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Sample records for strain 2cp-c suggests

  1. Identification of a c-Type Cytochrome Specific for Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) Reduction in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans Strain 2CP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Nissen, S.; Liu, X.; Chourey, K.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Hettich, R.; Loeffler, F.

    2014-12-01

    Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans is a metabolically versatile Deltaproteobacterium and conserves energy from the reduction of various electron acceptors, including insoluble MnO2 and ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides (FeOOH). The goal of this study was to identify c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to MnO2. The characterization of deletion mutants has revealed a number of c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to solid metal oxides in Shewanella spp. and Geobacter spp; however, a genetic system for Anaeromyxobacter is not available. The A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C genome encodes 68 putative c-type cytochromes, which all lack functional assignments. To identify c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to solid MnO2, protein expression profiles of A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C cells grown with acetate as electron donor and MnO2, ferric citrate, FeOOH, nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors were compared. Whole cell proteomes were analyzed after trypsin proteolysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Distinct c-type cytochrome expression patterns were observed with cells grown with different electron acceptors. A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C grown with MnO2 expressed 25 out of the 68 c-type cytochromes encoded on the genome. The c-type cytochrome Adeh_1278 was only expressed in strain 2CP-C grown with MnO2. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed that the Adeh_1278 gene was transcribed in MnO2-grown cells but not in cells grown with other terminal electron acceptors. The expression of the Adeh_1278 gene correlated with Mn(IV) reduction activity. Adeh_1278 has three heme binding motifs and is predicted to be located in the periplasm. The identification of Adeh_1278 as a protein uniquely expressed when MnO2 serves as electron acceptor suggests its utility as a biomarker for MnO2 reduction. This example demonstrates the value of the LC-MS/MS approach for identifying specific proteins of interest and making functional assignments

  2. Complementary Mechanisms for Degradation of Inulin-Type Fructans and Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides among Bifidobacterial Strains Suggest Bacterial Cooperation.

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    Rivière, Audrey; Selak, Marija; Geirnaert, Annelies; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-05-01

    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are broken down to different extents by various bifidobacterial strains present in the human colon. To date, phenotypic heterogeneity in the consumption of these complex oligosaccharides at the strain level remains poorly studied. To examine mechanistic variations in ITF and AXOS constituent preferences present in one individual, ITF and AXOS consumption by bifidobacterial strains isolated from the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME) after inoculation with feces from one healthy individual was investigated. Among the 18 strains identified, four species-independent clusters displaying different ITF and AXOS degradation mechanisms and preferences were found. Bifidobacterium bifidum B46 showed limited growth on all substrates, whereas B. longum B24 and B. longum B18 could grow better on short-chain-length fractions of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) than on fructose. B. longum B24 could cleave arabinose substituents of AXOS extracellularly, without using the AXOS-derived xylose backbones, whereas B. longum B18 was able to consume oligosaccharides (up to xylotetraose) preferentially and consumed AXOS to a limited extent. B. adolescentis B72 degraded all fractions of FOS simultaneously, partially degraded inulin, and could use xylose backbones longer than xylotetraose extracellularly. The strain-specific degradation mechanisms were suggested to be complementary and indicated resource partitioning. Specialization in the degradation of complex carbohydrates by bifidobacteria present on the individual level could have in vivo implications for the successful implementation of ITF and AXOS, aiming at bifidogenic and/or butyrogenic effects. Finally, this work shows the importance of taking microbial strain-level differences into account in gut microbiota research. IMPORTANCE It is well known that bifidobacteria degrade undigestible complex polysaccharides, such as ITF and AXOS, in the

  3. Virulence-related genes, adhesion and invasion of some Yersinia enterocolitica-like strains suggests its pathogenic potential.

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    Imori, Priscilla F M; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Souza, Roberto A; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Falcão, Juliana P

    2017-03-01

    Yersina enterocolitica-like species have not been extensively studied regarding its pathogenic potential. This work aimed to assess the pathogenic potential of some Y. enterocolitica-like strains by evaluating the presence of virulence-related genes by PCR and their ability to adhere to and invade Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells. A total of 50 Y. frederiksenii, 55 Y. intermedia and 13 Y. kristensenii strains were studied. The strains contained the following genes: Y. frederiksenii, fepA(44%), fes(44%) and ystB(18%); Y. intermedia, ail(53%), fepA (35%), fepD(2%), fes(97%), hreP(2%), ystB(2%) and tccC(35%); Y. kristensenii, ail(62%), ystB(23%), fepA(77%), fepD(54%), fes(54%) and hreP(77%). Generally, the Y. enterocolitica-like strains had a reduced ability to adhere to and invade mammalian cells compared to the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 8081. However, Y. kristensenii FCF410 and Y. frederiksenii FCF461 presented high invasion potentials in Caco-2 cells after five days of pre-incubation increased by 45- and 7.2-fold compared to Y. enterocolitica 8081, respectively; but, the ail gene was not detected in these strains. The presence of virulence-related genes in some of the Y. enterocolitica-like strains indicated their possible pathogenic potential. Moreover, the results suggest the existence of alternative virulence mechanisms and that the pathogenicity of Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii may be strain-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of Plum pox virus Rec isolates from Russia suggests a new insight into evolution of the strain.

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    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Field isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV), belonging to the strain Rec, have been found for the first time in Russia. Full-size genomes of the isolates K28 and Kisl-1pl from myrobalan and plum, respectively, were sequenced on the 454 platform. Analysis of all known PPV-Rec complete genomes using the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4) revealed yet another recombination event in the 5'-terminal region. This event was detected by seven algorithms, implemented in the RDP4, with statistically significant P values and supported by a phylogenetic analysis with the bootstrap value of 87%. A putative PPV-M-derived segment, encompassing the C-terminus of the P1 gene and approximately two-thirds of the HcPro gene, is bordered by breakpoints at positions 760-940 and 1838-1964, depending on the recombinant isolate. The predicted 5'-distal breakpoint for the isolate Valjevka is located at position 2804. The Dideron (strain D) and SK68 (strain M) isolates were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively. Finding of another recombination event suggests more complex evolutionary history of PPV-Rec than previously assumed. Perhaps the first recombination event led to the formation of a PPV-D variant harboring the PPV-M-derived fragment within the 5'-proximal part of the genome. Subsequent recombination of its descendant with PPV-M in the 3'-proximal genomic region resulted in the emergence of the evolutionary successful strain Rec.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis and survey of Apis cerana strain of Sacbrood virus (AcSBV) in Taiwan suggests a recent introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Mehmood, Shahid; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Yue-Wen; Ko, Chong-Yu; Su, Songkun

    2017-06-01

    The Sacbrood virus (SBV) is widely distributed in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. AcSBV, a distinct SBV strain in Asian honey bees (A. cerana) causes larva death before pupation and often depopulates colonies, leading to collapse. It is the most severe disease in A. cerana beekeeping. AcSBV infects A. cerana in most natural habitats, yet occurrences were not reported in Taiwan before 2015 and were not a concern for local beekeepers. However, in 2016, A. cerana beekeepers in central Taiwan reported SBV-like symptoms. We screened samples of larvae using RT-PCR and surveyed asymptomatic apiaries in north Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that AcSBV isolates from central Taiwan were introduced; all isolates had high similarity in sequences to AcSBV genomes identified in mainland China, Vietnam, and Korea and distinct differences to SBV sequence identified in Taiwan. The overall prevalence in symptomatic colonies was low. No latent infections were detected in asymptomatic colonies. The AcSBV epizootic may not yet have reached its highest potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American tegumenary leishmaniasis patients.

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    Silva, Silvana C; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Juliana A; Magalhães, Viviane; Medina, Lilian; Queiroz, Adriano; Machado, Paulo Roberto L; Schriefer, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher's exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients' responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like

  7. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

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    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  8. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  9. Serial passaging of Candida albicans in systemic murine infection suggests that the wild type strain SC5314 is well adapted to the murine kidney.

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    Anja Lüttich

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a remarkable ability to adapt to unfavorable environments by different mechanisms, including microevolution. For example, a previous study has shown that passaging through the murine spleen can cause new phenotypic characteristics. Since the murine kidney is the main target organ in murine Candida sepsis and infection of the spleen differs from the kidney in several aspects, we tested whether C. albicans SC5314 could evolve to further adapt to infection and persistence within the kidney. Therefore, we performed a long-term serial passage experiment through the murine kidney of using a low infectious dose. We found that the overall virulence of the commonly used wild type strain SC5314 did not change after eight passages and that the isolated pools showed only very moderate changes of phenotypic traits on the population level. Nevertheless, the last passage showed a higher phenotypic variability and a few individual strains exhibited phenotypic alterations suggesting that microevolution has occurred. However, the majority of the tested single strains were phenotypically indistinguishable from SC5314. Thus, our findings indicate that characteristics of SC5314 which are important to establish and maintain kidney infection over a prolonged time are already well developed.

  10. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

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    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  11. Plasmids of Raw Milk Cheese Isolate Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Biovar diacetylactis DPC3901 Suggest a Plant-Based Origin for the Strain ▿ †

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    Fallico, Vincenzo; McAuliffe, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    The four-plasmid complement of the raw milk cheese isolate Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis DPC3901 was sequenced, and some genetic features were functionally analyzed. The complete sequences of pVF18 (18,977 bp), pVF21 (21,739 bp), pVF22 (22,166 bp), and pVF50 (53,876 bp) were obtained. Each plasmid contained genes not previously described for Lactococcus, in addition to genes associated with plant-derived lactococcal strains. Most of the novel genes were found on pVF18 and encoded functions typical of bacteria associated with plants, such as activities of plant cell wall modification (orf11 and orf25). In addition, a predicted high-affinity regulated system for the uptake of cobalt was identified (orf19 to orf21 [orf19-21]), which has a single database homolog on a plant-derived Leuconostoc plasmid and whose functionality was demonstrated following curing of pVF18. pVF21 and pVF22 encode additional metal transporters, which, along with orf19-21 of pVF18, could enhance host ability to uptake growth-limiting amounts of biologically essential ions within the soil. In addition, vast regions from pVF50 and pVF21 share significant homology with the plant-derived lactococcal plasmid pGdh442, which is indicative of extensive horizontal gene transfer and recombination between these plasmids and suggests a common plant niche for their hosts. Phenotypes associated with these regions include glutamate dehydrogenase activity and Na+ and K+ transport. The presence of numerous plant-associated markers in L. lactis DPC3901 suggests a plant origin for the raw milk cheese isolate and provides for the first time the genetic basis to support the concept of the plant-milk transition for Lactococcus strains. PMID:21803914

  12. Proteome analysis of a Lactococcus lactis strain overexpressing gapA suggests that the gene product is an auxiliary glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Martin; Kilstrup, Mogens; Roepstorff, P.

    2002-01-01

    revealed two neighbouring protein spots, GapBI and GapBII, with amino terminal sequences identical to the product of gapA from the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain LM0230 and that of the two IL1403 sequences. In order to assign the two protein spots to their respective genes we constructed an L. lactis...... was specific for NAD. No NADP dependent activity was detected. Proteome analysis of the gapA overexpressing strain revealed two new protein spots, GapAI and GapAII, not previously detected in proteome analysis of MG1363. Results from mass spectrometry analysis of GapA and GapB and comparison with the deduced......The sequence of the genome from the Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis strain IL1403 shows the presence of two reading frames, gapA and gapB, putatively encoding glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Previous proteomic analysis of the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain MG1363 has...

  13. Identification of a multi-protein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublik, Anja; Deobald, Darja; Hartwig, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), gel filtration and ultrafiltration an active dehalogenating protein complex with a molecular mass of 250–270 kDa was identified. The active subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) colocalised with a complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) subunit (CbdbA195) and an iron-sulfur cluster...... of the dehalogenating complex prior to membrane solubilisation. Taken together, the identification of the respiratory dehalogenase protein complex and the absence of indications for quinone participation in the respiration suggest a quinone-independent protein-based respiratory electron transfer chain in D. mccartyi....

