransposon expression or mobility is increased with age in multiple species and could promote genome instability or altered gene expression during aging. However, it is unclear whether activation of retrotransposons during aging is an indirect result of global changes in chromatin and gene regulation or a result of retrotransposon-specific mechanisms. Retromobility of a marked chromosomal Ty1 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elevated in mother cells relative to their daughter cells, as determined by magnetic cell sorting of mothers and daughters. Retromobility frequencies in aging mother cells were significantly higher than those predicted by cell age and the rate of mobility in young populations, beginning when mother cells were only several generations old. New Ty1 insertions in aging mothers were more strongly correlated with gross chromosome rearrangements than in young cells and were more often at non-preferred target sites. Mother cells were more likely to have high concentrations and bright foci of Ty1 Gag-GFP than their daughter cells. Levels of extrachromosomal Ty1 cDNA were also significantly higher in aged mother cell populations than their daughter cell populations. These observations are consistent with a retrotransposon-specific mechanism that causes retrotransposition to occur preferentially in yeast mother cells as they begin to age, as opposed to activation by phenotypic changes associated with very old age. These findings will likely be relevant for understanding retrotransposons and aging in many organisms, based on similarities in regulation and consequences of retrotransposition in diverse species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acrolein preferentially damages nucleolus eliciting ribosomal stress and apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Weng, Ching-Wen; Yang, Chun-Hsiang; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2016-12-06

    Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. Acr is also an active cytotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. The mechanisms via which Acr exerts its anti-cancer activity and cytotoxicity are not clear. In this study, we found that Acr induces cytotoxicity and cell death in human cancer cells with different activities of p53. Acr preferentially binds nucleolar ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to form Acr-deoxyguanosine adducts, and induces oxidative damage to both rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Acr triggers ribosomal stress responses, inhibits rRNA synthesis, reduces RNA polymerase I binding to the promoter of rRNA gene, disrupts nucleolar integrity, and impairs ribosome biogenesis and polysome formation. Acr causes an increase in MDM2 levels and phosphorylation of MDM2 in A549 and HeLa cells which are p53 active and p53 inactive, respectively. It enhances the binding of ribosomal protein RPL11 to MDM2 and reduces the binding of p53 and E2F-1 to MDM2 resulting in stabilization/activation of p53 in A549 cells and degradation of E2F-1 in A549 and HeLa cells. We propose that Acr induces ribosomal stress which leads to activation of MDM2 and RPL11-MDM2 binding, consequently, activates p53 and enhances E2F-1 degradation, and that taken together these two processes induce apoptosis and cell death.

  6. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress. PMID:24589888

  7. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  8. Stochastic estimation of electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanovic, I.; Konjic, T.; Zahirovic, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Electricity consumption forecasting represents a part of the stable functioning of the power system. It is very important because of rationality and increase of control process efficiency and development planning of all aspects of society. On a scientific basis, forecasting is a possible way to solve problems. Among different models that have been used in the area of forecasting, the stochastic aspect of forecasting as a part of quantitative models takes a very important place in applications. ARIMA models and Kalman filter as stochastic estimators have been treated together for electricity consumption forecasting. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present the stochastic forecasting aspect using short time series. (author)

  9. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  10. "Conscious Consumption": Ecocapitalism as Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.

  11. Consumption patterns and cultural values in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemien van der Veen; Agnes Neulinger; Jacob Rosendahl; Tino Bech-Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 6 in Consumption culture in Europe. The chapter focuses on cultural differences in consumption across Europe and describes general attitudes towards consumption and brands, the significance of shopping, and how these are linked to the motives of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic

  12. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  13. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  14. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  15. Evolution of food consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Peț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Closely connected to production, consumption plays an active catalyst role because all economic activities end in consumption. From this perspective, consumption research is a good solution to identify offer accurately and meet the needs and, on the other hand, it is an important source of information in marketing. Consumption ranges among the first in the process of goods use. Consumption is the process of using goods to meet consumption needs (though not all needs since there is always a gap between needs and consumption.

  16. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  17. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  18. Estimation and upscaling of dual-permeability model parameters for the transport of E.coli D21g in soils with preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual-permeability models are increasingly used to quantify the transport of solutes and microorganisms in soils with preferential flow. An ability to accurately determine the model parameters and their variation with preferential pathway characteristics is crucial for predicting the transport of mi...

  19. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.

  20. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  1. Interventions to encourage sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal.

  2. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  3. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  4. Back to consumption and production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Kos Koklic, Mateja; Bajde, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    of production and consumption. Yet, in response to the mounting commercial and legal pressures, Web 2.0 companies pro-actively regulate prosumption, deploying advanced technological devices and innovative contractual arrangements. Exploring the case of Warner Music Group lockdown on YouTube, we investigate...

