WorldWideScience

Sample records for strain-related acid production

  1. Strain-related acid production by oral streptococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Soet, JJ; Nyvad, Bente; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    . The bacteria were grown until mid log-phase under anaerobic conditions and acid production was measured in a pH-stat system at pH 7.0, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.0. At all pH values, the mean velocity of acid production (V(ap)) by Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly higher (p... that of the other oral streptococci, including S. mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, S. intermedius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. vestibularis. However, the V(ap) of some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis, particularly at pH values of 7.0 and 6.0, exceeded that of some strains of S. mutans....... The V(ap) decreased with pH for all strains, but some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and strains of the mutans streptococci maintained a relatively high rate of acid production. The results suggest that some strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and S. oralis may play an important role in caries development...

  2. Transcriptome of Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) deletion strain related to sclerotial development and production of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus produces many secondary metabolites including aflatoxins. Besides conidia, the fungus uses sclerotia as another type of propagule. We obtained transcriptomes from four growth conditions of the aswA mutant, a strain impaired in sclerotial development and production of sclerotium-sp...

  3. Production of shikimic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  5. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  6. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation ...

  7. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  8. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  9. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-02-01

    Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation may be intolerance to adipic acid. Therefore, in this study, selected microorganisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, typically used in microbial cell factories were considered to evaluate their tolerance to adipic acid. Screening of yeasts and bacteria for tolerance to adipic acid was performed in microtitre plates, and in agar plates for A. niger in the presence of adipic acid over a broad range of concentration (0-684 mM). As the different dissociation state(s) of adipic acid may influence cells differently, cultivations were performed with at least two pH values. Yeasts and A. niger were found to tolerate substantially higher concentrations of adipic acid than bacteria, and were less affected by the undissociated form of adipic acid than bacteria. The yeast exhibiting the highest tolerance to adipic acid was Candida viswanathii, showing a reduction in maximum specific growth rate of no more than 10-15% at the highest concentration of adipic acid tested and the tolerance was not dependent on the dissociation state of the adipic acid. Tolerance to adipic acid was found to be substantially higher among yeasts and A. niger than bacteria. The explanation of the differences in adipic acid tolerance between the microorganisms investigated are likely related to fundamental differences in their physiology and metabolism. Among the yeasts investigated, C. viswanathii showed the highest tolerance and could be a potential host for a future microbial cell factory for adipic acid.

  10. Gluconic Acid: Properties, Applications and Microbial Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reaction. The reaction is facilitated by the enzyme glucose oxidase (fungi and glucose dehydrogenase (bacteria such as Gluconobacter. Microbial production of gluconic acid is the preferred method and it dates back to several decades. The most studied and widely used fermentation process involves the fungus Aspergillus niger. Gluconic acid and its derivatives, the principal being sodium gluconate, have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. This article gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production, its properties and applications.

  11. Amino acid nitrosation products as alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, M del P; Calle, E; Casado, J

    2001-08-08

    Nitrosation reactions of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids whose reaction products can act as alkylating agents of DNA were investigated. To approach in vivo conditions for the two-step mechanism (nitrosation and alkylation), nitrosation reactions were carried out in aqueous acid conditions (mimicking the conditions of the stomach lumen) while the alkylating potential of the nitrosation products was investigated at neutral pH, as in the stomach lining cells into which such products can diffuse. These conclusions were drawn: (i) The alkylating species resulting from the nitrosation of amino acids with an -NH(2) group are the corresponding lactones; (ii) the sequence of alkylating power is: alpha-lactones > beta-lactones > gamma-lactones, coming respectively from the nitrosation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids; and (iii) the results obtained may be useful in predicting the mutagenic effectiveness of the nitrosation products of amino acids.

  12. Towards Sustainable Production of Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulushev, Dmitri A; Ross, Julian R H

    2018-03-09

    Formic acid is a widely used commodity chemical. It can be used as a safe, easily handled, and transported source of hydrogen or carbon monoxide for different reactions, including those producing fuels. The review includes historical aspects of formic acid production. It briefly analyzes production based on traditional sources, such as carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane. However, the main emphasis is on the sustainable production of formic acid from biomass and biomass-derived products through hydrolysis and oxidation processes. New strategies of low-temperature synthesis from biomass may lead to the utilization of formic acid for the production of fuel additives, such as methanol; upgraded bio-oil; γ-valerolactone and its derivatives; and synthesis gas used for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. Some technological aspects are also considered. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimal sulphuric acid production using Acidithiobacillus caldus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal sulphuric acid production using Acidithiobacillus caldus (DSM 8584): Bioprocess design for application in ion-exchange. ... Secondly, after 80% (v/v) moisture loss from the recovered biological H2SO4 titres, the acid solution was used for the recovery of nuclear grade lithium 7 (7Li+) from a degraded resin, ...

  14. Biochemistry of microbial itaconic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Georg Steiger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid is an unsatured dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints and synthetic fibers. Some Aspergillus species, like A. itaconicus and A. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and A. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (> 80 g/L. However, compared with the citric acid production process (titers > 200 g/L the achieved titers are still low and the overall process is expensive because purified substrates are required for optimal productivity. Itaconate is formed by the enzymatic activity of a cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CadA encoded by the cadA gene in A. terreus. Cloning of the cadA gene into the citric acid producing fungus A. niger showed that it is possible to produce itaconic acid also in a different host organism. This review will describe the current status and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes leading to the biotechnological production of itaconic acid.

  15. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  16. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  17. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  18. Nutrient composition, volatile fatty acids production, digestible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient composition, volatile fatty acids production, digestible organic matter and anti-nutrtional factors of some agro-industrial by-products of Ethiopia. ... Because of high NDF and lignin, BB and coffee parchment (CPa) had low DOM (507±30 and 322±4 g/kg DM, respectively). CPa and SW had low ME (< 6.6±0.3 MJ/kg ...

  19. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  20. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  1. Glutamic acid production from wheat by-products using enzymatic and acid hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Alting, A.C.; Floris, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) has potential as feedstock for bulk chemicals production. It has also been listed as one of the top twelve chemicals derived from biomass. Large amounts of cheaper Glu can be made available by enabling its production from biomass by-products, such as wheat dried distillers grains

  2. Production of muconic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Berthomieu, Roland; Hao, Zhangying; Zhao, Nanxia; Benites, Veronica Teixeira; Baidoo, Edward E K; Loqué, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Muconic acid (MA) is a dicarboxylic acid used for the production of industrially relevant chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and caprolactam. Because the synthesis of these polymer precursors generates toxic intermediates by utilizing petroleum-derived chemicals and corrosive catalysts, the development of alternative strategies for the bio-based production of MA has garnered significant interest. Plants produce organic carbon skeletons by harvesting carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, and therefore represent advantageous hosts for engineered metabolic pathways towards the manufacturing of chemicals. In this work, we engineered Arabidopsis to demonstrate that plants can serve as green factories for the bio-manufacturing of MA. In particular, dual expression of plastid-targeted bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) resulted in the conversion of the endogenous salicylic acid (SA) pool into MA via catechol. Sequential increase of SA derived from the shikimate pathway was achieved by expressing plastid-targeted versions of bacterial salicylate synthase (Irp9) and feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate synthase (AroG). Introducing this SA over-producing strategy into engineered plants that co-express NahG and CatA resulted in a 50-fold increase in MA titers. Considering that MA was easily recovered from senesced plant biomass after harvest, we envision the phytoproduction of MA as a beneficial option to add value to bioenergy crops. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of amino acids on okadaic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, M L; Fernández, J J; Norte, M; Fernández, M L; Martínez, A

    2001-05-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) (1)) was the first example of a group of polyether toxins known to be produced by marine microalgae, which are responsible for the natural phenomena known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) red tides. It is also a highly selective inhibitor of protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), as well as being a potent tumour promoter. For these reasons, OA is an extremely useful tool for studying cellular processes and an important standard for polluted shellfish control. In this paper, we report on a double objective: to improve the production of toxins and verify the apparent participation of amino acids in the formation of these polyethers by monitoring their influence on the promotion of growth, total cell yield and increased in toxicity in Prorocentrum lima of the PL2V strain in batch cultures, in a modified K medium.

  4. Bioactivity and biotechnological production of punicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holic, Roman; Xu, Yang; Caldo, Kristian Mark P; Singer, Stacy D; Field, Catherine J; Weselake, Randall J; Chen, Guanqun

    2018-04-01

    Punicic acid (PuA; 18: 3Δ 9cis,11trans,13cis ) is an unusual 18-carbon fatty acid bearing three conjugated double bonds. It has been shown to exhibit a myriad of beneficial bioactivities including anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed oil contains approximately 80% PuA and is currently the major natural source of this remarkable fatty acid. While both PuA and pomegranate seed oil have been used as functional ingredients in foods and cosmetics for some time, their value in pharmaceutical/medical and industrial applications are presently under further exploration. Unfortunately, the availability of PuA is severely limited by the low yield and unstable supply of pomegranate seeds. In addition, efforts to produce PuA in transgenic crops have been limited by a relatively low content of PuA in the resulting seed oil. The production of PuA in engineered microorganisms with modern fermentation technology is therefore a promising and emerging method with the potential to resolve this predicament. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of this unusual fatty acid, covering topics ranging from its natural sources, biosynthesis, extraction and analysis, bioactivity, health benefits, and industrial applications, to recent efforts and future perspectives on the production of PuA in engineered plants and microorganisms.

  5. Production of hydroxycinnamoyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in Escherichia coli: production of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxycinnamates (HCs) are mainly produced in plants. Caffeic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (PA), ferulic acid (FA) and sinapic acid (SA) are members of the HC family. The consumption of HC by human might prevent cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. The solubility of HCs is increased through thioester conjugation to various compounds such as quinic acid, shikimic acid, malic acid, anthranilic acid, and glycerol. Although hydroxycinnamate conjugates can be obtained from diverse plant sources such as coffee, tomato, potato, apple, and sweet potato, some parts of the world have limited availability to these compounds. Thus, there is growing interest in producing HC conjugates as nutraceutical supplements. Results Hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (HCTs) including hydroxycinnamate-CoA shikimate transferase (HST) and hydroxycinnamate-CoA quinate transferase (HQT) were co-expressed with 4-coumarateCoA:ligase (4CL) in Escherichia coli cultured in media supplemented with HCs. Two hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates, p-coumaroyl shikimates and chlorogenic acid, were thereby synthesized. Total 29.1 mg/L of four different p-coumaroyl shikimates (3-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 4-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,4-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, and 4,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate) was obtained and 16 mg/L of chlorogenic acid was synthesized in the wild type E. coli strain. To increase the concentration of endogenous acceptor substrates such as shikimate and quinate, the shikimate pathway in E. coli was engineered. A E. coli aroL and aroK gene were mutated and the resulting mutants were used for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate. An E. coli aroD mutant was used for the production of chlorogenic acid. We also optimized the vector and cell concentration optimization. Conclusions To produce p-coumaroyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in E. coli, several E. coli mutants (an aroD mutant for chlorogenic acid production; an aroL, aroK, and aroKL mutant for p

  6. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan Phu; Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

  7. Stress–strain relations for hydrogels under multiaxial deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive equations are derived for the elastic response of swollen elastomers and hydrogels under an arbitrary deformation with finite strains. An expression is developed for the free energy density of a polymer network based on the Flory concept of flexible chains with constrained junctions...... and solvent-dependent reference configuration. The importance of introduction of a reference configuration evolving under swelling is confirmed by the analysis of experimental data on nanocomposite hydrogels subjected to swelling and drying. Adjustable parameters in the stress–strain relations are found...

  8. Protein and metabolic engineering for the production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Organic acids are natural metabolites of living organisms. They have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In recent years, biotechnological routes to organic acids production from renewable raw materials have been regarded as very promising approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of current developments in the production of organic acids using protein and metabolic engineering strategies. The organic acids include propionic acid, pyruvate, itaconic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and citric acid. We also expect that rapid developments in the fields of systems biology and synthetic biology will accelerate protein and metabolic engineering for microbial organic acid production in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  10. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification....... Two scenarios (S1 and S2) were examined assuming a plant with an annual capacity of 10,000 tonnes of product installed in India (due to significantly lower feedstock prices). S1 resulted in a product of 89% butyric acid mixed with acetic acid and S2 produced butyric acid of 99% purity. Unit production...... cost was estimated at 2.75 and 3.31 $ per kg product for S1 and S2 respectively. The main part of production cost was attributed to steam for the purification step and electricity for the in-situ acids separation. This unit production cost combined with an estimated butyric acid selling price (year...

  11. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  12. Pediocin production by recombinant lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, G A; Steinberg, D H

    2003-03-01

    Production of the anti-listerial bacteriocin, pediocin, by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) transformed with the cloning vector pPC418 (Ped+, 9.1 kb) was influenced by composition of media and incubation temperature. Maximum pediocin production, tested against Listeria innocua, by electrotransformants of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was measured in tryptone/lactose/yeast extract medium after 24 h growth at 30 degrees C, while incubation at 40 degrees C was optimum for Ped+ transformants of Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis. The amount of pediocin produced by S. thermophilus in skim milk and cheese whey supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract was estimated as 51,000 units ml(-1) and 25,000 units ml(-1), respectively. Pediocin production remained essentially unchanged in reconstituted skim milk or whey media diluted up to 10-fold. The results demonstrate the capacity of recombinant strains of LAB to produce pediocin in a variety of growth media including skim milk and inexpensive cheese whey-based media, requiring minimum nutritional supplementation.

  13. Microbial production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Cao, Mingfeng; Kongklom, Nuttawut; Chuensangjun, Chaniga; Shi, Zhongping; Chisti, Yusuf

    2017-09-05

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural, biodegradable and water-soluble biopolymer of glutamic acid. This review is focused on nonrecombinant microbial production of γ-PGA via fermentation processes. In view of its commercial importance, the emphasis is on L-glutamic acid independent producers (i.e. microorganisms that do not require feeding with the relatively expensive amino acid L-glutamic acid to produce γ-PGA), but glutamic acid dependent production is discussed for comparison. Strategies for improving production, reducing costs and using renewable feedstocks are discussed.

  14. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  15. Optimization of Citric Acid Production through Manipulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Aspergillus niger isolate was screened for citric acid production from glucose and the cultural conditions were manipulated for optimum citric acid production. Optimization studies improved citric acid yield by 13.34% from 12.81 g/l obtained during the screening test to 14.52 g/l obtained at the end of the optimization ...

  16. Comparison of humic acids production by Trichoderma viride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FEA

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... The remarkable properties of humic acids have generated a broad spectrum of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and agricultural fields, and encouraged fermentation studies focusing on humic acids production. This work compares the humic acids production of Trichoderma (viride and.

  17. Potential of Different Coleus blumei Tissues for Rosmarinic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Vuković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinic acid is one of the main active components of Coleus blumei and is known to have numerous health benefi ts. The pharmacological significance of rosmarinic acid and its production through in vitro culture has been the subject of numerous studies. Here, the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation have been tested. Calli, tumours, normal roots and hairy roots were established routinely by application of plant growth regulators or by transformation with agrobacteria. The differences among the established tumour lines were highly heterogeneous. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic acid production. Although some tumour lines produced more rosmarinic acid than the hairy root lines, over a long cultivation period their productivity was unstable and decreased. Further, the effects of plant growth regulators on growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were tested. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid significantly reduced tumour growth and rosmarinic acid production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulated hairy root growth whilst abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic acid production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor exhibited the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid.

  18. Studies on the Bio production of Gibberellic Acid from Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleem, D.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid is a natural plant growth hormone which is gaining much more attention all over the world due to its effective use in agriculture and brewing industry. At present gibberellic acid is produced throughout the world by fermentation technique using the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (recently named Fusarium moniliforme). The aim of the current study is the isolation of local F. moniliforme isolate have the ability to produce gibberellic acid on specific production media. The submerged fermentation technique for the production of gibberellic acid is influenced to a great extent by a variety of physical factors (incubation time, temperature, ph, agitation speed) also, gibberellic acid production by F. moniliforme depends upon the nature and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimization of these factors is prerequisite for the development of commercial process. The addition of some elements in a significant quantities to the production media stimulate gibberellic acid production. The use of seed culture inocula (24 h) age at rate of (2% v/v) also enhance the production. Working volume 50 ml in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask was found to be the best volume for the production. Low doses of gamma radiation (0.5 kGy) stimulate gibberellic acid production and microbial growth by the local F. moniliforme isolate. Immobilized cell fermentation technique had also been developed as an alternative to obtain higher yield of gibberellic acid. Milk permeate (cheap dairy by- product) was found suitable to used as main production medium for gibberellic acid production by the fungus under investigation. The influence of gibberellic acid on enhancement growth of Aspergillus niger and chitosan production was also studied, the addition of 2 mg/l of gibberellic acid to chitosan production medium stimulate its production in comparison with media without gibberellic acid

  19. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  20. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  1. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  2. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  3. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Antonetti, Claudia; De Luise, Valentina; Licursi, Domenico; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  4. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...... the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining...

  5. Effect of extrinsic lactic acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, Bita; Nakhla, George; Karamanev, Dimitre; Margaritis, Argyrios [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we report the effect of extrinsic lactic acid on hydrogen production from a starch-containing medium by a mixed culture. Study of the effect of addition of four metabolites, namely ethanol, lactic acid, butyric acid and acetic acid illustrated that lactic acid had a positive effect on both the maximum hydrogen production and hydrogen production rate. The addition of 10 mM lactic acid to a batch containing starch increased the hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield from 4.31 to 8.23 mL/h and 5.70 to 9.08 mmol H{sub 2}/g starch, respectively. This enhancement in hydrogen production rate and yield was associated with a shift from acetic acid and ethanol formation to formation of butyric acid as the predominant metabolite. The increase in hydrogen production yield was attributed to the increase in the available residual NADH for hydrogen production. When lactic acid was used as the sole carbon source, no significant hydrogen production was observed. (author)

  6. Biotechnological Production of Lactic Acid and Its Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jung Wee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is widely used in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries and has received increased attention for use as a monomer for the production of biodegradable poly(lactic acid. It can be produced by either biotechnological fermentation or chemical synthesis, but the former route has received considerable interest recently, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks. There have been various attempts to produce lactic acid efficiently from inexpensive raw materials. We present a review of lactic acid-producing microorganisms, raw materials for lactic acid production, fermentation approaches for lactic acid production, and various applications of lactic acid, with a particular focus on recent investigations. In addition, the future potentials and economic impacts of lactic acid are discussed.

  7. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  8. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important requirement in the human diet. It is also essential in the nutrition of crustaceans and aquaculture animals. Of the sources available for commercial production of DHA...

  9. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  10. Improvement of acid protease production by a mixed culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of acid protease by Aspergillus oryzae AS3042 was enhanced significantly with the mixed culture of Aspergillus niger SL-09 using solid-state fermentation technique. The influence of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and the addition of phytic acid on acid protease production were investigated. The enzyme ...

  11. Impact of the diet on net endogenous acid production and acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, Nathalie; Calvez, Juliane; Lassale, Camille; Chesneau, Caroline; Tomé, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Net acid production, which is composed of volatile acids (15,000 mEq/day) and metabolic acids (70-100 mEq/day) is relatively small compared to whole-body H⁺ turnover (150,000 mEq/day). Metabolic acids are ingested from the diet or produced as intermediary or end products of endogenous metabolism. The three commonly reported sources of net acid production are the metabolism of sulphur amino acids, the metabolism or ingestion of organic acids, and the metabolism of phosphate esters or dietary phosphoproteins. Net base production occurs mainly as a result of absorption of organic anions from the diet. To maintain acid-base balance, ingested and endogenously produced acids are neutralized within the body by buffer systems or eliminated from the body through the respiratory (excretion of volatile acid in the form of CO₂) and urinary (excretion of fixed acids and remaining H⁺) pathways. Because of the many reactions involved in the acid-base balance, the direct determination of acid production is complex and is usually estimated through direct or indirect measurements of acid excretion. However, indirect approaches, which assess the acid-forming potential of the ingested diet based on its composition, do not take all the acid-producing reactions into account. Direct measurements therefore seem more reliable. Nevertheless, acid excretion does not truly provide information on the way acidity is dealt with in the plasma and this measurement should be interpreted with caution when assessing acid-base imbalance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  13. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimising the Effect of Stimulants on Citric Acid Production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additives such as low molecular weight alcohols, trace metals, phytate, lipids etc have been reported to stimulate citric acid production. Hence the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulating the metabolic activity of Aspergillus niger for the purpose of improved citric acid production from cocoyam starch.

  15. Phenazines and natural products; Novel synthesis of saphenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Nielsen, John

    1999-01-01

    The natural product saphenic acid (6-(1-hydroxyethyl)1-phenazinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from readily accessible starting materials. The desired product was obtained in an overall yield of 22% for four steps with the key steps being formation of a diphenylamine, followed by cyclization...

  16. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  17. New Perspectives for Citric Acid Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Soccol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity when compared with other acidulants used mainly in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Other applications of citric acid can be found in detergents and cleaning products, cosmetics and toiletries, and other. Global production has now reached 1.4 million tonnes and there is annual growth of 3.5–4.0 % in demand/consumption of citric acid. As a result of the adverse market conditions, only big producers have survived. Any increase in citric acid productivity would be of potential interest and hence there is an obvious need to consider all possible ways in which this might be achieved. The production by submerged fermentation is still dominating. However, solid-state processes can create new possibilities for producers. Many by-products and residues of the agro-industry can be used in the production of citric acid. A cost reduction in citric acid production can be achieved by using less expensive substrates. The use of agro-industrial residues as support in solid-state fermentation is economically important and minimizes environmental problems. Other perspectives for citric acid production sector are the improvement of citric acid producing strains, which have been carried out by mutagenesis and selection.

  18. Significant thermal energy reduction in lactic acid production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Edreder, Elmahboub A.; Emtir, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid is widely used as a raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers and in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The global market for lactic acid is expected to reach 259 thousand metric tons by the year 2012. For batch production of lactic acid, the traditional process includes the following steps: (i) esterification of impure lactic acid with methanol in a batch reactor to obtain methyl lactate (ester), (ii) separation of the ester in a batch distillation, (iii) hydrolysis of the ester with water in a batch reactor to produce lactic acid and (iv) separation of lactic acid (in high purity) in a batch distillation. Batch reactive distillation combines the benefit of both batch reactor and batch distillation and enhances conversion and productivity (Taylor and Krishna, 2000 ; Mujtaba and Macchietto, 1997 ). Therefore, the first and the last two steps of the lactic acid production process can be combined together in batch reactive distillation () processes. However, distillation (batch or continuous) is an energy intensive process and consumes large amount of thermal energy (via steam). This paper highlights how significant (over 50%) reduction in thermal energy consumption can be achieved for lactic acid production process by carefully controlling the reflux ratio but without compromising the product specification. In this paper, only the simultaneous hydrolysis of methyl lactate ester and the separation of lactic acid using batch reactive distillation is considered.

  19. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  20. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  1. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired

  2. Lactic acid production from xylose by Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, B.; Naresh, S.; Chu, J. E.

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid is an important compound with a wide range of industrial applications. The present study tested the efficiency of xylose, as a sole carbon source to be converted to lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain 15. To the best of our knowledge, limited information is available on the directed fermentation of xylose to lactic acid by this bacterium. The effects of different parameters such as temperature, pH, incubation time, agitation speed, concentrations of nitrogen and carbon sources on the lactic acid production were investigated statistically. It was found that the bacterium exhibited poor assimilation of xylose to lactic acid. Temperature, agitation rate and incubation time were determined to improve the lactic acid production slightly. The highest lactic acid yield obtained was 8.9% at 45°C, 300 RPM, 96 h, pH of 6.0 with carbon and nitrogen source concentrations were fixed at 5% w/v.

  3. Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Delisi, Riccardo; Pagliaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Owing to new biotechnological production units mostly located in China, global supply of citric acid in the course of the last two decades rose from less than 0.5 to more than 2 million tonnes becoming the single largest chemical obtained via biomass fermentation and the most widely employed organic acid. Critically reviewing selected research achievements and production trends, we identify the reasons for which this polycarboxylic acid will become a key chemical in the emerging bioeconomy.Graphical abstractPalermo's Fabbrica Chimica Italiana Goldenberg today. In 1930 it was Europe's largest citric acid plant (photo courtesy of Aldo Ferrande).

  4. Production and Recovery of Pyruvic Acid: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Kumar, Awanish; Uslu, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Pyruvic acid is an important keto-carboxylic acid and can be manufactured by both chemical synthesis and biotechnological routes. In the present paper an overview of recent developments and challenges in various existing technique for the production and recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth or from waste streams has been presented. The main obstacle in biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is development of suitable microorganism which can provide high yield and selectivity. On the other hand, technical limitation in recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth is that, it could not be separated as other carboxylic acid in the form of salts by addition of alkali. Besides, pyruvic acid cannot be crystallized. Commercial separation by distillation is very expensive because pyruvic acid decomposes at higher temperature. It is also chemically reactive due to its peculiar molecular structure and has tendency to polymerize. Thus, at high concentration the various type of reaction leads to lower yield of the product, and hence, conventional methods are not favorable. Alternate separation technologies viable to both synthetic and biological routes are the current research areas. Latest techniques such as reactive extraction is new to the field of recovery of pyruvic acid. Recent development and future prospects in downstream processing of biochemically produced pyruvic acids has been discussed in this review article.

  5. Improvement and enhancement of clavulanic acid production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... Clavulanic acid (CA) is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases. Oil can be used as a source of carbon and energy in CA production. To develop a policy for enhanced production of CA, the selection of a production medium and an optimum pH, different vegetable oils as carbon source have been used. The.

  6. Glutamic acid and folic acid production in aerobic and anaerobic probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Taghi Abadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:From an industrial application or commercial point of view, glutamic acid is one of the most important amino acids and its microbial production has been reported from some bacteria. Regarding the role of probiotics to modulate human health and the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics in the food industry, in the current study, production of glutamic acid and folic acid from three probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Sporolactobacillus was evaluated for the first time. Materials and methods: MRS broth and exclusive media was used for probiotic culture. The glutamic acid was identified using thin-layer chromatography and folic acid production was measured by folate kit. Each bacterium in terms of quality and quantity were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Results: Production of glutamic acid confirmed is based on the thin layer chromatography analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography results. In addition, it was observed that all three probiotics produce folic acid. The prevalence of folate in Bifidobacterium was measured as 315 mg/ml that was more than two other bacteria. Discussion and conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial production of glutamic acid and folate from the probiotic bacteria. These beneficial bacteria can be used as a good source for mass production of these valuable compounds.

  7. Electricity-assisted production of caproic acid from grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Way Cern; Andersen, Stephen; Vervaeren, Han; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    Medium chain carboxylic acids, such as caproic acid, are conventionally produced from food materials. Caproic acid can be produced through fermentation by the reverse β-oxidation of lactic acid, generated from low value lignocellulosic biomass. In situ extraction of caproic acid can be achieved by membrane electrolysis coupled to the fermentation process, allowing recovery by phase separation. Grass was fermented to lactic acid in a leach-bed-type reactor, which was then further converted to caproic acid in a secondary fermenter. The lactic acid concentration was 9.36 ± 0.95 g L -1 over a 33-day semi-continuous operation, and converted to caproic acid at pH 5.5-6.2, with a concentration of 4.09 ± 0.54 g L -1 during stable production. The caproic acid product stream was extracted in its anionic form, concentrated and converted to caproic acid by membrane electrolysis, resulting in a >70 wt% purity solution. In a parallel test exploring the upper limits of production rate through cell retention, we achieved the highest reported caproic acid production rate to date from a lignocellulosic biomass (grass, via a coupled process), at 0.99 ± 0.02 g L -1  h -1 . The fermenting microbiome (mainly consisting of Clostridium IV and Lactobacillus ) was capable of producing a maximum caproic acid concentration of 10.92 ± 0.62 g L -1 at pH 5.5, at the border of maximum solubility of protonated caproic acid. Grass can be utilized as a substrate to produce caproic acid. The biological intermediary steps were enhanced by separating the steps to focus on the lactic acid intermediary. Notably, the pipeline was almost completely powered through electrical inputs, and thus could potentially be driven from sustainable energy without need for chemical input.Graphical abstractMicrobial and electrochemical production of lactic acid, caproic acid and decane from grass.

  8. [Control of acetic acid metabolism of recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica for efficient succinic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuijuan; Zheng, Yaqin

    2018-03-25

    Succinic acid is a high value-added organic acid widely used in food, chemical and pesticide industries. As a new robust non-conventional yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica attracts more and more attention due to its potential for industrial applications. Previously, we obtained a succinic acid-producing strain through gene deletion of succinic acid dehydrogenase subunit encoding gene Ylsdh5, resulting in the strain of PGC01003. However, the recombinant strain produced large amount of acetic acid due to imbalance between glycolysis and TCA cycle which hindered the efficient production of succinic acid. PDH bypass was interfered to decrease the overflow of acetic acid and produce succinic acid under natural pH. Acetic acid was reduced to 4.6 g/L through heterologous expression of acetyl coenzyme A synthase from Salmonella enteric, which was 75.4% of the control strain. Deletion of CoA-transferase gene Ylach1 eliminated acetate formation and improved succinic acid production, and the resulting strain produced as high as 7.0 g/L succinic acid. Our study provides foundation for further construction of efficient cell factory of succinic acid production.

  9. Fungal Biotransormation Products of Dehydroabietic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Claassen, F.W.; Dorado, J.; Godejohann, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) (1) is one of the main compounds in Scots pine wood responsible for aquatic and microbial toxicity. The degradation of 1 by Trametes versicolor and Phlebiopsis gigantea in liquid stationary cultures was followed by HPLC-DAD-ELSD. Both fungi rapidly degraded DHA relative to

  10. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  11. Production of dicarboxylic acids from novel unsaturated fatty acids by laccase-catalyzed oxidative cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Michiki; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Watanabe, Hiroko; Saika, Azusa; Hibi, Makoto; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-06-27

    The establishment of renewable biofuel and chemical production is desirable because of global warming and the exhaustion of petroleum reserves. Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), the material of 6,10-nylon, is produced from ricinoleic acid, a carbon-neutral material, but the process is not eco-friendly because of its energy requirements. Laccase-catalyzing oxidative cleavage of fatty acid was applied to the production of dicarboxylic acids using hydroxy and oxo fatty acids involved in the saturation metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids in Lactobacillus plantarum as substrates. Hydroxy or oxo fatty acids with a functional group near the carbon-carbon double bond were cleaved at the carbon-carbon double bond, hydroxy group, or carbonyl group by laccase and transformed into dicarboxylic acids. After 8 h, 0.58 mM of sebacic acid was produced from 1.6 mM of 10-oxo-cis-12,cis-15-octadecadienoic acid (αKetoA) with a conversion rate of 35% (mol/mol). This laccase-catalyzed enzymatic process is a promising method to produce dicarboxylic acids from biomass-derived fatty acids.