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

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    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. Identification of Methyl Halide-Utilizing Genes in the Methyl Bromide-Utilizing Bacterial Strain IMB-1 Suggests a High Degree of Conservation of Methyl Halide-Specific Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C.A.; Warner, K.L.; Oremland, R.S.; Murrell, J.C.; McDonald, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    Strain IMB-1, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the alpha subgroup of the Proteobacteria, can grow with methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. A single cmu gene cluster was identified in IMB-1 that contained six open reading frames: cmuC, cmuA, orf146, paaE, hutI, and partial metF. CmuA from IMB-1 has high sequence homology to the methyltransferase CmuA from Methylobacterium chloromethanicum and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum and contains a C-terminal corrinoid-binding motif and an N-terminal methyl-transferase motif. However, cmuB, identified in M. chloromethanicum and H. chloromethanicum, was not detected in IMB-1.

  16. Open to Suggestion.

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    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

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    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  18. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  19. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

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    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  20. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

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    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

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    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  2. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  3. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

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    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  4. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  5. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

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    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  6. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads

    2008-01-01

    of the piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity...

  7. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  8. Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Arias, Armando; Orlić, Sandi; Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasmodium vivax populations revisited: mitochondrial genomes of temperate strains in Asia suggest ancient population expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Miao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite outside of Africa, and its range extends well into the temperate zones. Previous studies provided evidence for vivax population differentiation, but temperate vivax parasites were not well represented in these analyses. Here we address this deficit by using complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences to elucidate the broad genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax from temperate regions in East and Southeast Asia. Results From the complete mtDNA sequences of 99 clinical samples collected in China, Myanmar and Korea, a total of 30 different haplotypes were identified from 26 polymorphic sites. Significant differentiation between different East and Southeast Asian parasite populations was observed except for the comparison between populations from Korea and southern China. Haplotype patterns and structure diversity analysis showed coexistence of two different groups in East Asia, which were genetically related to the Southeast Asian population and Myanmar population, respectively. The demographic history of P. vivax, examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, revealed population expansion events across the entire P. vivax range and the Myanmar population. Bayesian skyline analysis further supported the occurrence of ancient P. vivax population expansion. Conclusions This study provided further resolution of the population structure and evolution of P. vivax, especially in temperate/warm-temperate endemic areas of Asia. The results revealed divergence of the P. vivax populations in temperate regions of China and Korea from other populations. Multiple analyses confirmed ancient population expansion of this parasite. The extensive genetic diversity of the P. vivax populations is consistent with phenotypic plasticity of the parasites, which has implications for malaria control.

  10. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  11. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  12. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  15. Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software (GOM Correlate Professional. The results suggest that material characterisation testing to a maximum strain of 0.4 and a maximum rate of 500 s−1 in tension and to a maximum strain of −0.4 and a maximum rate of −800 s−1 in compression would encapsulate the demands placed on the material during impact and, in turn, define the range of properties required to encapsulate the behavior of the material during impact, enabling testing to be application-specific and strain-rate-dependent properties to be established and incorporated in finite element models.

  16. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  19. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  20. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  2. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  3. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  4. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  5. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  6. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori strains go extinct, as european strains expand their host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Domínguez-Bello

    Full Text Available We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1, all from Spanish were European (hpEurope and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination. The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

  7. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  8. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  9. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  10. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  11. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  12. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest......In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields...... are investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... in the multiple parameter version of the phenomenological SGP theory. Since this also dominates the mechanics of indentation testing, results suggest that length parameters characteristic of mode I fracture should be inferred from nanoindentation....

  13. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  14. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  15. Biological assay of attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeling, W L; Pejsak, Z; Paul, P S

    1984-11-01

    Attenuated strain NADL-2 and virulent strain NADL-8 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of PPV in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. Both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain NADL-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. The strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (HA), median cell culture infective dose (CCID50), median fetal infective dose (FID50), and median fetal lethal dose (FLD50). The FID50 and FLD50 were determined by injecting virus directly into the amniotic fluid of fetuses in utero at 44 +/- 2 days of gestation and collecting the fetuses 15 +/- 1 days later. Both strains had an HA titer of 64, suggesting that there is a similar number of virions in stock preparations. However, other measurements differed markedly. The CCID50, FID50, and FLD50 were 10(5.5), 10(3.5), and 10(0.5), respectively, for strain NADL-2, and 10(4.5), 10(7.7), and 10(6.3), respectively, for strain NADL-8. Collectively, the values indicate that more than 10,000 times as much strain NADL-2 would need to reach the conceptus transplacentally to establish infection. These observations may help to explain the different consequences of oronasal exposure of pregnant swine to these strains of PPV.

  16. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  17. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, Giulia; Battaglia, Giovanni; Grossi, Roberto; Pisanti, Nadia; Marangoni, Roberto

    2013-03-20

    Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus-like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non-conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra-specific comparison are sharp markers of inter-specific evolution: indeed, many events of non-conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to infer MGEs also for low coverage genomes

  20. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to

  1. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  2. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  3. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  4. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  5. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  6. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  7. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  8. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  9. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  10. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  11. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  12. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  13. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  14. Cluster analysis of Helicobacter pylori genomic DNA fingerprints suggests gastroduodenal disease-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, M F; Chan, K Y; Versalovic, J; Koeuth, T; Graham, D Y; Lupski, J R

    1995-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is now accepted as the most common cause of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. The etiologies of many infectious diseases have been attributed to specific or clonal strains of bacterial pathogens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA between repetitive DNA sequences, REP elements (REP-PCR), has been utilized to generate DNA fingerprints to examine similarity among strains within a bacterial species. Genomic DNA from H. pylori isolates obtained from 70 individuals (39 duodenal ulcers and 31 simple gastritis) was PCR-amplified using consensus probes to repetitive DNA elements. The H. pylori DNA fingerprints were analyzed for similarity and correlated with disease presentation using the NTSYS-pc computer program. Each H. pylori strain had a distinct DNA fingerprint except for two pairs. Single-colony DNA fingerprints of H. pylori from the same patient were identical, suggesting that each patient harbors a single strain. Computer-assisted cluster analysis of the REP-PCR DNA fingerprints showed two large clusters of isolates, one associated with simple gastritis and the other with duodenal ulcer disease. Cluster analysis of REP-PCR DNA fingerprints of H. pylori strains suggests that duodenal ulcer isolates, as a group, are more similar to one another and different from gastritis isolates. These results suggest that disease-specific strains may exist.

  15. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  16. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  17. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  18. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  19. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  20. Influence of strain on dislocation core in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, L.; Godet, J.; Brochard, S.

    2018-05-01

    First principles, density functional-based tight binding and semi-empirical interatomic potentials calculations are performed to analyse the influence of large strains on the structure and stability of a 60? dislocation in silicon. Such strains typically arise during the mechanical testing of nanostructures like nanopillars or nanoparticles. We focus on bi-axial strains in the plane normal to the dislocation line. Our calculations surprisingly reveal that the dislocation core structure largely depends on the applied strain, for strain levels of about 5%. In the particular case of bi-axial compression, the transformation of the dislocation to a locally disordered configuration occurs for similar strain magnitudes. The formation of an opening, however, requires larger strains, of about 7.5%. Furthermore, our results suggest that electronic structure methods should be favoured to model dislocation cores in case of large strains whenever possible.

  1. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  2. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  3. Genome-Wide Transcription Study of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 Clinical Strain versus Environmental Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Movahed

    Full Text Available The infection of Cryptococcus neoformans is acquired through the inhalation of desiccated yeast cells and basidiospores originated from the environment, particularly from bird's droppings and decaying wood. Three environmental strains of C. neoformans originated from bird droppings (H4, S48B and S68B and C. neoformans reference clinical strain (H99 were used for intranasal infection in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that the H99 strain demonstrated higher virulence compared to H4, S48B and S68B strains. To examine if gene expression contributed to the different degree of virulence among these strains, a genome-wide microarray study was performed to inspect the transcriptomic profiles of all four strains. Our results revealed that out of 7,419 genes (22,257 probes examined, 65 genes were significantly up-or down-regulated in H99 versus H4, S48B and S68B strains. The up-regulated genes in H99 strain include Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (MVA1, Mitochondrial matrix factor 1 (MMF1, Bud-site-selection protein 8 (BUD8, High affinity glucose transporter 3 (SNF3 and Rho GTPase-activating protein 2 (RGA2. Pathway annotation using DAVID bioinformatics resource showed that metal ion binding and sugar transmembrane transporter activity pathways were highly expressed in the H99 strain. We suggest that the genes and pathways identified may possibly play crucial roles in the fungal pathogenesis.

  4. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  5. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  6. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  7. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  8. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  9. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  10. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  11. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  12. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  13. CRISPR distribution within the Escherichia coli species is not suggestive of immunity-associated diversifying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Charpentier, Sophie; Clermont, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Denamur, Erick; Branger, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    In order to get further insights into the role of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in Escherichia coli, we analyzed the CRISPR diversity in a collection of 290 strains, in the phylogenetic framework of the strains represented by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The set included 263 natural E. coli isolates exposed to various environments and isolated over a 20-year period from humans and animals, as well as 27 fully sequenced strains. Our analyses confirm that there are two largely independent pairs of CRISPR loci (CRISPR1 and -2 and CRISPR3 and -4), each associated with a different type of cas genes (Ecoli and Ypest, respectively), but that each pair of CRISPRs has similar dynamics. Strikingly, the major phylogenetic group B2 is almost devoid of CRISPRs. The majority of genomes analyzed lack Ypest cas genes and contain CRISPR3 with spacers matching Ypest cas genes. The analysis of relatedness between strains in terms of spacer repertoire and the MLST tree shows a pattern where closely related strains (MLST phylogenetic distance of 0.01) exhibit completely different CRISPRs. This suggests rare but radical turnover of spacers in CRISPRs rather than CRISPR gradual change. We found no link between the presence, size, or content of CRISPRs and the lifestyle of the strains. Our data suggest that, within the E. coli species, CRISPRs do not have the expected characteristics of a classical immune system.

  14. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  16. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  17. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  18. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  19. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  20. Virulence potential of Escherichia coli strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Boutet-Dubois, Adeline; Laouini, Dorsaf; Combescure, Christophe; Bouziges, Nicole; Marès, Pierre; Sotto, Albert

    2011-11-01

    We compared the virulence properties of a collection of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) Escherichia coli strains to urinary tract infection (UTI) strains isolated from pregnant women in a university hospital over 1 year. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ABU strains presented a virulence behavior similar to that of strains isolated from cases of cystitis.

  1. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus N Strain Isolated from Guangxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.

  3. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  4. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  6. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  7. Food poisoning potential of Bacillus cereus strains from Norwegian dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors Arnesen, Lotte P; O'sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar

    2007-05-10

    Characteristics concerning diarrhoeal potential were investigated in B. cereus dairy strains. The thirty-nine strains, isolated from whipping cream, were tested for cytotoxicity after culturing at human body temperature as well as 25 degrees C and 32 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, none of the strains were highly cytotoxic. This observation suggests that those strains should be considered to pose a minor risk with regard to diarrhoeal food poisoning. However, some strains were moderately or highly cytotoxic when grown at 25 degrees C and 32 degrees C. While the majority of the strains were able to grow at refrigeration temperatures, only four B. weihenstephanensis strains were identified among them when subjected to discriminative PCR assays and growth temperatures which delimit this species.

  8. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  9. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  10. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A closer look at prion strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solforosi, Laura; Milani, Michela; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that are responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and consist primarily of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), a pathogenic isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). The absence of nucleic acids as essential components of the infectious prions is the most striking feature associated to these diseases. Additionally, different prion strains have been isolated from animal diseases despite the lack of DNA or RNA molecules. Mounting evidence suggests that prion-strain-specific features segregate with different PrPSc conformational and aggregation states. Strains are of practical relevance in prion diseases as they can drastically differ in many aspects, such as incubation period, PrPSc biochemical profile (e.g., electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio) and distribution of brain lesions. Importantly, such different features are maintained after inoculation of a prion strain into genetically identical hosts and are relatively stable across serial passages. This review focuses on the characterization of prion strains and on the wide range of important implications that the study of prion strains involves. PMID:23357828

  12. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  13. Acquirement of true stress-strain curve using true fracture strain obtained by tensile test and FE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true Stress-Strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  14. Acquirement of True Stress-strain Curve Using True Fracture Strain Obtained by Tensile Test and FE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Yoon; Lee, Hyung Yil [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we predict a true fracture strain using load-displacement curves from tensile test and finite element analysis (FEA), and suggest a method for acquiring true stress-strain (SS) curves by predicted fracture strain. We first derived the true SS curve up to necking point from load-displacement curve. As the beginning, the posterior necking part of true SS curve is linearly extrapolated with the slope at necking point. The whole SS curve is then adopted for FE simulation of tensile test. The Bridgman factor or suitable plate correction factors are applied to pre and post FEA. In the load-true strain curve from FEA, the true fracture strain is determined as the matching point to test fracture load. The determined true strain is validated by comparing with test fracture strain. Finally, we complete the true SS curve by combining the prior necking part and linear part, the latter of which connects necking and predicted fracture points.