  5. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  6. Does Consumption Lag Behind Incomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1942-01-01

    textabstractThe fact that consumption outlay of individuals as well as of groups of individuals depends on their income is well known. Although this statement will hardly be doubted, it may be tested statistically from family budget statistics, as has been done by various investigators. These

  7. Consumption, lifestyles and constellatoric strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The condtribution reveals a contradiction between complexity and operationality in the discussions about energy consumption between social researchers and policy makers. By mean of two examples from his own research the author argues for a transgression of the narrow ecology-centred view. The first...... of "constellatoric strategies"; coordinated interplays between different coordinated efforts which creates synergy effects....

  8. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  9. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  10. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of protozoa in dairy lagoon wastewater that consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 preferentially.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V Ravva

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157, an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×10(7 cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 10(4/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity.

  12. Movement of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts through Soils without Preferential Pathways: Exploratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe J. G. Darnault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination by oocysts of the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a significant cause of animal and human disease worldwide. Although research has been undertaken in the past to determine how specific physical and chemical properties of soils affect the risk of groundwater contamination by C. parvum, there is as yet no clear conclusion concerning the range of mobility of C. parvum that one should expect in field soils. In this context, the key objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of C. parvum transport in a number of soils, under conditions in which fast and preferential transport has been successfully prevented. C. parvum oocysts were applied at the surface of different soils and subjected to artificial rainfall. Apparently for the first time, quantitative PCR was used to detect and enumerate oocysts in the soil columns and in the leachates. The transport of oocysts by infiltrating water, and the considerable retention of oocysts in soil was demonstrated for all soils, although differences in the degree of transport were observed with soils of different types. More oocysts were found in leachates from sandy loam soils than in leachates from loamy sand soils and the retention of oocysts in different soils did not significantly differ. The interaction of various processes of the hydrologic system and biogeochemical mechanisms contributed to the transport of oocysts through the soil matrix. Results suggest that the interplay of clay, organic matter, and Ca2+ facilitates and mediates the transfer of organic matter from mineral surfaces to oocysts surface, resulting in the enhanced breakthrough of oocysts through matrices of sandy loam soils compared to those of loamy sand soils. Although the number of occysts that penetrate the soil matrix account for only a small percentage of initial inputs, they still pose a significant threat to human health, especially in groundwater systems with a water table not

  13. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    Mouse incising is controlled by a central pattern generator and this activity can change in the presence of pain. The incising frequency and maximum force generation decreases with pain. In this study, we used repetitive acidic injections in the left masseter muscle of male and female mice to determine differences between baseline and jaw muscle pain conditions and the effect of sex on preferential incising direction. A within subject design was used to evaluate data previously acquired using multi-axis force data (X, Y and Z) from the 4th baseline recording day and day 7 post-injection (day of maximal pain response) for each mouse of each sex. A total of 34 female and male (age 3-9months) CD-1 mice were evaluated. After mathematically rotating the X and Y axes to align the Y axis to be parallel to the wire struts of the cage top, data were analyzed to determine incising direction preference during baseline (non-pain) and pain (day 7) conditions and between sex. Radar plots of X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z axes depicted the average direction of incising preference between baseline and pain conditions for each sex. Statistical differences among groups were tested using a mixed model ANOVA. Similar to previous findings, female mice had a more robust difference in incising direction preference when comparing male and female pain conditions and this was most evident in the X-Z axes. The incising frequencies most commonly affected were 5.3, 6.2 and 7.6Hz. Male mice varied little in their incising direction preference between the baseline and pain conditions. In addition, statistical comparison of ratios of the percent of time spent incising in the Z versus X axes for each incising frequency found that the incising preference was not different when comparing 5.3 and 7.6Hz frequencies. Finally, female mice used a novel approach to minimize pain while incising by rotating their head and body nearly 180 degrees while males did not use this strategy as frequently. The preferred incising

  14. Effects of subsoil compaction on hydraulic properties and preferential flow in a Swedish clay soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossadeghi-Björklund, M; Arvidsson, J.; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability and number of macropores at the second site. At this site, the traffic also significantly reduced the strength of preferential flow, presumably due to compaction-induced disruption of macropore continuity. In apparent contrast, some previous studies have shown......Soil compaction by vehicular traffic modifies the pore structure and soil hydraulic properties. These changes potentially influence the occurrence of preferential flow, which so far has been little studied. Our aim was to study the effect of compaction on soil hydraulic and transport properties...... transport derived from non-reactive tracer breakthrough curves and measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and air permeability at the field moisture content (Ka). Although the traffic treatment did not cause any compaction effects at one of the two sites, it did result in significant reductions...