  12. Bacteriocins From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Interest For Food Products Biopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: interest for food products biopreservation. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are low molecular weight antimicrobial peptides. They have inhibitory activity against the bacteria that are closed related to the producer strains and a narrow inhibitory spectrum. Nevertheless, most of them have activity against some food-born pathogenic bacteria as Listeria monocytogenes. The application of bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria in ...

  13. Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production yield. Wojciech Białas, Roman Marecik, Alicja Szulc, Łukasz Ławniczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Filip Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski, Andreas Aurich ...

  14. Response surface optimization of D(-)-lactic acid production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response surface optimization of D(-)-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus SMI8 using corn steep liquor and yeast autolysate as an alternative nitrogen source. CJ Bolner de Lima, LF Coelho, KC Blanco, J Contiero ...

  15. Selective production of aromatics from alkylfurans over solid acid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Dumesic, James A.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    2013-01-01

    Solid acid catalysts were studied at temperatures near 523K for the production of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene by the reaction of ethylene with furan, 2-methylfuran, and 2,5-dimethylfuran, respectively, through the combination of cycloaddition and dehydrative aromatization reactions. Catalysts...... for this reaction, because amorphous solid acids and homogeneous Brønsted acids demonstrate significant activity for p-xylene production. The production of p-xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran proceeded at higher rates compared with the production of toluene and benzene from 2-methylfuran and furan, respectively. Both...... to deactivation by carbon deposition than do microporous materials. Results from Raman spectroscopy and the trend of turnover frequency with varying tungsten surface densities for a series of WOx-ZrO2 catalysts are consistent with previous investigations of other acid-catalyzed reactions; this suggests...

  16. Fermentatative production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was carried out using jatropha seed cake. Itaconic acid is commercially produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus terreus with molasses. Jatropha seed cake is one of the best carbon sources among various carbohydrates, because it is pure, inexpensive and available ...

  17. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT)....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  18. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). Similarly some other biotechnological researches for production of rosmarinic acid were done in the past i.e. from shoot culture, producing hairy root, ...

  19. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  20. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  1. Optimization of lactic acid production with immobilized Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 23 full-factorial central composite design was chosen to explain three independent variables; glucose concentration, pH and agitation rate. ... acid from immobilized whole cells which are under optimum conditions was determined about 55% that is higher than production of lactic acid from suspension culture systems.

  2. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigates the acidification capacity under various culture conditions of high acetic acid producer AAB strains previously isolated from Ivoirian cocoa beans fermentation. Methodology and Results: Effect of culture conditions was studied in agar medium and acid production was monitored by ...

  3. Acid gas removal in synfuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickmeyer, A.G.; Gangriwala, H.A.

    1981-12-01

    The CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and COS contents of gas streams of some synfuel processes and the costs for removal of these gases are tabulated. Four different types of acid gas removal processes discussed are chemisorption, physical adsorption, hybrid or combination of the first two, and sulfur conversion processes. Results of an economic study of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ removal at pressures of 1379, 2758, and 4137 kPa for 13.8 million normal m/sup 3//day of gas containing 1% H/sub 2/S and 22% CO/sub 2/. The processes considered were selective removal of H/sub 2/S with a solvent process (CATASOL 3) followed by removal of CO/sub 2/ by either the CATASOL 4A physical solvent or the CATACARB process (catalyzed hot potassium). The main feature influencing the selection of acid gas removal process are the gas composition and pressure and availability of low-level waste heat. Capital investment, utilities, and chemical costs were considered for various processes. Since the cost of commercial size synfuel process plants runs into billions of dollars, the added cost of acid gas removal must be carefully considered. (BLM)

  4. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-S. E-mail: kskim@mail.chosun.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-10-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the {alpha}-carbon position and C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons were higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin.

  5. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  6. Caffeic acid decomposition products: antioxidants or pro-oxidants?

    OpenAIRE

    Andueza, S. (Susana); Manzocco, L. (Lara); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción); Nicoli, C. (Cristina)

    2009-01-01

    The potential of phenol antioxidants to suffer decomposition reactions leading to the formation of products exerting pro-oxidant activity was studied. A hydroalcoholic solution containing caffeic acid was assessed for antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity during heating at 90 degrees C to simulate the heat maintenance of the coffee brews in thermos. Decomposition products were also evaluated by HPLC analysis. In the early steps of caffeic acid decomposition. a decrease in antioxidant capacity ...

  7. Current progress on butyric acid production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Yang, Hua; Yang, Fangxiao; Ma, Yujiu

    2009-12-01

    Several issues of butyric acid production with bacteria through fermentation are presented in this review. The current progress including the utilization of butyric acid, the production strains, the metabolic pathway, and regulation are presented in the paper. Process operation modes such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation are being discussed. Genetic engineering technologies for microbial strain improvement are also being discussed and fermentation systems have been recommended.

  8. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  9. Production of polyunsaturated fatty acid-by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Toshiaki (Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    Recently researches on the physiological activity of poly unsaturated fatty acid have been pushed forward, and the importance of poly unsaturated fatty acid has become clear. Accordingly, development of a method to produce it at low cost and in large quantities is demanded. This report explains the present situation of the development of producing {gamma}-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-{gamma}-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid by micro organisms. Lately GLA was successfully produced by mortierella isabellina of conjugation fungi, and this method is much more productive than the conventional method. In this case, as the amount of by-product, linolenic acid, is small, purification by Urea Adducts is easy.GLA of 97.5% purity can, therefore, be recovered at the rate of 46%, and it is already commercialized. Researches on other three acids are also active, and fungus species of high productivity is reported. At present, only GLA is put to practical use, and much is expected of the future development. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Biotechnological production of enantiomerically pure d-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Silvia; Kaufmann, Norman; Kuenz, Anja; Prüße, Ulf

    2016-11-01

    The fermentation process of l-lactic acid is well known. Little importance was attached to d-lactic acid, but in the past 10 years, d-lactic acid gained significantly in importance. d-Lactic acid is an interesting precursor for manufacturing heat-resistant polylactic acid (PLA) bioplastics which can be widely used, for example as packaging material, coatings, for textiles or in the automotive industry.This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent developments, including a spectrum of studied microorganisms and their capabilities for the production of d-lactic acid. Additionally, the technological achievements in biotechnological d-lactic acid production including fermentation techniques like fed batch, simultaneous saccharification, and fermentation and continuous techniques are presented. Attention is also turned to suitable alternative substrates and their applicability in fermentation processes. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of product recovery and purification are discussed. Economic aspects of PLA are pointed out, and the present industrial producers of lactic acid are briefly introduced.

  11. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as

  12. Metabolic inhibitors as stimulating factors for citric acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adham, N.Z.; Ahmed, E.M.; Refai, H.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger in cane molasses medium was investigated. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM iodoacetic acid and sodium arsenate, 0.05-1.0 mM sodium malonate, 0.01 mM sodium azide, 0.01-0.05 mM sodium fluoride, 0.1-1.0 mM EDTA stimulated CA production (5-49%). Higher concentrations (10 mM) of iodoacetic acid, sodium malonate and 0.5 mM sodium azide caused a complete inhibition of fungal growth, Iodoacetic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium fluoride (0.2 mM) caused a remarkable inhibition of CA production. The implications of those preliminary functions was discussed. (author)

  13. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used .... Maxima® Hot Start PCR Master Mix (2X) in a. 50μL reaction mixture as follows: activation of ..... Planning toward the application of large scale production of CA in a bioreactor by the ...

  14. Comparison of humic acids production by Trichoderma viride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of each species was compared by examining spore production in oat medium, and the significant medium components and fermentation conditions were identified using Plackett and Burman statistical design. For both Trichoderma species, the results indicate that humic acids production can be enhanced ...

  15. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host. In Chapter 1, the use of microbial cell-factories for the

  16. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amino acids and free fatty acids in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia Lucia; De Marco, Rosaria; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-06-08

    In meat products the contents of free amino acids and free fatty acids are two important parameters used to establish their quality. These compounds play a very important role in defining the sensorial characteristics and acceptability of meat products. An innovative procedure for the measurement of free amino acid and fatty acid contents in meat and meat derivatives was developed. A single experiment can be performed in order to determine simultaneously the free amino acid and free fatty acid profiles. The analytes of interest are rapidly extracted from the meat matrix and derivatized by using methyl chloroformate. This reagent allows the transformation of the two groups of analytes into the corresponding N-methyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters and fatty acid methyl esters that can easily be extracted and sampled for their further identification and quantitation. The measurement of the obtained amino acid and fatty acid derivatives is performed by GC/MS analysis and their concentrations are calculated by using two appropriate internal standards. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is the determination at the same time of two important classes of analytes that are of great importance in food analysis and characterization. Moreover, minimal sample manipulation and preparation, and reduced total extraction times are required to obtain the response with respect to conventional procedures, in which instead the analysis of both the two classes of compounds must be performed separately. The helpfulness of the protocol was tested in the analysis of a cured meat product that is typical of the South of Italy. The optimized protocol successfully allowed the determination of thirteen free amino acids and six free fatty acids, namely those most abundant in the lipid content of the cured meat product under evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric acid and blood pressure: exploring the role of uric acid production in The Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Boonen, Annelies; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schram, Miranda T; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Henry, Ronald M A; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Arts, Ilja C W

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species by increased uric acid production has been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for the association between uric acid and high blood pressure (BP). We, therefore, investigated the association between serum uric acid concentration and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion, as proxy for uric acid production, with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure and hypertension. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2555 individuals [52% men, mean age 60.0 ± 8.2 years; 27% type 2 diabetes (by design)] from The Maastricht Study. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of serum uric acid and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hypertension. After adjustment for traditional hypertension risk factors, serum uric acid concentration (per SD of 81 μmol/l) was associated with higher 24-h MAP [β 0.63 mmHg; confidence interval (CI) 0.27-1.00] and positively associated with hypertension (odds ratio 1.43; CI 1.27-1.61). Urinary uric acid excretion (per SD of 140 mg/day/1.73 m) was associated with higher 24-h MAP (β 0.79 mmHg; CI 0.46-1.12) and with hypertension (odds ratio 1.13; CI 1.02-1.25). There was no significant association between serum and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure. There was no interaction with sex or age for the aforementioned associations. Higher serum and urinary uric acid concentrations were associated with higher 24-h MAP and hypertension. These results suggest that serum and 24-urinary uric acid concentrations, the latter as proxy for uric acid production are, independent of each other, associated with BP and hypertension.

  18. Production and applications of rosmarinic acid and structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2015-03-01

    Rosmarinic acid (α-o-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid; RA) is a naturally occurring hydroxylated compound commonly found in species of the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, such as Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Perilla frutescens. RA is biosynthesized from the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine by eight enzymes that include phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. RA can also be chemically produced by the esterification of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA and its numerous derivatives containing one or two RA with other aromatic moieties are well known and include lithospermic acid, yunnaneic acid, salvianolic acid, and melitric acid. Recently, RA and its derivatives have attracted interest for their biological activities, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-microbial functions. Clinically, RA attenuates T cell receptor-mediated signaling, attenuates allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma, and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, protects from neurotoxicity, and slows the development of Alzheimer's disease. These attributes have increased the demand for the biotechnological production and application of RA and its derivatives. The present review discusses the function and application of RA and its derivatives including the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical efficacy.

  19. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  20. Uric acid disrupts hypochlorous acid production and the bactericidal activity of HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Larissa A C; Lopes, João P P B; Kaihami, Gilberto H; Silva, Railmara P; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Baldini, Regina L; Meotti, Flavia C

    2018-06-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and is an alternative physiological substrate for myeloperoxidase. Oxidation of uric acid by this enzyme generates uric acid free radical and urate hydroperoxide, a strong oxidant and potentially bactericide agent. In this study, we investigated whether the oxidation of uric acid and production of urate hydroperoxide would affect the killing activity of HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL-60) against a highly virulent strain (PA14) of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While bacterial cell counts decrease due to dHL-60 killing, incubation with uric acid inhibits this activity, also decreasing the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). In a myeloperoxidase/Cl - /H 2 O 2 cell-free system, uric acid inhibited the production of HOCl and bacterial killing. Fluorescence microscopy showed that uric acid also decreased the levels of HOCl produced by dHL-60 cells, while significantly increased superoxide production. Uric acid did not alter the overall oxidative status of dHL-60 cells as measured by the ratio of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione. Our data show that uric acid impairs the killing activity of dHL-60 cells likely by competing with chloride by myeloperoxidase catalysis, decreasing HOCl production. Despite diminishing HOCl, uric acid probably stimulates the formation of other oxidants, maintaining the overall oxidative status of the cells. Altogether, our results demonstrated that HOCl is, indeed, the main relevant oxidant against bacteria and deviation of myeloperoxidase activity to produce other oxidants hampers dHL-60 killing activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  2. Production of L(+ lactic acid using Lactobacillus casei from whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the fermentation of whey for the production of L(+ lactic acid using Lactobacillus casei. The effect of different process parameters such as pH of the medium, temperature, inoculum size, age of inoculum, agitation and incubation time was monitored to enhance the lactose conversion in whey to L(+ lactic acid. Fermentations were performed without any pH control. The optimization of the fermentation conditions resulted in significant decrease in fermentation time, besides increase in lactose conversion to lactic acid. The optimized process conditions resulted in high lactose conversion (95.62% to L(+ lactic acid production (33.73 g/L after an incubation period of 36 h.

  3. Mechanocatalytic Production of Lactic Acid from Glucose by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free process was developed for the direct production of lactic acid from glucose in a mechanocatalytic process in the presence of Ba(OH2, and a moderate lactic acid yield of 35.6% was obtained. Glucose conversion and lactic acid formation were favorable at higher catalyst/glucose mass ratios. However, at relatively lower catalyst/glucose mass ratios, they were greatly inhibited, and the promotion of fructose formation was observed. The mechanocatalytic process was applicable for various carbohydrates such as C5 sugars, C6 sugars, and disaccharides with 20–36% lactic acid yields achieved. This work provides a new pathway for the production of value-added chemicals from biomass resources.

  4. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering fatty acid synthases for directed polyketide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jan; Buelens, Floris; Serdjukow, Sascha; Janßen, Melanie; Cortina, Niña; Grubmüller, Helmut; Grininger, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we engineered fatty acid synthases (FAS) for the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids and polyketides, guided by a combined in vitro and in silico approach. Along with exploring the synthetic capability of FAS, we aim to build a foundation for efficient protein engineering, with the specific goal of harnessing evolutionarily related megadalton-scale polyketide synthases (PKS) for the tailored production of bioactive natural compounds.

  6. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O& #x27; Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  7. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Quanwei; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Li, Yanjun; Fan, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  8. Membrane engineering via trans unsaturated fatty acids production improves Escherichia coli robustness and production of biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zaigao; Yoon, Jong Moon; Nielsen, David R; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Constructing microbial biocatalysts that produce biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is often hampered by product toxicity. For production of short chain fatty acids, membrane damage is considered the primary mechanism of toxicity, particularly in regards to membrane integrity. Previous engineering efforts in Escherichia coli to increase membrane integrity, with the goal of increasing fatty acid tolerance and production, have had mixed results. Herein, a novel approach was used to reconstruct the E. coli membrane by enabling production of a novel membrane component. Specifically, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) were produced and incorporated into the membrane of E. coli MG1655 by expression of cis-trans isomerase (Cti) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the engineered strain was found to have no increase in membrane integrity, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity was observed, meaning that membrane polarization and rigidity were increased by TUFA incorporation. As a result, tolerance to exogenously added octanoic acid and production of octanoic acid were both increased relative to the wild-type strain. This membrane engineering strategy to improve octanoic acid tolerance was found to require fine-tuning of TUFA abundance. Besides improving tolerance and production of carboxylic acids, TUFA production also enabled increased tolerance in E. coli to other bio-products, e.g. alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, a variety of adverse industrial conditions, e.g. low pH, high temperature, and also elevated styrene production, another versatile bio-chemical product. TUFA permitted enhanced growth due to alleviation of bio-product toxicity, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this membrane engineering strategy towards improving strain robustness. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of inhibitors on acid production by baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, K; Knotková, A; Kotyk, A

    1978-01-01

    Glucose-induced acid extrusion, respiration and anaerobic fermentation in baker's yeast was studied with the aid of sixteen inhibitors. Uranyl(2+) nitrate affected the acid extrusion more anaerobically than aerobically; the complexing of Mg2+ and Ca2+ by EDTA at the membrane had no effect. Inhibitors of glycolysis (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, fluoride) suppressed acid production markedly, and so did the phosphorylation-blocking arsenate. Fluoroacetate, inhibiting the citric-acid cycle, had no effect. Inhibition by uncouplers depended on their pKa values: 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (pKa 0.4) less than 2,4-dinitrophenol (4.1) less than azide (4.7) less than 3-chlorophenylhydrazonomalononitrile (6.0). Inhibition by trinitrophenol was only slightly increased by its acetylation. Cyanide and nonpermeant oligomycin showed practically no effect; inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was delayed but potent. The concentration profiles of inhibition of acid production differed from those of respiration and fermentation. Thus, though the acid production is a metabolically dependent process, it does not reflect the intensity of metabolism, except partly in the first half of glycolysis.

  10. Green fuel production from saffron waste by dilute acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ArastehNodeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dilute acid Hydrolysis of saffron waste as a lignocellulose biomass for fermentable sugar production as a green fuel is investigated. Saffron plant waste was collected, washed with distilled water, dried by being exposed to air and sunlight, milled by a disk mill up to 50 micrometers and kept in plastic at room temperature. The prepared biomass was heated in a specified acidic solution for a predetermined time period in the autoclave. The influences of 3 major parameters including temperature, acid concentration and time on the produced fermentable sugar is investigated by the response surface method. According to previous studies, the levels for pretreatment were: temperature (116, 124, 132, and 140oC, process time (20, 30, 40, and 50 minute and sulfuric acid concentration (0, 1, 2, and 3%. To determine the type and quantity of products, the filtered solution was analyzed by HPLC and the results (glucose, xylose and furfural were modeled by a quadratic equation. This model showed that glucose concentration was influenced by the quadratic power of acid concentration and time while xylose concentration was influenced by time and furfural depends on time alone. It may be concluded that high acid concentration, low temperature and medium time could produce maximum products (glucose and xylose with minimum inhibitor (furfural.

  11. Minocycline effectively reduces acid producted by Propionibacterium granulosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shuichi; Kitagawa, Taro; Morohashi, Masaaki; Yamagishi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of minocycline on Propionibacterium granulosum. P. granulosum lipase activity was detected from acne lesions. Production of propionic and butyric acids by P. granulosum was well suppressed by all tested media with added minocycline; the higher the concentration of minocycline in the medium, the less of these acids was produced. It appeared that the decrease in these acids due to minocycline was greater in P. granulosum than in P. acnes. Although the influence of P. granulosum on acne lesions might be feebler than that of P. acnes, we should not neglect its presence. More research is needed to elucidate the relationship between the two species in acne lesions.

  12. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Jawed

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product.

  13. Computer Aided Synthesis of Innovative Processes: Renewable Adipic Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengarta, Alessandro; Bertran, Maria-Ona; Manenti, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    A promising biotechnological route for the production of adipic acid from renewables has been evaluated, applying a systematic methodology for process network synthesis and optimization. The method allows organizing in a structured database the available knowledge from different sources...... (preliminary scientific studies, techno-economic process specifications), generating a network of process alternatives and solving it as a MILP. The best processing route provides also an estimate of the production cost of bio-adipic acid at the current state of the art, assessing the sensitivity...

  14. 2012: no trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorena, Diana; Echarte, Andrea; Ollé, Rebeca; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2013-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyse the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialised in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study. No significant amounts of TFA were found in any of the analysed products, regardless the brand. TFA content ranged between 0.17 g and 0.22 g/100 g product (mean=0.19 g/100 g product). Expressed on percentage of fatty acids, the maximum value was 0.87 g/100 g fatty acids and the mean value was 0.68%. These data are significantly lower than those observed in previously published papers for these types of products, and highlighted the importance of updating food composition databases in order to accurately estimate the real and current intake of TFA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Valcenir Júnior Mendes; Maus, Victor; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    The high costs and environmental concerns associated with using marine resources as sources of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have prompted searches for alternative sources of such oils. Some microorganisms, among them members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, can synthesize large amounts of these biocompounds. However, various parameters that affect the polyunsaturated fatty acids production of these organisms, such as the carbon and nitrogen sources supplied during their cultivation, require further elucidation. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different concentrations of carbon and total nitrogen on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276. We performed batch system experiments using an initial glucose concentration of 30g/L and three different concentrations of total nitrogen, including 3.0, 0.44, and 0.22g/L, and fed-batch system experiments in which 0.14g/L of glucose and 0.0014g/L of total nitrogen were supplied hourly. To assess the effects of these different treatments, we determined the biomass, glucose, total nitrogen and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration. The maximum cell concentration (23.9g/L) was obtained after 96h of cultivation in the batch system using initial concentrations of 0.22g/L total nitrogen and 30g/L glucose. Under these conditions, we observed the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids production (3.6g/L), with docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ω6 concentrations reaching 2.54 and 0.80g/L, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products, cellular fatty acids, and alcohols of Mycobacterium xenopi.

    OpenAIRE

    Luquin, M; Lopez, F; Ausina, V

    1989-01-01

    The fatty acids, alcohols, and mycolic acids of 26 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi were studied by capillary gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. All strains contained alpha-, keto-, and omega-carboxymycolates. The primary mycolic acid cleavage product was hexacosanoic acid. The fatty acid patterns and, especially, the presence of 2-docosanol are characteristic markers of M. xenopi.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for butyric acid production with high butyric acid selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Im, Jung Ae; Choi, So Young; Lee, Jung Im; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-05-01

    A typical characteristic of the butyric acid-producing Clostridium is coproduction of both butyric and acetic acids. Increasing the butyric acid selectivity important for economical butyric acid production has been rather difficult in clostridia due to their complex metabolic pathways. In this work, Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered for highly selective butyric acid production. For this purpose, the second butyrate kinase of C. acetobutylicum encoded by the bukII gene instead of butyrate kinase I encoded by the buk gene was employed. Furthermore, metabolic pathways were engineered to further enhance the NADH-driving force. Batch fermentation of the metabolically engineered C. acetobutylicum strain HCBEKW (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-) and adhE1(-)) at pH 6.0 resulted in the production of 32.5g/L of butyric acid with a butyric-to-acetic acid ratio (BA/AA ratio) of 31.3g/g from 83.3g/L of glucose. By further knocking out the hydA gene (encoding hydrogenase) in the HCBEKW strain, the butyric acid titer was not further improved in batch fermentation. However, the BA/AA ratio (28.5g/g) obtained with the HYCBEKW strain (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-), adhE1(-) and hydA(-)) was 1.6 times higher than that (18.2g/g) obtained with the HCBEKW strain at pH 5.0, while no improvement was observed at pH 6.0. These results suggested that the buk gene knockout was essential to get a high butyric acid selectivity to acetic acid in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  19. Guaiacol production from ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthuhn, R Corli; van der Merwe, Enette; Venter, Pierre; Cameron, Michelle

    2012-06-15

    Alicyclobacilli are thermophilic, acidophilic bacteria (TAB) that spoil fruit juice products by producing guaiacol. It is currently believed that guaiacol is formed by Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices as a product of ferulic acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify the precursors that can be metabolised by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to produce guaiacol and to evaluate the pathway of guaiacol production. A. acidoterrestris FB2 was incubated at 45°C for 7days in Bacillus acidoterrestris (BAT) broth supplemented with ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid, respectively. The samples were analysed every day to determine the cell concentration, the supplement concentration using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and the guaiacol concentration, using both the peroxidase enzyme colourimetric assay (PECA) and HPLC-DAD. The cell concentration of A. acidoterrestris FB2 during the 7days in all samples were above the critical cell concentration of 10(5)cfu/mL reportedly required for guaiacol production. The guaiacol produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 increased with an increase in vanillin or vanillic acid concentration and a metabolic pathway of A. acidoterrestris FB2 directly from vanillin to guaiacol was established. The high concentration of vanillic acid (1000mg/L) resulted in an initial inhibitory effect on the cells, but the cell concentration increased after day 2. Guaiacol production did not occur in the absence of either a precursor or A. acidoterrestris FB2 and guaiacol was not produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 in the samples supplemented with ferulic acid. The presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. that has the ability to produce guaiacol, as well as the substrates vanillin or vanillic acid is prerequisite for production of guaiacol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering of fatty acid production and secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Gabriela Filipa Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências - Especialidade em Biologia Production of renewable liquid biofuels, that can substitute fossil fuels, has emerged as a major challenge for Biotechnology. Biodiesel, a more ecological alternative to petroleum based fuels, is currently obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol or ethanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) or ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. However, biodiesel production from plant oils req...

  1. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2017-08-03

    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  2. improving citric acid production from some carbohydrates by-products using irradiated aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty strains of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The most potent strains for production were A 1 , A 4 and A 5 , while A 8 , A 1 6, A 18 and A 19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity were obtained by all strains when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A 1 , A 4 and A 5 are also the most potent strains for production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A 8 , A 6 , A 18 and A 19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used.production of the parental isolates A 1 , A 4 and A 5 on indicator medium were: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.99 (mg/ml) respectively after 12 days incubation, while maximum production by the obtaining resulting isolates (Treated by UV irradiation) were: 1.78, 1.70 and 1.73 (mg/ml) from A 4 T 2 (5 min.), A 4 T 1 (10 min.) and A 1 T 1 (5 min.), respectively.

  3. Promotion of ganoderic acid production in Ganoderma sinense by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To screen stimulators from Chinese medicinal insects for mycelial growth and ganoderic acid (GA) production by Ganoderma sinense, the fungus was inoculated into the media with and without supplementation of a medicinal insect extract. The results show that all the water and ether extracts from the medicinal insects had ...

  4. Enhancement of organic acids production from model kitchen waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for organic acids production from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste using response surface methodology (RSM). Fermentation was carried out using 250 ml shake flask which was incubated using an orbital shaker set at 200 rpm. Fermented kitchen wastes were ...

  5. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by ... concentration higher than 40 g/L. A new strategy of controling sorbitol concentration in a range of 20 - 40 g/L in the broth during the ... embryogenesis, neural cell growth, differentiation, cell-cell mediating and membrane ...

  6. Citric acid production from whey with sugars and additives by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger ATCC9642 from whey with different concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose, galactose riboflavin, tricalcium phosphate and methanol in surface culture process was studied. It was found that whey with 15% (w/v) sucrose with or without 1% methanol was the most ...

  7. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid by microorganisms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods.

  8. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  9. Production of lactic acid from corn cobs hydrolysate through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes several essential factors for indirect and effective lactic acid production from food wastes by strains of. Lactobaccillus delbrukii using corn cob hydrolysates. The fermentation conditions considered were glucose concentration (1 - 5%), temperature (34 - 40oC), time (0 - 8 days) and pH (5 - 6).

  10. Dynamic Modelling and Simulation of Citric Acid Production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modelling of batch production of citric acid from corn starch hydrolysate using Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 was carried out in this work. A validated mathematical model was developed to describe the process. Four kinetic models, Monod, Haldane, logistic and hyperbolic for simulating the growth of the Aspergillus ...

  11. Statistical optimization of lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The individual and interactive effects of a total inoculums size (% v/v), fermentation temperature and skim milk dry matter added (% w/v) on the lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis LCL strain were studied by quadratic response surface methodology. The central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine ...

  12. Evaluation of Citric Acid Production Potentials of Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate citric acid production potentials of food processing wastes. Materials and Methods: Samples of domestic wastes generated from peels of Yam (YP), Cassava (CP), red cocoyam (RCP), white cocoyam (WCP), ripe plantain (RP), unripe plantain (UPP) and garri processing chaff (GPC) were washed, ...

  13. Promotion of ganoderic acid production in Ganoderma sinense by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Previous studies (Fukushima et al., 1991; Yang et al.,. 2000, 2004) have shown that oils, surfactants, fatty acids and ethanol promoted the production of fungal meta- bolites like protease, extracellular enzymes and polysac- charides. The function was mainly explained in terms of membrane structure and its ...

  14. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, T.; Kneist, S.; de Soet, J.J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Mauersberger, S.; Forster, A.; Klimm, W.

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed,

  15. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Metabolic engineering strategies to bio-adipic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyer, Nicholas S; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    Adipic acid is the most industrially important dicarboxylic acid as it is a key monomer in the synthesis of nylon. Today, adipic acid is obtained via a chemical process that relies on petrochemical precursors and releases large quantities of greenhouse gases. In the last two years, significant progress has been made in engineering microbes for the production of adipic acid and its immediate precursors, muconic acid and glucaric acid. Not only have the microbial substrates expanded beyond glucose and glycerol to include lignin monomers and hemicellulose components, but the number of microbial chassis now goes further than Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to include microbes proficient in aromatic degradation, cellulose secretion and degradation of multiple carbon sources. Here, we review the metabolic engineering and nascent protein engineering strategies undertaken in each of these chassis to convert different feedstocks to adipic, muconic and glucaric acid. We also highlight near term prospects and challenges for each of the metabolic routes discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  18. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  19. Potential lactic acid production from crude glycerol as the precursor of polylactic acid analog : literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastati, D. Y.; Hambali, E.; Syamsu, K.; Warsiki, E.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated an abundant of crude glycerol, a low-value byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing. Conversion crude glycerol to valuable chemical such as lactic acid, a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA), has a great potential to substitute traditional feedstocks of PLA, i.e., carbohydrate or sugar sources. Some of the process perspectives and the potential of glycerol to produce lactic acid by chemical transformation or microbial conversion are discussed in this paper, as well as the possibility of extending lactic acid to polylactic acid (PLA).

  20. Ruminal Methane Production on Simple Phenolic Acids Addition in in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from ruminants contributes to total global methane production, which is an important contributor to global warming. In this experiment, six sources of simple phenolic acids (benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at two different levels (2 and 5 mM added to hay diet were evaluated for their potential to reduce enteric methane production using in vitro Hohenheim gas production method. The measured variables were gas production, methane, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA. The results showed that addition of cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at 5 mM significantly (P p-coumaric > ferulic > cinnamic. The addition of simple phenols did not significantly decrease OMD. Addition of simple phenols tends to decrease total SCFA production. It was concluded that methane decrease by addition of phenolic acids was relatively small, and the effect of phenolic acids on methane decrease depended on the source and concentration applied.