  15. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  16. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  17. Distribution of Areal Strain on Mercury: Insights into the Interaction of Volcanism and Global Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. A.; Johnson, C. L.; Byrne, P. K.; Phillips, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Wrinkle ridges within volcanic plains on Mercury host just as much shortening strain as lobate scarps and high relief ridges, suggesting that wrinkle ridges have accommodated much more strain from global contraction than previously thought.

  18. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  19. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  20. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  1. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  2. Brucella abortus strain 2308 Wisconsin genome: importance of the definition of reference strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suárez-Esquivel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis of the reference strain Brucella abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version at www.wikipedia.Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised.

  3. Isolation and identification of a novel radio-resistant strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhidong; Mao Jun; Wang Wei; Tang Qiyong; Shi Yuhu

    2008-01-01

    A novel radio-resistant strain named RL2 was studied polyphasically, which was isolated from the soils in the Gurban-Tunggut Desert, Xinjiang. The strain is Gam-positive, sphere-shaped and pink pigmented; The DNA (G+C) contents of RL2 is 71.62mo1%; The 16S rDNA genes of RL2 and D. radiodurans type strain DSM20539 shows a high level of similarity (97.2%). According to phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it can be suggested that the strain RL2 has been identified as Deinococcus. sp and it may be a novel species. (authors)

  4. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  5. Two-phase behavior in strained thin films of hole-doped manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Amlan; Rajeswari, M.; Srivastava, R. C.; Li, Y. H.; Venkatesan, T.; Greene, R. L.; Millis, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of biaxial strain on the electrical and magnetic properties of thin films of manganites. We observe that manganite films grown under biaxial compressive strain exhibit island growth morphology which leads to a non-uniform distribution of the strain. Transport and magnetic properties of these films suggest the coexistence of two different phases, a metallic ferromagnet and an insulating antiferromagnet. We suggest that the high strain regions are insulating whi...

  6. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  7. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF NEW HOSPITAL STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEVONS, M P; PARKER, M T

    1964-05-01

    The emergence of new groups of strains of Staph. aureus as important causes of endemic hospital infection in Great Britain has been followed by the phage typing method. Experiments are reported which suggest the possible origin of one of them.

  9. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  10. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  11. Broiler genetic strain and sex effects on meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, K P; Schilling, M W; Corzo, A

    2011-05-01

    A randomized complete block design within a factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate the effect of strain and sex on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and sensory acceptability. Two broiler strains were reared: a commercially available strain (strain A) and a strain currently in the test phase (strain B) that has been genetically selected to maximize breast yield. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant using commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. Carcasses were deboned at 4 h postmortem. The left half of each breast was evaluated for pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and proximate analysis. The right side of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition. No interactions were observed throughout the study. Male broilers had a higher (P dressing percentage and breast meat yield when compared with females. Broilers from strain B presented a higher (P dressing percentage than those broilers corresponding to the commercially available broiler strain. At 24 h postmortem, female broilers presented a lower ultimate pH and higher Commission internationale de l'éclairage yellowness values (ventral side of the pectoralis major) when compared with male broilers. On average, no differences existed (P > 0.05) among treatments with respect to pH decline, cooking loss, shear values, and proximate composition. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among breast meat from the different strains with respect to consumer acceptability of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability, but breast meat from strain B was slightly preferred (P < 0.05) over that of strain A with respect to aroma. However, breast meat from both strains received scores in the range of "like slightly to like moderately." Overall data suggest that all treatments yielded high quality breast and thigh meat and strain cross did not present variability in terms of consumer acceptability.

  12. DNA Fingerprinting of Single Colonies of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Cancer Patients Suggests Infection with a Single Predominant Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Miehlke, Stephan; Thomas, Rachel; Guiterrez, Oscar; Graham, David Y.; Go, Mae F.

    1999-01-01

    In each of six gastric cancer patients, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR DNA fingerprints of 18 single colonies of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric antrum, corpus, and cardia were identical and matched that of the parental isolate. In three additional gastric cancer patients, 17 of 18 single-colony DNA fingerprints were identical to each other and to the DNA fingerprint of the corresponding parental isolate.

  13. Emergent lineages of mumps virus suggest the need for a polyvalent vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mumps outbreaks among vaccinated patients have become increasingly common in recent years. While there are multiple conditions driving this re-emergence, convention has suggested that these outbreaks are associated with waning immunity rather than vaccine escape. Molecular evidence from both the ongoing American and Dutch outbreaks in conjunction with recent structural biology studies challenge this convention, and suggest that emergent lineages of mumps virus exhibit key differences in antigenic epitopes from the vaccine strain employed: Jeryl-Lynn 5. The American and Dutch 2016–2017 outbreak lineages were examined using computational biology through the lens of diversity in immunogenic epitopes. Findings are discussed and the laboratory evidence indicating neutralization of heterologous mumps strains by serum from vaccinated individuals is reviewed. Taken together, it is concluded that the number of heterologous epitopes occurring in mumps virus in conjunction with waning immunity is facilitating small outbreaks in vaccinated patients, and that consideration of a polyvalent mumps vaccine is warranted.

  14. Gravitational waves from rotating strained neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D I

    2002-01-01

    In this review we examine the dynamics and gravitational wave detectability of rotating strained neutron stars. The discussion is divided into two halves: triaxial stars and precessing stars. We summarize recent studies on how crustal strains and magnetic fields can sustain triaxiality, and suggest that Magnus forces connected with pinned superfluid vortices might contribute to deformation also. The conclusions that could be drawn following the successful gravitational wave detection of a triaxial star are discussed, and areas requiring further study identified. The latest ideas regarding free precession are then outlined, and the recent suggestion of Middleditch et al (Middleditch et al 2000 New Astronomy 5 243; 2000 Preprint astro-ph/0010044) that the remnant of SN1987A contains a freely precessing star, spinning down by gravitational wave energy loss, is examined critically. We describe what we would learn about neutron stars should the gravitational wave detectors prove this hypothesis to be correct

  15. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  16. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  17. Two New Quadrilateral Elements Based on Strain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaiee-Pajand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two new quadrilateral elements are formulated to solve plane problems. Low sensitivity to geometric distortion, no parasitic shear error, rotational invariance, and satisfying the Felippa pure bending test are characteristics of these suggested elements. One proposed element is formulated by establishing equilibrium equations for the second-order strain field. The other suggested element is obtained by establishing equilibrium equations only for the linear part of the strain field. The number of the strain states decreases when the conditions among strain states are satisfied. Several numerical tests are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed elements. Famous elements, which were suggested by other researchers, are used as a means of comparison. It is shown that these novel elements pass the strong patch tests, even for extremely poor meshes, and one of them has an excellent accuracy and fast convergence in other complicated problems.

  18. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  19. Differences in the duration of sedative and anxiolytic effects of desmethyldiazepam in two outbred Wistar strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, J W; de Boer, S.F.; van der Gugten, J; de Groot, G

    Different sensitivities to benzodiazepines have been described for various strains of both rats and mice suggesting that variations in biological features of the animals are responsible for these differences. Since all reports concern inbred strains, we studied two outbred Wistar strains which are

  20. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  1. Origin of the Strain Sensitivity for an Organic Heptazole Thin-Film and Its Strain Gauge Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Heesun; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Kimoon

    2018-04-01

    The authors report on the origin of the strain sensitivity for an organic C26H16N2 (heptazole) thinfilm and its application for the detection of tensile strain. From the electrical characterization on the thin-film transistor adopting a heptazole channel, heptazole film exhibits p-channel conduction with a relatively low value of field-effect mobility (0.05 cm2/Vs), suggesting a hopping conduction behavior via hole carriers. By analyzing the strain and temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity, we reveal that the electrical conduction for a heptazole thin-film is dominated by the variable range hopping process with quite a large energy separation (224.9 meV) between the localized states under a relatively long attenuation length (10.46 Å). This indicates that a change in the inter-grain spacing that is much larger than the attenuation length is responsible for the reversible modification of electrical conductivity depending on strain for the heptazole film. By utilizing our heptazole thin-film both as a strain sensitive passive resistor and an active semiconducting channel layer, we can achieve a strain gauge device exhibiting reversible endurance for tensile strains up to 2.12%. Consequently, this study advances the understanding of the fundamental strain sensing mechanism in a heptazole thin-film toward finding a promise material with a strain gauge for applications as potential flexible devices and/or wearable electronics.

  2. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic homogeneity of Clostridium botulinum type A1 strains with unique toxin gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Brian H; Luquez, Carolina; McCroskey, Loretta M; Joseph, Lavin A; Jacobson, Mark J; Johnson, Eric A; Maslanka, Susan E; Andreadis, Joanne D

    2008-07-01

    A group of five clonally related Clostridium botulinum type A strains isolated from different sources over a period of nearly 40 years harbored several conserved genetic properties. These strains contained a variant bont/A1 with five nucleotide polymorphisms compared to the gene in C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. The strains also had a common toxin gene cluster composition (ha-/orfX+) similar to that associated with bont/A in type A strains containing an unexpressed bont/B [termed A(B) strains]. However, bont/B was not identified in the strains examined. Comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated identical genomic content among the strains relative to C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. In addition, microarray data demonstrated the absence of several genes flanking the toxin gene cluster among the ha-/orfX+ A1 strains, suggesting the presence of genomic rearrangements with respect to this region compared to the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain. All five strains were shown to have identical flaA variable region nucleotide sequences. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the strains were indistinguishable when digested with SmaI, and a shift in the size of at least one band was observed in a single strain when digested with XhoI. These results demonstrate surprising genomic homogeneity among a cluster of unique C. botulinum type A strains of diverse origin.

  4. Comparative secretome analysis suggests low plant cell wall degrading capacity in Frankia symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Philippe

    2008-01-01

    genomes, suggesting that plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation may not be crucial to root infection, or that this degradation varies among strains. We hypothesize that the relative lack of secreted polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Frankia reflects a strategy used by these bacteria to avoid eliciting host defense responses. The esterases, lipases, and proteases found in the core Frankia secretome might facilitate hyphal penetration through the cell wall, release carbon sources, or modify chemical signals. The core secretome also includes extracellular solute-binding proteins and Frankia-specific hypothetical proteins that may enable the actinorhizal symbiosis.

  5. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  7. Strain rate behavior of magnetorheological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminuk, Kenneth; Joshi, Vasant; Gump, Jared; Stoltz, Chad; Forbes, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Strain rate response of two Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene/ Iron (HTPB/Fe) compositions under electromagnetic fields has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Two HTPB/Fe compositions were developed, the first without plasticizer and the second containing plasticizer. Samples were tested with and without the application of a 0.01 Tesla magnetic field. Strain gauge data taken from the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar has been used to determine the extent of change in mechanical properties by inducing a mild electromagnetic field onto each sample. Raw data from strain gages was processed using commercial software (Signo) and Excel spreadsheet. It is of particular interest to determine whether the mechanical properties of binder systems can be manipulated by adding ferrous or Magnetostrictive particulates. Data collected from the Split Hopkinson Pressure bar indicate changes in the Mechanical Stress-Strain curves and suggest that the impedance of a binder system can be altered by means of a magnetic field.

  8. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and α-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  9. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-08

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. Copyright © 2015 Su et al.

  10. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Human Rotavirus G8P[8] Outbreak Strain, Japan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Ono, Mayumi; Ohara, Toshio; Fujibayashi, Shinsuke; Tahara, Yasuo; Kubo, Noriaki; Nakata, Shuji; Higashidate, Yoshihito; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    During March-July 2014, rotavirus G8P[8] emerged as the predominant cause of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Clinical characteristics were similar for infections caused by G8 and non-G8 strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest the strains were generated by multiple reassortment events between DS-1-like P[8] strains and bovine strains from Asia.