  15. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord: MRI detection of preferential involvement of the posterior columns in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolansky, L.J.; Goldstein, G.; Gozo, A.; Lee, H.J.; Sills, I.; Chatkupt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (vitamin B 12 -deficient myelopathy) is a neurologic disorder manifesting progressive symptoms of paresthesia and spastic paralysis. As shown by pathology, it initially involves the posterior columns of the thoracic cord. We present a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency with preferential posterior column involvement of the thoracic cord in a child. Theoretically, this should be the earliest, most reversible stage of the disease, making recognition of this MRI pattern of critical importance. (orig.)

  16. Preferential treatment in transition economy the case of state-owned enterprises in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Hege Merete; Nguyen, Cuong Manh

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the role and contribution of preferential treatment of state enterprises to growth in the textile and garment industry. State enterprises are still the largest single sector in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam, but are losing market shares to private Vietnamese enterprises and foreign-owned enterprises despite the benefits that they enjoy. However, in the present context of economic transition and keen competition in the global market, well-managed state enterp...

  17. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. In defence of partisan justice - an ethical reflection on �the preferential option for the poor�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Naude

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Can one defend a form of partisan justice? This question is answered in the affirmative in the light of two broad arguments:� The theological argument arises from the preferential option for the poor from Latin America, and the philosophical argument is derived from John Rawls�� notion of the least� advantaged representative person and assistance due to burdened societies in a global context. In closing, a number of important implications of such a partisan notion of both distributive and cultural justice are explicated. This article is developed in three sections. The first section briefly sketches a profile of the different theological arguments underlying a preferential option for the poor as particularly developed by Latin American liberation theologians, and later accepted in wider ecumenical circles.� In the second section, philosophical arguments for a position of �prioritarianism� which seems to support such �preferential option� are outlined.� This is attempted via a discussion of two influential books by well-known� American political philosopher , John Rawls, namely his A theory of justice (1973, and The law of peoples (1999.� Section three concludes the article by demonstrating the synergy between these theological and philosophical views, and by pointing out � in a provisional manner - the important consequences of such a �preferential� or �partisan� view for guiding ethical reflection on local and global socio-economic relations.

  19. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  20. Src Kinase becomes preferentially associated with the VEGFR, KDR/Flk-1, following VEGF stimulation of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Src, has been found to play a crucial role in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor – dependent vascular permeability involved in angiogenesis. The two main VEGFRs present on vascular endothelial cells are KDR/Flk-1 (kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fetal liver kinase-1 and Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. However, to date, it has not been determined which VEGF receptor (VEGFR is involved in binding to and activating Src kinase following VEGF stimulation of the receptors. Results In this report, we demonstrate that Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1 rather than Flt-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and that VEGF stimulation resulted in an increase of Src activity associated with activated KDR/Flk-1. These findings were determined through immunoprecipitation-kinase experiments and coimmunoprecipitation studies, and were further confirmed by GST-pull-down assays and Far Western studies. However, Fyn and Yes, unlike Src, were found to associate preferentially with Flt-1. Conclusions Thus, Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1, rather than with Flt-1, upon VEGF stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings further highlight the potential significance of upregulated KDR/Flk-1-associated Src activity in the process of angiogenesis, and help to elucidate more clearly the specific roles and mechanisms involving Src family tyrosine kinase in VEGF-stimulated signal transduction events.

  1. A model of hydrological and mechanical feedbacks of preferential fissure flow in a slow-moving landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Krzeminska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of hydrological processes for landslide activity is generally accepted. However, the relationship between precipitation, hydrological responses and movement is not straightforward. Groundwater recharge is mostly controlled by the hydrological material properties and the structure (e.g., layering, preferential flow paths such as fissures of the unsaturated zone. In slow-moving landslides, differential displacements caused by the bedrock structure complicate the hydrological regime due to continuous opening and closing of the fissures, creating temporary preferential flow paths systems for infiltration and groundwater drainage. The consecutive opening and closing of fissure aperture control the formation of a critical pore water pressure by creating dynamic preferential flow paths for infiltration and groundwater drainage. This interaction may explain the seasonal nature of the slow-moving landslide activity, including the often observed shifts and delays in hydrological responses when compared to timing, intensity and duration of precipitation. The main objective of this study is to model the influence of fissures on the hydrological dynamics of slow-moving landslide and the dynamic feedbacks between fissures, hydrology and slope stability. For this we adapt the spatially distributed hydrological and slope stability model (STARWARS to account for geotechnical and hydrological feedbacks, linking between hydrological response of the landside and the dynamics of the fissure network and applied the model to the hydrologically controlled Super-Sauze landslide (South French Alps.