  1. Protein engineering of nitrilase for chemoenzymatic production of glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijun; Fogiel, Arthur J; Petrillo, Kelly L; Jackson, Raymond E; Parker, Kimberley N; Dicosimo, Robert; Ben-Bassat, Arie; O'Keefe, Daniel P; Payne, Mark S

    2008-02-15

    A key step in a chemoenzymatic process for the production of high-purity glycolic acid (GLA) is the enzymatic conversion of glycolonitrile (GLN) to ammonium glycolate using a nitrilase derived from Acidovorax facilis 72W. Protein engineering and over-expression of this nitrilase, combined with optimized fermentation of an E. coli transformant were used to increase the enzyme-specific activity up to 15-fold and the biocatalyst-specific activity up to 125-fold. These improvements enabled achievement of the desired volumetric productivity and biocatalyst productivity for the conversion of GLN to ammonium glycolate. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glucose-stimulated acrolein production from unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, R; Duran-Reyes, G; Diaz-Flores, M; Hicks, J J; Kumate, J

    2004-02-01

    Glucose auto-oxidation may be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also be important in the lipid peroxidation process, accompanied by the release of toxic reactive products. We wanted to demonstrate that acrolein can be formed directly and actively from free fatty acids in a hyperglycemic environment. A suspension of linoleic and arachidonic acids (2.5 mM) was exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mmol/L) in vitro. The samples were extracted with organic solvents, partitioned, followed at 255-267 nm, and analysed using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. The total release of aldehydes significantly (P products, acrolein (5% of total) and its condensing product, 4-hydroxy-hexenal, were identified. From the results presented here, it was possible to demonstrate the production of acrolein, probably as a fatty acid product, due to free radicals generated from the glucose auto-oxidation process. The results led us to propose that acrolein, which is one of the most toxic aldehydes, is produced during hyperglycemic states, and may lead to tissue injury, as one of the initial problems to be linked to high levels of glucose in vivo.

  3. Amino acid production exceeds plant nitrogen demand in Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Bárta, Jiři; Čapek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Guggenberger, Georg; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Prommer, Judith; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Richter, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Arctic plant productivity is often limited by low soil N availability. This has been attributed to slow breakdown of N-containing polymers in litter and soil organic matter (SOM) into smaller, available units, and to shallow plant rooting constrained by permafrost and high soil moisture. Using 15N pool dilution assays, we here quantified gross amino acid and ammonium production rates in 97 active layer samples from four sites across the Siberian Arctic. We found that amino acid production in organic layers alone exceeded literature-based estimates of maximum plant N uptake 17-fold and therefore reject the hypothesis that arctic plant N limitation results from slow SOM breakdown. High microbial N use efficiency in organic layers rather suggests strong competition of microorganisms and plants in the dominant rooting zone. Deeper horizons showed lower amino acid production rates per volume, but also lower microbial N use efficiency. Permafrost thaw together with soil drainage might facilitate deeper plant rooting and uptake of previously inaccessible subsoil N, and thereby promote plant productivity in arctic ecosystems. We conclude that changes in microbial decomposer activity, microbial N utilization and plant root density with soil depth interactively control N availability for plants in the Arctic.

  4. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  5. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  6. Yarrowia lipolytica: a model yeast for citric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ema; Charreau, Hernán; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

    2017-12-01

    Every year more than 2 million tons of citric acid (CA) are produced around the world for industrial uses. Although initially extracted from citrus, the low profitability of the process and the increasing demand soon stimulated the search for more efficient methods to produce CA. Currently, most world CA demand (99%) is satisfied by fermentations with microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi and yeasts. CA production with yeasts has certain advantages over molds (e.g. higher productivity and easier cultivation), which in the last two decades have triggered a clear increase in publications and patents devoted to the use of yeasts in this field. Yarrowia lipolytica has become a model yeast that proved to be successful in different production systems. Considering the current interest evidenced in the literature, the most significant information on CA production using Y. lipolytica is summarized. The relevance on CA yields of key factors such as strains, media formulation, environmental conditions and production regimes is thoroughly discussed, with particular focus on increasing CA productivity. Besides, the possibility of tuning the mentioned variables to reduce concomitant isocitric acid production-the biggest disadvantage of using yeasts-is analyzed. Available methods for CA purification/quantification are also discussed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  8. Amino acid "little Big Bang": representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karel; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2010-01-04

    Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  9. Natural Radiation in byproducts of the production of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Cardoso, L.L.; Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest source of radiation exposure to which man is subject. It is formed basically by cosmic radiation and the radionuclides present in the Earth crust, as 40 K and the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphate ores, which constitutes the raw material for the production of phosphoric acid, have a high rate of natural radiation from the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphogypsum, which is naturally radioactivity, is a by-product of the production of phosphoric acid by the wet method. For each ton of phosphoric acid it is produced about 4.5 tons of phosphogypsum. This work presents the analysis of samples collected in all stages of the manufacturing process of phosphoric acid, which generates the phosphogypsum. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. All analyzed samples showed a high concentration of radionuclides, promoting the need for further steps in the process in order to reduce the presence of such radionuclides in the phosphogypsum. The results indicate the radionuclide 238 U has higher contribution in some samples of the intermediate stages of the process. All samples exceeded the international average range of human exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation, which is 0.3 to 1.0 mSv/year. (author)

  10. Enhanced production of docosahexaenoic acid in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhu

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects, may be obtained through diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary a-linolenic acid (ALA. However, the accumulation of DHA in human body or other mammals relies on the intake of high dose of DHA for a certain period of time, and the bioconversion of dietary ALA to DHA is very limited. Therefore the mammalian cells are not rich in DHA. Here, we report a new technology for increased production of DHA in mammalian cells. By using transient transfection method, Siganus canaliculatus Δ4 desaturase was heterologously expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, and simultaneously, mouse Δ6-desaturase and Δ5-desaturase were overexpressed. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5-desaturases significantly enhanced the ability of transfected cells to convert the added ALA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA which in turn get converted into DHA directly and efficiently by the heterologously expressed Δ4 desaturase. This technology provides the basis for potential utility of these gene constructs in the creation of transgenic livestock for increased production of DHA/related products to meet the growing demand of this important PUFA.

  11. Valproic Acid Induces Antimicrobial Compound Production in Doratomyces microspores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Bacher, Markus; Parich, Alexandra; Kluger, Bernhard; Gacek-Matthews, Agnieszka; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in public health is the rising number of antibiotic resistant pathogens and the lack of novel antibiotics. In recent years there is a rising focus on fungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds due to their ability to produce a large variety of bioactive compounds and the observation that virtually every fungus may still contain yet unknown so called "cryptic," often silenced, compounds. These putative metabolites could include novel bioactive compounds. Considerable effort is spent on methods to induce production of these "cryptic" metabolites. One approach is the use of small molecule effectors, potentially influencing chromatin landscape in fungi. We observed that the supernatant of the fungus Doratomyces (D.) microsporus treated with valproic acid (VPA) displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and two methicillin resistant clinical S. aureus isolates. VPA treatment resulted in enhanced production of seven antimicrobial compounds: cyclo-(L-proline-L-methionine) (cPM), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclo-(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), indole-3-carboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The production of the antimicrobial compound phenyllactic acid was exclusively detectable after VPA treatment. Furthermore three compounds, cPM, cFP, and PAA, were able to boost the antimicrobial activity of other antimicrobial compounds. cPM, for the first time isolated from fungi, and to a lesser extent PAA, are even able to decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin in MRSA strains. In conclusion we could show in this study that VPA treatment is a potent tool for induction of "cryptic" antimicrobial compound production in fungi, and that the induced compounds are not exclusively linked to the secondary metabolism. Furthermore this is the first discovery of the rare diketopiperazine cPM in fungi. Additionally we could demonstrate that cPM and PAA boost antibiotic activity against antibiotic

  12. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin-enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  14. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the...

  16. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  18. Effect of fatty acids on arenavirus replication: inhibition of virus production by lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, S; García, C C; Candurra, N A; Damonte, E B

    2001-01-01

    To study the functional involvement of cellular membrane properties on arenavirus infection, saturated fatty acids of variable chain length (C10-C18) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the multiplication of Junin virus (JUNV). The most active inhibitor was lauric acid (C12), which reduced virus yields of several attenuated and pathogenic strains of JUNV in a dose dependent manner, without affecting cell viability. Fatty acids with shorter or longer chain length had a reduced or negligible anti-JUNV activity. Lauric acid did not inactivate virion infectivity neither interacted with the cell to induce a state refractory to virus infection. From mechanistic studies, it can be concluded that lauric acid inhibited a late maturation stage in the replicative cycle of JUNV. Viral protein synthesis was not affected by the compound, but the expression of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane was diminished. A direct correlation between the inhibition of JUNV production and the stimulation of triacylglycerol cell content was demonstrated, and both lauric-acid induced effects were dependent on the continued presence of the fatty acid. Thus, the decreased insertion of viral glycoproteins into the plasma membrane, apparently due to the increased incorporation of triacylglycerols, seems to cause an inhibition of JUNV maturation and release.

  19. The Efficient Clade: Lactic Acid Bacteria for Industrial Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Russmayer, Hannes; Grabherr, Reingard; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Marx, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources. High carbon uptake rates with low biomass formation combined with strictly regulated simple metabolic pathways, leading to a limited number of metabolites, are among the key factors defining their success in both nature and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current advances in biological production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eş, Ismail; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Propionic acid and its derivatives are considered "Generally Recognized As Safe" food additives and are generally used as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent, herbicide, and artificial flavor in diverse industrial applications. It is produced via biological pathways using Propionibacterium and some anaerobic bacteria. However, its commercial chemical synthesis from the petroleum-based feedstock is the conventional production process bit results in some environmental issues. Novel biological approaches using microorganisms and renewable biomass have attracted considerable recent attention due to economic advantages as well as great adaptation with the green technology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of important biotechnological aspects of propionic acid production using recent technologies such as employment of co-culture, genetic and metabolic engineering, immobilization technique and efficient bioreactor systems.

  1. Engineered fatty acid catabolism for fuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyoung; Cheong, Seokjung; Chou, Alexander; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acid oxidation pathways are attractive for metabolic engineering purposes due to their cyclic nature as well as their reactions that allow for the selective functionalization of alkyl chains. These characteristics allow for the production of various chemicals, such as alcohols, alkanes, ketones and hydroxyacids, in a wide range of carbon numbers. To this end, the α-, β-, and ω-oxidation pathways have been engineered for use in various hosts. Furthermore, the β-oxidation pathway has been engineered to operate in reverse, resulting in a promising carbon chain elongation platform. This review will describe the recent progress in metabolic engineering strategies for the production of chemicals through these fatty acid oxidation pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  3. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process

  4. Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-06-01

    A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell (MRCC), was developed to produce acid and alkali using energy derived from organic matter (acetate) and salinity gradients (NaCl solutions representative of seawater and river water). A bipolar membrane (BPM) was placed next to the anode to prevent Cl- contamination and acidification of the anolyte, and to produce protons for HCl recovery. A 5-cell paired reverse-electrodialysis (RED) stack provided the electrical energy required to overcome the BPM over-potential (0.3-0.6 V), making the overall process spontaneous. The MRCC reactor produced electricity (908 mW/m2) as well as concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions, and therefore did not require an external power supply. After a fed-batch cycle, the pHs of the chemical product solutions were 1.65 ± 0.04 and 11.98 ± 0.10, due to the production of 1.35 ± 0.13 mmol of acid, and 0.59 ± 0.14 mmol of alkali. The acid- and alkali-production efficiencies based on generated current were 58 ± 3% and 25 ± 3%. These results demonstrated proof-of-concept acid and alkali production using only renewable energy sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effect of reaction products on cathodic reduction of iodic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtejnberg, G.V.; Urisson, N.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volod'ko, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of reaction products on kinetics of iodic acid reduction is investigated; reaction products are identified by the optical method. It is shown that although being similar from the qualitative viewpoint the effect on HIO 3 reduction of dissolved crystal and ''reduced'' iodine, certain quantitative differences take place, which are explained by the difference in their surface concentration. Explanation of certain sections of complex lgI, E-curve of HIO 3 reduction is given, in particular, advanced wave is related to the reduction from solution of unstable electroactive complex HIO 3 ) x (I 1 ) y or (HIO 3 ) x (I 2 ) y

  6. Production of gluconic acid by using some irradiated microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate the potential fungal isolates have the ability for gluconic acid production by using some agro industrial byproducts as sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the most potent isolates and the fermentation conditions as pH, incubation temperature and incubation period was also investigated. Results showed that the most potential fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium puberulum and Penicillium frequentans whereas their gluconic acid production was 62.17, 56.25 and 39.69 g/L, respectively on Czapek's Dox media at 28 ± 1 °C, pH 6 for 7 days fermentation period. Irradiation of the three most potential isolates at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy doses of gamma ray showed that 0.1 kGy dose caused an increase in gluconic acid production whereas it was 69.35, 60.17 and 40.31 g/L by the three potential isolates respectively. Data showed that utilization of sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must as a sole carbon source in gluconic acid production by the three potential (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates at pH 6, 30 °C for a 7 days incubation period caused increasing in gluconic acid production whereas the productivity of the three (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates (A. niger, P. puberulum and P. frequentans was 69.87, 63.14 and 51.28 g/L by utilizing sugarcane molasses, 61.28, 56.37, 47.15 g/L by utilizing banana-must and 54.25, 52.75 and 44.75 g/L by utilizing grape-must.

  7. Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Papapostolou, Harris; Alexandri, Maria; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise M G; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2018-04-13

    The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.

  8. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  9. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jialei; Shen, Feng; Qiu, Mo; Qi, Xinhua

    2017-02-14

    Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value-added chemical levulinic acid (LA) in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg), mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH) pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  10. Production of ascorbic acid releasing biomaterials for pelvic floor repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangır, Naşide; Bullock, Anthony J; Roman, Sabiniano; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    An underlying abnormality in collagen turnover is implied in the occurrence of complications and recurrences after mesh augmented pelvic floor repair surgeries. Ascorbic acid is a potent stimulant of collagen synthesis. The aim of this study is to produce ascorbic acid releasing poly-lactic acid (PLA) scaffolds and evaluate them for their effects on extracellular matrix production and the strength of the materials. Scaffolds which contained either l-ascorbic acid (AA) and Ascorbate-2-Phosphate (A2P) were produced with emulsion electrospinning. The release of both drugs was measured by UV spectrophotometry. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 2weeks. Cell attachment, viability and total collagen production were evaluated as well as mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed between AA, A2P, Vehicle and PLA scaffolds in terms of fibre diameter and pore size. The encapsulation efficiency and successful release of both AA and A2P were demonstrated. Both AA and A2P containing scaffolds were significantly more hydrophilic and stronger in both dry and wet states compared to PLA scaffolds. Fibroblasts produced more collagen on scaffolds containing either AA or A2P compared to cells grown on control scaffolds. This study is the first to directly compare the two ascorbic acid derivatives in a tissue engineered scaffold and shows that both AA and A2P releasing electrospun PLA scaffolds increased collagen production of fibroblasts to similar extents but AA scaffolds seemed to be more hydrophilic and stronger compared to A2P scaffolds. Mesh augmented surgical repair of the pelvic floor currently relies on non-degradable materials which results in severe complications in some patients. There is an unmet and urgent need for better pelvic floor repair materials. Our current understanding suggests that the ideal material should be able to better integrate into sites of implantation both biologically and mechanically. The impact of

  11. Induction of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production by Nonanoic Acid and Exacerbation of Allergic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Yamashita

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Nonanoic acid and certain fatty acids induced TSLP production, resulting in the exacerbation of allergic inflammation. We propose that TSLP-inducing chemical compounds such as nonanoic acid be recognized as chemical allergo-accelerators.

  12. Microbial Production of Malic Acid from Biofuel-Related Coproducts and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. West

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid malic acid synthesized as part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle can be produced in excess by certain microorganisms. Although malic acid is produced industrially to a lesser extent than citric acid, malic acid has industrial applications in foods and pharmaceuticals as an acidulant among other uses. Only recently has the production of this organic acid from coproducts of industrial bioprocessing been investigated. It has been shown that malic acid can be synthesized by microbes from coproducts generated during biofuel production. More specifically, malic acid has been shown to be synthesized by species of the fungus Aspergillus on thin stillage, a coproduct from corn-based ethanol production, and on crude glycerol, a coproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, the fungus Ustilago trichophora has also been shown to produce malic acid from crude glycerol. With respect to bacteria, a strain of the thermophilic actinobacterium Thermobifida fusca has been shown to produce malic acid from cellulose and treated lignocellulosic biomass. An alternate method of producing malic acid is to use agricultural biomass converted to syngas or biooil as a substrate for fungal bioconversion. Production of poly(β-l-malic acid by strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from agricultural biomass has been reported where the polymalic acid is subsequently hydrolyzed to malic acid. This review examines applications of malic acid, metabolic pathways that synthesize malic acid and microbial malic acid production from biofuel-related coproducts, lignocellulosic biomass and poly(β-l-malic acid.

  13. Depigmenting activity of new kojic acid derivative obtained as a side product in the synthesis of cinnamate of kojic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Cheol; Rho, Ho Sik; Baek, Heung Soo; Ahn, Soo Mi; Woo, Byoung Young; Hong, Yong Deog; Cheon, Jong Woo; Heo, Jung Mi; Shin, Song Seok; Park, Young-Ho; Suh, Kyung-Do

    2012-03-01

    We synthesized cinnamate derivatives of kojic acid for use as depigmenting agents by various esterification methods. The cinnamate of 5-position of kojic acid (6) was obtained by EDC coupling, DCC coupling, acid chloride, and mixed anhydride methods. To obtain the cinnamate of the 2-position of kojic acid (7), we carried out the nucleophilic addition of the potassium salt of cinnamic acid to kojyl chloride. In this reaction, we discovered the occurrence of a side reaction and identified the structure of the side product thus formed. We evaluated the depigmenting activities of both the side product and the cinnamate derivatives of kojic acid. Interestingly, the side product (11) showed more potent depigmenting activity (IC(50)=23.51μM) than compound 7 (IC(50)>100μM) which is the mother compound of the side product. However, it has no tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compound 6, the cinnamate of 5-position of kojic acid, also showed moderate depigmenting activity (IC(50)=46.64μM) without tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Production of this side product (11) may have originated from the proton exchange between the potassium salt of cinnamic acid and kojyl chloride. We then efficiently reduced the yield of the side product by controlling the equilibrium of the potassium salt of cinnamic acid. The addition of cinnamic acid greatly reduced the amount of the side product produced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2017), s. 1606-1618 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : no-tension material * stress-strain relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286515571786

  15. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2017), s. 1606-1618 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : no-tension material * stress-strain relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286515571786

  16. Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulbaki, M.; Shino, O.

    2009-07-01

    Vanadium penta oxide (V 2 O 5 ), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH 4 OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

  17. In vitro lactic acid inhibition and alterations in volatile fatty acid production by antimicrobial feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, T G; Taylor, M B; Harmon, D L; Boyer, J E

    1987-10-01

    Batch culture fermentations were used to determine the effects of avoparcin, lasalocid, monensin, narasin, salinomycin, thiopeptin, tylosin, virginiamycin, monensin + tylosin combination, and two new ionophore compounds (RO22-6924/004 and RO21-6447/009) on lactic acid and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Ruminal fluid from cattle fed a high alfalfa hay diet was incubated with glucose for 12 h in a buffered medium to determine the effect of antimicrobial compounds on lactic acid concentration. Fermentations treated with antimicrobial compounds had higher final pH and lower L(+) lactic acid concentration. Narasin and salinomycin were more inhibitory than other ionophore compounds. Monensin and tylosin in combination was more effective than monensin alone. Among the nonionophore compounds, avoparcin was the least effective and thiopeptin, tylosin and virginiamycin were extremely effective in reducing lactic acid concentration. Ruminal fluid from cattle fed a diet of alfalfa hay and grain (50:50) was incubated with a mixture of sugars, casein and urea for 12 h in a buffered medium to determine the effect of antimicrobial compounds on VFA production. Generally, total VFA concentration was not affected by antimicrobial compounds except RO22-6924/004, tylosin and virginiamycin, which caused a reduction at high concentrations. Tylosin, monensin and tylosin mixture, thiopeptin and virginiamycin at high concentrations (greater than 6.0 micrograms/ml) increased the acetate proportion. All compounds increased the molar proportion of propionate. Tylosin and virginiamycin at high concentrations (greater than 6.0 micrograms/ml) decreased the proportion of propionate. Monensin and tylosin in combination had no effect on propionate proportion. Among the compounds tested, narasin and salinomycin were the most effective in enhancing propionate proportion. Ionophore compounds were more inhibitory to butyrate production than the nonionophore compounds. Batch culture fermentations

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); da Silva, Camila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); Department of Technology, Maringa State University (UEM), Umuarama, PR, 87506-370 (Brazil); Rossi, Carla C.R.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Guirardello, Reginaldo [College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); de Castilhos, Fernanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  20. Anti-atherosclerotic actions of azelaic acid, an end product of linoleic acid peroxidation, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Dmitry; Selvarajan, Krithika; Garelnabi, Mahdi; Brophy, Larissa; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids in arterial lesions. Recently we studied the degradation of peroxidized linoleic acid and suggested that oxidation is an essential process that results in the generation of terminal products, namely mono- and dicarboxylic acids that may lack the pro-atherogenic effects of peroxidized lipids. In continuation of that study, we tested the effects of azelaic acid (AzA), one of the end products of linoleic acid peroxidation, on the development of atherosclerosis using low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) mice were fed with a high fat and high cholesterol Western diet (WD group). Another group of animals were fed the same diet with AzA supplementation (WD+AzA group). After 4 months of feeding, mice were sacrificed and atherosclerotic lesions were measured. The results showed that the average lesion area in WD+AzA group was 38% (pacids could be an important step in the body's defense against oxidative damage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  2. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to retinoids for the treatment of acne has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The intestinal mucus layer is an important structural barrier that is disrupted in IBD. Retinoid-induced alteration of mucus physiology has been postulated as a mechanism linking retinoid treatment to IBD; however, there is little direct evidence for this interaction. The zebrafish larva is an emerging model system for investigating the pathogenesis of IBD. Importantly, this system allows components of the innate immune system, including mucus physiology, to be studied in isolation from the adaptive immune system. This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. The DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to recapitulate several aspects of the zebrafish trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced enterocolitis model, including neutrophilic inflammation that was microbiota-dependent and responsive to pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, the DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to be a tractable model of stress-induced mucus production and was subsequently used to identify a role for retinoic acid (RA in suppressing both physiological and pathological intestinal mucin production. Suppression of mucin production by RA increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to enterocolitis when challenged with enterocolitic agents. This study illustrates a direct effect of retinoid administration on intestinal mucus physiology and, subsequently, on the progression of intestinal inflammation.

  3. World market and biotechnological production of itaconic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha da Cruz, Juliana; Machado de Castro, Aline; Camporese Sérvulo, Eliana Flávia

    2018-03-01

    The itaconic acid (IA) world market is expected to exceed 216 million of dollars by 2020 as a result of an increasing demand for bio-based chemicals. The potential of this organic acid produced by fermentation mainly with filamentous fungi relies on the vast industrial applications of polymers derived from it. The applications may be as a superabsorbent polymer for personal care or agriculture, unsaturated polyester resin for the transportation industry, poly(methyl methacrylate) for electronic devices, among many others. However, the existence of other substitutes and the high production cost limit the current IA market. IA manufacturing is done mainly in China and other Asia-Pacific countries. Higher economic feasibility and production worldwide may be achieved with the use of low-cost feedstock of local origin and with the development of applications targeted to specific local markets. Moreover, research on the biological pathway for IA synthesis and the effect of medium composition are important for amplifying the knowledge about the production of that biochemical with great market potential.

  4. Enzymatic Production of Ascorbic Acid-2-phosphate by Recombinant Acid Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Song, Wei; Sun, Anran; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Jia; Luo, Qiuling; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-24

    In this study, an environmentally friendly and efficient enzymatic method for the synthesis of l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AsA-2P) from l-ascorbic acid (AsA) was developed. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa acid phosphatase (PaAPase) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The optimal temperature, optimal pH, K m , k cat , and catalytic efficiency of recombinant PaAPase were 50 °C, 5.0, 93 mM, 4.2 s -1 , and 2.7 mM -1 min -1 , respectively. The maximal dry cell weight and PaAPase phosphorylating activity reached 8.5 g/L and 1127.7 U/L, respectively. The highest AsA-2P concentration (50.0 g/L) and the maximal conversion (39.2%) were obtained by incubating 75 g/L intact cells with 88 g/L AsA and 160 g/L sodium pyrophosphate under optimal conditions (0.1 mM Ca 2+ , pH 4.0, 30 °C) for 10 h; the average AsA-2P production rate was 5.0 g/L/h, and the AsA-2P production system was successfully scaled up to a 7.5 L fermenter. Therefore, the enzymatic process showed great potential for production of AsA-2P in industry.

  5. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Mette K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A, suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25. LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B, subjects (n=18 were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112. Trial registration NCT01700712

  6. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...... of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(ll) led to a substantial increase...

  7. Carbon catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide production in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čolić, Viktor; Yang, Sungeun; Révay, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run the reac......Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run...... the reaction in an acidic electrolyte with high performance is particularly important, as it would allow the use of polymer solid electrolytes and the production of pH-neutral hydrogen peroxide. Carbon catalysts, which are cheap, abundant, durable and can be highly selective show promise as potential catalysts...... to determine the cause of these differences, we employ prompt gamma ray/neutron activation analysis and XPS measurements to assess the contribution of heteroatoms and defects, as well as low temperature N2-adsorption and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the particle size, shape, BET surface area...

  8. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jonathan E [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  9. The contributions of respiration and glycolysis to extracellular acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Goncalves, Renata L S; Gerencser, Akos A; Nicholls, David G; Brand, Martin D

    2015-02-01

    The rate at which cells acidify the extracellular medium is frequently used to report glycolytic rate, with the implicit assumption that conversion of uncharged glucose or glycogen to lactate(-)+H(+) is the only significant source of acidification. However, another potential source of extracellular protons is the production of CO2 during substrate oxidation: CO2 is hydrated to H2CO3, which then dissociates to HCO3(-)+H(+). O2 consumption and pH were monitored in a popular platform for measuring extracellular acidification (the Seahorse XF Analyzer). We found that CO2 produced during respiration caused almost stoichiometric release of H(+) into the medium. With C2C12 myoblasts given glucose, respiration-derived CO2 contributed 34% of the total extracellular acidification. When glucose was omitted or replaced by palmitate or pyruvate, this value was 67-100%. Analysis of primary cells, cancer cell lines, stem cell lines, and isolated synaptosomes revealed contributions of CO2-produced acidification that were usually substantial, ranging from 3% to 100% of the total acidification rate. Measurement of glycolytic rate using extracellular acidification requires differentiation between respiratory and glycolytic acid production. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of this correction when extracellular acidification is used for quantitative measurement of glycolytic flux to lactate. We describe a simple way to correct the measured extracellular acidification rate for respiratory acid production, using simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption rate. Extracellular acidification is often assumed to result solely from glycolytic lactate production, but respiratory CO2 also contributes. We demonstrate that extracellular acidification by myoblasts given glucose is 66% glycolytic and 34% respiratory and describe a method to differentiate these sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiotracer investigation of phosphoric acid and phosphatic fertilizers production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelouahed, H.; Reguigui, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the phosphoric acid production process, the time a particle spends inside the chemical reactor (residence time) is of paramount importance to process engineers. Residence time distribution (RTD) gives information on the efficiency of the chemical reactor, on the efficiency of the process, and also the availabilities of the reactive volume for the reaction (active volume vs. dead volume). Traditionally, chemical engineers used chemical tracer to determine the RTD. However, first disadvantage is that the chemical tracer could not allow an online diagnosis: the samples containing chemical tracer have to go to a lab for analysis, second disadvantage is that the chemical tracer is less sensitive than radioactive ones because of its adsorption onto strata or its retention in rocks. Consequently, chemical tracer results are not always precise and cannot convincingly explain the multiple flow-path model. Radioactive tracers are the only tracers capable of measuring the active RTD with high degree of precision and give information on the internal recirculation rate. In this work, we will describe the application of radiotracer method for RTD measurement in the phosphoric acid production process and give results and discussion of each case encountered. (author)

  11. Metabolic capabilities of Actinobacillus succinogenes for succinic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rafieenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention has been focused on microbial succinic acid production as an alternative for conventional chemical synthesis that is associated with environmental pollution. A metabolic model for Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was developed with a mixture of glucose and xylose as substrate. The metabolic fluxes during succinicate production were determined using flux balance analysis by linear programming optimization in the MATLAB environment. Different glucose ratios (0.3, 0.4 and 0.7 mol.mol-1substrate were used as model assumptions to calculate optimal fluxes, maximum growth and succinate production. The model revealed that higher growth rates and product yields were correlated with higher glucose content in the substrate mixture. When glucose constituted 0.5 mol.mol-1 substrate, a lower succinate yield (0.64 mol.mol-1 substrate was obtained, compared to 0.73 mol.mol-1 substrate when glucose was used individually. Deletion of different unessential reactions in the model showed that a knockout of the acetate formation pathway would increase the succinate yield by 21% when glucose and xylose were used in equal molar ratios.

  12. Production of chlorogenic acid in Varthemia persica DC (var. persica) callus cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpoush, A.; Ghasemi, N.; Ardakani, M. Shams; Asghari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a pharmacologically important compound, is a phenolic compound that occurs in certain commonly used medicinal herbs. We looked for the presence of this compound in the callus cultures of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica). We have evaluated the conditions for establishment of callus cultures of V. persica and the in vitro production of chlorogenic acid. Callus was initiated by culturing seedling of V. persica on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of kinetin, naphthalene acetic acid and 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid. Also, the influence of light, and phytohormones on the production of chlorogenic acid was examined. Kinetin stimulated the production of chlorogenic acid. Replacement of 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid with naphthalene acetic acid did not alter the chlorogenic acid production. The ability to induce the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in the V. persica callus cultures offers an opportunity to produce a phenolic compound with therapeutic value. PMID:22049279

  13. Formic acid production using a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaobin; Luo, Haiping; Yang, Kunpeng; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Li, Xiao; Ye, Bo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and optimization of formic acid production in the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC). The maximum current density in the MEDCC with 72cm of the anode fiber length (72-MEDCC) reached 24.0±2.0A/m 2 , which was much higher than previously reported. The maximum average formic acid production rate in the 72-MEDCC was 5.28 times higher than that in the MEDCC with 24cm of the anode fiber length (37.00±1.15vs. 7.00±0.25mg/h). High performance in the 72-MEDCC was attributed to small membrane spacing (1mm), high flow rate (1500μL/min) on the membrane surface and high anode biomass. The minimum electricity consumption of 0.34±0.04kWh/kg in the 72-MEDCC was only 3.1-18.8% of those in the EDBMs. The MEDCC should be a promising technology for the formic acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of linoleic acid inhibition in production of conjugated linoleic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, A; Vahvaselkä, M; Suomalainen, T; Laakso, S

    2001-08-01

    A method for the production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid (LA) using growing cultures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS was developed. The growth inhibitory effect of LA was eliminated by dispersing it in a sufficient concentration of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate detergent. For the whey permeate medium used, the optimum LA:detergent ratio was 1:15 (w/w). As a result, the cultures tolerated at least 1000 microg x mL(-1) LA, which was converted to CLA with 57%-87% efficiency. The cis-9, trans-11 and trans-9, cis-11 isomers constituted 85%-90% of the CLA produced. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated also in de Man Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth.