  11. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  12. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  13. CRISPR Distribution within the Escherichia coli Species Is Not Suggestive of Immunity-Associated Diversifying Selection ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Charpentier, Sophie; Clermont, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Denamur, Erick; Branger, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In order to get further insights into the role of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in Escherichia coli, we analyzed the CRISPR diversity in a collection of 290 strains, in the phylogenetic framework of the strains represented by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The set included 263 natural E. coli isolates exposed to various environments and isolated over a 20-year period from humans and animals, as well as 27 fully sequenced strains. Our analyses confirm that there are two largely independent pairs of CRISPR loci (CRISPR1 and -2 and CRISPR3 and -4), each associated with a different type of cas genes (Ecoli and Ypest, respectively), but that each pair of CRISPRs has similar dynamics. Strikingly, the major phylogenetic group B2 is almost devoid of CRISPRs. The majority of genomes analyzed lack Ypest cas genes and contain CRISPR3 with spacers matching Ypest cas genes. The analysis of relatedness between strains in terms of spacer repertoire and the MLST tree shows a pattern where closely related strains (MLST phylogenetic distance of 0.01) exhibit completely different CRISPRs. This suggests rare but radical turnover of spacers in CRISPRs rather than CRISPR gradual change. We found no link between the presence, size, or content of CRISPRs and the lifestyle of the strains. Our data suggest that, within the E. coli species, CRISPRs do not have the expected characteristics of a classical immune system. PMID:21421763

  14. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  15. Nutritionally fastidious Ruminococct $ flovefociens : strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than those obtained in a medium containing rumen fluid. Growth of all strains was remarkably uniform. Where the same inoculum was used, differences in the qualitative com- position of the medium usually had little effect on growth. In contrast, the R. f/avefaciens strains were much more variable in their growth responses.

  16. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  17. Pin clad strains in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.

    1979-07-01

    The Phenix reactor has operated for 4 years in a satisfactory manner. The first 2 sub-assembly loadings contained pins clad in solution treated 316. The principal pin strains are: diametral strain (swelling and irradiation creep), ovality and spiral bending of the pin (interaction of wire and pin cluster and wrapper). A pin cluster irradiated to a dose of 80 dpa F reached a pin diameter strain of 5%. This strain is principally due to swelling (low fission gas pressure). The principal parameters governing the swelling are instantaneous dose, time and temperature for a given type of pin cladding. Other types of steel are or will be irradiated in Phenix. In particular, cold-worked titanium stabilised 316 steel should contribute towards a reduction in the pin clad strains and increase the target burn-up in this reactor. (author)

  18. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  19. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  20. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Highly Successful Outbreak Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2011-01-01

    we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert......, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics....

  1. Reduction of residual strains in weldments in explosion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsemakhovich, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Peculiarities of large-size item strains in explosion cladding have been investigated. Causes of explosion-welded item destruction under the action of reflected waves have been established by means of the acoustic analysis of the item-support system. It is suggested to use grit as a support which permits to decrease 3-4 times and stabilize residual strains and reduce to minimum the probability of crack appearance

  2. Effect of strain on bond-specific reaction kinetics during the oxidation of H-terminated (111) Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, Bilal; Aspnes, David E.; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    Although strain is used in semiconductor technology for manipulating optical, electronic, and chemical properties of semiconductors, the understanding of the microscopic phenomena that are affected or influenced by strain is still incomplete. Second-harmonic generation data obtained during the air oxidation of H-terminated (111) Si reveal the effect of compressive strain on this chemical reaction. Even small amounts of strain manipulate the reaction kinetics of surface bonds significantly, with tensile strain enhancing oxidation and compressive strain retarding it. This dramatic change suggests a strain-driven charge transfer mechanism between Si-H up bonds and Si-Si back bonds in the outer layer of Si atoms.

  3. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  4. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  5. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  6. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  7. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  8. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  9. 3D Strain Modelling of Tear Fault Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Vietor, T.

    2005-12-01

    Tear faults can be described as vertical discontinuities, with near fault parallel displacements terminating on some sort of shallow detachment. As such, they are difficult to study in "cross section" i.e. 2 dimensions as is often the case for fold-thrust systems. Hence, little attempt has been made to model the evolution of strain around tear faults and the processes of strain localisation in such structures due to the necessity of describing these systems in 3 dimensions and the problems this poses for both numerical and analogue modelling. Field studies suggest that strain in such regions can be distributed across broad zones on minor tear systems, which are often not easily mappable. Such strain is probably assumed to be due to distributed strain and to displacement gradients which are themselves necessary for the initiation of the tear itself. We present a numerical study of the effects of a sharp, basal discontinutiy parallel to the transport direction in a shortening wedge of material. The discontinuity is represented by two adjacent basal surfaces with strongly contrasting (0.5 and 0.05) friction coefficient. The material is modelled using PFC3D distinct element software for simulating granular material, whose properties are chosen to simulate upper crustal, sedimentary rock. The model geometry is a rectangular bounding box, 2km x 1km, and 0.35-0.5km deep, with a single, driving wall of constant velocity. We show the evolution of strain in the model in horizontal and vertical sections, and interpret strain localization as showing the spontaneous development of tear fault like features. The strain field in the model is asymmetrical, rotated towards the strong side of the model. Strain increments seem to oscillate in time, suggesting achievement of a steady state. We also note that our model cannot be treated as a critical wedge, since the 3rd dimension and the lateral variations of strength rule out this type of 2D approximation.

  10. Towards a More Complete Picture: Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by Anaeromyxobacter Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the physiological requirements of available Anaeromyxobacter isolates, and assess their distribution and abundance in the environment, including DOE sites. The performers on this project include Frank Loeffler (PI), Robert Sanford (Co-PI), Qingzhong Wu (postdoc), Sara Henry (graduate student) and Cornell Gayle (undergraduate student). Year-1 efforts focused on method and tool development to address the research objectives. First, we compared different analytical assays (based on fluorescent light emission and calorimetric methods) to quantify U(VI) in cultures of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C. The assays were optimized to reflect specific culture conditions, and we found that a laser-excited spectrofluorescence assay provided reproducible and accurate information on the amount of U(VI) reduced in bacterial cultures. To demonstrate the ability of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C to reduce U(VI), washed suspensions of fumarate-grown cells were prepared. These experiments confirmed that the rapid reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) depended on the presence of live cells, and no U(VI) reduction occurred in cell-free controls. Additional experiments explored the ability of three different Anaeromyxobacter strains to grow with the mineral hematite, an insoluble form of ferric iron, as electron acceptor. All strain grew equally well with soluble ferric iron (provided as ferric citrate) but distinct differences were observed between strains when grown with hematite. All strains tested shared a 16S rRNA gene similarity of >99.5%, suggesting that closely related strains may differ in their ability to access insoluble forms of ferric iron

  11. First-principles investigation of strain effects on the energy gaps in silicon nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, X-H; Alizadeh, A; Bhate, N; Varanasi, K K; Kumar, S K; Nayak, S K

    2007-01-01

    First-principles density functional calculations were performed to study strain effects on the energy gaps in silicon nanoclusters with diameter ranging from 0.6 to 2 nm. Hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic strains have been found to affect the energy gaps differently. For the same strain energy density, non-hydrostatic strain leads to a significantly larger change in the energy gap of silicon clusters compared to that of the hydrostatic strain case. In contrast, hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic strain effects on the energy gaps of bulk Si or larger size Si quantum dots are comparable. Non-hydrostatic strains break the tetrahedral bonding symmetry in silicon, resulting in significant variation in the energy gaps due to the splitting of the degenerate orbitals in the clusters. Our results suggest that the combination of energy gaps and strains permits the engineering of photoluminescence in silicon nanoclusters and offers the possibility of designing novel optical devices and chemical sensors

  12. Role of scaffold network in controlling strain and functionalities of nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiping; Hu, Jia-Mian; Lu, Ping; Yang, Tiannan; Zhang, Wenrui; Li, Leigang; Ahmed, Towfiq; Enriquez, Erik; Weigand, Marcus; Su, Qing; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Jian-Xin; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Chen, Long-Qing; Yarotski, Dmitry; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-06-01

    Strain is a novel approach to manipulating functionalities in correlated complex oxides. However, significant epitaxial strain can only be achieved in ultrathin layers. We show that, under direct lattice matching framework, large and uniform vertical strain up to 2% can be achieved to significantly modify the magnetic anisotropy, magnetism, and magnetotransport properties in heteroepitaxial nanoscaffold films, over a few hundred nanometers in thickness. Comprehensive designing principles of large vertical strain have been proposed. Phase-field simulations not only reveal the strain distribution but also suggest that the ultimate strain is related to the vertical interfacial area and interfacial dislocation density. By changing the nanoscaffold density and dimension, the strain and the magnetic properties can be tuned. The established correlation among the vertical interface-strain-properties in nanoscaffold films can consequently be used to tune other functionalities in a broad range of complex oxide films far beyond critical thickness.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  14. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  15. Differential growth of Mycobacterium leprae strains (SNP genotypes) in armadillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Pena, Maria; Subramanian, Ramesh; Chouljenko, Vladmir; Kim, Joohyun; Kim, Nayong; Caskey, John; Baudena, Marie A; Adams, Linda B; Truman, Richard W

    2018-04-14

    Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) has occurred throughout human history, and persists today at a low prevalence in most populations. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae, the infection primarily involves the skin, mucosa and peripheral nerves. The susceptible host range for Mycobacterium leprae is quite narrow. Besides humans, nine banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) are the only other natural hosts for M. leprae, but only armadillos recapitulate the disease as seen in humans. Armadillos across the Southern United States harbor a single predominant genotypic strain (SNP Type-3I) of M. leprae, which is also implicated in the zoonotic transmission of leprosy. We investigated, whether the zoonotic strain (3I) has any notable growth advantages in armadillos over another genetically distant strain-type (SNP Type-4P) of M. leprae, and if M. leprae strains manifest any notably different pathology among armadillos. We co-infected armadillos (n = 6) with 2 × 10 9 highly viable M. leprae of both strains and assessed the relative growth and dissemination of each strain in the animals. We also analyzed 12 additional armadillos, 6 each individually infected with the same quantity of either strain. The infections were allowed to fulminate and the clinical manifestations of the disease were noted. Animals were humanely sacrificed at the terminal stage of infection and the number of bacilli per gram of liver, spleen and lymph node tissue were enumerated by Q-PCR assay. The growth of M. leprae strain 4P was significantly higher (P leprae strains within armadillos suggest there are notable pathological variations between M. leprae strain-types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  17. Plasmids in Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh with special reference to different distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T; Ando, T; Kusakabe, A; Ullah, M A

    1983-01-01

    We surveyed plasmids in naturally occurring Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh. Among the strains isolated in Japan, about half of the strains isolated from stools of patients of domestic diarrhea outbreaks as well as of travelers returning from East Asia were found to have plasmids, but no strains from foods had plasmids. In contrast, among the strains isolated in Bangladesh, none of the four strains isolated from patients had plasmids, but two out of eight strains isolated from water had plasmids, suggesting that plasmids are common in strains from the water in Bangladesh. All plasmids so far reported in V. parahemolyticus were detected in strains isolated from stools of patients. Incidences of plasmids in this organism were not so high in either area. In Japan, all plasmids were detected in strains from human intestines at 37 C, but in Bangladesh, where the temperature is around 30-40 C, the plasmids were detected in strains from the natural environment. These results suggested the possibility that these plasmids can come from different bacteria under rather high temperatures and that incidences of plasmids are influenced by the incidences of plasmids in bacteria present in the vicinity of V. parahemolyticus strains. None of these plasmids were found to have any relation to the biological characters tested.

  18. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 STRAINS INTRODUCED TO INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 has become a great important species in Indonesian aquaculture. Several strains of the African catfish have been introduced to Indonesia for aquaculture purposes, initiated by Dumbo strain from Taiwan in 1985, followed by Paiton strain from Thailand in 1998, then Egypt strain from Egypt in 2007, Masamo strain from Thailand in 2010 and later Kenya strain from Kenya in 2011. Since its introductions, there were no reports yet on their characterization studies. The present study was conducted to morphologically characterize the strains of African catfish introduced to Indonesia, i.e. Dumbo, Paiton, Egypt, Masamo, and Kenya strains. Morphometric and meristic data obtained were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Results of the morphometric characterization in the present study revealed that Dumbo, Paiton, Masamo, and Kenya strains were indistinguishable, while morphometric characteristic of Egypt strain was more or less different from those of the other strains. On the other hand, results of the meristic characterization suggested that meristic characteristics of all strains of the introduced African catfish were not different from each other. Therefore, to keep the genetic purity of those introduced strains, they should be properly maintained in isolated places.