  2. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    Permeation of molecules through membranes is a fundamental process in biological systems, which not only involves mass and signal transfers between the interior of a contemporary cell and its environment, but was also of crucial importance in the origin of life. In the absence of complex protein transporters, nutrients and building blocks of biopolymers must have been able to permeate membranes at sufficient rates to support primordial metabolism and cel-lular reproduction. From this perspective one class of solutes that is of special interest are monosaccharides, which serve not only as nutritional molecules but also as building blocks for information molecules. In particular, ribose is a part of the RNA backbone, but RNA analogs containing a number of other sugars have also been shown to form stable duplexes. Why, among these possibilities, ribose (and, subsequently, deoxyribose) was selected for the backbone of information polymers is still poorly understood. It was recently found that ribose permeates membranes an order of magnitude faster than its diastereomers, arabinose and xylose [1]. On this basis it was hypothesized that differences in membrane permeability to aldopentoses provide a mechanism for preferential delivery of ribose to primitive cells for subsequent, selective incorporation into nucleotides and their polymers. However, the origins of these unusually large differences had not been well understood. We addressed this issue in molecular dynamics simulations combined with free energy calculations. It was found that the free energy barrier for transferring ribose from water to the bilayer is lower by 1.5-2 kcal/mol than the barrier for transferring the other two aldopentoses. The calculated [2] and measured [1] permeability coefficients are in an excellent agreement. The sugar structures that permeate the membrane are -pyranoses, with a possible contribution of the -anomer for arabinose. The furanoid form of ribose is not substantially involved in

  3. Global risks from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of some of the global risks associated with current and frequently proposed future levels of consumption of energy from oil, coal, fission, fusion, and renewable sources points out the the dangers are serious and relatively near term. These include world war over Persian Gulf oil, climate change due to the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the accelerated proliferation of nuclear weapons, and competition between food and energy for land and water. The author urges placing a greater emphasis on how we use energy and how to reduce energy waste. At the levels of consumption which economically justified levels of energy efficiency could bring about, enough flexibility could develop in our choice of a future energy-supply mix to dramatically reduce the associated global risks. 47 references, 3 figures

  4. ALMR potential for actinide consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockey, C.L.; Thompson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. This reactor combines a high degree of passive safety characteristics with a high level of modularity and factory fabrication to achieve attractive economics. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor fueled with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and for makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR core by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behavior throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. Waste disposal impacts are discussed. (author)

  5. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  6. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  7. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  9. Preferential flow and mixing process in the chemical recharge in subsurface catchments: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Rouxel, M.; Molenat, J.; Ruiz, L.; Aquilina, L.; Faucheux, M.; Labasque, T.; Sebilo, M.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow groundwater that develops on hillslopes is the main compartment in headwater catchments for flow and solute transport to rivers. Although spatial and temporal variations in its chemical composition are reported in the literature, there is no coherent description of the way these variations are organized, nor is there an accepted conceptual model for the recharge mechanisms and flows in the groundwater involved. We instrumented an intensive farming and subsurface dominant catchment located in Oceanic Western Europe (Kerbernez, Brittany, France), a headwater catchment included in the Observatory for Research on Environment AgrHyS (Agro-Hydro-System) and a part of the French Network of catchments for environmental research (SOERE RBV focused on the Critical Zone). These systems are strongly constrained by anthropogenic pressures (agriculture) and are characterized by a clear non-equilibrium status. A network of 42 nested piezometers was installed along a 200 m hillslope allowing water sampling along two transects in the permanent water table as well as in what we call the "fluctuating zone", characterized by seasonal alternance of saturated and unsaturated conditions. Water composition was monitored at high frequency (weekly) over a 3-year period for major anion composition and over a one year period for detailed 15N, CFC, SF6 and other dissolved gases. The results demonstrated that (i) the anionic composition in water table fluctuation zone varied significantly compared to deeper portions of the aquifer on the hillslope, confirming that this layer constitutes a main compartment for the mixing of new recharge water and old groundwater, (ii) seasonally, the variations of 15N and CFC are much higher during the recharge period than during the recession period, confirming the preferential flow during early recharge events, iii) variations of nitrate 15N and O18 composition was suggesting any significant denitrification process in the fluctuating zone, confirming

  10. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  11. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  12. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  13. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  14. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  15. Self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This document presents, first, the definition and context of self-consumption (photovoltaic and cogeneration), then its profitability (regulation and financial incentive), next, the direct consumption by third parties, and finally, the opportunities and technical challenges

  16. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  17. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  18. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  19. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  20. Optimal Smooth Consumption and Annuity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optimization criterion that yields extraordinary consumption smoothing compared to the well known results of the life-cycle model. Under this criterion we solve the related consumption and investment optimization problem faced by individuals with preferences for intertemporal stabil...... stability in consumption. We find that the consumption and investment patterns demanded under the optimization criterion is in general offered as annuity benefits from products in the class of ‘Formula Based Smoothed Investment-Linked Annuities’....