  15. Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.

    1975-01-01

    A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress-state was developed. A nonlinear elastic, anisotropic stress-strain relation was derived with two moduli of elasticity, E 1 , E 2 and Poisson's ratios, ν 1 , ν 2 , which depend on the prevailing biaxial stress state. The stress-strain relation is valid in the whole biaxial stress field, that means with a smooth transition between the domains of tension/tension, tension/compression and compression/compression. The stress-dependent moduli E 1 , E 2 and the Poisson's ratios ν 1 , ν 2 are approximated by polynomials, trigonometrical and exponential functions. A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test results of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement. It is shown, that the biaxial stress-strain relation can be extended for use in cases of triaxial tension/tension/compression stress state. Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations

  16. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Arxula adeninivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Mateusz; Riechen, Jan; Hähnel, Urs; Roick, Thomas; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2017-12-01

    (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can be used in industrial and health applications. The synthesis pathway comprises two enzymes, β-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase which convert cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-3-HB] which is released into the culture medium. In the present study we used the non-conventional yeast, Arxula adeninivorans, for the synthesis enantiopure (R)-3-HB. To establish optimal production, we investigated three different endogenous yeast thiolases (Akat1p, Akat2p, Akat4p) and three bacterial thiolases (atoBp, thlp, phaAp) in combination with an enantiospecific reductase (phaBp) from Cupriavidus necator H16 and endogenous yeast reductases (Atpk2p, Afox2p). We found that Arxula is able to release (R)-3-HB used an existing secretion system negating the need to engineer membrane transport. Overexpression of thl and phaB genes in organisms cultured in a shaking flask resulted in 4.84 g L -1 (R)-3-HB, at a rate of 0.023 g L -1  h -1 over 214 h. Fed-batch culturing with glucose as a carbon source did not improve the yield, but a similar level was reached with a shorter incubation period [3.78 g L -1 of (R)-3-HB at 89 h] and the rate of production was doubled to 0.043 g L -1  h -1 which is higher than any levels in yeast reported to date. The secreted (R)-3-HB was 99.9% pure. This is the first evidence of enantiopure (R)-3-HB synthesis using yeast as a production host and glucose as a carbon source.

  17. New process for catalyst-free biodiesel production using subcritical acetic acid and supercritical methanol

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Shiro; Isayama, Yohei; Ilham, Zul; Jiayu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The production of glycerol as a by-product is unavoidable in the current conventional biodiesel manufacturing processes. Since biodiesel production is expected to increase in the near future, effective utilization of glycerol will become an issue of interest. In this study, therefore, a process consisting of subcritical acetic acid treatment to convert rapeseed oil to fatty acids and triacetin followed by conversion of the obtained fatty acids to their fatty acid methyl esters in supercritica...

  18. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid and iminodisuccinic acid in cosmetic products by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, L; Nagaraju, V; Crouch, A M

    2006-10-10

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method are described for the simultaneous determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and R,S-iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) complexing agents as their Fe(III) complexes in cosmetics like shower cream and foam bath. The non-biodegradable EDTA is used in combination with biodegradable analogues like EDDS and IDS in many commercial products. The HPLC method involves separation by reversed-phase ion pair chromatography on a C(18) column using methanol-formate buffer (20 mM tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, 15 mM sodium formate adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid) (10:90, v/v) as mobile solvent at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) at 24 degrees C using UV detection at 240 nm. The CE separation was performed in a fused silica capillary of 50 microm i.d. with the total length of 50 cm with a 10 mM MES and MOPSO (pH 5.5) at an applied voltage of -25 kV. The samples were introduced by applying a 50 mbar pressure for 2s. Absorbances at 215 and 225 nm were monitored for the detection of the complexes. The methodology performance of the two methods was evaluated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and reproducibility. The LOD values obtained from HPLC are low when compared with CE. The applicability of both the methods was demonstrated for the analysis of cosmetic products such as shower cream and foam bath. The results obtained by both CE and HPLC were found to be comparable and in good agreement.

  19. Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Cultured Dairy Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Christina Kuhl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 from the linoleic acid (LA present in milk or in synthetic media. CLA isomers can be synthesized in vitro by LAB using vegetable oils rich in LA. The aim of this review is to present an update on the studies that have been conducted on the production of CLA isomers from LA mainly by LAB and of the factors that influence this conversion (source and concentration of LA and fermentation conditions. In addition, this review presents the relationship between the consumption of CLA isomers and their health benefits in humans such as anti-atherosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. There is considerable variation between the studies concerning the beneficial effects of CLA in animal models, which have not been reflected in human studies. This can be attributed to the differences in the doses of CLA isomers used and to the different sources of CLA. Furthermore, the regulatory and scientific information classifying the physiological properties of CLA, which serve as support for the claims of its potential as a functional ingredient, are presented. More research is needed to determine whether CLA production by LAB can be enhanced and to determine the optimal requirements for these microbial cultures. Furthermore, safety and efficacy of CLA consumption have to be investigated in the future.

  20. Production of L(+)-lactic acid using acid-adapted precultures of Rhizopus arrhizus in a stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan Ying; Jin, Bo; Kelly, Joan M

    2008-06-01

    Cultivations of filamentous fungi in stirred tank reactors (STRs) to produce metabolites are often limited by insufficient mixing and mass transfer because of the formation of mycelial clumps inside the reactors. This study developed an acid-adapted preculture approach to control the morphology of filamentous Rhizopus arrhizus in a STR, consequently to enhance the production yield and productivity of L(+)-lactic acid efficiently using waste potato starch as substrate. Using the acid-adapted precultures as inoculum, the morphology of R. arrhizus was maintained as large clumps, coalesced loose small pellets, and freely dispersed small pellets. The highest lactic acid concentration of 85.7 g/L with a yield of 86% was obtained in association with the formation of coalesced loose small pellets. The results indicate that the use of the acid-adapted precultures as inoculum is a promising approach for lactic acid production in STRs.

  1. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  3. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of mixed-acid fermentation end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hartmut Förster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-acid fermentation end products have numerous applications in biotechnology. This is probably the main driving force for the development of multiple strains that are supposed to produce individual end products with high yields. The process of engineering Escherichia coli strains for applied production of ethanol, lactate, succinate, or acetate was initiated several decades ago and is still ongoing. This review follows the path of strain development from the general characteristics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism over the regulatory machinery that enables the different metabolic routes. Thereafter, major improvements for broadening the substrate spectrum of Escherichia coli towards cheap carbon sources like molasses or lignocellulose are highlighted before major routes of strain development for the production of ethanol, acetate, lactate and succinate are presented.

  5. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  6. Production of L-glutamic acid by a Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S P; Banerjee, A K

    1978-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus cereus var. mycoides isolated from Burdwan soil produces L-glutamate in the medium. The strain is able to grow and produce in a synthetic medium but supplementation with casamino acid or yeast extract improves the yield. Maintenance of pH of the fermentation medium near neutrality prolongs the active growth period and improves the yield. Glucose and ammonium nitrate were found to be most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Cane sugar molasses (as a substitute for glucose) significantly stimulated the growth but glutamate production was less. Various B vitamins stimulate the growth and glutamate yield. The yield of glutamate under optimal condition is 5.2 g/l.

  7. Biotechnological approaches for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert D; Viola, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing pressure to develop alternatives to the Reichstein process, a largely chemical synthesis by which the vast majority of world vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, L-AA) is produced. The pressures include increasing environmental concerns and legislation, and the need to increase process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The development of efficient fermentation processes in the past ten years has also represented a catalyst for change. Here, we describe the development of biotechnological alternatives for the synthesis of Reichstein intermediates by industrial microorganisms. The recent elucidation of the plant biosynthetic pathway represents new opportunities not only for the direct synthesis of L-AA by fermentation but also for the production of human crop plants and animal fodder with enhanced nutritional value. We discuss the potential for these developments in the light of recent findings concerning L-AA biosynthesis in plants.

  8. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  10. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  11. Biotechnology for improved hHydroxy fatty acid production in oilseed lesquerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conventional source of hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) is from castor (Ricinus communis), 90% of castor oil is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH). Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, plasticizers and surfactants. The production of ca...

  12. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose....

  13. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation... AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  14. Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Antoine, J.M.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Reykdal, O.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and

  15. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The pre-treatment of free fatty acids in oils and fats in biodiesel production is of pivotal importance, and esterification in acidic medium must be done prior to basic transesterification of glycerides. The free fatty acids may be converted over an acidic catalyst of sulphonated pyrolysed...

  16. Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products from 14 European Countries: The TRANSFAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp van - Baart, M.-A.; Couet, C.; Cuadrado, C.; Kafatos, A.; Stanley, J.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of bakery products from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in cookies and biscuits ranged from <1 to 28%.Transfatty acids content in sweet pastry ranged from practically 0 to 33%. Croissants and

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vinegar production from post-distillation slurry deriving from rice shochu production with the addition of caproic acid-producing bacteria consortium and lactic acid bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua-Wei; Tan, Li; Chen, Hao; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    To establish a zero emission process, the post-distillation slurry of a new type of rice shochu (NTRS) was used for the production of health promoting vinegar. Since the NTRS post-distillation slurry contained caproic acid and lactic acid, the effect of these two organic acids on acetic acid fermentation was first evaluated. Based on these results, Acetobacter aceti CICC 21684 was selected as a suitable strain for subsequent production of vinegar. At the laboratory scale, acetic acid fermentation of the NTRS post-distillation slurry in batch mode resulted in an acetic acid concentration of 41.9 g/L, with an initial ethanol concentration of 40 g/L, and the acetic acid concentration was improved to 44.5 g/L in fed-batch mode. Compared to the NTRS post-distillation slurry, the vinegar product had higher concentrations of free amino acids and inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme activity. By controlling the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient to be similar to that of the laboratory scale production, 45 g/L of acetic acid was obtained at the pilot scale, using a 75-L fermentor with a working volume of 40 L, indicating that vinegar production can be successfully scaled up. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Putrescine production from different amino acid precursors by lactic acid bacteria from wine and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Antonella; Pietroniro, Roberta; Doria, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of biogenic amines and particularly putrescine in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) related to wine and cider. We applied an analytical protocol that involves the use of PCR and TLC techniques to determine the production of putrescine from different precursors. Moreover, we also studied the ability of the Lactobacillus and Pediococcus tested to produce histamine and tyramine. The results showed that the majority of the Lactobacillus brevis analyzed harbour both AgDI and tdc genes and are tyramine and putrescine producers. Conversely, among the other LAB tested, only one Lactobacillus hilgardii and one Pediococcus pentosaceus produced putrescine. The AgDI gene was also detected in two other LAB (Lactobacillus mali and Pediococcus parvulus), but no putrescine production was observed. Finally, hdc gene and histamine production were found in strains (L. hilgardii 5211, isolated from wine, and Lactobacillus casei 18, isolated from cider) that were not putrescine producers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid...

  1. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red pepper paste (ZA), AlgaMac 3050 (ZB) and Spresso (ZC) on fatty acid compositions in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were intensively cultured on a mixture of ω3 algae and ω3 yeast. Enriched rotifers were seen to have higher level of unsaturated fatty acids of linoleic acid (LOA) and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acid ...

  2. Production of lactic acid from Starchy-based food substrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... Titratable acidity Determination : The amount of the lactic acid produced in the fermenting starchy- based meal were determine daily for 7 days by the standard titration procedure for total titratable acidity (TTA) according to A.O.A.C, (1990) . Lactic acid content determination was done by titrating 25ml of the.

  3. Catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields less toxic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Bettiga, Maurizio; Aldaeus, Fredrik; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-09-21

    Lignocellulosic substrates and pulping process streams are of increasing relevance to biorefineries for second generation biofuels and biochemical production. They are known to be rich in sugars and inhibitors such as phenolic compounds, organic acids and furaldehydes. Phenolic compounds are a group of aromatic compounds known to be inhibitory to fermentative organisms. It is known that inhibition of Sacchromyces cerevisiae varies among phenolic compounds and the yeast is capable of in situ catabolic conversion and metabolism of some phenolic compounds. In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aerobic batch cultivations were separately performed with each of the three phenolic compounds. Conversion of each of the phenolic compounds was observed on time-based qualitative analysis of the culture broth to monitor various intermediate and final metabolites. Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were more slowly converted over a period of 72 h. The conversion of the three phenolic compounds was observed to involved several transient intermediates that were concurrently formed and converted to other phenolic products. Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, the conversion products profile from the three compounds were similar. On the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum specific growth rates of the yeast was not affected in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde or ferulic acid, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of p-coumaric acid. The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield

  4. Optimization of β-galactosidase production from lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-galactosidase, commonly known as lactase, represents commercially important enzyme that is prevalently used for lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey. To the date, it has been isolated from various sources. In this study different strains of lactic acid bacteria were assessed for their β-galactosidase productivity, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 resulted with the highest production potential. Thereafter, optimal conditions for accomplishing high yields of β-galactosidase activity were determined. Maximal specific activity (1.01 IU mL-1 was accomplished after 2 days shake flask culture fermentation (150 rpm at 37ºC, with modified Man Rogosa Sharpe culture broth using lactose (2.5% as sole carbon source. Finally, in order to intensify release of intracellular β-galactosidase different mechanical and chemical methods were conducted. Nevertheless, vortexing with quartz sand (150 μm as abrasive was proven to be the most efficient method of cell disruption. The optimum temperature of obtained β-galactosidase was 45°C and the optimum range pH 6.5-7.5.

  5. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. External radiation assessment in a wet phosphoric acid production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Perez-Moreno, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ppmasb@us.es; Martin, J.E.; San Miguel, E.G. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The factories dedicated to the production of phosphoric acid by the so-called wet acid method are usually considered typical NORM industries, because the phosphate rock used as raw material usually contains high concentrations of {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. The magnitude and behaviour of the radionuclides involved in the production process revealed the need to determine its dosimetric impact on workers. This work aims to partially compensate this lack of knowledge through the determination of external effective dose rates at different zones in the process at a typical plant located in the southwest of Spain. To this end, two dosimetric sampling campaigns have been carried out at this phosphoric acid production plant. The first sampling was carried out when phosphate rocks originating in Morocco were processed, and the second one when phosphate rock processed came from the Kola Peninsula (Russia Federation). This differentiation was necessary because the activity concentrations are almost one order of magnitude higher in Moroccan phosphate rock than in Kola phosphate rock. The results obtained have reflected external dose rate enhancements as high as 1.4 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} (i.e., up to thirty times the external exposition due to radionuclides in unperturbed soils) at several points in the facility, particularly where the digested rock (pulp) is filtered. However, the most problematic points are characterised by a small occupation factor. That means that the increment in the annual effective external gamma dose received by the most-exposed worker is clearly below 1 mSv (European Commission limit for the general population) under normal production. Nevertheless, special care in the design and schedule of cleaning and maintaining work in the areas with high doses should be taken in order to avoid any possibility of exceeding the previously mentioned general population limit. In addition, the results of the dosimetric campaign showed no clear correlation between {sup

  7. By-products from the biodiesel chain as a substrate to citric acid production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Manuella; Zimmer, Gabriela F; Cremonese, Ezequiel B; de C de S Schneider, Rosana; Corbellini, Valeriano A

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we propose the use of tung cake for the production of organic acids, with an emphasis on citric acid by solid-state fermentation. We evaluated the conditions of production and the by-products from the biodiesel chain as raw materials involved in this bioprocess. First, we standardized the conditions of solid-state fermentation in tung cake with and without residual fat and with different concentrations of glycerine using the fungus Aspergillus niger The solid-state fermentation process was monitored for 7 days considering the biomass growth and pH level. Citric acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fungal development was better in the crude tung cake, consisting of 20% glycerine. The highest citric acid yield was 350 g kg(-1) of biomass. Therefore, the solid-state fermentation of the tung cake with glycerine led to citric acid production using the Aspergillus niger fungus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, Helen Shnada; Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced...

  9. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  10. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products-A gamma radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Reznicek, Gottfried [Department of Pharmacognosy, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH{sub 3} by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  11. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products-A gamma radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  13. Processes for the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity and high...... substrate specificity towards tyrosine, which makes them particularly suitable in the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids. The present invention thus provides processes for the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids employing these polypeptides as well...

  14. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  15. Production of organic acids in an immobilized cell reactor using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immobilized cell reactor (ICR) was developed as a novel bioreactor to convert hydrolyzed sugars to organic acids. Sugar fermentation by Propionibacterium acid-propionici entraped by calcium alginate was carried out in continuous mode to produce propionic and acetic acids. In continuous fermentation, more than 90 ...

  16. Effect of Pyruvate Decarboxylase Knockout on Product Distribution Using Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii Engineered for Lactic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiele T. M. Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is the monomer unit of the bioplastic poly-lactic acid (PLA. One candidate organism for lactic acid production is Pichia pastoris, a yeast widely used for heterologous protein production. Nevertheless, this yeast has a poor fermentative capability that can be modulated by controlling oxygen levels. In a previous study, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was introduced into P. pastoris, enabling this yeast to produce lactic acid. The present study aimed to increase the flow of pyruvate towards the production of lactic acid in P. pastoris. To this end, a strain designated GLp was constructed by inserting the bovine lactic acid dehydrogenase gene (LDHb concomitantly with the interruption of the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC. Aerobic fermentation, followed by micro-aerophilic culture two-phase fermentations, showed that the GLp strain achieved a lactic acid yield of 0.65 g/g. The distribution of fermentation products demonstrated that the acetate titer was reduced by 20% in the GLp strain with a concomitant increase in arabitol production: arabitol increased from 0.025 g/g to 0.174 g/g when compared to the GS115 strain. Taken together, the results show a significant potential for P. pastoris in producing lactic acid. Moreover, for the first time, physiological data regarding co-product formation have indicated the redox balance limitations of this yeast.

  17. Effect of Pyruvate Decarboxylase Knockout on Product Distribution Using Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) Engineered for Lactic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Nadiele T M; Mulder, Kelly C L; Nicola, André Moraes; Carvalho, Lucas S; Menino, Gisele S; Mulinari, Eduardo; Parachin, Nádia S

    2018-02-16

    Lactic acid is the monomer unit of the bioplastic poly-lactic acid (PLA). One candidate organism for lactic acid production is Pichia pastoris , a yeast widely used for heterologous protein production. Nevertheless, this yeast has a poor fermentative capability that can be modulated by controlling oxygen levels. In a previous study, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was introduced into P. pastoris, enabling this yeast to produce lactic acid. The present study aimed to increase the flow of pyruvate towards the production of lactic acid in P. pastoris . To this end, a strain designated GLp was constructed by inserting the bovine lactic acid dehydrogenase gene (LDHb) concomitantly with the interruption of the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Aerobic fermentation, followed by micro-aerophilic culture two-phase fermentations, showed that the GLp strain achieved a lactic acid yield of 0.65 g/g. The distribution of fermentation products demonstrated that the acetate titer was reduced by 20% in the GLp strain with a concomitant increase in arabitol production: arabitol increased from 0.025 g/g to 0.174 g/g when compared to the GS115 strain. Taken together, the results show a significant potential for P. pastoris in producing lactic acid. Moreover, for the first time, physiological data regarding co-product formation have indicated the redox balance limitations of this yeast.

  18. Continuous Fermentation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum with Partial Cell Recycle as a Long-Term Strategy for Butyric Acid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Du; Amy McGraw; Nicole Lorenz; Robert R. Beitle; Edgar C. Clausen; Jamie A. Hestekin

    2012-01-01

    In making alternative fuels from biomass feedstocks, the production of butyric acid is a key intermediate in the two-step production of butanol. The fermentation of glucose via Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid produces undesirable byproducts, including lactic acid and acetic acid, which significantly affect the butyric acid yield and productivity. This paper focuses on the production of butyric acid using Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a partia...

  19. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  20. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  1. Production of α-keto acids Part I. Immobilized cells ofTrigonopsis variabilis containing D-amino acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodelius, P; Nilsson, K; Mosbach, K

    1981-12-01

    Whole cells ofTrigonopsis variabilis were immobilized by entrapment in Ca(2+)-alginate and used for the production of α-keto acids from the corresponding D-amino acids. The D-amino acid oxidase within the immobilized cells has a broad substrate specificity. Hydrogen peroxide formed in the enzymatic reaction was efficiently hydrolyzed by manganese oxide co-immobilized with the cells. The amino acid oxidase activity was assayed with a new method based on reversed-phase HPLC. Oxygen requirements, bead size, concentration of cells in the beads, flow rate, and other factors were investigated in a " trickle-bed " reactor.

  2. Bio-Based Production of Dimethyl Itaconate From Rice Wine Waste-Derived Itaconic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Chul; You, Seung Kyou; Shin, Sang Kyu; Ko, Young Jin; Jung, Ki Ho; Sim, Sang A; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-11-01

    Dimethyl itaconate is an important raw material for copolymerization, but it is not synthesized from itaconic acid by organisms. Moreover, Corynebacterium glutamicum is used as an important industrial host for the production of organic acids, but it does not metabolize itaconic acid. Therefore, the biosynthetic route toward dimethyl itaconate from itaconic acid is highly needed. In this study, a biological procedure for dimethyl itaconate production is developed from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid using the engineered C. glutamicum strain. The first step is to investigate the effect of the co-overexpression of the codon-optimized cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CadA*) and a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in acetic acid metabolism (RamA) on itaconic acid production. The second step is to convert itaconic acid into dimethyl itaconate by lipase-catalyzed esterification. The CadA* and RamA-overexpressing CG4 strain increases the itaconic acid concentration under N-starvation with glucose and acetic acid compared with the concentration produced in the base mCGXII medium with glucose. Furthermore, the rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid is successfully converted into dimethyl itaconate using lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and a methanol substrate. This study is the first trial for bio-based production of dimethyl itaconate from rice wine waste-derived itaconic acid. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biocatalytic production of adipic acid from glucose using engineeredSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Kaushik; Partow, Siavash; Correia, Kevin; Khusnutdinova, Anna N; Yakunin, Alexander F; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2018-06-01

    Adipic acid is an important industrial chemical used in the synthesis of nylon-6,6. The commercial synthesis of adipic acid uses petroleum-derived benzene and releases significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Biocatalytic production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks could potentially reduce the environmental damage and eliminate the need for fossil fuel precursors. Recently, we have demonstrated the first enzymatic hydrogenation of muconic acid to adipic acid using microbial enoate reductases (ERs) - complex iron-sulfur and flavin containing enzymes. In this work, we successfully expressed the Bacillus coagulans ER in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing muconic acid and developed a three-stage fermentation process enabling the synthesis of adipic acid from glucose. The ability to express active ERs and significant acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae highlight the applicability of the developed yeast strain for the biocatalytic production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks.

  4. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  6. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  7. Effects of global change factors on fatty acids and mycosporine-like amino acid production in Chroothece richteriana (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silvera, Daniel; Pérez, Sandra; Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina; López-Jiménez, José Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Under natural conditions, Chroothece richteriana synthesizes a fairly high proportion of fatty acids. However, nothing is known about how environmental changes affect their production, or about the production of protective compounds, when colonies develop under full sunshine with high levels of UV radiation. In this study, wild colonies of C. richteriana were subjected to increasing temperature, conductivity, ammonium concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and UV radiations to assess the potential changes in lipid composition and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) concentration. The PERMANOVA analysis detected no differences for the whole fatty acid profile among treatments, but the percentages of α-linolenic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids increased at the lowest assayed temperature. The percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with lowering temperature. γ-linolenic and arachidonic acids decreased with increasing conductivity, and a high arachidonic acid concentration was related with increased conductivity. The samples exposed to UVB radiation showed higher percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids, at the expense of saturated fatty acids. MAAs accumulation increased but not significantly at the lowest conductivity, and also with the highest PAR and UVR exposure, while ammonium and temperature had no effect. The observed changes are probably related with adaptations of both membrane fluidity to low temperature, and metabolism to protect cells against UV radiation damage. The results suggest the potential to change lipid composition and MAAs concentration in response to environmental stressful conditions due to climate change, and highlight the interest of the species in future research about the biotechnological production of both compound types. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    prices as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.

  9. Production of triterpene acids by cell suspension cultures of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimaru, Hiroshi; Orihara, Yutaka; Tansakul, Pimpimon; Kang, Young-Hwa; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

    2007-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) contains large quantity of triterpene acids including oleanolic acid (6) as a major one. Varieties of biological activities exhibited by triterpene acids attracted our attentions, especially from pharmaceutical viewpoints. Cell culture of olive plant was induced and its triterpene constituents were studied. From the cell suspension cultures, six ursane type triterpene acids; ursolic acid (9), pomolic acid (10), rotundic acid (11), tormentic acid (12), 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (13) and 19alpha-hydroxyasiatic acid (14), and two oleanane type acids; oleanolic acid and maslinic acid (7), have been isolated. Quantity of ursane type triterpene acids produced by cell cultures was larger than that of oleanane type. Further, a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) named OEA was cloned by homology based PCRs from the same cultured cells. Major product of OEA is alpha-amyrin (ursane skeleton), showing good accordance to higher content of ursane-type triterpene acids in the cultured cells, and strongly suggesting OEA to be a major contributor OSC for their production.

  10. Kinetic modelling of lactic acid production from whey by Lactobacillus casei (NRRL B-441)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıok, Duygu; Tokatlı, Figen; Harsa, Hayriye Şebnem

    2006-01-01

    The biomass growth, lactic acid production and lactose utilisation kinetics of lactic acid production from whey by Lactobacillus casei was studied. Batch fermentation experiments were performed at controlled pH and temperature with six different initial whey lactose concentrations (9-77 g dm-3) in a 3 dm3 working volume bioreactor. Biomass growth was well described by the logistic equation with a product inhibition term. In addition, biomass and product inhibition effects were defined with co...

  11. Production of aromatic acids during anaerobic digestion of citrus peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    Commercially prepared citrus oils, distilled citrus oils, limonene and the non-volatile fraction of lemon oils were all found to be toxic to the anaerobic digestion process for conversion of citrus waste to methane. Toxicity was characterised by appearance of benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids in the digestion liquors, though these acids were not in themselves toxic. The bulk of the phenylpropionic acid was derived from flavonoids.

  12. lactic acid production by Lactobacillus SMI8 using corn steep liquor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Lactic acid: recent advances in products, processes and technologies- A review. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 81: 1119-1129. Datta R, Tsai SP, Bonsignore P, Moon SH, Frank JR (1995). Technological and economic potential of poly-lactic acid and lactic acid derivatives. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 16: 221-231.

  13. Engineering the production of conjugated fatty acids in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of many non-domesticated plant species synthesize oils containing high amounts of a single unusual fatty acid, many of which have potential usage in industry. Despite the identification of enzymes for unusual oxidized fatty acid synthesis, the production of these fatty acids in engineered ...

  14. Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay. ... results of the current study fail to indicate a clear trend regarding dietary fatty acid saturation on feed intake of birds, it could be concluded that the long term exposure to a range of fatty acid saturation levels, has no negative effect on hen performance.

  15. 1 ROLE OF FATTY ACIDS OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    There are increasing global concerns about the role of foods in health and chronic ... 3. French. LE ROLE D'ACIDES GRAS. Lokuruka, Ph.D. Les acides myristiques et lauriques sont athérogènes, et ils aggravent le risque de maladies ..... and oxidized fatty acid products between LDL and HDL, HDL particles enriched.

  16. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols by alkaline hydrothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huazhen; Jin Fangming; Wu Bing; Cao Jianglin; Duan Xiaokun; Kishita, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols (Mannitol) under alkaline hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed to examine the difference in the production of lactic acid between C6-polyols and C3-polyols (glycerine), as well as C6-aldoses (glucose). Results showed that the yield of lactic acid from C6-polyols was lower than that from both glycerine and glucose. It indicated that long chain polyols might follow a different reaction pathway from that of glycerine. Further investigation is needed to clarify the reaction mechanism and improve the relatively low lactic acid acid yield from C6-polyols.

  18. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Enhanced the Production of Ursolic and Oleanolic Acid in Callus Cultures ofLepechinia Caulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara Martínez, Víctor M; Estrada-Soto, Samuel E; Arellano-García, José de Jesús; Rivera-Leyva, Julio C; Castillo-España, Patricia; Flores, Angélica Flores; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre T; Perea-Arango, Irene

    2018-01-01

    The production of triterpenes from plants for pharmacological purposes varies in concentration, due to genetic and environmental factors. In vitro culture enables the control and increase of these bioactive molecules. To evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and elicitors in the induction of calli and the production of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in Lepechinia caulescens . Leaf explants were exposed for the induction of calli at different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid were used as elicitors. High-performance liquid chromatography method was used to quantify UA and OA content in each treatment. Treatment with 3.0 mg/L of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L of BAP produced the best results for calli induction and production of UA (1.57 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and OA (1.13 mg/g DW). Both elicitors facilitated the accumulation of triterpenes. The combination of auxins and cytokinins showed favorable results for the induction of calli. Variation concerning the accumulation of UA and OA was observed between treatments. MJ increased the production of triterpenes five times after 8 h of exposure, compared to control treatment. There is a greater accumulation of UA (16.58 mg/g DW) and OA (1.94 mg/g DW) in leaves of wild plants. Callus cultures of Lepechinia caulescens were obtained from leaf explants treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-bencylaminopurineResulting cultures were elicited with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid to increase the production of the triterpenes, ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA)The cultures elicited with MJ increased the production of UA and OA five times, as compared to the control. Abbreviations used: 2,4-D: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, DW: Dry weight, MJ: Methyl jasmonate, OA: Oleanolic acid, PGRs: Plant growth regulators, UA: Ursolic acid, SA: Salicylic acid.

  19. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  20. Modeling gallic acid production rate by empirical and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Kar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the rate of enzymatic reaction empirical correlation based on the experimental results obtained under various operating conditions have been developed. Models represent both the activation as well as deactivation conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis and the results have been analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The tannase activity was found maximum at incubation time 5 min, reaction temperature 40ºC, pH 4.0, initial enzyme concentration 0.12 v/v, initial substrate concentration 0.42 mg/ml, ionic strength 0.2 M and under these optimal conditions, the maximum rate of gallic acid production was 33.49 mumoles/ml/min.Para predizer a taxa das reações enzimaticas uma correlação empírica baseada nos resultados experimentais foi desenvolvida. Os modelos representam a ativação e a desativativação da hydrolise enzimatica. Os resultados foram avaliados pela análise de variança (ANOVA. A atividade máxima da tannase foi obtida após 5 minutos de incubação, temperatura 40ºC, pH 4,0, concentração inicial da enzima de 0,12 v/v, concentração inicial do substrato 0,42 mg/ml, força iônica 0,2 M. Sob essas condições a taxa máxima de produção ácido galico foi de 33,49 µmoles/ml/min.