  20. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  1. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  2. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  3. Change in Job Strain as A Predictor of Change in Insomnia Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Lallukka, Tea; Pentti, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine whether change in job strain lead to change in insomnia symptoms. METHODS: Among 24,873 adults (82% women, mean age 44 years) who participated in a minimum of three consecutive study waves (2000-2012), job strain was assessed at the first and second wave and insomnia.......16-1.51). The disappearance of job strain was associated with lower odds of repeated insomnia symptoms (odds ratio compared to no disappearance of job strain 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.94). Further adjustment for shift work or sleep apnea did not change these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that job strain...

  4. Correlates of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale in delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald

    2004-02-01

    Correlations between scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and a number of relevant personality characteristics, i.e., intelligence, memory, social inadequacy, social desirability, and fantasy proneness, were examined in a sample of 71 delinquent boys. Analysis showed that intelligence and memory were negatively related to suggestibility scores. That is, lower memory and intelligence were associated with higher suggestibility. No significant correlations were found between suggestibility and other personality characteristics.

  5. Prognostic value of strain and strain rate in the prediction of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bigdelu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common dysrhythmia postoperatively after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Myocardial strain and strain-rate imaging is used for the assessment of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF as a new echocardiographic method. Methods: PubMed and Scopus were searched thoroughly using the following search terms: (strain and strain rate AND (atrial fibrillation OR AF on March 2015 to find English articles in which the strain and strain-rate echocardiographic imaging had been used for the evaluation of AF in patients undergone CABG. Full text of the relevant papers was fully reviewed for data extraction.Result: Of overall 6 articles found in PubMed, 10 records found in Scopus and 4 articles found through reference list search, only 6 papers fully met the inclusion criteria for further assessment and data extraction. The results of strain and strain-rate assessment showed that in total of 542 patients undergoing CABG, POAF occurred in 106 patients. Studies showed that the reduction of left atrial (LA strain rate is correlated with AF. Consistently, the results of present review showed that LA strain and strain-rate in patients who developed AF postoperatively after CABG are significantly reduced, suggesting that strain and strain-rate could be a predictor of POAF.Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, strain and strain-rate is a suitable and accurate echocardiographic technique in the assessment of left atrial function , and it might be helpful to detect the patients who are at high risk of POAF.

  6. Applied strain dependence of critical current and internal lattice strain for BaHfO_3-doped GdBa_2Cu_3O_y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Takashi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Ichino, Yusuke; Sugano, Michinaka; Machiya, Shutaro; Ibi, Akira; Izumi, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The strain effect of REBa_2Cu_3O_y (REBCO: RE = Y, Gd, Sm)-coated conductors (CCs) on critical current (I_c) is one of the most fundamental factors for superconducting coil applications. In this study, we aim to clarify the effect of artificial pinning center shapes on the strain effect in BHO-doped GdBCO CCs. To achieve this, we fabricated a Pure-GdBCO CC, a BHO nanorod-doped GdBCO CC and a multilayered-GdBCO (ML-GdBCO) CC, and carried out bending tests. As the result, the strain dependence of I_c for each CC showed an upward convex and the peak strain of the BHO-doped GdBCO CC shifts towards the compressive strain independent of the BHO shapes. In addition, the strain sensitivity of I_c in the GdBCO CCs including BHO becomes smaller. To clarify the difference between the strain sensitivity of I_c and the peak strain among the CCs, we evaluated the residual strain and the slopes of the internal lattice strains against the applied tensile strain (β). From this measurement, the residual strains for the Pure-GdBCO CC and the ML-GdBCO CC were almost the same. In addition, there was no change in the β value between the Pure-GdBCO and ML-GdBCO CCs. These results suggest that the changes in peak strain and strain sensitivity were not related to the internal lattice strain. (author)

  7. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  8. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  9. Strains and Stressors: An Analysis of Touchscreen Learning in Genetically Diverse Mouse Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Carolyn; Bachu, Munisa; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Sagalyn, Erica; Williams, Robert W.; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Touchscreen-based systems are growing in popularity as a tractable, translational approach for studying learning and cognition in rodents. However, while mouse strains are well known to differ in learning across various settings, performance variation between strains in touchscreen learning has not been well described. The selection of appropriate genetic strains and backgrounds is critical to the design of touchscreen-based studies and provides a basis for elucidating genetic factors moderating behavior. Here we provide a quantitative foundation for visual discrimination and reversal learning using touchscreen assays across a total of 35 genotypes. We found significant differences in operant performance and learning, including faster reversal learning in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice. We then assessed DBA/2J and C57BL/6J for differential sensitivity to an environmental insult by testing for alterations in reversal learning following exposure to repeated swim stress. Stress facilitated reversal learning (selectively during the late stage of reversal) in C57BL/6J, but did not affect learning in DBA/2J. To dissect genetic factors underlying these differences, we phenotyped a family of 27 BXD strains generated by crossing C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. There was marked variation in discrimination, reversal and extinction learning across the BXD strains, suggesting this task may be useful for identifying underlying genetic differences. Moreover, different measures of touchscreen learning were only modestly correlated in the BXD strains, indicating that these processes are comparatively independent at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Finally, we examined the behavioral structure of learning via principal component analysis of the current data, plus an archival dataset, totaling 765 mice. This revealed 5 independent factors suggestive of “reversal learning,” “motivation-related late reversal learning,” “discrimination learning,” “speed to respond,” and

  10. Strain enhanced lithium adsorption and diffusion on silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Luo, Youhua; Yan, Ting; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Meng

    2017-03-01

    The performance of Li-ion batteries relies heavily on the capacity and stability of constituent electrodes. Recently synthesized 2D silicene has demonstrated excellent Li-ion capacity with high charging rates. To explore the external influences for battery performance, in this work, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the effect of external strain on the adsorption and diffusion of Li on silicene monolayers. It was found that tensile strain could enhance Li binding on silicene. The diffusion barrier is also calculated and the results show that Li diffusion through silicene is facilitated by tensile strain, whereas the strain has a limited effect on the energy barrier of diffusion parallel to the plane of pristine silicene. Our results suggest that silicene could be a promising electrode material for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Evaluation results of the 700 deg C Chinese strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    There is a continuing interest and need for resistance strain gages capable of making static strain measurements on components located in the hot section of gas turbine engines. A paper by Tsen-tai Wu describes the development and evaluation of high temperature gauges fabricated from specially developed Fe-Cr-Al-V-Ti-Y alloy wire. Several of these gages and a quantity of P12-2 ceramic adhesive were purchased for evaluation. Nine members of the aircraft turbine engine community were invited to participate in an evaluation of these gages. Each participant was sent one strain gage, a small amount of ceramic adhesive, instructions for mounting the gage on a test beam, and a set of suggestions for the experiment. Data on gage factor variation with temperature, apparent strain, and drift are discussed.

  12. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  13. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  14. Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Ghosh, A.; Hutchinson, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the signals of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in PBO borehole strain data in central Cascadia. These MW 3.3 - 4.1 earthquakes are best observed in seismograms at periods of 20 to 50 seconds. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. al. (2015) and Hutchinson and Ghosh (2016), as well as several thousand VLFEs detected through template matching these events. The VLFEs are located beneath southernmost Vancouver Island and the eastern Olympic Peninsula, and are best recorded at co-located stations B005 and B007. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate. We compare the background strain rate in the 12 hours centered on the VLFEs with the strain rate in the 10 minutes centered on the VLFEs. The 10-minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the 10-minute VLFE intervals. The increase gives an average VLFE magnitude around M 3.5, within the range of magnitudes obtained with seismology. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs.

  15. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  16. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  17. [Isolation and identification of the temperate bacteriophage from isolated strains of Streptococcus suis serotype 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuling; Lu, Chengping; Fan, Hongjie

    2008-04-01

    A PCR assay was developed to study the distributional characteristics of phage integrase gene in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). A 323bp distinct DNA target can be amplified in 25 strains of virulent SS2, while can not be amplified in avirulent strain T15, 5 strains of other serotypes (SS1, SS7, SS9) and strains of group C Streptococcus strains from pigs, which suggested that the phage integrase gene may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2 and can be consider as a detection factor of the virulent gene of SS2. The sequencing and restriction endonuclease analysis of the PCR products were also done. Comparisons between the sequences of phage integrase gene with that of SS2 strain, showed a high homology with SS2 China strains 98HAH33, 05ZYH33 and North American strain 89-1591. Complete cell lysis was observed with SS2 virulent strains but not with avirulent strain T15 after the induction by mitomycin C. Electron microscopy analysis of the lysate from SS2 virulent strains HA9801 and ZY05719 revealed the presence of phage particles. The induced phage, named SS2-HA and SS2-ZY, both have a small isometric nucleocapsid approximately 50 nm in diameter and have no tail and is therefore a member of the Tectiviridae family. The phage integrase gene sequence of phage SS2-HA and SS2-ZY shared high homologue identities with virulent SS2 strains, which suggested that the phage integrase gene of SS2 has high specify. The temperate phage and phage integrase gene can only detected from SS2 virulent strains but not from avirulent strain, and the detection of phage integrase gene was related to the virulence-associate factors of SS2, such as the muramidase-released protein gene (mrp), which suggested that the temperate phage of SS2 may be related to the pathogenicity of SS2.

  18. The Mechanism for Type I Interferon Induction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Bacterial Strain-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Wiens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (including IFNαβ are innate cytokines that may contribute to pathogenesis during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. To induce IFNβ, Mtb must gain access to the host cytosol and trigger stimulator of interferon genes (STING signaling. A recently proposed model suggests that Mtb triggers STING signaling through bacterial DNA binding cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS in the cytosol. The aim of this study was to test the generalizability of this model using phylogenetically distinct strains of the Mtb complex (MTBC. We infected bone marrow derived macrophages with strains from MTBC Lineages 2, 4 and 6. We found that the Lineage 6 strain induced less IFNβ, and that the Lineage 2 strain induced more IFNβ, than the Lineage 4 strain. The strains did not differ in their access to the host cytosol and IFNβ induction by each strain required both STING and cGAS. We also found that the three strains shed similar amounts of bacterial DNA. Interestingly, we found that the Lineage 6 strain was associated with less mitochondrial stress and less mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the cytosol compared with the Lineage 4 strain. Treating macrophages with a mitochondria-specific antioxidant reduced cytosolic mtDNA and inhibited IFNβ induction by the Lineage 2 and 4 strains. We also found that the Lineage 2 strain did not induce more mitochondrial stress than the Lineage 4 strain, suggesting that additional pathways contribute to higher IFNβ induction. These results indicate that the mechanism for IFNβ by Mtb is more complex than the established model suggests. We show that mitochondrial dynamics and mtDNA contribute to IFNβ induction by Mtb. Moreover, we show that the contribution of mtDNA to the IFNβ response varies by MTBC strain and that additional mechanisms exist for Mtb to induce IFNβ.

  19. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  20. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  1. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  2. R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from rapid progressors lacking X4 strains do not possess X4-type pathogenicity in human thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, R. D.; van't Wout, A. B.; Kootstra, N. A.; Moreno, M. E.; Linquist-Stepps, V. D.; Bare, C.; Stoddart, C. A.; Schuitemaker, H.; McCune, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid

  3. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  4. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitarbeiteranreizsysteme und Innovationserfolg (Employee suggestion schemes and innovation success)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius

    2008-01-01

    "We discuss the determinants of a successful implementation of an employee suggestion scheme and other measures to stimulate innovation success. Subsequently the effects of the employee suggestion schemes are investigated empirically. We analyse the realisation of cost reductions and alternatively sales expansion due to quality improvements. It turns out that employee suggestion schemes have a positive effect on cost efficiency and sales growth. Delegation of decision authority reduces produc...

  6. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no

  7. A parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to present a parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS, Form 1); (2) to study test-retest reliabilities of interrogative suggestibility. Three groups of subjects were administered the two suggestibility scales in a counterbalanced order. Group 1 (28 normal subjects) and Group 2 (32 'forensic' patients) completed both scales within the same testing session, whereas Group 3 (30 'forensic' patients) completed the two scales between one week and eight months apart. All the correlations were highly significant, giving support for high 'temporal consistency' of interrogative suggestibility.

  8. Treating ADHD With Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Veissière, Samuel; Olson, Jay A; Raz, Amir

    2018-06-01

    We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential alternative to current standard of care for individuals with ADHD.

  9. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  10. Comparative Genomic Characterization of the Highly Persistent and Potentially Virulent Cronobacter sakazakii ST83, CC65 Strain H322 and Other ST83 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Chase

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter (C. sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST 83, clonal complex (CC 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product. The presence of this strain in the production environment was traced back more than 4 years. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of this strain together with four more ST83 strains (PIF production environment-associated confirmed a high degree of sequence homology among four of the five strains. Phylogenetic analysis using microarray (MA and WGS data showed that the ST83 strains were highly phylogenetically related and MA showed that between 5 and 38 genes differed from one another in these strains. All strains possessed the pESA3-like virulence plasmid and one strain possessed a pESA2-like plasmid. In addition, a pCS1-like plasmid was also found. In order to assess the potential in vivo pathogenicity of the ST83 strains, each strain was subjected to infection studies using the recently developed zebrafish embryo model. Our results showed a high (90–100% zebrafish mortality rate for all of these strains, suggesting a high risk for infections and illness in neonates potentially exposed to PIF contaminated with ST83 C. sakazakii strains. In summary, virulent ST83, CC65, serotype CsakO:7 strains, though rarely found intrinsically in PIF, can persist within a PIF manufacturing facility for years and potentially pose significant quality assurance challenges to the PIF manufacturing industry.

  11. Emergent lineages of mumps virus suggest the need for a polyvalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Rieder, Courtney A; Rowe, Rebecca J

    2018-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks among vaccinated patients have become increasingly common in recent years. While there are multiple conditions driving this re-emergence, convention has suggested that these outbreaks are associated with waning immunity rather than vaccine escape. Molecular evidence from both the ongoing American and Dutch outbreaks in conjunction with recent structural biology studies challenge this convention, and suggest that emergent lineages of mumps virus exhibit key differences in antigenic epitopes from the vaccine strain employed: Jeryl-Lynn 5. The American and Dutch 2016-2017 outbreak lineages were examined using computational biology through the lens of diversity in immunogenic epitopes. Findings are discussed and the laboratory evidence indicating neutralization of heterologous mumps strains by serum from vaccinated individuals is reviewed. Taken together, it is concluded that the number of heterologous epitopes occurring in mumps virus in conjunction with waning immunity is facilitating small outbreaks in vaccinated patients, and that consideration of a polyvalent mumps vaccine is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Crack tip stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1975-01-01

    The study of potential energy variations in a loaded elastic solid containing a crack leads to determination of the crack driving force G. Generalization of this concept to cases other than linear elasticity leads to definition of the integral J. In a linear solid, the crack tip stress field is characterized by a single parameter: the stress-intensity factor K. When the crack tip plastic zone size is confined to the elastic singularity J=G, it is possible to establish relationship between these parameters and plastic strain (and in particular the crack tip opening displacement delta). The stress increases because of the triaxiality effect. This overload rises with increasing strain hardening. When the plastic zone size expands, using certain hypotheses, delta can be calculated. The plastic strain intensity is exclusively dependent on parameter J [fr

  13. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  14. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  15. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  17. Manufacturer Suggested Retail Prices, Loss Aversion and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, Clemens; Rosenkranz, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by

  18. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  19. Confidence Judgments in Children's and Adults' Event Recall and Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of 8- and 10-year-olds' and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes for unbiased event recall tasks and suggestibility. Findings suggested strong tendencies to overestimate confidence regardless of age and question format. Children did not lack principal metacognitive competencies when questions…

  20. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  1. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  2. Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, M G; Brooks, G B

    2009-05-01

    Imaginative suggestibility, a trait closely related to hypnotic suggestibility, is modifiable under some circumstances. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is commonly used for sedation in dentistry and is reported to be more effective when combined with appropriate suggestions. The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrous oxide inhalation alters imaginative suggestibility and imagery vividness. Thirty participants were tested twice in a within-subjects design, once during inhalation of 25% nitrous oxide and once during inhalation of air plus oxygen. Before the study, participants' expectancies regarding the effects of nitrous oxide were assessed. Participants were blinded to drug administration. During each session, participants were verbally administered detailed measures of imagination and suggestibility: the Sheehan-Betts Quality of Mental Imagery scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C, minus the hypnotic induction. Imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability (imagery vividness) were both elevated in the nitrous oxide condition. This effect was unrelated to participants' expectations regarding the effects of the drug. Nitrous oxide increased imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed with respect to the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists and to other pharmacological effects upon suggestibility and imagination.

  3. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  4. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  5. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  6. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  7. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  8. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  9. The importance of strain localisation in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Finch, Melanie; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Steinbach, Florian; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of various types of shear bands (C, C', C'') in shear zones indicate that heterogeneity of strain is common in strongly deformed rocks. However, the importance of strain localisation is difficult to ascertain if suitable strain markers are lacking, which is usually the case. Numerical modelling with the finite-element method has so far not given much insight in the development of shear bands. We suggest that this is not only because the modelled strains are often not high enough, but also because this technique (that usually assumes isotropic material properties within elements) does not properly incorporate mineral deformation behaviour. We simulated high-strain, simple-shear deformation in single- and polyphase materials with a full-field theory (FFT) model coupled to the Elle modelling platform (www.elle.ws; Lebensohn 2001; Bons et al. 2008). The FFT-approach simulates visco-plastic deformation by dislocation glide, taking into account the different available slip systems and their critical resolved shear stresses in relations to the applied stresses. Griera et al. (2011; 2013) have shown that this approach is particularly well suited for strongly anisotropic minerals, such as mica and ice Ih (Llorens 2015). We modelled single- and polyphase composites of minerals with different anisotropies and strengths, roughly equivalent to minerals such as ice Ih, mica, quartz and feldspar. Single-phase polycrystalline aggregates show distinct heterogeneity of strain rate, especially in case of ice Ih, which is mechanically close to mica (see also Griera et al. 2015). Finite strain distributions are heterogeneous as well, but the patterns may differ from that of the strain rate distribution. Dynamic recrystallisation, however, usually masks any strain and strain rate localisation (Llorens 2015). In case of polyphase aggregates, equivalent to e.g. a granite, we observe extensive localisation in both syn- and antithetic shear bands. The antithetic shear bands

  10. Mesoscopic Percolating Resistance Network in a Strained Manganite Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Nakamura, M.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2010-01-01

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd 1/2Sr1/2MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  11. Mesoscopic Percolating Resistance Network in a Strained Manganite Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2010-07-08

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd 1/2Sr1/2MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  12. Mesoscopic percolating resistance network in a strained manganite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keji; Nakamura, Masao; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kelly, Michael A; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2010-07-09

    Many unusual behaviors in complex oxides are deeply associated with the spontaneous emergence of microscopic phase separation. Depending on the underlying mechanism, the competing phases can form ordered or random patterns at vastly different length scales. By using a microwave impedance microscope, we observed an orientation-ordered percolating network in strained Nd(1/2)Sr(1/2)MnO3 thin films with a large period of 100 nanometers. The filamentary metallic domains align preferentially along certain crystal axes of the substrate, suggesting the anisotropic elastic strain as the key interaction in this system. The local impedance maps provide microscopic electrical information of the hysteretic behavior in strained thin film manganites, suggesting close connection between the glassy order and the colossal magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures.

  13. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  15. Variation in genotype and higher virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii causing disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaoming; Lv, Xuelian; Lin, Jingrong

    2011-12-01

    Sporotrichosis is usually a localized, lymphocutaneous disease, but its disseminated type was rarely reported. The main objective of this study was to identify specific DNA sequence variation and virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii isolated from the lesion of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. We confirmed this strain to be S. schenckii by(®) tubulin and chitin synthase gene sequence analysis in addition to the routine mycological and partial ITS and NTS sequencing. We found a 10-bp deletion in the ribosomal NTS region of this strain, in reference to the sequence of control strains isolated from fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. After inoculated into immunosuppressed mice, this strain caused more extensive system involvement and showed stronger virulence than the control strain isolated from a fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. Our study thus suggests that different clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis may be associated with variation in genotype and virulence of the strain, independent of effects due to the immune status of the host.

  16. Analysis of the VP2 protein gene of canine parvovirus strains from affected dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Takehisa; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2013-04-01

    To clarify the evolution of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) that has recently been epidemic in Japan, VP2 gene sequences at positions 3556-4166 were analyzed in 107 CPV-2 strains obtained from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs from 2009 to 2011. CPV-2b (95 strains) was more frequently detected than CPV-2a (nine strains), while CPV-2c was not detected. Remaining three strains were identified as the original type CPV-2, which should be derived from vaccines. These findings are similar to the previous results involving Japanese strains, suggesting there has been no great change in the recent CPV-2 epidemic in Japan. This epidemic is the same as that in Taiwan. Furthermore, a 324-lle mutant, which has been reported in Korean and Chinese strains, was detected in 66.7% of CPV-2a strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The interaction of H2O with strained uranium metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiferet, E.; Mintz, M. H.; Zalkind, S.; Jacob, I.; Shamir, N.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of water vapor was studied on uranium metal surfaces, with various degrees of strain (relieved by different degrees of heating). The main features of dissociation, adsorption and initial oxidation for the studied surfaces will be presented. Common to all strained surfaces, on the metal surface a full dissociation occurs, while after oxidation only on most of them the water dissociation is full and on one of them, it is only partial. The oxygen dissociation product adsorbs (with sticking coefficient decreasing with strain relief), forming clusters, for all strains, while the hydrogen product clusters only on the strain relieved and recrystallized surface. The most interesting phenomenon, revealed for these surfaces, is the inhibition of hydrogen adsorption by traces of water vapor , changing from 10% for the mostly strained (defected) surface down to 1% for the strain relieved one. The suggested mechanism for this inhibition will be discussed

  18. Relationship of trehalose accumulation with ethanol fermentation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Mei; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ou; Qian, Chao-Dong; Liu, Tian-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Du, Feng-Guang; Sun, Pei-Yong; Qu, Ai-Min; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect and the mechanisms of trehalose accumulation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated during ethanol fermentation. The engineered strains with more intercellular trehalose achieved significantly higher fermentation rates and ethanol yields than their wild strain ZS during very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, while their performances were not different during regular fermentation. The VHG fermentation performances of these strains were consistent with their growth capacity under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, the key stress factors during VHG fermentation. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation is more important for VHG fermentation of industrial yeast strains than regular one. The differences in membrane integrity and antioxidative capacity of these strains indicated the possible mechanisms of trehalose as a protectant under VHG condition. Therefore, trehalose metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving the VHG fermentation performance of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strain engineering on electronic structure and carrier mobility in monolayer GeP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bowen; Long, Mengqiu; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Dong, Yulan; Li, Mingjun; Yi, Yougen; Duan, Haiming

    2018-06-01

    Using density functional theory coupled with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we have studied the strain effect on the electronic structure and carrier mobility of two-dimensional monolayer GeP3. We find that the energies of valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are nearly linearly shifted with a biaxial strain in the range of  ‑4% to 6%, and the band structure experiences a remarkable transition from semiconductor to metal with the appropriate compression (‑5% strain). Under biaxial strain, the mobility of the electron and hole in monolayer GeP3 reduces and increases by more than one order of magnitude, respectively. It is suggested that it is possible to perform successive transitions from an n-type semiconductor (‑4% strain) to a good performance p-semiconductor (+6% strain) by applying strain in monolayer GeP3, which is potentially useful for flexible electronics and nanosized mechanical sensors.

  20. Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Munoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete stress–strain characteristics of sandstone specimens were investigated in a series of quasi-static monotonic uniaxial compression tests. Strain patterns development during pre- and post-peak behaviours in specimens with different aspect ratios was also examined. Peak stress, post-peak portion of stress–strain, brittleness, characteristics of progressive localisation and field strain patterns development were affected at different extents by specimen aspect ratio. Strain patterns of the rocks were obtained by applying three-dimensional (3D digital image correlation (DIC technique. Unlike conventional strain measurement using strain gauges attached to specimen, 3D DIC allowed not only measuring large strains, but more importantly, mapping the development of field strain throughout the compression test, i.e. in pre- and post-peak regimes. Field strain development in the surface of rock specimen suggests that strain starts localising progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. However, in post-peak regime, strains increase at different rates as local deformations take place at different extents in the vicinity and outside the localised zone. The extent of localised strains together with the rate of strain localisation is associated with the increase in rate of strength degradation. Strain localisation and local inelastic unloading outside the localised zone both feature post-peak regime.