  1. Identification of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid production in lactic acid bacteria and evaluation of microbial dynamics during kimchi ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyeon; Hwang, Hyelyeon; Chang, Ji Yoon; Hong, Sung Wook; Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Min Young; Sohn, Sung-Oh; Park, Hae Woong; Lee, Jong-Hee

    2017-09-07

    Lactic acid bacteria produce diverse functional metabolites in fermented foods. However, little is known regarding the metabolites and the fermentation process in kimchi. In this study, the culture broth from Leuconostoc lactis, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from kimchi, was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and identified by the MS-DIAL program. The MassBank database was used to analyse the metabolites produced during fermentation. A mass spectrum corresponding to 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) was validated based on a collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation pattern with an identified m/z value of 131.07. HICA production by lactic acid bacteria was monitored and showed a positive correlation with hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenases (HicDs), which play a key role in the production of HICA from leucine and ketoisocaproic acid. Interestingly, the HICA contents of kimchi varied with Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus content during the early stage of fermentation, and the addition of lactic acid bacteria enhanced the HICA content of kimchi. Our results suggest that HICA production in kimchi is dependent on the lactic acid bacterial composition.

  2. Effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid production Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, P.K.; Bhatt, C.S.; Viswanathan, L.

    1983-09-01

    Stationary cultures of Aspergillus niger grown on a synthetic medium have been used to study the effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid production. Addition of 0.05 to 1 mM sodium malonate or 0.01 to 0.1 mM potassium ferricyanide, iodoacetate, sodium azide, soldium arsenate or sodium fluoride stimulated citric acid production (3.6 to 45%), but not total titratable acids. Addition of higher concentrations (0.2 to 10 mM) of later inhibitors caused a marked inhibition of fungal growth and citric acid production. The implications of these preliminary findings are discussed. (Refs. 25).

  3. Enhanced succinic acid production under acidic conditions by introduction of glutamate decarboxylase system in E. coli AFP111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingke; Li, Xiaozhan; Guo, Shunfeng; Lemma, Wubliker Dessie; Zhang, Wenming; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jia, Honghua; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-04-01

    Biological synthesis of succinic acid at low pH values was favored since it not only decreased investment cost but also simplified downstream purification process. In this study, the feasibility of using glutamate decarboxylase system to improve succinic acid production of Escherichia coli AFP111, a succinate-producing candidate with mutations in pfl, ldhA, and ptsG, under acidic conditions was investigated. By overexpressing gadBC operon in AFP111, a recombinant named as BA201 (AFP111/pMD19T-gadBC) was constructed. Fermentation at pH 5.6 showed that 30 g L -1 glucose was consumed and 26.58 g L -1 succinic acid was produced by BA201, which was 1.22- and 1.32-fold higher than that by the control BA200 (AFP111/pMD19T) containing the empty vector. Analysis of intracellular enzymes activities and ATP concentrations revealed that the activities of key enzymes involved in glucose uptake and products synthesis and intracellular ATP levels were all increased after overexpression of gadBC which were benefit for cell metabolism under weak acidic conditions. To further improve the succinic acid titer by recombinant BA201 at pH 5.6, the extracellular glutamate concentration was optimized and the final succinic acid titer increased 20.4% to 32.01 g L -1 . Besides, the fermentation time was prolonged by repetitive fermentation and additional 15.78 g L -1 succinic acid was produced by recovering cells into fresh medium. The results here demonstrated a potential strategy of overexpressing gadBC for increased succinic acid production of E. coli AFP111 under weak acidic conditions.

  4. Detection and Quantification of Valerenic Acid in Commercially Available Valerian Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ruth H.; Muldowney, Ciaran A.; Mohamed, Rabab; Keohane, Fiona; Shanahan, Catherine; Walsh, John J.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.

    2007-01-01

    Several valerian-containing products sold in pharmacies were evaluated to verify the presence of Valeriana officinalis by identifying the presence of valerenic acid found only in species of Valeriana. The content of valerenic acid was found to vary considerably in the products analyzed, thus emphasizing the importance of standardizing herbal…

  5. Effect of different media on production of lactic acid from whey by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... biodegradable plastics (Onda et al., 2008; Panesar et al.,. 2007). One of the most important substrate for lactic acid production is whey. In this research the production of lactic acid from whey in batch process was investigated. For this the volume percent of ultra filtered whey and nutrition diluted with water ...

  6. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas M.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Goodman, Nelson; Schwartz, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving. PMID:16346998

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Thomas M.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Goodman, Nelson; Schwartz, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving.

  9. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  11. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  12. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... implicated in conversion of ethanol into acetic acid. (Tayama et al., 1989). Therefore, incapacity of these strains to produce acetic acid at 45 °C is probably due to several factors unexplained in our knowledge especially since Moghadami et al. (2013) have demonstrated that thermotolerant strains have high.

  13. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  14. Isolation of lower fungi for polyunsaturated fatty acid production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... 1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Ransit Center, Klong Luang,. Pathum Thani ... The major essential fatty acid composition was found to be arachidonic acid (ARA;. C20:4n6) ... tastes and odors of fish oil, shows that some fish especially salmon ...

  15. Optimization of lactic acid production with immobilized Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sule

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Lactic acid is the most widely utilized organic acid in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical industries. One of its most promising applications is for used biodegradable and ... polymer supports, by embedding with natural polymers like alginate gels and synthetic polymers (Tamada et al.,. 1992).

  16. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a new pharmaceutical material used in control release of protein drugs and as scaffold material in biomedical applications. It is also a vital source of sialic acid and its derivatives. In this paper, we demonstrated that the substrate sorbitol has significant effect on bacterial growth and PSA formation in ...

  17. Fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae and its facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupreet

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... Keeping in mind these two characteristics, the best possible option that came up for the ... Trend of percentage extraction of fumaric acid (1 g/100 ml) in the proposed. BLM set-up. FAm.TOAn (org) → FA ... fumaric acid have been described elsewhere in a similar fashion. (Kaur and Vohra, 2010; Zhang et al., ...

  18. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Wheals, 2004; Romero-Cortes et al., 2012). Generally, AAB emerged after 24 h of fermentation when air comes in fermentation heap (Nielsen et al., 2007) and then oxidize ethanol previously produced by yeasts to acetic acid by exothermic reaction. This acid diffuses into beans and in combination with heat ...

  19. Determining the fatty acid content of the most common meat products in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: High consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with increased risks cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, lipid disorders, diabetes, and possibly cancer. Therefore, most developed countries produce food products with trans fatty acid content of 0%-2% to support the consumers. This study sought to determine the amount of fatty acids in meat products and kebabs served in restaurants of Kermanshah, Iran.Methods: In order to determine the percentage of fatty acids, 69 samples were randomly taken from 14 kinds of meat products and kebabs served in restaurants of Kermanshah. To extract the 14 types of fatty acids, Folch and methylation methods were applied based on the guidelines of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS. A gas chromatograph equipped with an ion-flame sensor and a 100 m capillary column was used to measure trans fatty acids.Results: While the highest level of trans fatty acids was found in loghmeh-kebab (2.3%, the lowest level was detected in breaded shrimp (0.1% and chicken schnitzel (0.13%. Palmitic acid (C16:0 was the most common saturated fatty acid in restaurant kebabs and had the highest amount in loghmeh-kebabs (in convenience foods. Unsaturated fatty acids had the lowest concentration in restaurant kebabs (39.8-49.44%. Their levels in convenience foods varied from 49.99% in loghmeh-kebab to 76.11% in sausages. Among all unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C 18:1c and linoleic acid (C 18:2c had the highest concentrations in the studied samples.Conclusion: Loghmeh-kebab had the highest tans and saturated fatty acid contents among all the evaluated meat products. It can thus be a threat to the consumers’ health. Careful monitoring of food products in terms of fatty acid types, use of food labeling, and education to change consumption pattern in the country are recommended for public health promotion.

  20. Determination of amino acids in grape-derived products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Morales, M L

    2010-06-15

    The amino acids present in foods and beverages affect the quality of these products and they play an important role in enology. Amino acids are consumed by yeasts as a source of nitrogen during alcoholic fermentation and are precursors of aroma compounds. In this review various chromatographic methodologies for the determination of amino acids are described, and specific applications for the analysis of amino acid content are discussed. Amino acids usually need to be derivatized to make them more detectable. Several derivatizing reagents have been employed for the determination of amino acids in enological applications, and each has its advantages and disadvantages.

  1. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  2. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.; Dube, M.A.; McLean, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kates, M. [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    The reaction kinetics of acid-catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil in excess methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for possible use as biodiesel, was studied. Rate of mixing, feed composition (molar ratio oil:methanol:acid) and temperature were independent variables. There was no significant difference in the yield of FAME when the rate of mixing was in the turbulent range 100 to 600rpm. The oil:methanol:acid molar ratios and the temperature were the most significant factors affecting the yield of FAME. At 70{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios of 1:245:3.8, and at 80{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios in the range 1:74:1.9-1:245:3.8, the transesterification was essentially a pseudo-first-order reaction as a result of the large excess of methanol which drove the reaction to completion (99+/-1% at 4h). In the presence of the large excess of methanol, free fatty acids present in the waste oil were very rapidly converted to methyl esters in the first few minutes under the above conditions. Little or no monoglycerides were detected during the course of the reaction, and diglycerides present in the initial waste oil were rapidly converted to FAME. (author)

  3. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid. L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v inoculum. Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid.

  4. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (generic name). 721.9220 Section 721... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid (PMNs P-89-703, P-89-755, and P-89-756) are subject to reporting under this...

  5. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  6. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  7. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival and Growth of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Refrigerated Pickle Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sicun; Breidt, Fred; Price, Robert; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2017-01-01

    We examined 10 lactic acid bacteria that have been previously characterized for commercial use as probiotic cultures, mostly for dairy products, including 1 Pediococcus and 9 Lactobacilli. Our objectives were to develop a rapid procedure for determining the long-term survivability of these cultures in acidified vegetable products and to identify suitable cultures for probiotic brined vegetable products. We therefore developed assays to measure acid resistance of these cultures to lactic and acetic acids, which are present in pickled vegetable products. We used relatively high acid concentrations (compared to commercial products) of 360 mM lactic acid and 420 mM acetic acid to determine acid resistance with a 1 h treatment. Growth rates were measured in a cucumber juice medium at pH 5.3, 4.2, and 3.8, at 30 °C and 0% to 2% NaCl. Significant differences in acid resistance and growth rates were found among the 10 cultures. In general, the acid resistant strains had slower growth rates than the acid sensitive strains. Based on the acid resistance data, selected cultures were tested for long-term survival in a simulated acidified refrigerated cucumber product. We found that one of the most acid resistant strains (Lactobacillus casei) could survive for up to 63 d at 4 °C without significant loss of viability at 10 8 CFU/mL. These data may aid in the development of commercial probiotic refrigerated pickle products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Distribution of D-amino acids in vinegars and involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the production of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Akano, Hirofumi; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Levels of free D-amino acids were compared in 11 vinegars produced from different sources or through different manufacturing processes. To analyze the D- and L-amino acids, the enantiomers were initially converted into diastereomers using pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde plus N-acethyl-L-cysteine or N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-cysteine. This was followed by separation of the resultant fluorescent isoindol derivatives on an octadecylsilyl stationary phase using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The analyses showed that the total D-amino acid level in lactic fermented tomato vinegar was very high. Furthermore, analysis of the amino acids in tomato juice samples collected after alcoholic, lactic and acetic fermentation during the production of lactic fermented tomato vinegar showed clearly that lactic fermentation is responsible for the D-amino acids production; marked increases in D-amino acids were seen during lactic fermentation, but not during alcoholic or acetic fermentation. This suggests lactic acid bacteria have a greater ability to produce D-amino acids than yeast or acetic acid bacteria.

  10. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  11. ruminants by amino acid analysis of the products of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drying flasks and freeze dried. The dried samples were powdered with a mortar and pestle and analysed for amino acids as previously described (Dennison. & Gous, 1980). Corresponding unfermented samples were analysed at the same time.

  12. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  13. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Stijn; Roman, Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on the performance of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide as preferred oxidants, this minireview summarizes recent advances made in the selective oxidation of cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclohexanone and n-hexane to adipic acid. Special attention is paid to the exploration of catalytic...

  15. Overexpression of ESBP6 improves lactic acid resistance and production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Minetaka; Akase, Shin-Pei; Nakanishi, Ryota; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Polylactic acid plastics are receiving increasing attention for the control of atmospheric CO2 emissions. Lactic acid, the building block for polylactic acid, is produced by fermentation technology from renewable carbon sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harboring the lactate dehydrogenases gene (LDH), produces lactic acid at a large scale due to its strong acid resistance, to its simple nutritional requirements and to its ease of genetic engineering. Since improvement of lactic acid resistance is correlated with an increase of lactic acid production under non-neutralizing condition, we isolated a novel gene that enhances lactic acid resistance using a multi-copy yeast genomic DNA library. In this study, we identified the ESBP6 gene, which increases lactic acid resistance when overexpressed and which encodes a protein with similarity to monocarboxylate permeases. Although ESBP6 was not induced in response to lactic acid stress, it caused weak but reproducible sensitivity to lactic acid when disrupted. Furthermore, intracellular pH in the ESBP6 overexpressing strain was higher than that in the wild-type strain under lactic acid stressed condition, suggesting that Esbp6 plays some roles in lactic acid adaptation response. The ESBP6 overexpressing strain carrying the LDH gene induced 20% increase in lactic acid production compared with the wild-type strain carrying the LDH gene under non-neutralizing conditions. These results indicate that overexpression of ESBP6 provides a novel and useful tool to improve lactic acid resistance and lactic acid production in yeast. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. II. Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B A; Kinsella, J A; Watt, B K

    1975-07-01

    An estensive survey of the literature on lipids of beef covering the past fouteen years revealed that a number of factors, such as sex, age, and diet of animal, and analytical method, can affect the lipid content and fatty acid composition of beef. The feeding regimen of the animal was a factor considered in evaluating data for the food table. Extraction method was important in assessing information on lean tissue lipids. Statistical analysis showed that fatty acid patterns for the separable fat and separable lean of various meat cuts were not significantly different at the 5 per cent level. Cooking by dry or moist heat has little effect on relative fatty acid composition. Methods for converting methyl ester data into per cent composition of fatty acids in the meat cut are presented. A comprehensive table of fatty acids per 100 gm. separable lean, separable fet, and total edible portions of Choice grade cuts of beef is given, as well as a table acids per 100 gm. fat for lean and adipose tissues.

  17. Acid Pretreatment of Sago Wastewater for Biohydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi Mohamad Puad, Noor; Rahim, Nurainin Farhan Abd; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Biohydrogen has been recognized to be one of the future renewable energy sources and has the potential in solving the greenhouse effects. In this study, Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) was used as the biohydrogen producer via dark fermentation process using sago wastewater as the substrate. However, pretreatment of sago wastewater is required since it consists of complex sugars that cannot be utilized directly by the bacteria. This study aimed to use acid pretreatment method to produce high amount of glucose from sago wastewater. Three different types of acid: sulfuric acid (H2SO4); hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3) were screened for the best acid in producing a maximum amount of glucose. H2SO4 gave the highest amount of glucose which was 9.406 g/L. Design of experiment was done using Face-centred Central Composite Design (FCCCD) tool under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Design Expert 9 software. The maximum glucose (9.138 g/L) was recorded using 1 M H2SO4 at 100 °C for 60 min. A batch dark fermentation using E. aerogenes was carried out and it was found that pretreated sago wastewater gave a higher hydrogen concentration (1700 ppm) compared to the raw wastewater (410 ppm).

  18. In vitro methane production and quality of corn silage treated with maleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanber Kara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of maleic acid (MA addition to corn at ensiling on silage quality and in vitro methane and total gas production, metabolisable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD parameters by using in vitro gas production techniques. Forage corn was ensiled either without (control group: MA 0 or with three different dosages of maleic acid, 0.5% (MA 0.5, 1.0% (MA 1.0, and 1.5% (MA 1.5 w/w of the fresh material for 60 days. As a result of this study, neutral detergent fibre level was decreased in the MA 1.5 group (P<0.05. The 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% addition of maleic acid to forage corn at ensiling increased lactic acid concentration (P<0.05 in silage and reduced propionic acid (P<0.05. Iso-valeric acid concentration in the organic acids of the silage was decreased with maleic acid addition (P<0.05. The maleic acid addition decreased in vitro ruminal methane production (P<0.01. The silage pH value, and acetic, butyric and isobutyric acid concentrations and in vitro total gas production, OMD, and ME values did not change by MA addition (P>0.05. It was concluded that MA addition could reduce methane emission without any negative effects on silage nutrient composition or in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters.

  19. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  20. Qualitative analysis of products formed during the acid catalyzed liquefaction of bagasse in ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Dehua; Petrus, Leo

    2007-05-01

    Bagasse was liquefied in ethylene glycol (EG) catalyzed by sulfuric acid at 190 degrees C under atmospheric pressure. The compositions of the crude products obtained were analyzed after separating them into three fractions: a water-soluble fraction, an acetone-soluble fraction and a residue. With infrared, gel permeation chromatography and elemental analyses, the residue mainly included undissolved cellulose and lignin derivatives and the acetone-soluble fraction mainly contained lignin degradation products with high molecular weights. The water-soluble fraction, after further analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC, showed EG, diethylene glycol, EG derivatives, saccharides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, especially some acids such as formic acid, levulinic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid and 2-hydroxy-butyric acid and their esters. The Higher Heating Value (HHV) of the residue and the acetone-soluble fractions were higher than that of bagasse. The results showed that some useful chemicals and biofuels could be obtained by this process.

  1. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  2. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  3. Novel Caffeic Acid Nanocarrier: Production, Characterization, and Release Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of novel nanocarriers using layer by layer carbohydrate coating of caffeic acid loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs to improve stability and colon delivery of the poorly water-soluble caffeic acid. Three biopolymers (chitosan, alginate, and pectin in different concentrations (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% were electrostatically coated over the SLN surface. The size and zeta potential of produced nanocarriers were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mathematical models (i.e., zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Ritger-Peppas, reciprocal powered time, Weibull, and quadratic models were used to describe the release and kinetic modeling in gastrointestinal solution (GIS. Also, antioxidant activity of caffeic acid during the release in GIS was investigated using DPPH and reducing activity methods. The prepared treatments coated by alginate-chitosan as well as pectin-chitosan coated SLN at the concentration of 0.1% showed nanosized bead; the latter efficiently retarded the release of caffeic acid in gastric media up to 2.5 times higher than that of SLN. Zeta potential values of coated samples were found to significantly increase in comparison to SLN indicating the higher stability of produced nanocarriers. Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid after gastric release did not result in the same trend as observed for caffeic acid release from different treatments; however, in line with less caffeic acid release in the intestine solution by the effect of coating, lower antioxidant activity was determined at the end stage of the experiment.

  4. Polycarbonates from the polyhydroxy natural product quinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besset, Céline J; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Streff, Jennifer M; Wooley, Karen L

    2011-07-11

    Strategies for the preparation of polycarbonates, derived from natural polyhydroxy monomeric repeat units, were developed for biosourced polycarbonates based on quinic acid. The design and synthesis of regioselectively tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy (TBS)-protected 1,4- and 1,5-diol monomers of quinic acid were followed by optimization of their copolymerizations with phosgene, generated in situ from trichloromethyl chloroformate, to yield protected poly(1,4-quinic acid carbonate) and poly(1,5-quinic acid carbonate). The molecular weights reached ca. 7.6 kDa, corresponding to degrees of polymerization of ca. 24, with polydispersities ranging from 2.0 to 3.5, as measured by SEC using tetrahydrofuran as the eluent and with polystyrene calibration standards. Partially because of the presence of the bicyclic backbone, each regioisomeric poly(quinic acid carbonate) exhibited relatively high glass-transition temperatures, 209 °C for poly(1,4-quinic acid carbonate) and 229 °C for poly(1,5-quinic acid carbonate). Removal of the TBS-protecting groups was studied under mild conditions to achieve control over potential competing reactions involving polymer degradation, which could include cleavage of lactones within the repeat units, carbonate linkages, or both between the repeat units. Full deprotection was not achieved without some degree of polymer degradation. The regiochemistry of the monomer showed significant impact on the reactivity during deprotection and also on the thermal properties, with the 1,5-regioisomeric polymer having lower reactivity and giving higher T(g) values, in comparison with the 1,4-regioisomer. Each regioisomer underwent a 10-20 °C increase in T(g) upon partial removal of the TBS-protecting groups. As the extent of deprotection increased, the solubility decreased. Ultimately, at long deprotection reaction times, the solubility increased and the T(g) decreased because of significant degradation of the polymers.

  5. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  6. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  7. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...... hydrolysis. The effect of phenolics extraction on the downstream process was evaluated exhibiting no loss of sugars and an increase in the sugar release efficiency during the dilute acid hydrolysis. In order to suggest an economically feasible process, phenolics extraction and dilute acid hydrolysis prior...

  8. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    OpenAIRE

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, th...

  9. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds. PMID:26480023

  10. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  11. Production of sugars and levulinic acid from marine biomass Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    This study focused on optimization of reaction conditions for formation of sugars and levulinic acid from marine algal biomass Gelidium amansii using acid catalyst and by using statistical approach. By this approach, optimal conditions for production of sugars and levulinic acid were found as follows: glucose (reaction temperature of 139.4 degrees C, reaction time of 15.0 min, and catalyst concentration of 3.0%), galactose (108.2 degrees C, 45.0 min, and 3.0%), and levulinic acid (160.0 degrees C, 43.1 min, and 3.0%). While trying to optimize the conditions for the production of glucose and galactose, levulinic acid production was found to be minimum. Similarly, the production of glucose and galactose were found to be minimum while optimizing the conditions for the production of levulinic acid. In addition, optimized production of glucose required a higher reaction temperature and shorter reaction time than that of galactose. Levulinic acid was formed at a high reaction temperature, long reaction time, and high catalyst concentration. The combined results of this study may provide useful information to develop more economical and efficient systems for production of sugars and chemicals from marine biomass.

  12. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  13. Growth engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii shermanii for organic acids and other value-added products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijita V; Prakash, Gunjan; Lali, Arvind M

    2018-01-02

    Propionic acid production from glucose was studied using Propionibacterium freudenreichii shermanii. Conditions were optimized for high yields of propionic acid and total organic acids by sequential optimization of parameters like pH, inoculum age, inoculum volume and substrate concentration. Near-theoretical yield (0.54 ± 0.023 g/g) was achieved for propionic acid with fermentation of 1% glucose using 20% (v/v) of 48 hr old P. shermanii at 30°C, pH maintained at 5.5. Total organic acid yield under these conditions was 0.74 ± 0.06 g/g. The study resulted in achieving 98% and 95% theoretical yields of propionic acid and total organic acids, respectively. Under optimized conditions, along with organic acids, P. shermanii also produced vitamin B12 and trehalose intracellularly, showing its potential to be used as a cell factory.

  14. Batch production of L(+) lactic acid from whey by Lactobacillus casei (NRRL B-441)

    OpenAIRE

    Büyükkileci, Ali Oğuz; Harsa, Hayriye Şebnem

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and medium composition on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei were investigated. The highest lactic acid productivity values were obtained at 37 °C and pH 5.5. The productivity was 1.87 g dm-3 h-1 at 37 °C in shake flasks. In the fermenter, a productivity of 3.97 g dm-3 h-1 was obtained at pH 5.5. The most appropriate yeast extract concentration was 5.0 g dm-3. Whey yielded a higher productivity value than the analytical lactose and glucose. Initial w...

  15. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-03-01

    Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of ( S )-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids, ( S )-glutamic acid being used as a flavor-enhancing additive (MSG) for the human diet, and ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine as supplements for the feeding of domestic animals. Examples include chemical, enzymatic, and fermentation synthesis, and two clever continuous processes for the resolution of enantiomers. See Featured Molecules .

  16. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  17. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma compounds. Compared with the equimolar reaction system, the excess L-ascorbic acid reaction system produced more browning products and uncoloured intermediate products, while the aroma compounds production remained the same. In the excess L-glutamic acid system, the uncoloured intermediate products increased slightly, the browning products remained the same, while the aroma compounds increased.

  18. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  19. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  20. Effects of rare sugar D-allulose on acid production and probiotic activities of dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Moriya, N; Hayakawa, S; Kuramasu, K; Ohmori, H; Yamasaki, S; Ogawa, M

    2017-07-01

    It has recently been reported that the rare sugar d-allulose has beneficial effects, including the suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation in humans, and can be substituted for sucrose as a low-calorie food ingredient. To examine the applications of d-allulose in the dairy industry, we investigated the effects of d-allulose on the acid production of 8 strains of yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and 4 strains of lactococci, including potential probiotic candidates derived from dairy products. Acid production by 2 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus yogurt starter strains in milk was suppressed by d-allulose, but this phenomenon was also observed in some strains with another sugar (xylose), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), or both. In contrast, among the dairy probiotic candidates, Lactococcus lactis H61, which has beneficial effects for human skin when drunk as part of fermented milk, was the only strain that showed suppression of acid production in the presence of d-allulose. Strain H61 did not metabolize d-allulose. We did not observe suppression of acid production by strain H61 with the addition of xylose or sorbitol, and xylose and sorbitol were not metabolized by strain H61. The acid production of strain H61 after culture in a constituted medium (tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth) was also suppressed with the addition of d-allulose, but growth efficiency and sugar fermentation style were not altered. Probiotic activities-such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of H61-fermented milk and the superoxide dismutase activity of H61 cells grown in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth-were not affected by d-allulose. d-Allulose may suppress acid production in certain lactic acid bacteria without altering their probiotic activity. It may be useful for developing new probiotic dairy products from probiotic strains such as Lactococcus lactis H61. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  1. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  2. Lipase Secretion and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast Grown on Animal and Vegetable Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the potentiality of the utilization of raw agro- -industrial fat for the biotechnological production of valuable products (lipase and citric acid by the yeast Yarrowia (Candida lipolytica. Thirty strains of the aforementioned species were investigated for their capability of lipase secretion and citric acid production on media containing animal fat or rapeseed oil as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain Y. lipolytica 704, exhibiting the highest lipase activity on rapeseed oil (2760 U/mL, was selected for the study of biochemical peculiarities of cell growth, and strain Y. lipolytica 187/1, exhibiting the maximum citric acid synthesis, was selected for the subsequent studies on citric acid production. A relationship between lipase production and residual rapeseed oil concentration was studied. The essential factor for lipase production was found to be the concentration of rapeseed oil in the medium, which should be no less than 5 g/L. Under optimal conditions of cultivation, citric acid production by rapeseed-oil-grown yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 187/1 amounted to 135 g/L; specific rate of citric acid production reached m(CA/m(cell=127 mg/(g·h; mass yield (YCA and energy yield (hCA were 1.55 and 0.41, respectively.

  3. The Impact of Single Amino Acids on Growth and Volatile Aroma Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fairbairn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen availability and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae significantly influence fermentation kinetics and the production of volatile compounds important for wine aroma. Amino acids are the most important nitrogen source and have been classified based on how well they support growth. This study evaluated the effect of single amino acids on growth kinetics and major volatile production of two phenotypically different commercial wine yeast strains in synthetic grape must. Four growth parameters, lag phase, maximum growth rate, total biomass formation and time to complete fermentation were evaluated. In contrast with previous findings, in fermentative conditions, phenylalanine and valine supported growth well and asparagine supported it poorly. The four parameters showed good correlations for most amino acid treatments, with some notable exceptions. Single amino acid treatments resulted in the predictable production of aromatic compounds, with a linear correlation between amino acid concentration and the concentration of aromatic compounds that are directly derived from these amino acids. With the increased complexity of nitrogen sources, linear correlations were lost and aroma production became unpredictable. However, even in complex medium minor changes in amino acid concentration continued to directly impact the formation of aromatic compounds, suggesting that the relative concentration of individual amino acids remains a predictor of aromatic outputs, independently of the complexity of metabolic interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism and between amino acid degradation and utilization pathways.

  4. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  5. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  6. Utilization of gamma rays in the selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.C. da; Azevedo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production was studied by the method of Foster and Davis with the use of gamma rays. Three selection cycles were carried out, and the acid production character of each population was analyzed quantitatively by the unitage acid factor. Isolates with high unitage values in relation to the paternal strain were assayed in a liquid fermentation medium. No correlation was found that would indicate unlimited use of Foster and Davis' method in the selection of more productive strains. (Author) [pt

  7. Organic acid pretreatment of oil palm trunk: effect on enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Tantayotai, Prapakorn; Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Sriariyanun, Malinee

    2018-04-01

    Effective lignocellulosic biomass saccharification is one of the crucial requirements of biofuel production via fermentation process. Organic acid pretreatments have been gained much interests as one of the high potential methods for promoting enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials due to their lower hazardous properties and lower production of inhibitory by-products of fermentation than typical chemical pretreatment methods. In this study, three organic acids, including acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, were examined for improvement of enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from oil palm trunk biomass. Based on response surface methodology, oxalic acid pretreated biomass released the maximum reducing sugar of 144 mg/g-pretreated biomass at the optimum condition, which was higher than untreated samples for 2.30 times. The released sugar yield of oil palm trunk also corresponded to the results of FT-IR analysis, which revealed the physical modification of cellulose and hemicellulose surface structures of pretreated biomass. Nevertheless, citric acid pretreatment is the most efficient pretreatment method to improve bioethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5606 at 1.94 times higher than untreated biomass. These results highlighted the selection of organic acid pretreatment as a potential method for biofuel production from oil palm trunk feedstocks.

  8. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efficient production of l-lactic acid by an engineered Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense with broad substrate specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to optically pure lactic acid is a key challenge for the economical production of biodegradable poly-lactic acid. A recently isolated strain, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense SCUT27, is promising as an efficient lactic acid production bacterium from biomass due to its broad substrate specificity. Additionally, its strictly anaerobic and thermophilic characteristics suppress contamination from other microoragnisms. Herein, we report the significant improvements of concentration and yield in lactic acid production from various lignocellulosic derived sugars, achieved by the carbon flux redirection through homologous recombination in T. aotearoense SCUT27. Results T. aotearoense SCUT27 was engineered to block the acetic acid formation pathway to improve the lactic acid production. The genetic manipulation resulted in 1.8 and 2.1 fold increase of the lactic acid yield using 10 g/L of glucose or 10 g/L of xylose as substrate, respectively. The maximum l-lactic acid yield of 0.93 g/g glucose with an optical purity of 99.3% was obtained by the engineered strain, designated as LA1002, from 50 g/L of substrate, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g/g of glucose). In particular, LA1002 produced lactic acid at an unprecedented concentration up to 3.20 g/L using 10 g/L xylan as the single substrate without any pretreatment after 48 h fermentation. The non-sterilized fermentative production of l-lactic acid was also carried out, achieving values of 44.89 g/L and 0.89 g/g mixed sugar for lactic acid concentration and yield, respectively. Conclusions Blocking acetic acid formation pathway in T. aotearoense SCUT27 increased l-lactic acid production and yield dramatically. To our best knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on lactic acid production using xylan as the sole carbon source, considering the final concentration, yield and fermentation time. In addition, it should be

  10. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  12. Production of lactic acid from Starchy-based food substrates | Wakil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the best starchy food substrate for the fermentative production of lactic acid. Methodology and Results: Five starchy-based food substrates (maize ogi, sorghum ogi, millet ogi, mashed cassava for gari production and steeped cassava for fufu production) were prepared fresh and allowed to ferment ...

  13. Relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with

  14. Metabolic engineering of the fungal D-galacturonate pathway for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Synthetic L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is widely used as a preservative and nutrient in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the current production method, D-glucose is converted to L-ascorbic acid via several biochemical and chemical steps. The main source of L-ascorbic acid in human nutrition is plants. Several alternative metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis are known in plants. In one of them, D-galacturonic acid is the precursor. D-Galacturonic acid is also the main monomer in pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide. Pectin is abundant in biomass and is readily available from several waste streams from fruit and sugar processing industries. In the present work, we engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger for the conversion of D-galacturonic acid to L-ascorbic acid. In the generated pathway, the native D-galacturonate reductase activity was utilized while the gene coding for the second enzyme in the fungal D-galacturonic acid pathway, an L-galactonate consuming dehydratase, was deleted. Two heterologous genes coding for enzymes from the plant L-ascorbic acid pathway--L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase from Euglena gracilis (EgALase) and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from Malpighia glabra (MgGALDH)--were introduced into the A. niger strain. Alternatively, an unspecific L-gulono-1,4-lactone lactonase (smp30) from the animal L-ascorbic acid pathway was introduced in the fungal strain instead of the plant L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase. In addition, a strain with the production pathway inducible with D-galacturonic acid was generated by using a bidirectional and D-galacturonic acid inducible promoter from the fungus. Even though, the lactonase enzyme activity was not observed in the resulting strains, they were capable of producing L-ascorbic acid from pure D-galacturonic acid or pectin-rich biomass in a consolidated bioprocess. Product titers up to 170 mg/l were achieved. In the current study, an L-ascorbic acid pathway using

  15. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Production Process for Food Grade Acetic Acid by Acetobacter aceti in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Hassan M.; Diaz, Richard; Malek, Roslinda A.; Othman, Nor Zalina; Aziz, Ramlan A.; El Enshasy, Hesham A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid is one of the important weak acids which had long history in chemical industries. This weak organic acid has been widely used as one of the key intermediate for many chemical, detergent, wood and food industries. The production of this acid is mainly carried out using submerged fermentation system and the standard strain Acetobacter aceti. In the present work, six different media were chosen from the literatures and tested for acetic acid production. The highest acetic acid produc...

  17. Bacteriocin and cellulose production by lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen colonies of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were selected and screened for their ability to produce bacteriocin by agar well diffusion method using the supernatant of centrifuged test cultures. Four isolates inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Lactobacillus plantarum (6) and Lactobacillus ...

  18. Fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae and its facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The set up consisted of a modified layered 'liquid membrane' setup for a 'fumaric acid' source, with toluene as organic membrane and sodium hydroxide as strip phase. The liquid membrane contained a carrier for assisted transfer and was agitated. Maximum extraction takes place during the first 20 to 30 min of the run as ...

  19. Biotechnology for improving hydroxy fatty acid production in lesquerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Lesquerella [Physaria fendleri (A. Gray)], formerly Lesquerella fendleri, (Brassicaceae), being developed as a new industrial oilseed crop in the southwestern region of the United States, is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) in seed. The majority of HFA in lesquerella is lesquerolic...

  20. Modulation of folate production in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegkamp, H.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food fortification has proven to be very useful in reducing health problems associated with mal-intake of essential nutrients, such as the B-vitamin folate. Folate is used as one-carbon donor/acceptor in several biochemical processes like synthesis of DNA, RNA and some amino acids. Sufficient intake

  1. Glucosamine increases hyaluronic acid production in human osteoarthritic synovium explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Uitterlinden (Elian); C.F. Verkoelen; S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); H. Jahr (Holger); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); J.L.M. Koevoet (Wendy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Glucosamine (GlcN) used by patients with osteoarthritis was demonstrated to reduce pain, but the working mechanism is still not clear. Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is also described to reduce pain in osteoarthritis. The synthesis of HA requires GlcN as one

  2. Fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae and its facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupreet

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... membrane' setup for a 'fumaric acid' source, with toluene as organic membrane and sodium hydroxide as strip phase. The liquid ... polymer films can be extended to include liquids. They are defined as Liquid .... Membrane solutions were prepared by dissolution of trioctylamine. (TOA) (Fluka A.G. ...

  3. Growth and lactic acid production by Bifidobacterium longum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fitness of a particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and Streptococci for commercial utilization depends on its rapid growth and acidification of milk as well as its acid and oxygen tolerence. From 20 samples of French commercial yoghurt, one species of bifidobacteria was identified as Bifidobacterium longum.

  4. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce

  5. New yeast-based approaches in production of palmitoleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolouchová, I.; Sigler, Karel; Schreiberová, O.; Masák, J.; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 192, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 726-734 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Oleaginous yeasts * Non-oleaginous yeasts * Palmitoleic acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.917, year: 2015

  6. Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low ...

  7. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of sunflower stalks for sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Cara, Cristóbal; Vidal, Juan D; Castro, Eulogio

    2013-07-01

    In this work the pretreatment of sunflower stalks by dilute sulfuric acid is studied. Pretreatment temperature and the concentration of acid solution were selected as operation variables and modified according to a central rotatable composite experimental design. Based on previous studies pretreatment time was kept constant (5 min) while the variation range for temperature and acid concentration was centered at 175°C and 1.25% (w/v) respectively. Following pretreatment the insoluble solids were separated by filtration and further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis, while liquid fractions were analyzed for sugars and inhibitors. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze results based on the combined severity of pretreatment experiments. Optimized results show that up to 33 g of glucose and xylose per 100g raw material (65% of the glucose and xylose present in the raw material) may be available for fermentation after pretreatment at 167°C and 1.3% sulfuric acid concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The correlation of Mycolic acid production by a toluene degrading Mycobacterium in the presence of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Emtiazi *

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell wall mycolic acids (MA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented as antigens that can be used to detect antibodies as surrogate markers of active Tuberculosis (TB disease, even in HIV coinfected patients. The use of the complex mixtures of natural MA is complicated by apparent antibody cross-reactivity with cholesterol. Mycolic acid is not only related to diagnosis of TB disease but also similar structure of mycolic acid in saprophyte strains are excellent candidate for drug delivery especially for nasal spray. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cholesterol on mycolic acid synthesis and potential of saprophyte mycolic acid to drug delivery. Materials and methods: Toluene enrichment medium was used for isolation of mycolic acid producing bacteria. A fast growing, acid fast bacterium was identified by PCR reaction and the related sequence of 16S rRNA gene was deposited in the NCBI Genbank with accession number jn64433. Production of mycolic acid was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in different media. Results: Here the effect of cholesterol on biosynthesis of mycolic acids by saprophyte Mycobacterium isolated from marine water is was reported. HPLC analyses showed the mycolic acid extracted from saprophyte. Mycobacterium had one, early, cluster of peaks, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mobacterium bovis.This strain is a fast growing bacterium and cholesterol might promote longer fatty acid production. Discussion and conclusion: The similarity between mycolic acid from isolated and patogenic mycobacteria offers that mycolic acid obtained from saprophyte Mycobacterium can be useful as a drug carrier. Addition of egg yolk to media induced longer fatty acid production by isolating that is suitable for delivery of drugs into the macrophage.

  9. Biotechnological production of itaconic acid-things you have to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenz, Anja; Krull, Susan

    2018-03-13

    Itaconic acid is one of the basic chemicals for the polymer industry, which can be produced on the basis of renewable raw materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century, itaconic acid has been produced industrially using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. But the demand for the organic acid is low due to the high production costs compared to alternative petrochemical manufactured raw materials. The high production costs are based on a low final titer, low productivities, and the usage of pure sugars, purified molasses, or starch hydrolysates, since the fungus reacts very sensitively to impurities in a culture medium. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent developments, including a spectrum of studied microorganisms and their capabilities for the production of itaconic acid. The technological achievements in the biotechnological production of itaconic acid are presented. Particular attention is paid to current achievements in terms of suitable alternative substrates and their applicability in fermentation processes. Also, the pathway of itaconic acid and especially the influences on the fermentation process, which must be known in order to achieve a high final titer of itaconic acid, a yield close to the theoretical yield, and high productivity.

  10. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains.

  11. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  12. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1 st step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2 nd step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of prostaglandin D₂ production by trihydroxy fatty acids isolated from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Gyu; Park, Yu Mi; Lu, Yue; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Na, Minkyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-09-01

    The stem and root barks of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Ulmaceae) have been used to treat inflammatory diseases including mastitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, and enteritis. In an ongoing study focused on the discovery of natural anti-inflammatory compounds from natural products, a methanol extract of the stem and root barks of U. davidiana var. japonica showed anti-inflammatory activities. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded a new trihydroxy fatty acid, 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (1), and a known compound, pinellic acid (2). These two trihydroxy fatty acids 1 and 2 inhibited prostaglandin D₂ production with IC₅₀ values of 25.8 and 40.8 μM, respectively. These results suggest that 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (1) and pinellic acid (2) are among the anti-inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Butler, T.A.; Callahan, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  15. Catalytic performance of hybrid nanocatalyst for levulinic acid production from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'aini, Nazlina; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2012-11-01

    Levulinic acid is one of the potential and versatile biomass-derived chemicals. Product analysis via HPLC revealed that the heterogeneous dehydration of glucose over hybrid nanocatalyst exhibited better performance compared to single catalyst. Hybrid nanocatalyst containing H-Y zeolite and CrCl3 could substitute homogenous acid catalyst for attaining high levulinic acid yield. Different CrC3 and H-Y zeolite weight ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were prepared according to the wetness impregnation method. The hybrid catalyst with a 1:1 weight ratio performed better compared to others with the highest levulinic acid yield reported (93.5%) at 140 °C, 180 min reaction time, 0.1 g catalyst loading and 0.1 g glucose feed. Characterization results revealed that properties such as surface area, mesoporosity and acidic strength of the catalyst have significant effects on glucose dehydration for levulinic acid production.

  16. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    , today’s organic residues and wastes may become tomorrow’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Compared to other microbial...... strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature....... The present study focuses on butyric acid fermentation of Pre-treated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straw (PHWS) by an adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain. The strain could grow in up to 80% (v/v) PHWS in batch mode and it was capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose producing butyric...

  17. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30 to December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J E; Wise, D L

    1978-03-10

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicates that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ have been observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate.

  18. Encapsulation of ascorbic acid promotes the reduction of Maillard reaction products in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitiello, Daniele; Tsang, Catherine; Fiore, Alberto

    2016-06-15

    The presence of amino groups and carbonyls renders fortified milk with ascorbic acid particularly susceptible to the reduction of available lysine and to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), as Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine (CEL), Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML), Amadori products (APs) and off-flavors. A novel approach was proposed to control the Maillard reaction (MR) in fortified milk: ascorbic acid was encapsulated in a lipid coating and the effects were tested after a lab scale UHT treatment. Encapsulation promoted a delayed release of ascorbic acid and a reduction in the formation of MRPs. Total lysine increased up to 45% in milk with encapsulated ascorbic acid, while reductions in CML, CEL and furosine ranged from 10% to 53% compared with control samples. The effects were also investigated towards the formation of amide-AGEs (advanced glycation end products) by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that several mechanisms coincide with the MR in the presence of ascorbic acid.

  19. Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria Induce Natural-Product Biosynthesis in Streptomyces Species▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Mori, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, we show that mycolic acid-containing bacteria can influence the biosynthesis of cryptic natural products in Streptomyces species. The production of red pigment by Streptomyces lividans TK23 was induced by coculture with Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596, which is a mycolic acid-containing bacterium. Only living cells induced this pigment production, which was not mediated by any substances. T. pulmonis could induce natural-product synthesis in other Streptomyces strains too: it altered natural-product biosynthesis in 88.4% of the Streptomyces strains isolated from soil. The other mycolic acid-containing bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, altered biosynthesis in 87.5 and 90.2% of the Streptomyces strains, respectively. The coculture broth of T. pulmonis and Streptomyces endus S-522 contained a novel antibiotic, which we named alchivemycin A. We concluded that the mycolic acid localized in the outer cell layer of the inducer bacterium influences secondary metabolism in Streptomyces, and this activity is a result of the direct interaction between the mycolic acid-containing bacteria and Streptomyces. We used these results to develop a new coculture method, called the combined-culture method, which facilitates the screening of natural products. PMID:21097597

  20. Response surface modeling for y-aminobutyric acid production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to seek for the crucial parameters that affect the production of GABA. In addition, central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize each crucial variable. As a result, the maximum GABA production predicted by the CCD was 937.61 mg/kg using 60 g sterilized rice and 0.5% ...

  1. Fermentative production and application of acid phytase by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of phytase production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae CY strain was attempted by optimizing the culture medium. The optimum medium components for cell growth and enzyme production were found to be galactose, ammonium sulfate, sodium phytate, and magnesium sulfate. Galactose (5%) and ammonium ...

  2. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... valuable natural products. Plant as well as in vitro plant cell or tissue culture have served as resources for preservatives, natural pigments, flavors, enzymes, biobased fuels and plastics, cosmetics, and bioactive compounds (Mary, 2005). A series of distinct advantages such as production can be more ...

  3. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicate that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ were observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate. Work is continuing to improve the yield of acetic acid from marine algae. Marine algae have been found to be rather low in carbon, but the carbon appears to be readily available for fermentation. It, therefore, lends itself to the production of higher value chemicals in relatively expensive equipment, where the rapid conversion rate is particularly cost effective. Fixed packed bed fermenters appear to be desirable for the production of liquid products which are inhibitory to the fermentation from coarse substrates. The inhibitory products may be removed from the fermentation by extraction during recirculation. This technique lends itself to either conventional processing or low capital processing of substrates which require long retention times.

  4. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ryan D; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Nichol, Kristy S; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A; Wark, Peter A B; Hansbro, Philip M; Hirota, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Huff

    Full Text Available The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production.Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies.HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4 inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells.Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ryan D.; Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Nichol, Kristy S.; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A.; Wark, Peter A. B.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Materials and methods Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. Results HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:28863172

  7. Improvement in citric acid production of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, Wachiraporn; Sansakorn, Sujittra; Puntharakratchadej, Chanin

    2003-10-01

    Ultraviolet and gamma irradiation were used to induce mutation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 in order to increase ability of citric acid production. Five mutants of high-producing citric acid were 7UV-18, A2-14, 9UV-2, 9UV-27 and 8UV-10. The yields of citric acid were 2.0 to 3.84 fold higher than that of the wild type strain

  8. Analyses of Dynamics in Dairy Products and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Population by Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Aytül Sofu

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with different ecological niches are widely seen in fermented meat, vegetables, dairy products and cereals as well as in fermented beverages. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important group of bacteria in dairy industry due to their probiotic characteristics and fermentation agents as starter culture. In the taxonomy of the lactic acid bacteria; by means of rep-PCR, which is the analysis of repetitive sequences that are based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene seque...

  9. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  10. Production of Oleic Acid Based Wax Ester Using Acidic Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naowara Al-Arafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four homogeneous acidic catalysts were tested for their ability to catalyze the esterification reaction of oleic acid and oleyl alcohol to produce oleyl oleate, a wax ester. Sulfuric acid showed relatively higher specific activity. Various reaction parameters were optimised to obtain high percentage yield of oleyl oleate. The optimum condition to produce oeyl oleate was reaction time; 5 h, temperture; 90°C, amount of sulforic acid 0.15 g and molar ratio of oleyl alcohol to oleic acid; 1:1. Percentage yield of wax ester obtained at these optimum reaction conditions was 93.88. Disappearance of carboxylic acid (C=O peak has confirmed by FTIR with appearance of ester (C=O peak at 1739 cm−1. 1H NMR spectra analyses confirmed the result of oleyl oleate with appearance of ester (-CH2OCOR at 4.02 ppm and also the 13C-NMR confirmed the result with appearance of ester (C=O peak at 173.2 ppm. The low-temperture behavior of compound synthesized was determined through its pour point (PP, viscosity index (VI and flash point (FP values. The results showed that oleyl oleate exhibited the most favorable low-temperture performance of PP, VI and FP with −31°C, 197.5 and 320°C respectively. This is due to increase of the molacular weight thus improve the low temperture property significantly.

  11. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbatal, A.I.; Khalaf, S.A.; Khalil, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N 2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  12. Metabolic engineering of Ustilago trichophora TZ1 for improved malic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiemo Zambanini

    2017-06-01

    These results open up a wide range of possibilities for further optimization, especially combinatorial metabolic engineering to increase the flux from pyruvate to malic acid and to reduce by-product formation.

  13. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahmanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermented with some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as Split Plot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and the sub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productions was in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L. fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Control treatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  14. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  15. Lactic acid production from Cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient and rapid production of value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an important step towards a sustainable society. Lactic acid, used for synthesizing the bioplastic polylactide, has been produced by microbial fermentation using primarily glucose. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates co...

  16. New trends and challenges in lactic acid production on renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is a relatively cheap chemical with a wide range of applications: as a preservative and acidifying agent in food and dairy industry, a monomer for biodegradable poly-lactide polymers (PLA in pharmaceutical industry, precursor and chemical feedstock for chemical, textile and leather industries. Traditional raw materials for fermentative production of lactic acid, refined sugars, are now being replaced with starch from corn, rice and other crops for industrial production, with a tendency for utilization of agro industrial wastes. Processes based on renewable waste sources have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials, reduction of storage costs advantages. An intensive research interest has been recently devoted to develop and improve the lactic acid production on more complex industrial by-products, like thin stillage from bioethanol production, corncobs, paper waste, straw etc. Complex and variable chemical composition and purity of these raw materials and high nutritional requirements of Lare the main obstacles in these production processes. Media supplementation to improve the fermentation is an important factor, especially from an economic point of view. Today, a particular challenge is to increase the productivity of lactic acid production on complex renewable biomass. Several strategies are currently being explored for this purpose such as process integration, use of Lwith amylolytic activity, employment of mixed cultures of Land/or utilization of genetically engineered microorganisms. Modern techniques of genetic engineering enable construction of microorganisms with desired characteristics and implementation of single step processes without or with minimal pre-treatment. In addition, new bioreactor constructions (such as membrane bioreactors, utilization of immobilized systems are also being explored. Electrodialysis, bipolar membrane separation process, enhanced filtration

  17. Serum uric acid levels and leukocyte nitric oxide production in multiple sclerosis patients outside relapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, JP; Ramsaransing, GSM; Heerserna, DJ; Heerings, M; Wilczak, N; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: A number of studies found that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have low serum levels of uric acid. It is unclear whether this represents a primary deficit or secondary effect. Uric acid is a scavenger of peroxynitrite, which is the product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide.

  18. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Holly Jean [Chanhassen, MN; Liao, Hans H [Eden Prairie, MN; Gort, Steven John [Apple Valley, MN; Selifonova, Olga V [Plymouth, MN

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  19. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  20. Two-stage medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) production from municipal solid waste and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chain elongation is an anaerobic fermentation that produces medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from volatile fatty acids and ethanol. These MCFAs can be used as biochemical building blocks for fuel production and other chemical processes. Producing MCFAs from the organic fraction of municipal solid

  1. Effect of different media on production of lactic acid from whey by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whey containing 50 g.l -1 lactose was fermented to lactic acid in batch process by Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The impact of 5 different media with change in volume percent of whey and nutrient was investigated at 32 ± 0.5°C. Substrate consumption and lactic acid production were determined at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h.

  2. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Shuai; Q. Yang; Junyong Zhu; F.C. Lu; P.J. Weimer; J. Ralph; X.L. Pan

    2010-01-01

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180C for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium...

  3. Microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense: Analysis of amino acid metabolism using mass balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Bonarius, H.P.J.; Tramper, J.; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic flows, especially those of amino acids, were determined and analyzed at different stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense. The method is mainly based on mass balances and measurements of amino acids and other metabolites.

  4. Optimization of culture media for enhancing gamma-linolenic acid production by Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: g-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition. In the present study, production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292 was evaluated in submerged fermentation. Materials and methods: The fermentation variables were chosen according to the fractional factorial design and further optimized via full factorial method. Four significant variables, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and pH were selected for the optimization studies. The design consisted of total 16 runs consisting of runs at two levels for each factor with three replications of the center points. Results: The analysis of variance and three-dimensional response surface plot of effects indicated that variables were regarded to be significant for production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis. Results indicated that fermentation at the optimum conditions (100 g/l glucose concentration; 1 g/l peptone; 1 g/l ammonium nitrate, and pH of 4.5 enhanced the g-linolenic acid production up to 709 mg/l. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that higher g-linolenic acid yield can be achieved in a simple medium at high glucose and ammonium nitrate, low peptone concentrations and acidic pH by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292. This simple and low cost optimization condition of culture media can be applied for g-linolenic acid production at higher scale for pharmaceutical and nutritional industries. 

  5. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  6. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of beta-carotene and retinoic acid oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Liu, Manping X; Kantipudi, Narendra B; Brochini, Claudia B; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A; Canfield, Louise M

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of the beta-carotene oxidation product, 2,3-dihydro-5,8-endoperoxy-beta-apo-carotene-13-one (1) was achieved in six steps starting from beta-ionone. Photo-oxygenation of all trans-retinoic acid (8) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (9) produced a mixture of 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (10) and 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (11). Methylation of the crude photo-oxygenation mixture afforded the corresponding methyl esters 12 and 13, respectively, both of which underwent ready aerial oxidation yielding hitherto unknown oxidation products of retinoic acid identified as methyl 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (14) and methyl 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (15). Evaluation of 1, all trans-retinoic acid (8), 13-cis-retinoic acid (9), and the photo-oxygenation products 10-15 in a panel of five cancer cell lines showed 1 to be inactive and that 11 is significantly cytotoxic compared with the other retinoic acid analogs suggesting the requirement of the carboxylic acid moiety and the cis-geometry of the 13(14) double bond for cytotoxic activity.

  7. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are required for the production of infectious human cytomegalovirus progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with ¹³C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.

  8. L-(+-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piassi Bernardo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid, a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7 g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  9. Optimization of Gallic Acid Production from Terminalia Chebula by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lokeswari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for producing gallic acid by microbiological hydrolysis of the tannins of myrobalan seed powder is described in the present work. Hydrolysis of gallotannins of the substrate to gallic acid by Aspergillus niger MTCC 282 was studied. A simple extraction procedure is used. Fungal mycelia pre-induced with 5 g/L gallotannin was used as inoculums. Optimal conditions of production were determined using various parameters including gallotannin concentration, nutritional source and metal ions are determined. Gallotannin is hydrolyzed with acid, and gallic acid in the hydrolyses is then assayed using rhodanine. This method is very specific: no interferences from other plant phenolics, including ellagic acid and condensed tannin, have been observed. The yield of gallic acid with respect to gallotannins present in the substrate is estimated. Yields of gallic acid are about 74% with respect to gallotannin concentration, which suggests that this method is exploitable industrially for the manufacturing trimethoprim drug.

  10. Morphological regulation of Aspergillus niger to improve citric acid production by chsC gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowen; Wu, Hefang; Zhao, Genhai; Li, Zhemin; Wu, Xihua; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-04-02

    The mycelial morphology of Aspergillus niger, a major filamentous fungus used for citric acid production, is important for citric acid synthesis during submerged fermentation. To investigate the involvement of the chitin synthase gene, chsC, in morphogenesis and citric acid production in A. niger, an RNAi system was constructed to silence chsC and the morphological mutants were screened after transformation. The compactness of the mycelial pellets was obviously reduced in the morphological mutants, with lower proportion of dispersed mycelia. These morphological changes have caused a decrease in viscosity and subsequent improvement in oxygen and mass transfer efficiency, which may be conducive for citric acid accumulation. All the transformants exhibited improvements in citric acid production; in particular, chsC-3 showed 42.6% higher production than the original strain in the shake flask. Moreover, the high-yield strain chsC-3 exhibited excellent citric acid production potential in the scale-up process.The citric acid yield and the conversion rate of glucose of chsC-3 were both improved by 3.6%, when compared with that of the original strain in the stirred tank bioreactor.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes’ expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.  

  12. Recent trends in lactic acid biotechnology: A brief review on production to purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyba Ghaffar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is one of the most important organic acid which is being extensively used around the globe in a range of industrial and biotechnological applications. From its very old history to date, many methods have been introduced to improve the optimization of lactic acid to get highest yields of the product of industrial interests. In serious consideration of the worldwide economic and lactic acid consumption issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of materials with natural origin, which are cheap, abundant and easily available all around the year. Recent trends showed that lactic acid production through fermentation is advantageous over chemical due to the environmental concerns of the modern world. The eco-friendly processing and fermentable capability of many of the agricultural and agro-industrial based raw materials or by-products respectively makes them attractive candidates in fermentation biotechnology to produce a value-added product with multiple applications. In fact, major advances have already been achieved in recent years in order to get pure lactic acid with optimal yield. The present review work is summarized on the multi-step processing technologies to produce lactic acid from different substances as a starting material potentially from various agro-industrial based biomasses. The information is also given on a purification through schematic representation of the product of quality interests.

  13. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  14. Sustainability assessment of succinic acid production technologies from biomass using metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Morales M.; Ataman M.; Badr S.; Linster S.; Kourlimpinis I.; Papadokonstantakis S.; Hatzimanikatis V.; Hungerbühlera K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years bio succinic acid from renewable resources has gained increasing attention as a potential bio derived platform chemical for the detergent/surfactant ion chelator food and pharmaceutical markets. Until now much research was undertaken to lower the production costs of bio succinic acid however a multicriteria sustainability evaluation of established and upcoming production processes from a technical perspective is still lacking in the scientific literature. In this study...

  15. Production of organic acids in an immobilized cell reactor using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    , whole cell, ... activities of free enzyme and cell may gradually decline in a bioreactor (Gui et al., 2007; ... Product. Examples. Enzymes. -Amylases, cellulase and other cellulolytic enzymes, chitinolytic enzymes, cyclodextrin,.

  16. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    physiological homeostasis, animal welfare and productivity. Key words: Ruminants, monocarboxylates, monocarboxylate transporters, CD147. INTRODUCTION. Most mammals are herbivorous and are involved in the consumption of plant material high in structural carbo- hydrates. Consequently, these groups of animals ...

  17. Scale-up laccase production from Trametes versicolor stimulated by vanillic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    An efficient strategy for laccase production in Trametes versicolor cultures was developed using vanillic acid as the inducer. The optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 80 mg/L vanillic acid. After 4 days, laccase activity of 588.84 U/L was achieved in flasks which represented a 1.79-fold increase compared to the control. In 200-L airlift bioreactor, the maximal laccase activity reached up to 785.12 U/L using the optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy. The zymograms of culture supernatants revealed three bands with laccase activity, among which Lac1 and Lac2 were abundant laccase isoforms constitutively expressed, and Lac3 was an inducible isozyme by vanillic acid. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the transcription level of lcc in T. versicolor cultures grown with vanillic acid for 7 days was about 5.64-fold greater than that without vanillic acid in flasks. In 200-L airlift bioreactor cultures of T. versicolor with addition of vanillic acid, the transcript level of lcc at day 7 was 2.62-fold higher than that in flasks with vanillic acid due to the good mass transfer and oxygen supply in the bioreactor system. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of vanillic acid for laccase production and has good potential for industrial applications.

  18. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  19. Integration of succinic acid and ethanol production with potential application in a corn or barley biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B; Johnston, David B

    2010-11-01

    Production of succinic acid from glucose by Escherichia coli strain AFP184 was studied in a batch fermentor. The bases used for pH control included NaOH, KOH, NH(4)OH, and Na(2)CO(3). The yield of succinic acid without and with carbon dioxide supplied by an adjacent ethanol fermentor using either corn or barley as feedstock was examined. The carbon dioxide gas from the ethanol fermentor was sparged directly into the liquid media in the succinic acid fermentor without any pretreatment. Without the CO(2) supplement, the highest succinic acid yield was observed with Na(2)CO(3), followed by NH(4)OH, and lowest with the other two bases. When the CO(2) produced in the ethanol fermentation was sparged into the media in the succinic acid fermentor, no improvement of succinic acid yield was observed with Na(2)CO(3). However, several-fold increases in succinic acid yield were observed with the other bases, with NH(4)OH giving the highest yield increase. The yield of succinic acid with CO(2) supplement from the ethanol fermentor when NH(4)OH was used for pH control was equal to that obtained when Na(2)CO(3) was used, with or without CO(2) supplementation. The benefit of sparging CO(2) from ethanol fermentation on the yield of succinic acid demonstrated the feasibility of integration of succinic acid fermentation with ethanol fermentation in a biorefinery for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

  20. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  1. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  2. Substrate-limited co-culture for efficient production of propionic acid from flour hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, W; Dietz, D; Zeng, A P

    2013-07-01

    Propionic acid is presently mainly produced by chemical synthesis. For many applications, especially in feed and food industries, a fermentative production of propionic acid from cheap and renewable resources is of large interest. In this work, we investigated the use of a co-culture to convert household flour to propionic acid. Batch and fed-batch fermentations of hydrolyzed flour and a process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were examined and compared. Fed-batch culture with substrate limitation was found to be the most efficient process, reaching a propionic acid concentration of 30 g/L and a productivity of 0.33 g/L*h. This is the highest productivity so far achieved with free cells on media containing flour hydrolysate or glucose as carbon source. Batch culture and culture with controlled saccharification and fermentation delivered significantly lower propionic acid production (17-20 g/L) due to inhibition by the intermediate product lactate. It is concluded that co-culture fermentation of flour hydrolysate can be considered as an appealing bioprocess for the production of propionic acid.