  1. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  2. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Huber

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  4. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexa; Lui, Fausta; Duzzi, Davide; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  5. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  6. Silicon qubit performance in the presence of inhomogeneous strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Ward, Daniel R.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Gamble, John K.; Montano, Ines; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Carroll, Malcolm

    While gate electrode voltages largely define the potential landscape experienced by electrons in quantum dot (QD) devices, mechanical strain also plays a role. Inhomogeneous strain established over the course of device fabrication, followed by mismatched contraction under cooling to cryogenic temperatures, may significantly perturb this potential. A recent investigation by Thorbeck & Zimmerman suggests that unintentional QDs may form as a result of the latter thermal contraction mismatch mechanism. In this work, we investigate the effects of inhomogeneous strain on QD tunnel barriers and other properties, from the perspective of QD and donor-based qubit performance. Through semiconductor process simulation, we estimate the relative magnitude of strain established during fabrication as compared with thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. Combining these predictions with multi-valley effective mass theory modeling of qubit characteristics, we identify whether strain effects may compel stricter than expected constraints on device dimensions. Finally, we investigate the degree to which strain and charge disorder effects may be distinguished. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints in Salmonella abortusovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, A; Beuzón, C R; Uzzau, S; Leori, G; Cappuccinelli, P; Casadesús, J; Rubino, S

    1996-07-01

    A collection of Salmonella abortusovis isolates was examined for the presence of insertion element IS200. All proved to contain three or four copies of the element. One IS200 hybridization band of approximately 9 kb was found in all isolates, indicating that all S. abortusovis strains carry an IS200 element in similar or identical locations; this band can be potentially useful for serovar identification. S. abortusovis collection isolates from distinct geographic areas were highly polymorphic, suggesting that IS200 fingerprints might provide information on the geographic origin of S. abortusovis strains. Isolates obtained from the same geographic area (the island of Sardinia, Italy) were less polymorphic: all shared three constant IS200 hybridization bands, indicating that they derive from a single ancestor. Most strains analyzed contained an additional copy of IS200 in the variable region of the virulence plasmid. Certain Sardinian flocks proved to be infected by only one S. abortusovis strain, while others harbored two strains. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints proved to be more reliable than plasmid analysis, because the latter yielded a high degree of polymorphism, even among isolates from the same flock.

  8. A closer look at prion strains: characterization and important implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solforosi, Laura; Milani, Michela; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that are responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and consist primarily of scrapie prion protein (PrP (Sc) ), a pathogenic isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP (C) ). The absence of nucleic acids as essential components of the infectious prions is the most striking feature associated to these diseases. Additionally, different prion strains have been isolated from animal diseases despite the lack of DNA or RNA molecules. Mounting evidence suggests that prion-strain-specific features segregate with different PrP (Sc) conformational and aggregation states. Strains are of practical relevance in prion diseases as they can drastically differ in many aspects, such as incubation period, PrP (Sc) biochemical profile (e.g., electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio) and distribution of brain lesions. Importantly, such different features are maintained after inoculation of a prion strain into genetically identical hosts and are relatively stable across serial passages. This review focuses on the characterization of prion strains and on the wide range of important implications that the study of prion strains involves.

  9. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  10. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Noncontacting-optical-strain device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Noncontacting-strain-measuring gauge and extensometer remotely measures the mechanical displacement along the entire length of a test specimen. Measurement is accomplished by continuous scanning of a reflected light from reflective bench markings or stripes previously affixed to the specimen.

  12. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  13. Strain effects in oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, H.; Kuroda, T.; Sekine, H.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, K.

    1991-01-01

    Strain sensitivities of superconducting properties are critical to high magnetic field applications of superconductors, since critical temperature, T c , upper critical field, H c2 , and critical current (density), I c (J c ), are all degraded under strains. Oxide superconductors so far known are all very fragile, thus requiring to be fabricated in the form of composite. In the case of practical metallic superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, the so-called bronze method has been developed where these superconducting intermetallics are enveloped in a ductile metallic sheath. Recently, a fabrication method similar to the bronze method has been developed for the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x superconductors using Ag tubes as sheath. In the present study mono- and multicore BiPbSrCaCuO tape conductors were prepared by means of this Ag-sheath composite method, and examined in terms of strain sensitivity by measuring their T c and I c (J c ) under bending or tensile strains. (orig.)

  14. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  15. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  16. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...

  17. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  18. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  19. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  20. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    -scale coupling is critical to understanding major NS shortening and westerly tectonic escape in the Lake Mead area.One north-elongate uplift in the Hingeline shear zone is a positive flower structure along a strike-slip fault, and we postulate that most other large uplifts are diapiric, resulting from extension-normal inflow of ductile substrate, rather than second-order isostatic responses to tectonic unloading. We also postulate that large steep-axis rotations, and some small ones as well, result from basal tractions imparted by gradients in southerly directed subjacent ductile flow rather than by shear coupling imparted by laterally variable elongation strains. The shortening strain recorded in the rotations and related structures probably matches or exceeds the magnitude of lengthening, even for the Lake Mead area where we do not question local large (~65 km) west-directed lengthening. We assess the results of extensive recent earth-science research in the Lake Mead area and conclude that previously published models of N-S convergence, westerly tectonic rafting, and N-S occlusion are valid and record unique tectonic escape accommodation for south-directed displacement of the Great Basin sector of the Basin and Range. Genetic ties between the south-directed displacement and plate-interaction forces are elusive, and we suggest the displacement results from body forces inherent in the Basin and Range.

  1. Strain-dependent effects of probiotic lactobacilli on EAE autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Claassen, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we present new data showing strain-specific differences on the effect of commercially available probiotic drinks in an EAE rat autoimmune model for multiple sclerosis. In this particular model, we conclude that these drinks do not enhance but rather suppress the disease. We suggest

  2. A sheet metal necking formability diagram for nonlinear strain paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye; Winther, Grethe

    2017-01-01

    A new procedure for drawing forming limit curves is suggested. The theoretical basis for computing the forming limit curve due to diffuse necking, for nonlinear strain paths, is derived. The theoretically determined forming limit curve is compared with experimentally determined forming limits...

  3. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  4. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    121, were effective in the reduction of R. solani infection. In addition, GM-23 increased the length of pepper seedlings. These results suggest that the B. thuringiensis strains studied have an excellent potential to be used as bio-control agents of R.

  5. Spatial-structural interaction and strain energy structural optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Davila Delgado, J.M.; Borrmann, A.; Geyer, P.; Rafiq, Y.; Wilde, de P.

    2012-01-01

    A research engine iteratively transforms spatial designs into structural designs and vice versa. Furthermore, spatial and structural designs are optimised. It is suggested to optimise a structural design by evaluating the strain energy of its elements and by then removing, adding, or changing the

  6. Brunenders: a partially attenuated historic poliovirus type I vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Liu, Ying; Brandjes, Alies; van Hoek, Vladimir; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Brunenders, a type I poliovirus (PV) strain, was developed in 1952 by J. F. Enders and colleagues through serial in vitro passaging of the parental Brunhilde strain, and was reported to display partial neuroattenuation in monkeys. This phenotype of attenuation encouraged two vaccine manufacturers to adopt Brunenders as the type I component for their inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPVs) in the 1950s, although today no licensed IPV vaccine contains Brunenders. Here we confirmed, in a transgenic mouse model, the report of Enders on the reduced neurovirulence of Brunenders. Although dramatically neuroattenuated relative to WT PV strains, Brunenders remains more virulent than the attenuated oral vaccine strain, Sabin 1. Importantly, the neuroattenuation of Brunenders does not affect in vitro growth kinetics and in vitro antigenicity, which were similar to those of Mahoney, the conventional type I IPV vaccine strain. We showed, by full nucleotide sequencing, that Brunhilde and Brunenders differ at 31 nucleotides, eight of which lead to amino acid changes, all located in the capsid. Upon exchanging the Brunenders capsid sequence with that of the Mahoney capsid, WT neurovirulence was regained in vivo, suggesting a role for the capsid mutations in Brunenders attenuation. To date, as polio eradication draws closer, the switch to using attenuated strains for IPV is actively being pursued. Brunenders preceded this novel strategy as a partially attenuated IPV strain, accompanied by decades of successful use in the field. Providing data on the attenuation of Brunenders may be of value in the further construction of attenuated PV strains to support the grand pursuit of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

  7. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. MicroRNA induction in human macrophages associated with infection with ancient and modern TB strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Furci

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the genetic diversity among Mtb strains and, in particular between ancient and modern strains, reflects on several aspects of host-pathogen interaction. In particular, the modulation of specific cellular microRNAs upon MTBC infection suggests a potential role for these microRNAs in the outcome of infection and, to a major extent, to the different epidemiological success of Mtb strains.

  9. Inhomogeneous strain induced by fast neutron irradiation in NaKSO/sub 4/ crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S.H.; Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.; El-Gamal, M.A.; El-Wahidy, E.F.

    1987-11-01

    The paper reports the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of NaKSO/sub 4/ crystals in the temperature range 400-475 K. Results are presented for the thermal expansion, tensile strain and specific heat of NaKSO/sub 4/, as a function of neutron irradiation dose. All these results revealed an inhomogeneous strain induced by the radiation. It is suggested that this induced inhomogeneous strain could be used to detect neutron exposure doses.

  10. Inhomogeneous strain induced by fast neutron irradiation in NaKSO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.H.; Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.; El-Gamal, M.A.; El-Wahidy, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the thermal properties of NaKSO 4 crystals in the temperature range 400-475 K. Results are presented for the thermal expansion, tensile strain and specific heat of NaKSO 4 , as a function of neutron irradiation dose. All these results revealed an inhomogeneous strain induced by the radiation. It is suggested that this induced inhomogeneous strain could be used to detect neutron exposure doses. (UK)

  11. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  12. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  13. Clostridial Strain-Specific Characteristics Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr-Hellec, Sophia; Klein, Geraldine L; Delannoy, Johanne; Ferraris, Laurent; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Butel, Marie José; Aires, Julio

    2018-04-01

    We aimed at identifying potential bacterial factors linking clostridia with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity, and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC preterm neonates (PN) and control PNs. When strain characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups. Strains isolated from NEC PN were characterized by a higher viability at 30°C ( P = 0.03) and higher aerotolerance ( P = 0.01), suggesting that NEC strains may have a competitive and/or survival advantage in the environmental gastrointestinal tract conditions of NEC PN. Heat-treated NEC bacteria induced higher production of interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells ( P = 0.03), suggesting proinflammatory activity. In vitro , bacteria, bacterial components, and fecal filtrates showed variable cytotoxic effects affecting the cellular network and/or cell viability, without specific association with NEC or control samples. Altogether, our data support the existence of a specific clostridial strain signature associated with NEC. IMPORTANCE Clostridia are part of the commensal microbiota in preterm neonates (PN). However, microbiota analyses by culture and metagenomics have linked necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and intestinal colonization with clostridial species. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific characteristics that may be shared by clostridia associated with NEC compared to commensal clostridia. Therefore, our goal was to identify specific bacterial factors linking clostridial strains with NEC. We report the existence of a specific bacterial signature associated with NEC and propose that activation of the innate immune response may be a unifying causative mechanism for the development of NEC independent of a specific pathogenic

  14. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Strain Exhibiting Primary Resistance to Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Leidich, Steven D.; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 μg/ml, whereas they were terbinafine for all six strains were >128 μg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 μg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  15. Breeding of a xylose-fermenting hybrid strain by mating genetically engineered haploid strains derived from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Seitaro; Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 is a promising host strain to genetically engineer xylose-utilizing yeasts for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Two IR-2-based haploid strains were selected based upon the rate of xylulose fermentation, and hybrids were obtained by mating recombinant haploid strains harboring heterogeneous xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) (wild-type NAD(+)-dependent XDH or engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH, ARSdR), xylose reductase (XR) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. ARSdR in the hybrids selected for growth rates on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar and YP-xylose agar plates typically had a higher activity than NAD(+)-dependent XDH. Furthermore, the xylose-fermenting performance of the hybrid strain SE12 with the same level of heterogeneous XDH activity was similar to that of a recombinant strain of IR-2 harboring a single set of genes, XR/ARSdR/XK. These results suggest not only that the recombinant haploid strains retain the appropriate genetic background of IR-2 for ethanol production from xylose but also that ARSdR is preferable for xylose fermentation.