  3. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. PMID:27556042

  4. Comparison of efficacy of products containing azelaic acid in melasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Klaudia; Pierzchała, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Melasma is one of the most frequently diagnosed hyperpigmentation changes on the skin of women's faces. Nearly 30% of women using oral estrogen therapy struggle with this problem. A common way of reducing melasma is the application of azelaic acid products. Comparison of efficacy of three dermocosmetic products, containing azelaic acid, in the reduction in melasma for women aged 35-55. A group of 60 women diagnosed with melasma were divided into three even, twenty-person subgroups. Each subgroup was assigned one dermocosmetic product containing azelaic acid. For 24 weeks, the patients applied the assigned product twice a day. The level of the colorant within the hyperpigmentation was marked before the treatment, after 1 month, after 3 months, and after 6 months of therapy. The pigmentation was measured using Mexameter(®) (Courage + Khazaka electronic, Germany). In addition, during each inspection, the patients' level of hydration, elasticity, and intensity of erythema was checked using Corneometer(®) , Reviscometer(®) . All dermocosmetics containing azelaic acid that were applied significantly contributed to the reduction in pigment in the pigmentary lesion. The largest decrease in the amount of pigment was observed in the first 3 months of use of the products. A combination containing 20% azelaic acid and mandelic acid, phytic acid, 4N-butyl resorcinol, and ferulic acid proved to be the most effective dermocosmetic III (Sesderma, Valencia, Spain). Dermocosmetics containing azelaic acid significantly contribute to the clearing of melasma. The effect depends on the treatment time, the acid concentration, and addition of other components. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids production by Schizochytrium sp. isolated from mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.W. Fan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Schizochytrium strains (N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9 were isolated from fallen, senescent leaves of mangrove tree (Kandelia candel in Hong Kong. The fungi were cultivated in glucose yeast extract medium containing 60 g of glucose, 10 g of yeast extract and 1 L of 15‰ artificial seawater, initial pH 6.0, with shaking for 52 hr at 25ºC. Biomass yields of 5 isolates ranged from 10.8 to 13.2 g/l. Isolate N-2 yielding the highest dried cell mass at 13.2 g/l and isolate N-9 grew poorly with 10.8 g/l of biomass. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3 yield was low in most strains, while DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 was high on the same medium. The contents of DHA in biomass varied: 174.9, 203.6, 186.1, 171.3 and 157.9 mg/g of dried-biomass for Schizochytrium isolate N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9, respectively. Isolate N-2 had the highest proportion of DHA in fatty acid profile with 15:0, 28.7%; 16:0, 21.3%; 18:0, 0.9%; 18:3, 0.2%; 20:4, 0.3%; 20:5, 0.9%; 22:4, 6.7%; 22:6, 36.1%; and others, 9.3%. The salinity range for growth of Schizochytrium isolates was from 0-30‰ with optimum salinity for growth between 20-30‰.

  6. Temperature-dependent dynamic control of the TCA cycle increases volumetric productivity of itaconic acid production by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Björn-Johannes; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Based on the recently constructed Escherichia coli itaconic acid production strain ita23, we aimed to improve the productivity by applying a two-stage process strategy with decoupled production of biomass and itaconic acid. We constructed a strain ita32 (MG1655 ΔaceA Δpta ΔpykF ΔpykA pCadCs), which, in contrast to ita23, has an active tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a fast growth rate of 0.52 hr -1 at 37°C, thus representing an ideal phenotype for the first stage, the growth phase. Subsequently we implemented a synthetic genetic control allowing the downregulation of the TCA cycle and thus the switch from growth to itaconic acid production in the second stage. The promoter of the isocitrate dehydrogenase was replaced by the Lambda promoter (p R ) and its expression was controlled by the temperature-sensitive repressor CI857 which is active at lower temperatures (30°C). With glucose as substrate, the respective strain ita36A grew with a fast growth rate at 37°C and switched to production of itaconic acid at 28°C. To study the impact of the process strategy on productivity, we performed one-stage and two-stage bioreactor cultivations. The two-stage process enabled fast formation of biomass resulting in improved peak productivity of 0.86 g/L/hr (+48%) and volumetric productivity of 0.39 g/L/hr (+22%) in comparison to the one-stage process. With our dynamic production strain, we also resolved the glutamate auxotrophy of ita23 and increased the itaconic acid titer to 47 g/L. The temperature-dependent activation of gene expression by the Lambda promoters (p R /p L ) has been frequently used to improve protein or, in a few cases, metabolite production in two-stage processes. Here we demonstrate that the system can be as well used in the opposite direction to selectively knock-down an essential gene (icd) in E. coli to design a two-stage process for improved volumetric productivity. The control by temperature avoids expensive inducers and has the

  7. Phosphate fertilisers and management for sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, S.H.; Friesen, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the management of plant nutrients, especially N and P, for crop production on acidic infertile tropical soils. Under certain conditions, the use of indigenous phosphate rock (PR) and modified PR products, such as partially acidulated PR or compacted mixtures of PR with superphosphates, are attractive alternatives, both agronomically and economically, to the use of conventional water-soluble P fertilisers for increasing crop productivity on Oxisols and Ultisols. A combination of the effects of proper P and N management including biological N 2 fixation, judicious use of lime, and the use of acid-soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in cropping systems that enhance nutrient cycling and use efficiency, can provide an effective technology to sustainably increase crop productivity and production in tropical agro-ecosystems dominated by these acid soils. (author)

  8. Enhanced itaconic acid production in Aspergillus with increased LaeA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Baker, Scott E.

    2018-03-06

    Fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, having a dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase (Alg3) gene genetic inactivation, increased expression of a loss of aflR expression A (LaeA), or both, are described. In some examples, such mutants have several phenotypes, including an increased production of citric acid relative to the parental strain. Methods of using the disclosed fungi to make citric acid are also described, as are compositions and kits including the disclosed fungi. Further described are Aspergillus terreus fungi overexpressing the LaeA gene and the use of such fungi for the production of itaconic acid.

  9. EFFECT OF FOOD-MICROORGANISMS ON GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Hudec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are nice targets in order to study γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production that has been reported to be effective in order to reduce blood pressure in experimental animals and human beings. In this study, we aimed to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production in aerobical and anaerobical conditions, using different sources of microorganisms. The highest selectivity of GABA from precursor L-monosodium glutamate (82.22% has been reported using of microorganisms from banana, and with addition of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P. For augmentation of selectivity the application of the further stimulating factors of GABA biosynthesis is needed.

  10. Propionic acid production in glycerol/glucose co-fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-06-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii can ferment glucose and glycerol to propionic acid with acetic and succinic acids as two by-products. Propionic acid production from glucose was relatively fast (0.19 g/Lh) but gave low product yield (~0.39 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~2.6; P/S: ~4.8). In contrast, glycerol with a more reduced state gave a high propionic acid yield (~0.65 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~31; P/S: ~11) but low productivity (0.11 g/L h). On the other hand, co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose at an appropriate mass ratio gave both a high yield (0.54-0.65 g/g) and productivity (0.18-0.23 g/L h) with high product selectivity (P/A: ~14; P/S: ~10). The carbon flux distributions in the co-fermentation as affected by the ratio of glycerol/glucose were investigated. Finally, co-fermentation with cassava bagasse hydrolysate and crude glycerol in a fibrous-bed bioreactor was demonstrated, providing an efficient way for economic production of bio-based propionic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

    2006-09-29

    This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

  12. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  13. Influence of nitrogen sources on amino acid production by aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, F.; Dahot, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in 0.1% and 0.2% concentration on the production of amino acid was studied using a wild strain of Aspergillus niger. The rate of amino acid biosynthesis was found to be higher when 0.2% corn steep liquor was incorporated in the mineral medium. It was concluded from the study that the amino acid synthesis by wild strain depends not only on the nature and type of nitrogen sources used but the concentration of nitrogen source also play an important in the accumulation of free amino acids in the medium. (author)

  14. A derivative of ascorbic acid modulates cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, B; Mones, S; Rahman, F; Chiron, J; Peiretti, F; Vidal, N; Fontes, M

    2013-09-13

    We reported, in previous experiments, that AA is a global regulator of cAMP pools. In this study, we demonstrate that K873, an analog of AA we synthesized and presenting antiproliferative properties, has also an impact on cAMP production. However, K873 has no antioxidant activity, at the contrary of AA. It definitively demonstrates that action of AA on the cAMP production is not linked to antioxidant activity. These data suggest that AA, and derivatives of this molecule, could be promising drug acting on biological processes that are under the control of cAMP dependent pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria for applications in vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 225 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 152 samples of various fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.30% and high acidity (pH 3, growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, ability to grow without vitamin B12. According to the above criteria, 40 isolates were selected. Using an agar spot method, 16 isolates were able to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium, S. typhi, S. enteritidis, S. paratyphi and 4 strains of E. coli O157 : H7 as clear zone greater than 10 mm. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch was also considered. Only 5 isolates were able to utilize protein and further selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected isolates were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin , kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin; however they were resistant to ceptazidime and norfloxacin. They all showed better growth in vegetarian medium (coconut juice medium than MRS medium both under static and shaking conditions. Five active isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum LL13, LN18, LP11, LS35 and Pediococcus pentosaceus LT02 by API 50 CH system. All cultures grew well in carrot juice by reducing pH from 6.4 to below 4.0 after 24 h of fermentation at 35oC. The lactic cultures in fermented carrot juice lost their viability about 2 log cycles after 15 days of cold storage at 4oC.

  16. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  17. LED power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production in Nannochloropsis microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Chua, Elvis T; Eltanahy, Eladl; Netzel, Michael E; Netzel, Gabriele; Lu, Yinghua; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-03-01

    The microalga Nannochloropsis produces high-value omega-3-rich fatty acids and carotenoids. In this study the effects of light intensity and wavelength on biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production with respect to light output efficiency were investigated. Similar biomass and fatty acid yields were obtained at high light intensity (150 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 7 and low light intensity (50 μmol m -2  s -1 ) LEDs on day 11 during cultivation, but the power efficiencies of biomass and fatty acid (specifically eicosapentaenoic acid) production were higher for low light intensity. Interestingly, low light intensity enhanced both, carotenoid power efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis and yield. White LEDs were neither advantageous for biomass and fatty acid yields, nor the power efficiency of biomass, fatty acid, and carotenoid production. Noticeably, red LED resulted in the highest biomass and fatty acid power efficiency, suggesting that LEDs can be fine-tuned to grow Nannochloropsis algae more energy-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansir, Nasar; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Umer; Lokman, Ibrahim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid acid catalysts are proficient to esterifying high free fatty acid feedstocks to biodiesel. • Heterogeneous catalysts have the advantage of easy separation and reusability. • Heterogeneous basic catalysts have limitations due to high FFA of low cost feedstocks. • Solid catalysts having acid and base sites reveal better catalyst for biodiesel production. - Abstract: The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production.

  19. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monascus ruber as cell factory for lactic acid production at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusthuis, Ruud A; Mars, Astrid E; Springer, Jan; Wolbert, Emil Jh; van der Wal, Hetty; de Vrije, Truus G; Levisson, Mark; Leprince, Audrey; Houweling-Tan, G Bwee; Pha Moers, Antoine; Hendriks, Sjon Na; Mendes, Odette; Griekspoor, Yvonne; Werten, Marc Wt; Schaap, Peter J; van der Oost, John; Eggink, Gerrit

    2017-07-01

    A Monascus ruber strain was isolated that was able to grow on mineral medium at high sugar concentrations and 175g/l lactic acid at pH 2.8. Its genome and transcriptomes were sequenced and annotated. Genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were introduced to accomplish lactic acid production and two genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) were knocked out to subdue ethanol formation. The strain preferred lactic acid to glucose as carbon source, which hampered glucose consumption and therefore also lactic acid production. Lactic acid consumption was stopped by knocking out 4 cytochrome-dependent LDH (CLDH) genes, and evolutionary engineering was used to increase the glucose consumption rate. Application of this strain in a fed-batch fermentation resulted in a maximum lactic acid titer of 190g/l at pH 3.8 and 129g/l at pH 2.8, respectively 1.7 and 2.2 times higher than reported in literature before. Yield and productivity were on par with the best strains described in literature for lactic acid production at low pH. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  2. [Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Bei-Bei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Ming-Yu; Xiao, Dong-Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-07-01

    To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid. Using the DNA assembler method, one copy of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase (GgbAS), Medicago truncatula oleanolic acid synthase (MtOAS) and Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase 1 (AtCPR1) genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY-OA, resulting in strain BY-20A. YPD medium with different glucose concentration were then used to cultivate strain BY-2OA. Increasing gene copies of GgbAS, MtOAS and AtCPR1 resulted in increased beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid production. The strain BY-2OA produced 136.5 mg x L(-1) beta-amyrin and 92.5 mg x L(-1) oleanolic acid, which were 54% and 30% higher than the parent strain BY-OA. Finally, the titer of oleanolic acid increased to 165.7 mg x L(-1) when cultivated in YPD medium with 40 mg x L(-1) glucose. Production of oleanoic acid increased significantly in the yeast strain BY-2OA, which can provide the basis for creating an alternative way for production of oleanoic acid in place of extraction from plant sources.

  3. Reaction of isoprene on thin sulfuric acid films: kinetics, uptake, and product analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Brandon M; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-06-15

    A high vacuum Knudsen flow reactor was used to determine the reactive uptake coefficient, gamma, of isoprene on sulfuric acid films as a function of sulfuric acid weight percent, temperature, and relative humidity. No discernible dependence was observed for gamma over the range of temperatures (220 - 265 K) and pressures (10(-7) Torr -10(-4) Torr) studied. However, the uptake coefficient increased with increased sulfuric acid concentration between the range of 78 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-4)) and 93 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-3)). In addition to the Knudsen Cell, a bulk study was conducted between 60 and 85 wt % H(2)SO(4) to quantify uptake at lower acid concentrations and to determine reaction products. After exposing sulfuric acid to gaseous isoprene the condensed phase products were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Isoprene was observed to polymerize in the sulfuric acid and form yellow/red colored monoterpenes and cyclic sesquiterpenes. Finally, addition of water to the 85 wt % sulfuric acid/isoprene product mixture released these terpenes from the condensed phase into the gas phase. Together these experiments imply that direct isoprene uptake will not produce significant SOA; however, terpene production from the small uptake may be relevant for ultrafine particles and could affect growth and nucleation.

  4. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  5. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added......% of the theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...... yield by co-inoculation of both strains. Xylulose was the main sugar released after enzymatic treatment of HH with Celluclast(R). Lb. brevis was able to degrade xylobiose, but was unable to assimilate xylulose, whereas Lb. pentosus was able to assimilate xylulose but unable to degrade xylobiose. (C...

  6. Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors’ representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant.

  7. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 3, January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    The program for acetic acid production from marine algae has made significant progress in the current quarter. Some of the significant developments during this period are: (1) conversion of the available reducing equivalents in Chondrus crispus to organic acids has been carried to better than 80% completion; (2) thermophilic fermentations produce higher ratios of acetic acid to total acid than is the case for mesophilic fermentations (80% vs. 50%); (3) a membrane extraction process for removing organic acid products has been developed which has potential for commercial use; (4) a large scale fermentation was shown to convert over 50% of the available carbon in five days; (5) a reducing equivalents balance on the large scale fermentation was closed to with 96% of theoretical.

  8. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  9. Engineering a cyanobacterial cell factory for production of lactic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.; Paszota, M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has become a versatile tool to facilitate production of bulk chemicals, fuels, etc. Accordingly, CO(2) has been exploited via cyanobacterial metabolism as a sustainable carbon source of biofuel and bioplastic precursors. Here we extended these observations by

  10. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Bacteriophages from Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Shokrani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis is one of the most important microorganisms used in dairy industry for production of fermented milk products. Bacteriophages which attack  L. lactis are a serious threat to the dairy industry because of their negative effects on fermentation processes. Methods: Samples of raw milk were examined for the presence of lactococcal bacteriophages. Samples were centrifuged and then filtered through 0.45µm pore size filters. The filtrates were added to early-exponential cultures of Lactococcus lactis subspp. Lactis (PTCC 1336. Overlay method was used to detect the formation of plaques. After isolation and concentration of phages, serial dilutions of phage stock were used to determine titer of phage in concentrated sample. Electron Microscopy was used for observation and characterization of structural details of bacteriophages. Results: Two phages were isolated; one of them had a hexagonal head of 45×30 nm in diameter and a flexible non-contractile tail of 70nm long which belonged to Siphoviridae. The other had a short tail and a hexagonal head of 53×60 nm in diameter which was a member of Podoviridae family. Conclusion: In this study, for the first time, two phages were isolated from milk. This does not reduce the significance of phage control in different stages of the production. The spread of the phages in the production plant can be very harmful.

  11. Production of Indole Acetic Acid from Salinity tolerant Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... has both drought and arid climate, resulting in high soil salinity leading to tremendous losses in crop production. An essential aspect of the strategy to improve the yield of arid legumes in stressed environments must involve a combination of stress-tolerant cultivars and stress-tole- rant rhizobia (Zahran ...

  12. A mechanism for hydrochloric acid production in cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn K. Yue; Volkar A. Mohnen; C. S. Kiang

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical model describing the general interaction between atmospheric trace gases, such as SO2, NH3, CO2 and O2, chemical reactant gaseous product H2SO4 and hydrometeors containing NaCl is proposed to study a possible mechanism...

  13. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  14. Fermentative intensity of L-lactic acid production using self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    fermentation had some merits such as immobilization carrier-independence, lower viscosity of the suspension in favor of mass transfer, shorter fermentation cycles and good production stability (Yang et al., 1995; Yin et al.,. 1998; Yu et al., 2007). Pellet was an appropriate form for recycling use of R. oryzae mycelia (Liu et al., ...

  15. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  16. Microbiological and acidity changes during the traditional production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hour intervals and analyzed for TVC, LAB, lactococci, and yeasts and moulds for 48 hours. The traditional product showed average TVC, LAB, lactococci, yeasts and moulds of 9.30, 9.63, 8.62, and 4.83 log10 cfu/ml, respectively. Coliform counts ...

  17. Improvement and enhancement of clavulanic acid production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We concluded that using olive oil as a sole source of carbon and energy for cultivation of S. clavuligerus is a promising strategy for CA production. It has several scientific advantages and economic benefits that lead to increased antibiotic titre and can be considered as a cheaper alternative compared to carbohydrates.

  18. Enhancement of Short Chain Fatty Acid Production from Millet Fibres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific microbes and dietary fibre to SCFA production. To understand the capability of probiotics to produce SCFAs on IDF, SDF and. TDF from two millet varieties, the digestion of millet fibre and the formation of SFCA (acetate, propionate and butyrate) using pure cultures of. Bifidobacterium spp.and Lactobacillus spp. were.

  19. Improved levulinic acid production from agri-residue biomass in biphasic solvent system through synergistic catalytic effect of acid and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kundu, Pranati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Kansal, Sushil K; Runge, Troy M; Elumalai, Sasikumar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, levulinic acid (LA) was produced from rice straw biomass in co-solvent biphasic reactor system consisting of hydrochloric acid and dichloromethane organic solvent. The modified protocol achieved a 15% wt LA yield through the synergistic effect of acid and acidic products (auto-catalysis) and the designed system allowed facile recovery of LA to the organic phase. Further purification of the resulting extractant was achieved through traditional column chromatography, which yielded a high purity LA product while recovering ∼85% wt. Upon charcoal treatment of the resultant fraction generated an industrial grade target molecule of ∼99% purity with ∼95% wt recovery. The system allows the solvent to be easily recovered, in excess of 90%, which was shown to be able to be recycled up to 5 runs without significant loss of final product concentrations. Overall, this system points to a method to significantly reduce manufacturing cost during large-scale LA preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the effect of parameters on lactic acid production from whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleghani Hamidreza Ghafouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In batch fermentation of whey, selection of suitable species at desired conditions such as substrate, product concentrations, temperature and inoculum size were investigated. Four Lactobacillus species and one Lactococcus species were screened for lactic acid production. Among them L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 were selected for further studies. The optimal growth of the selected organism for variable size of inocula was examined. The results indicated that inoculum size had insignificant effect on the cell and lactic acid concentration. The effect of temperature was also studied at 32, 37, 42 and 47°C. Results showed that the concentration of cell dry weight increased with increment of temperature from 32 to 42°C. The maximum cell and lactic acid concentration was obtained at 42°C. The effect of initial substrate concentration on lactic acid production was also examined. The optimum initial lactose concentration was found to be 90 g/l.

  1. ORGANIC ACIDS PRODUCTION OF RICE STRAW FERMENTED WITH SEVERAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to examine the organic acids production of rice straw fermentedwith some types of microorganisms at different temperatures. The experiment was designed as SplitPlot-Completely Randomized Design. The main plot was temperatures treatments (25, 35, 45°C and thesub plot were microorganisms (Control, Control+Mollases, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus coagulant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger. The highest lactic acid productionswas in B. coagulans treatment at 35°C (53.79 g/kg DM. The highest acetic acid productions was in L.fermentum at 35°C (13.20 g/kg DM, while the highest propionic acid productions were in Controltreatment at 35°C (0.37 g/kg DM.

  2. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...... further characterized and 43 strains were inhibitory against Listeria monocytogenes. The strains were inhibitory to other Gram- positive (lactic acid) bacteria probably because of production of bacteriocins. All 44 strains inhibited both Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 37 were inhibitory...... to a mesophilic fish spoilage bacterium tan Aeromonas sp.). Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was attributed to production of lactic acid. Most strains were identified as Lactobacillus spp., and all grew well at ambient temperatures (25-37 degrees C) and tolerated up to 6.5% NaCl. Glucose was fermented rapidly...

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezaini, A.; Bouras, A.D.; Mezaini, A.; Chihib, N.; Nedjar-Arroume, N.; Hornez, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacitracin production profiles showed that the maximal bacitracin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml -1 ) with a bacterio cine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml -1 ) h -1 . In addition, our findings showed that the bacitracin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide ph range (4-8); this indicates that such bacitracin may be useful in acidic as well as non acidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food.

  4. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  5. Optimization of the nitrous vapors experimental conditions production by nitric acid electrochemical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, M.

    1996-01-01

    Gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO and NO 2 ) involved as oxidizing agents in nuclear fuel reprocessing can be produced by electrochemical reduction of nitric acid. This is an interesting alternative to the existing process because no wastes are generated. voltammetric studies on a platinum electrode show that two reduction potential regions are observed in concentrated nitric acid solutions, between 0,05 V SHE and between 0,5 V SHE and 1 V SHE . The highest potential region reduction mechanism was studied by: classical micro-electrolysis methods, macro-electrolysis methods, infrared spectroscopy coupled to electrochemistry. It was determined that the origin of nitric acid reduction is the electrochemical reduction of nitrous acid in nitric oxide which chemically reduces nitric acid. This reaction produces nitrous acid back which indicate an auto-catalytic behaviour of nitric acid reduction mechanism. Nitrogen dioxide evolution during nitric reduction can also explained by an other chemical reaction. If the potential value of platinum electrode is above 0,8 V SHE , products of the indirect nitric acid reduction are nitrous acid, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Below this value nitric oxide can be reduced in nitrous oxide. Thus the potential value is the most important parameter for the nitrogen oxides production selectivity. However, owing to the auto-catalytic character of the reduction mechanism, potential value can be controlled during intentiostatic industrial electrolysis. (author)

  6. [Enzymatic production of α-ketoglutaric acid by L-glutamate oxidase from L-glutamic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Panqing; Zhang, Zhenyu; Liu, Liming

    2014-08-01

    We produced α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) from L-glutamic acid, using enzymatic transformation approach with L-glutamate oxidase (LGOX). First, wild strain Streptomyces sp. FMME066 was mutated with NTG, a genetically stable mutant Streptomyces sp. FMME067 was obtained. Under the optimal nutrition conditions with fructose 10 g/L, peptone 7.5 g/L, KH2PO4 1 g/L and CaCl2 0.05 g/L, the maximum LGOX activity reached 0.14 U/mL. The LGOX was stable to pH and temperature, and Mn2+ had a stimulating effect. Finally, after 24 h enzymatic conversion under the optimal conditions, the maximum titer of α-KG reached 38.1 g/L from 47 g/L L-glutamic acid. Enzymatic transformation by LGOX is a potential approach for α-KG production.

  7. Production of lactic acid from hemicellulose extracts by Bacillus coagulans MXL-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara L; Bischoff, Kenneth M; van Heiningen, Adriaan R P; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 was found capable of growing on pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts, utilizing all of the principle monosugars found in woody biomass. This organism is a moderate thermophile isolated from compost for its pentose-utilizing capabilities. It was found to have high tolerance for inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium, which are present in pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts. Fermentation of 20 g/l xylose in the presence of 30 g/l acetic acid required a longer lag phase but overall lactic acid yield was not diminished. Similarly, fermentation of xylose in the presence of 20 g/l sodium increased the lag time but did not affect overall product yield, though 30 g/l sodium proved completely inhibitory. Fermentation of hot water-extracted Siberian larch containing 45 g/l total monosaccharides, mainly galactose and arabinose, produced 33 g/l lactic acid in 60 h and completely consumed all sugars. Small amounts of co-products were formed, including acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Hemicellulose extract formed during autohydrolysis of mixed hardwoods contained mainly xylose and was converted into lactic acid with a 94% yield. Green liquor-extracted hardwood hemicellulose containing 10 g/l acetic acid and 6 g/l sodium was also completely converted into lactic acid at a 72% yield. The Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 strain was found to be well suited to production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass due to its compatibility with conditions favorable to industrial enzymes and its ability to withstand inhibitors while rapidly consuming all pentose and hexose sugars of interest at high product yields.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-04-07

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  9. Recovery of uranium in the production of concentrated phosphoric acid by a hemihydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Miyamoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nissan Chemical Industries as manufacturers of phosphoric acid have studied the recovery of uranium, based on a concentrated phosphoric acid production process. The process consists of two stages, a hemihydrate stage with a formation of hemihydrate and a filtration section, followed by a dihydrate stage with hydration and a filtration section. In the hemihydrate stage, phosphate is treated with a mixture of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and hydrous calcium sulphate; the product is recovered in the filtration section and its concentration is 40-50% P 2 O 3 . In the dihydrate stage, the hemihydrate is transformed by re-dissolution and hydration, producing hydrous calcium sulphate, i.e. gypsum. This process therefore comprises two parts, each with different acid concentrations. As the extraction of uranium is easier in the case of a low concentration of phosphoric acid, the process consists of the recovery of uranium starting from the filtrate of the hydration section. The tests have shown that the yield of recovery of uranium was of the order of 80% disregarding the handling losses and no disadvantageous effect has been found in the combination of the process of uranium extraction with the process of concentrated phosphoric acid production. Compared with the classical process where uranium is recovered from acid with 30% P 2 O 5 , the process of producing high-concentration phosphoric acid such as the Nissan process, in which the uranium recovery is effected from acid with 15% P 2 O 5 from the hydration section, presents many advantages [fr

  10. Enhanced D-lactic acid production from renewable resources using engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V; Kumar, Amit; Hardwidge, Philip R; Govind, Revathi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    D-lactic acid is used as a monomer in the production of poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA), which is used to form heat-resistant stereocomplex poly-lactic acid. To produce cost-effective D-lactic acid by using all sugars derived from biomass efficiently, xylose-assimilating genes encoding xylose isomerase and xylulokinase were cloned into an L-lactate-deficient strain, Lactobacillus plantarum. The resulting recombinant strain, namely L. plantarum NCIMB 8826 ∆ldhL1-pLEM-xylAB, was able to produce D-lactic acid (at optical purity >99 %) from xylose at a yield of 0.53 g g(-1). Simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose to produce D-lactic acid was also achieved by this strain, and 47.2 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid was produced from 37.5 g L(-1) glucose and 19.7 g L(-1) xylose. Corn stover and soybean meal extract (SBME) were evaluated as cost-effective medium components for D-lactic acid production. Optimization of medium composition using response surface methodology resulted in 30 % reduction in enzyme loading and 70 % reduction in peptone concentration. In addition, we successfully demonstrated D-lactic acid fermentation from corn stover and SBME in a fed-batch fermentation, which yielded 61.4 g L(-1) D-lactic acid with an overall yield of 0.77 g g(-1). All these approaches are geared to attaining high D-lactic acid production from biomass sugars to produce low-cost, highly thermostable biodegradable plastics.

  11. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact...... on the pattern and the amount of organic acids produced by A. saccharolyticus. The wild-type strain produced higher amount of malic acid and succinic acid in the pH buffered condition (pH 6.5) compared with the pH non-buffered condition. The enzyme assays showed that the rTCA branch was active in the acid...

  12. Heterogeneous kinetics, products, and mechanisms of ferulic acid particles in the reaction with NO3 radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Peng; Wen, Xiaoying; Wu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Methoxyphenols, as an important component of wood burning, are produced by lignin pyrolysis and considered to be the potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction between ferulic acid particles and NO3 radicals was investigated. Six products including oxalic acid, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 5-nitrovanillin, 5-nitroferulic acid, and caffeic acid were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the reaction mechanisms were proposed and the main pathways were NO3 electrophilic addition to olefin and the meta-position to the hydroxyl group. The uptake coefficient of NO3 radicals on ferulic acid particles was 0.17 ± 0.02 and the effective rate constant under experimental conditions was (1.71 ± 0.08) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results indicate that ferulic acid degradation by NO3 can be an important sink at night.

  13. Pilot Plant Production of Lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Mirdamadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study, was to scale up the production of L (+ lactic acid from the laboratory to pilot plant using Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei PTCC 1608. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the produced lactic acid and sodium lactate against 4 test strains including Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1113, Microccoccus luteus PTTC 1110, Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 and Listeria monocytogenes PTCC 1304 were evaluated. According to the results, the specific growth rate of each test strain was decreased by lactic acid. The inhibitory effect of the sodium lactate was lower than lactic acid in all of the experiments. The best carbon (glucose, lactose and whey and nitrogen (corn steep powder sources were optimized in batch and fed batch system and also pH, temperature and aeration were improved in shake flask incubator, 20 l and 750 l stirred tank reactors (STR. Glucose (80 g/l supplemented with (50 g/l whey was found as the best production medium.Productivity and yield of calcium lactate production in laboratory scale were 0.51 g/lh and 0.56%, respectively. Fed batch production of calcium lactate in 20 l bioreactor increased the productivity and yield up to 2.47 and 0.83%. Production and productivity was increased up to 350 g/l and 5.4 g/lh, respectively in scaled up processes by 750 liters bioreactor (STR.

  14. Identification of major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid formed in aqueous solutions and in pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of four major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in buffered solutions at pH 7.0 was demonstrated by gradient HPLC analysis. The isolation and structural elucidation of the resulting degradation products showed that the degradation of 5-ASA led to the formation...

  15. Quantitative analysis of acid-catalyzed levulinic acid product mixture from cellulose by mixed-mode liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Jiwen; Zheng, Junlin; Wang, Chuan

    2017-10-01

    A mixed-mode weak anion-exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) column was successfully applied for the analysis of levulinic acid (4-oxopentanoic acid, LA) product mixture derived from cellulose. Due to the existence of ionic and neutral byproducts, the analysis of the product mixture usually requires ion chromatography, LC and gas chromatography simultaneously. The new method enables accomplishment of the analysis in one LC run within 6min. LC mobile phase of 10mM phosphate buffer containing 5% acetonitrile with pH=5.5 was used. The linear regression coefficients for the UV signal of standard compounds with the corresponding mass concentrations were greater than 0.999. The method recoveries were between 98.57-103.48%. The limits of quantification were 5, 10,1000, 1500 and 3000ng/mL for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, acetic acid, formic acid and LA respectively. The mixed-mode column exhibits comprehensive separation mechanism of both reversed-phase and ion-exchange interactions. The mobile phase with different pH, organic modifier solvent and buffer concentration provided flexible LC method for the sample with different complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for r...

  17. Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

    1999-04-05

    The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  18. Enzymatic production of α-ketoglutaric acid from l-glutamic acid via l-glutamate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Panqing; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yuancai; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-10

    In this study, a novel strategy for α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) production from l-glutamic acid using recombinant l-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) was developed. First, by analyzing the molecular structure characteristics of l-glutamic acid and α-KG, LGOX was found to be the best catalyst for oxidizing the amino group of l-glutamic acid to a ketonic group without the need for exogenous cofactor. Then the LGOX gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in a soluble and active form, and the recombinant LGOX activity reached to a maximum value of 0.59U/mL at pH 6.5, 30°C. Finally, the maximum α-KG concentration reached 104.7g/L from 110g/L l-glutamic acid in 24h, under the following optimum conditions: 1.5U/mL LGOX, 250U/mL catalase, 3mM MnCl2, 30°C, and pH 6.5. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of Boric Acid on Volatile Products of Thermooxidative Degradation of Epoxy Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, O B; Bukhareva, P B; Melnikova, T V; Visakh, P M

    2016-01-01

    The polymeric materials are characterized by high flammability. The use of flame retardants in order to reduce the flammability of polymers can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous products under fire conditions. In this work we studied the effect of boric acid on the volatile products of thermooxidative degradation of epoxy polymers. The comparative investigations were carried out on the samples of the unfilled epoxy resin and epoxy resin filled with a boric acid at percentage 10 wt. %. The analysis of the volatile decomposition products and thermal stability of the samples under heating in an oxidizing medium was performed using a thermal mass-spectrometric analysis. It is found that the incorporation of boric acid into the polymer matrix increases the thermal stability of epoxy composites and leads to a reduction in the 2-2.7 times of toxic gaseous products (paper)

  20. Effect of Boric Acid on Volatile Products of Thermooxidative Degradation of Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Bukhareva, P. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The polymeric materials are characterized by high flammability. The use of flame retardants in order to reduce the flammability of polymers can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous products under fire conditions. In this work we studied the effect of boric acid on the volatile products of thermooxidative degradation of epoxy polymers. The comparative investigations were carried out on the samples of the unfilled epoxy resin and epoxy resin filled with a boric acid at percentage 10 wt. %. The analysis of the volatile decomposition products and thermal stability of the samples under heating in an oxidizing medium was performed using a thermal mass-spectrometric analysis. It is found that the incorporation of boric acid into the polymer matrix increases the thermal stability of epoxy composites and leads to a reduction in the 2-2.7 times of toxic gaseous products

  1. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of gibberellic acid on some photosynthetic products in the leaves of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kismali, I.; Kilinc, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the research work set up to examine the effect of giberellic acid on the some photosynthetic products formed in the leaves of cabernet souvignon grapes. A series of tests were performed by applying 0, 25, 50 ppm of giberellic acid to the leaves. The fractions of sugar, soluble amino acid and organic acid all labelled by C 14 O 2 , are determined by radioactivite counts and using the results obtained. The total amounts were calculated. The fresh weight of leaves subject to GA application increases considerably, on the other hand no significant effect of giberellic acid on the dry weight was detected. Increasing the amount of giberellic acid from 25 ppm to 50 ppm does not cause any change neither on fresh weight nor on dry weight of leaves. It is noted that the application of giberellic acid not change the amount of sugar present in the leaves, however, the amount of soluble amino acid decreases while the amount of organic acid increases. Still increasing the amount of giberellic acid has no effect on the amount of these fractions

  3. Increased ophthalmic acid production is supported by amino acid catabolism under fasting conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sho; Lee, Jaeyong; Takao, Toshifumi; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-09-23

    Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased. Autophagy was activated, but the levels of GSH/OPT-synthesizing enzymes remained unchanged. After 6 h of fasting, the mice were given 1% 2AB and/or 5% glucose in the drinking water for an additional 24 h and the above metabolites analyzed. 2AB administration caused an increase in OPT levels, and, when glucose was co-administered with 2AB, the levels of OPT were elevated further but GSH levels were decreased somewhat. These results suggest that, while Cys is utilized for glyconeogenesis under fasting conditions, reaching levels that were insufficient for the synthesis of GSH, 2OB was preferentially converted to 2AB via amino acid catabolism and was utilized as a building block for OPT. Thus the consumption of Cys and the parallel elevation of 2AB under fasting conditions appeared to force γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase to form γ-glutamyl-2AB, despite the fact that the enzyme has a higher Km value for 2AB than Cys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Muconic Acid Production via Alternative Pathways and a Synthetic "Metabolic Funnel".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Pugh, Shawn; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2018-02-16

    Muconic acid is a promising platform biochemical and precursor to adipic acid, which can be used to synthesize various plastics and polymers. In this study, the systematic construction and comparative evaluation of a modular network of non-natural pathways for muconic acid biosynthesis was investigated in Escherichia coli, including via three distinct and novel pathways proceeding via phenol as a common intermediate. However, poor recombinant activity and high promiscuity of phenol hydroxylase ultimately limited "phenol-dependent" muconic acid production. A fourth pathway proceeding via p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate, and catechol was accordingly developed, though with muconic acid titers by this route reaching just 819 mg/L, its performance lagged behind that of the established, "3-dehydroshikimiate-derived" route. Finally, these two most promising pathways were coexpressed in parallel to create a synthetic "metabolic funnel" that, by enabling maximal net precursor assimilation and flux while preserving native chorismate biosynthesis, nearly doubled muconic acid production to up to >3.1 g/L at a glucose yield of 158 mg/g while introducing only a single auxotrophy. This generalizable, "funneling" strategy is expected to have broad applications in metabolic engineering for further enhancing production of muconic acid, as well as other important bioproducts of interest.

  5. Butanol production by a Clostridium beijerinckii mutant with high ferulic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiahui; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-09-01

    A mutant strain of Clostridium beijerinckii, with high tolerance to ferulic acid, was generated using atmospheric pressure glow discharge and high-throughput screening of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. The mutant strain M11 produced 7.24 g/L of butanol when grown in P2 medium containing 30 g/L of glucose and 0.5 g/L of ferulic acid, which is comparable to the production from non-ferulic acid cultures (8.11 g/L of butanol). When 0.8 g/L of ferulic acid was introduced into the P2 medium, C. beijerinckii M11 grew well and produced 4.91 g/L of butanol. Both cell growth and butanol production of C. beijerinckii M11 were seriously inhibited when 0.9 g/L of ferulic acid was added into the P2 medium. Furthermore, C. beijerinckii M11 could produce 6.13 g/L of butanol using non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate from diluted sulfuric acid-treated corn fiber (SAHHC) as the carbon source. These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii M11 has a high ferulic acid tolerance and is able to use non-detoxified SAHHC for butanol production. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P. (UMM)

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  7. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  8. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  9. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  10. Biochemical precursor effects on the fatty acid production in cell suspension cultures of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, O; Gallego, A M; Urrea, A; Rojas, L F; Correa, C; Atehortúa, L

    2017-02-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture. It was found that biotin stimulated fatty acid synthesis without altering cell viability and cell growth. It was also evident a change in the lipid profile of cell suspensions, increasing middle and long chain fatty acids proportion, which are unusual to those reported in seeds; thus implying that it is possible to modify lipid profiles according to the treatment used. According to the results of sucrose gradients and enzyme assays performed, it is proposed that cacao cells probably use the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondria being the key organelle in the carbon flux for the synthesis of reductant power and fatty acid precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  12. Development of a low pH fermentation strategy for fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Engel, Carol A; van Gulik, Walter M; Marang, Leonie; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2011-01-05

    Dicarboxylic acids that are produced from renewable resources are becoming attractive building blocks for the polymers industry. In this respect, fumaric acid is very interesting. Its low aqueous solubility facilitates product recovery. To avoid excessive waste salt production during downstream processing, a low pH for fumaric acid fermentation will be beneficial. Studying the influence of pH, working volume and shaking frequency on cell cultivation helped us to identify the best conditions to obtain appropriate pellet morphologies of a wild type strain of Rhizopus oryzae. Using these pellets, the effects of pH and CO(2) addition were studied to determine the best conditions to produce fumaric acid in batch fermentations under nitrogen-limited conditions with glucose as carbon source. Decreasing either the fermentation pH below 5 or increasing the CO(2) content of the inlet air above 10% was unfavourable for the cell-specific productivity, fumaric acid yield, and fumaric acid titer. However, switching off the pH control late in the batch phase did not affect these performance parameters and allowed achieving pH of 3.6. A concentration of 20 gL(-1) of fumaric acid was obtained at pH 3.6 while the average cell mass specific productivity and fumaric acid yield were the same as at pH 5.0. Consequently, relatively modest amounts of inorganic base were required for pH control, while recovery of the acid should be relatively easy at pH 3.6. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate by microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Kequan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to enhance the reducing power responsible for succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate. During corncob hydrolysate fermentation, electric MECs resulted in a 1.31-fold increase in succinic acid production and a 1.33-fold increase in the reducing power compared with those in non-electric MECs. When the hydrolysate was detoxified by combining Ca(OH)2, NaOH, and activated carbon, succinic acid production increased from 3.47 to 6.95 g/l. Using a constant potential of -1.8 V further increased succinic acid production to 7.18 g/l. A total of 18.09 g/l of succinic acid and a yield of 0.60 g/g total sugar were obtained after a 60-h fermentation when NaOH was used as a pH regulator. The improved succinic acid yield from corncob hydrolysate fermentation using A. succinogenes NJ113 in electric MECs demonstrates the great potential of using biomass as a feedstock to cost-effectively produce succinate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SPE and HPLC/UV of resin acids in colophonium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Naghmeh; Lindahl, Fredrik; Axelsson, Sara; Redeby, Theres; Lassen, Pia; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-08-01

    A new method, involving SPE and HPLC/UV diode-array detection (DAD), was developed for the quantification of colophonium components in different consumer products, such as cosmetics. Colophonium is a common cause of contact dermatitis since its components can oxidize into allergens on exposure to air. Three different resin acids were used as markers for native and oxidized colophonium, abietic acid (AbA), dehydroabietic acid (DeA), and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-O-DeA). The SPE method, utilizing a mixed-mode hydrophobic and anion exchange retention mechanism, was shown to yield very clean extracts. The use of a urea-embedded C(12) HPLC stationary phase improved the separation of the resin acids compared to common C(18). Concentrations higher than 2 mg/g of both AbA and DeA were detected in wax strips. In this product also 7-O-DeA, a marker for oxidized colophonium, was detected at a level of 28 microg/g. The LODs were in the range of 7-19 microg/g and the LOQs 22-56 microg/g. The method is simple to use and can be applied on many types of technical products, not only cosmetics. For the first time, a method for technical products was developed, which separates AbA from pimaric acid.

  15. Production of Lactic Acid from Empty Fruit Bunch of Palm Oil Using Catalyst of Barium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Aini Apsari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid as a platform chemical has broad application in various industries, especially in the production of Poly Lactic Acid (PLA for biodegradable plastic. Empty fruit bunch (EFB, abundant by product from palm oil mill industry, is one of potential feedstock to be used in the production of lactic acid from lignocellulose biomass. EFB contains high cellulose and hemicellulose about 37– 59.7% w/w and 16–28% w/w, respectively. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of the operating conditions, such as temperature, reaction time, biomass loading, and catalyst concentration on the yield of lactic acid using barium hydroxide as alkaline catalyst. EFB pretreatment with steam explosion was applied to remove lignin content. The results showed that pretreatment reduced the lignin content from 22.66% to 9.69% w/w. Meanwhile, hemicellulose and cellulose increased from 14.40% to 16.40% w/w and 29.37% to 63.57% w/w, respectively. The highest yield of lactic acid was 21.57% C-mol, achieved by using 0.25 M Ba(OH2 as the catalyst, with 5% w/v biomass loading, temperature 240°C, during 4 h reaction times. The yield was approximately equal to yield of lactic acid (~ 20% compared with Pb2+ as the catalyst for EFB conversion although the later catalyst produced fewer by products during conversion.

  16. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yonghong; Yang Yingge; Zheng Zhiming; Li Wen; Wang Peng; Yao Liming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N + implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ∼ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38 deg. C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  17. Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid: The Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rates and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Harris, Allison E; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Carpenter, Barry K; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-12-29

    In this work, we investigate the impact of pressure and oxygen on the kinetics of and products from the gas-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid. The results reveal a decrease in the photolysis quantum yield as pressure of air or nitrogen is increased, a trend not yet documented in the literature. A Stern-Volmer analysis demonstrates this effect is due to deactivation of the singlet state of pyruvic acid when the photolysis is performed in nitrogen, and from quenching of both the singlet and triplet state in air. Consistent with previous studies, acetaldehyde and CO 2 are observed as the major products; however, other products, most notably acetic acid, are also identified in this work. The yield of acetic acid increases with increasing pressure of buffer gas, an effect that is amplified by the presence of oxygen. At least two mechanisms are necessary to explain the acetic acid, including one that requires reaction of photolysis intermediates with O 2 . These findings extend the fundamental understanding of the gas-phase photochemistry of pyruvic acid, highlighting the importance of pressure on the photolysis quantum yields and products.

  18. Lactic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Christopher D

    2003-01-01

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expressed in yeast. A L(+)-LDH gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adh1 promoter and terminator and then placed in a 2 micro -containing yeast-replicating plasmid. The resulting construct, pLdhA68X, was transformed and tested by fermentation analyses in haploid and diploid yeast containing similar genetic backgrounds. Both recombinant strains utilized 92 g glucose/l in approximately 30 h. The diploid isolate accumulated approximately 40% more lactic acid with a final concentration of 38 g lactic acid/l and a yield of 0.44 g lactic acid/g glucose. The optimal pH for lactic acid production by the diploid strain was pH 5. LDH activity in this strain remained relatively constant at 1.5 units/mg protein throughout the fermentation. The majority of carbon was still diverted to the ethanol fermentation pathway, as indicated by ethanol yields between 0.25-0.33 g/g glucose. S. cerevisiae mutants impaired in ethanol production were transformed with pLdhA68X in an attempt to increase the lactic acid yield by minimizing the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol. Mutants with diminished pyruvate decarboxylase activity and mutants with disrupted alcohol dehydrogenase activity did result in transformants with diminished ethanol production. However, the efficiency of lactic acid production also decreased.

  19. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  20. Acidogenesis driven by hydrogen partial pressure towards bioethanol production through fatty acids reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Butti, Sai Kishore; Venkata Mohan, S.

    2017-01-01

    H 2 partial pressure drives the reduction of carboxylic acid (short chain fatty acids) formed as primary metabolites in acidogenic fermentation to form bioalcohols. Microbial catalysis under the influence of H 2 partial pressure was evaluated in comparison with a reactor operated at atmospheric pressure under identical conditions. Carboxylic acid reduction gets regulated selectively by the influence of elevated pressures and redox conditions, resulting in the formation of alcohols. The non-equilibrium of the intra and extracellular H 2 ions causes the anaerobic bacteria to alter their pathways as a function of interspecies H 2 transfer. Ethanol production was quantified, as acetic acid was the major carboxylic acid synthesised during acidogenesis. H 2 pressure influenced the electrochemical activity which was reflected in the distinct variation of the electron transfer rates and the catalytic activity of redox mediators (NAD + /NADH, flavoproteins and iron-sulphur clusters). The bioprocess depicted in this communication depicted a non-genetic regulation of product formation, understanding the acidogenic metabolism and alternate route for alcohol production. - Highlights: • H 2 partial pressure in HPR aided in the reduction of carboxylic acids to alcohols. • Production and consumption rate of VFAs were correlating with alcohol formation. • Metabolic shift was evident with bioelectrochical analysis. • NADH/NAD + ratio and H 2 partial pressure coupled in enhanced solventogenesis.

  1. Hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw by a novel consolidated bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Antwi, Philip

    2018-04-01

    A novel consolidated bioprocess for hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw without exogenous enzymes involved was developed by co-fermentation of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess was approved by batch fermentations, with the optimum pH of 6.5. Fed-batch fermentation with a constant pH of 6.5 at 55 °C could enhance the butyric acid yield to a remarkable 33.9 g/L with a selectivity as high as 78%. Metabolic analysis of the co-culture indicated that sugars liberated by C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 were effectively converted to butyric acid by C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Secondary metabolism of C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 also contributed to the hyper-production of butyric acid, resulting in the re-assimilation of by-products such as acetic acid and ethanol. This work provides a more effective fermentation process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced. The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1.15 g/L and reducing sugar content of 0.541 mMol−1, 3% vegetative inoculum size with citric acid yield of 0.53 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.87 mMol−1, 2% of the substrate concentration with citric acid yield of 0.83 g/L and reducing sugar content of 9.36 mMol−1, incubation temperature of 55°C with citric acid yield of 0.62 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.37 mMol−1, and fermentation period of 5 days with citric acid yield of 0.61 g/L and reducing sugar content of 3.70 mMol−1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. PMID:27433535

  3. Caffeic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of kraft pulp using recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Katsuyama, Yohei; Danyao, Du; Kahar, Prihardi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Teramura, Hiroshi; Wakai, Keiko; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minami, Hiromichi; Ogino, Chiaki; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kondo, Ahikiko

    2017-07-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) serves as a building block for thermoplastics and a precursor for biologically active compounds and was recently produced from glucose by microbial fermentation. To produce caffeic acid from inedible cellulose, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions were compared using kraft pulp as lignocellulosic feedstock. Here, a tyrosine-overproducing Escherichia coli strain was metabolically engineered to produce caffeic acid from glucose by introducing the genes encoding a 4-hydroxyphenyllactate 3-hydroxylase (hpaBC) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tyrosine ammonia lyase (fevV) from Streptomyces sp. WK-5344. Using the resulting recombinant strain, the maximum yield of caffeic acid in SSF (233 mg/L) far exceeded that by SHF (37.9 mg/L). In the SSF with low cellulase loads (≤2.5 filter paper unit/g glucan), caffeic acid production was markedly increased, while almost no glucose accumulation was detected, indicating that the E. coli cells experienced glucose limitation in this culture condition. Caffeic acid yield was also negatively correlated with the glucose concentration in the fermentation medium. In SHF, the formation of by-product acetate and the accumulation of potential fermentation inhibitors increased significantly with kraft pulp hydrolysate than filter paper hydrolysate. The combination of these inhibitors had synergistic effects on caffeic acid fermentation at low concentrations. With lower loads of cellulase in SSF, less potential fermentation inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid) accumulated in the medium. These observations suggest that glucose limitation in SSF is crucial for improving caffeic acid yield, owing to reduced by-product formation and fermentation inhibitor accumulation.

  4. Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Affect Citrinin Production in the Filamentous Fungus Monascus ruber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaj, Hassan; Klaébé, Alain; Goma, Gérard; Blanc, Philippe J.; Barbier, Estelle; François, Jean

    2000-01-01

    During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the 13C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, or [1,2-13C]acetate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones. PMID:10698780

  5. [Lactic acid bacteria proteinase and quality of fermented dairy products--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue

    2015-12-04

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could synthesize cell envelope proteinase with weak activity, which primarily degrades casein. In addition to its crucial role in the rapid growth of LAB in milk, LAB proteinases are also of industrial importance due to their contribution to the formation of texture and flavor of many fermented dairy products. The proteolytic system, properties of proteinase, the degradation product of casein and its effect on the quality of fermented dairy products were reviewed in this manuscript.

  6. Improving fatty acid availability for bio-hydrocarbon production in Escherichia coli by metabolic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengming Lin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of producing fatty-acid-derived hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. However, product titers and yields remain low. In this work, we demonstrate new methods for improving fatty acid production by modifying central carbon metabolism and storing fatty acids in triacylglycerol. Based on suggestions from a computational model, we deleted seven genes involved in aerobic respiration, mixed-acid fermentation, and glyoxylate bypass (in the order of cyoA, nuoA, ndh, adhE, dld, pta, and iclR to modify the central carbon metabolic/regulatory networks. These gene deletions led to increased total fatty acids, which were the highest in the mutants containing five or six gene knockouts. Additionally, when two key enzymes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were over-expressed, we observed further increase in strain △cyoA△adhE△nuoA△ndh△pta△dld, leading to 202 mg/g dry cell weight of total fatty acids, ~250% of that in the wild-type strain. Meanwhile, we successfully introduced a triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway into E. coli through heterologous expression of wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT enzymes. The added pathway improved both the amount and fuel quality of the fatty acids. These new metabolic engineering strategies are providing promising directions for future investigation.

  7. Improving fatty acid availability for bio-hydrocarbon production in Escherichia coli by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fengming; Chen, Yu; Levine, Robert; Lee, Kilho; Yuan, Yingjin; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of producing fatty-acid-derived hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. However, product titers and yields remain low. In this work, we demonstrate new methods for improving fatty acid production by modifying central carbon metabolism and storing fatty acids in triacylglycerol. Based on suggestions from a computational model, we deleted seven genes involved in aerobic respiration, mixed-acid fermentation, and glyoxylate bypass (in the order of cyoA, nuoA, ndh, adhE, dld, pta, and iclR) to modify the central carbon metabolic/regulatory networks. These gene deletions led to increased total fatty acids, which were the highest in the mutants containing five or six gene knockouts. Additionally, when two key enzymes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were over-expressed, we observed further increase in strain △cyoA△adhE△nuoA△ndh△pta△dld, leading to 202 mg/g dry cell weight of total fatty acids, ~250% of that in the wild-type strain. Meanwhile, we successfully introduced a triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway into E. coli through heterologous expression of wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) enzymes. The added pathway improved both the amount and fuel quality of the fatty acids. These new metabolic engineering strategies are providing promising directions for future investigation.

  8. Fumaric acid production by Torulopsis glabrata: engineering the urea cycle and the purine nucleotide cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Wu, Jing; Song, Wei; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Hongjiang; Liu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A multi-vitamin auxotrophic Torulopsis glabrata strain, a pyruvate producer, was further engineered to produce fumaric acid. Using the genome-scale metabolic model iNX804 of T. glabrata, four fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways, involving the four cytosolic enzymes, argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL), fumarylacetoacetase (FAA), and fumarase (FUM1), were found. Athough single overexpression of each of the four enzymes in the cytosol improved fumaric acid production, the highest fumaric acid titer (5.62 g L(-1) ) was obtained with strain T.G-ASL(H) -ADSL(L) by controlling the strength of ASL at a high level and ADSL at a low level. In order to further improve the production of fumaric acid, the SpMAE1 gene encoding the C4 -dicarboxylic acids transporter was overexpressed in strain T.G-ASL(H) -ADSL(L) -SpMAE1 and the final fumaric acid titer increased to 8.83 g L(-1) . This study provides a novel strategy for fumaric acid biosynthesis by utilizing the urea cycle and the purine nucleotide cycle to enhance the bridge between carbon metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Simple Method to Reduce both Lactic Acid and Ammonium Production in Industrial Animal Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Nathaniel W; Croughan, Matthew S

    2018-01-28

    Fed-batch animal cell culture is the most common method for commercial production of recombinant proteins. However, higher cell densities in these platforms are still limited due to factors such as excessive ammonium production, lactic acid production, nutrient limitation, and/or hyperosmotic stress related to nutrient feeds and base additions to control pH. To partly overcome these factors, we investigated a simple method to reduce both ammonium and lactic acid production-termed Lactate Supplementation and Adaptation (LSA) technology-through the use of CHO cells adapted to a lactate-supplemented medium. Using this simple method, we achieved a reduction of nearly 100% in lactic acid production with a simultaneous 50% reduction in ammonium production in batch shaker flasks cultures. In subsequent fed-batch bioreactor cultures, lactic acid production and base addition were both reduced eight-fold. Viable cell densities of 35 million cells per mL and integral viable cell days of 273 million cell-days per mL were achieved, both among the highest currently reported for a fed-batch animal cell culture. Investigating the benefits of LSA technology in animal cell culture is worthy of further consideration and may lead to process conditions more favorable for advanced industrial applications.

  10. Engineering E. coli-E. coli cocultures for production of muconic acid from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Li, Zhengjun; Pereira, Brian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-09-15

    cis, cis-Muconic acid is an important chemical that can be biosynthesized from simple substrates in engineered microorganisms. Recently, it has been shown that engineering microbial cocultures is an emerging and promising approach for biochemical production. In this study, we aim to explore the potential of the E. coli-E. coli coculture system to use a single renewable carbon source, glycerol, for the production of value-added product cis, cis-muconic acid. Two coculture engineering strategies were investigated. In the first strategy, an E. coli strain containing the complete biosynthesis pathway was co-cultivated with another E. coli strain containing only a heterologous intermediate-to-product biosynthetic pathway. In the second strategy, the upstream and downstream pathways were accommodated in two separate E. coli strains, each of which was dedicated to one portion of the biosynthesis process. Compared with the monoculture approach, both coculture engineering strategies improved the production significantly. Using a batch bioreactor, the engineered coculture achieved a 2 g/L muconic acid production with a yield of 0.1 g/g. Our results demonstrate that coculture engineering is a viable option for producing muconic acid from glycerol. Moreover, microbial coculture systems are shown to have the potential for converting single carbon source to value-added products.

  11. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, M D; Aiken, G E

    2010-10-01

    To determine the effects of hops extract on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen micro-organisms. When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by β-acid-rich hops extract. The rates of VFA production increased over extended incubations (24 h), and hops extract caused an increase in the propionate to acetate ratio. Hops extract inhibited the growth and metabolism of Streptococcus bovis, but Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii were not affected. Likewise, the propionate production of M. elsdenii/S. bovis co-cultures, but not M. elsdenii/S. ruminantium co-cultures, was decreased in the presence of hops extract. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the hops inhibit Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (S. bovis), and the rumen microbial community requires a period of adaptation before normal VFA production resumes. Selenomonas bovis and S. ruminantium both produce lactate, which is the substrate for propionate production by M. elsdenii. However, S. ruminantium has an outer membrane, while S. bovis does not. The enhanced production of the gluconeogenesis precursor, propionic acid, provides further evidence that plant secondary metabolites from hops could be used to improve rumen fermentation. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to US Government works.

  12. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing

  13. High production of D-tagatose by the addition of boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2007-01-01

    An L-arabinose isomerase mutant enzyme from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was used to catalyze the isomerization of D-galactose to D-tagatose with boric acid. Maximum production of D-tagatose occurred at pH 8.5-9.0, 60 degrees C, and 0.4 molar ratio of boric acid to D-galactose, and the production increased with increasing enzyme concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the enzyme (10.8 units/mL) converted 300 g/L D-galactose to 230 g/L D-tagatose for 20 h with a yield of 77% (w/w); the production and conversion yield with boric acid were 1.5-fold and 24% higher than without boric acid, respectively. In 24 h, the enzyme produced 370 g/L D-tagatose from 500 g/L D-galactose with boric acid, corresponding to a conversion yield of 74% (w/w) and a production rate of 15.4 g/L.h. The production and yield of D-tagatose obtained in this study are unprecedented.

  14. Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Long, M; Heyler, K; Corl, B; Forster, R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed by LA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA modified milk FA profile significantly. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on membrane acid electrolysis for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco Antonio Oliveira da; Linardi, Marcelo; Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen represents great opportunity to be a substitute for fossil fuels in the future. Water as a renewable source of hydrogen is of great interest, since it is abundant and can decompose, producing only pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This decomposition of water can be accomplished by processes such as electrolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical cycles. The electrolysis by membrane has been proposed as a viable process for hydrogen production using thermal and electrical energy derived from nuclear energy or any renewable source like solar energy. In this work, within the context of optimization of the electrolysis process, it is intended to develop a mathematical model that can simulate and assist in parameterization of the electrolysis performed by polymer membrane electrolytic cell. The experimental process to produce hydrogen via the cell membrane, aims to optimize the amount of gas produced using renewable energy with noncarbogenic causing no harm by producing gases deleterious to the environment. (author)

  16. Phosphor investigation in the production of Syrian phosphoric acid using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hassanieh, O.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was applied in this work to the industrial process of extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid and to the process of the purification of the phosphoric acid for food proposes. The structural changes of used extraction materials and the organic content of the final product was studied. 13 C , 1 H and 32 P-spectra of all material during the process were recorded. The spectra of the three used extraction materials Bis(2-ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid)) DEHPA, TriOctyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) (C 8 H 1 7) 3 P=O and TriButyl Phosphate (TBP) (C 4 H 9 O) 3 P=O show a partial degradation during the process. The final product ( Phosphoric acid for Food proposes) doesn't contain any organic solvents or extraction material. (author)

  17. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  18. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-06

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding.

  19. High-level production of diacetyl in a metabolically engineered lactic acid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention provides a genetically modified lactic acid bacterium capable of producing diacetyl under aerobic conditions. Additionally the invention provides a method for producing diacetyl using the genetically modified lactic acid bacterium under aerobic conditions in the presence...... of a source of iron-containing porphyrin and a metal ion selected from Fe3+, Fe2+ and Cu2+. The lactic acid bacterium is genetically modified by deletion of those genes in its genome that encode polypeptides having lactate dehydrogenase (E.C 1.1.1.27/E.C.1.1.1.28); α-acetolactate decarboxylase (E.C 4.......C. 1.1.1.4/1.1.1.-) and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.10) activity. The invention provides for use of the genetically modified lactic acid bacterium for the production of diacetyl and a food product....

  20. Optimization of lactic acid production from glucose using geobacillus stearothermophilus strain 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Naresh, Sandrasekaran; Safie, Mohammad Farhan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the conversion efficiency of glucose to lactic acid by Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain 15. Six parameters (temperature, pH, incubation time, agitation speed, carbon and nitrogen concentrations) were screened to identify the most significant factors in affecting lactic acid production using glucose. Three most significant factors (temperature, pH and incubation time) were further optimized in this experiment to determine the optimal production of lactic acid. Numerical optimization gave the point prediction of lactic acid concentration produced at 9.95 g/L with the desirability of 0.979 at 40°C, pH 8.5, 24 h, 100 rpm with 5% glucose and 3% yeast extract.