  16. Short-period strain (0.1-105 s): Near-source strain field for an earthquake (M L 3.2) near San Juan Bautista, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Linde, A. T.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of dilational earth strain in the frequency band 25-10-5 Hz have been made on a deep borehole strainmeter installed near the San Andreas fault. These data are used to determine seismic radiation fields during nuclear explosions, teleseisms, local earthquakes, and ground noise during seismically quiet times. Strains of less than 10-10 on these instruments can be clearly resolved at short periods (< 10 s) and are recorded with wide dynamic range digital recorders. This permits measurement of the static and dynamic strain variations in the near field of local earthquakes. Noise spectra for earth strain referenced to 1 (strain)2/Hz show that strain resolution decreases at about 10 dB per decade of frequency from -150 dB at 10-4 Hz to -223 dB at 10 Hz. Exact expressions are derived to relate the volumetric strain and displacement field for a homogeneous P wave in a general viscoelastic solid as observed on colocated dilatometers and seismometers. A rare near-field recording of strain and seismic velocity was obtained on May 26, 1984, from an earthquake (ML 3.2) at a hypocentral distance of 3.2 km near the San Andreas fault at San Juan Bautista, California. While the data indicate no precursory strain release at the 5 × 10-11 strain level, a coseismic strain release of 1.86 nanostrain was observed. This change in strain is consistent with that calculated from a simple dislocation model of the event. Ground displacement spectra, determined from the downhole strain data and instrument-corrected surface seismic data, suggest that source parameters estimated from surface recordings may be contaminated by amplification effects in near-surface low-velocity materials.

  17. Lactobacillus ruminis strains cluster according to their mammalian gut source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, Michelle M; Harris, Hugh Michael B; Lynch, Denise B; Ross, Reynolds Paul; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis is a motile Lactobacillus that is autochthonous to the human gut, and which may also be isolated from other mammals. Detailed characterization of L. ruminis has previously been restricted to strains of human and bovine origin. We therefore sought to expand our bio-bank of strains to identify and characterise isolates of porcine and equine origin by comparative genomics. We isolated five strains from the faeces of horses and two strains from pigs, and compared their motility, biochemistry and genetic relatedness to six human isolates and three bovine isolates including the type strain 27780(T). Multilocus sequence typing analysis based on concatenated sequence data for six individual loci separated the 16 L. ruminis strains into three clades concordant with human, bovine or porcine, and equine sources. Sequencing the genomes of four additional strains of human, bovine, equine and porcine origin revealed a high level of genome synteny, independent of the source animal. Analysis of carbohydrate utilization, stress survival and technological robustness in a combined panel of sixteen L. ruminis isolates identified strains with optimal survival characteristics suitable for future investigation as candidate probiotics. Under laboratory conditions, six human isolates of L. ruminis tested were aflagellate and non-motile, whereas all 10 strains of bovine, equine and porcine origin were motile. Interestingly the equine and porcine strains were hyper-flagellated compared to bovine isolates, and this hyper-flagellate phenotype correlated with the ability to swarm on solid medium containing up to 1.8% agar. Analysis by RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR identified genes for the biosynthesis of flagella, genes for carbohydrate metabolism and genes of unknown function that were differentially expressed in swarming cells of an equine isolate of L. ruminis. We suggest that Lactobacillus ruminis isolates have potential to be used in the functional food industry. We

  18. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  19. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  20. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  2. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  3. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  4. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  5. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...... refer to archive URLs which depends on the web archives access implementations. A major part of the suggested adjustments is a new web reference standard for archived web references (called wPID), which is a supplement to the current practices. The purpose of the standard is to support general, global...

  6. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  7. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  8. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  9. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered from some Iranian food items. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Conclusion: The presence of similar genotypes in H. pylori strains of foods and those of human clinical samples suggest that contaminated foods may be the source of bacteria ...

  10. New introductions of enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C4 strains, France, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Desbois, Delphine; Lagathu, Gisèle; Bornebusch, Laure; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Lina, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe.

  11. Analysis of the Temperature and Strain-Rate Dependences of Strain Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyca, Johannes; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2018-01-01

    A classical constitutive modeling-based Ansatz for the impact of thermal activation on the stress-strain response of metallic materials is compared with the state parameter-based Kocks-Mecking model. The predicted functional dependencies suggest that, in the first approach, only the dislocation storage mechanism is a thermally activated process, whereas, in the second approach, only the mechanism of dynamic recovery is. In contradiction to each of these individual approaches, our analysis and comparison with experimental evidence shows that thermal activation contributes both to dislocation generation and annihilation.

  12. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  13. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  14. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African Studies. This is ...

  15. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  16. Some suggestions based on the instrumentation installation experience at RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, M.R.; Singh, S.; Jain, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Suggestions regarding installation of reactor instrumentation have been made based on the instrumentation installation experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant. It has been mentioned that the instrumentation installation work has to proceed simultaneously with that of the heavy equipment and piping errection work, to meet the commissioning target dates. (S.K.K.)

  17. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster ... Spain; Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Manauli PO 140 306, India; Department of Biology and Centre for ...

  18. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  19. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  20. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  1. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  2. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  3. Omission, Suggestion, Completion : Film and the Imagination of the Spectator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2018-01-01

    This article counters the widespread assumption that film is exclusively a medium of showing, presentation or appearing by emphasizing the importance of the viewer’s act of imagination. At the center of attention is the aesthetic principle of omission, suggestion, and completion in film – in other

  4. Suggestions for Working with Fat Children in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses prejudice toward fat children and its effect on their lives; critiques prevailing efforts to control children's eating habits and weight. Suggestions and resource materials to enhance students' self-esteem and good health through self-acceptance and embracing the diversity of body types are presented. (EMK)

  5. Young Children's Understanding of Conflicting Mental Representation Predicts Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch-Ross, Melissa K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relation between developmental suggestibility effects and preschoolers' emerging ability to reason about conflicting mental representations. Subjects were 42 three- to five-year-olds. Found in the children significant initial encoding and ability to retrieve event details. Also found an integration between children's theory of mind…

  6. The Strategic Regulation of Children's Memory Performance and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, C.M.; Schneider, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report two empirical studies that investigated previously reported benefits of a high accuracy motivation, and thus a high threshold, for children's and adults' event recall and for their ability to resist false suggestions. In the studies, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds, as well as adults, were shown a brief video about an event and were later asked…

  7. Effects of Discrete Emotions on Young Children's Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Linda J.; Burgess, Stewart L.; Laney, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of sadness, anger, and happiness on 4- to 6-year-old children's memory and suggestibility concerning story events. In Experiment 1, children were presented with 3 interactive stories on a video monitor. The stories included protagonists who wanted to give the child a prize. After each story, the child…

  8. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  9. Where to Look First for Suggestibility in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Peter A.; Siegal, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Investigated preschool children's suggestibility following exposure to biased information. Children heard a story followed the next day by either biased, unbiased, or no information. Found that children were able to identify the original story details six days later when the questions were phrased in an explicit manner that referred to the time of…

  10. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  11. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  12. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  13. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  14. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  16. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  17. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  18. A birth-death process suggested by a chain sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenin, R.B.; Parthasarathy, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a birth-death process whose birth and death rates are suggested by a chain sequence. We use an elegant transformation to find the transition probabilities in a simple closed form. We also find an explicit expression for time-dependent mean. We find parallel results in discrete time.

  19. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  20. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    into Washington on the metro to see the National Mall . The primary goal of this track is to develop evaluation methodologies for such systems. This...activities, restaurant, shopping , and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  1. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    . The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  2. Two suggestions to improve the utilization of ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. The ideas relate to: (1) communications between the experimental hall and the data acquisition room; and (2) beam information via computer

  3. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  4. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects.

  5. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains and Their Comparison with Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Taija E.; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects. PMID:23966868

  6. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  7. Communicating about nuclear events: Some suggestions to improve INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermisch, Céline; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and its use, both from an epistemic and an ethical perspective. As very few papers have been dedicated to this subject, our critical analysis is mainly based on the INES 2009 User's Manual and on technical information issued by different nuclear agencies. Our critical analysis leads to suggest several elements, which could contribute to the improvement of the INES scale and thereby to a better communication about nuclear events. First, we show that multiple criteria are used to assign an INES rating, which could lead to an insufficient differentiation between events. In order to avoid this issue, we suggest to clarify the criteria that are used to assess the level of the event. Then, we show that level 7 of the INES scale is ill-defined as it does not allow to properly take differences in severity between disasters into account. In this regard, we recommend to use an open scale instead. Moreover, we highlight the fact that INES is able to take into account neither events with long-term evolution nor events involving multiple initiators. In this respect, we suggest providing additional guidelines and reflecting about the data on which to rely, in order to assess an INES level. Furthermore, we reflect on who should be rating a nuclear event and we recommend that, for severe events, an independent and plural agency should be in charge. Finally, we show why INES appears to be insufficient for a global communication, and we suggest to complement the INES rating with additional information in parallel. -- Highlights: •We provide a critical analysis of the INES scale and suggestions to improve it. •The rating criteria should be clarified to allow differentiation between events. •An open scale should be used to differentiate between level-7 accidents. •Additional guidelines should be provided for complex and evolving events. •We provide suggestions to satisfy

  8. Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Velji, Preya

    2010-01-01

    To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Beijing family was strongly associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.0001), and VNTR allelic variants showed strong associations with spoligotyping families: >5 copies at exact tandem repeat (ETR) A, >2 at mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 24, and >3 at ETR-B associated with the East African–Indian and M. bovis strains. All M. tuberculosis isolates were differentiated into 4 major lineages, and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed suggesting a more complex phylogeny for M. africanum. These findings can be used as a model of pathogen global diversity. PMID:20113558

  9. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  10. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  11. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  12. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  13. DIPNECH: when to suggest this diagnosis on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnon, G.; Favelle, O.; Marchand-Adam, S.; De Muret, A.; Revel, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an under-recognized disease characterized by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the bronchial wall. It is considered a pre-invasive lesion for lung carcinoid tumours and is found in 5.4% of patients undergoing surgical resection for lung carcinoid tumours. Other manifestations of DIPNECH include bronchial obstruction and formation of tumorlets. DIPNECH preferentially affects middle-aged women. Patients are either asymptomatic or present with long-standing dyspnoea due to obstructive syndrome that can be mistaken for asthma. At CT, mosaic attenuation with multiple small nodules is very suggestive of DIPNECH. The aim of this review is to describe DIPNECH-related CT features and correlate them with histology, in order to help radiologists suggest this diagnosis and distinguish DIPNECH from other causes of mosaic perfusion

  14. Prostitution advertisements suggest association of transvestism and masochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, M; Blanchard, R

    1996-01-01

    Previous research and clinical observation have suggested that the sexual interest of many transvestites include involvement in sadomasochistic sexual acts. Through data gathered via prostitution advertisements in print media, we tested the hypothesis that prostitutes welcoming cross-dressing client would be primarily those describing themselves as dominant. The specialty of the prostitute was recorded by coding the advertisements for the presence or absence of the features of dominance, submissiveness, acceptance of cross-dressing clients, and whether the prostitute was a biological male presenting as a woman or quasi-woman. The findings showed that 20% of prostitutes describing themselves as dominant welcomed cross-dressing clients, whereas none of the other subgroups of prostitutes mentioned cross-dressing clients in their advertisements. These findings reinforce other lines of indirect evidence suggesting that, in heterosexual men, the presence of masochism increases the likelihood of transvestism, and vice versa.

  15. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  16. Inoculating against eyewitness suggestibility via interpolated verbatim vs. gist testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat

    2011-01-01

    In real-life situations, eyewitnesses often have control over the level of generality in which they choose to report event information. In the present study, we adopted an early-intervention approach to investigate to what extent eyewitness memory may be inoculated against suggestibility, following two different levels of interpolated reporting: verbatim and gist. After viewing a target event, participants responded to interpolated questions that required reporting of target details at either the verbatim or the gist level. After 48 hr, both groups of participants were misled about half of the target details and were finally tested for verbatim memory of all the details. The findings were consistent with our predictions: Whereas verbatim testing was successful in completely inoculating against suggestibility, gist testing did not reduce it whatsoever. These findings are particularly interesting in light of the comparable testing effects found for these two modes of interpolated testing.

  17. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C Scholz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology.We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources.High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.

  18. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  19. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  20. Oncologic prevention and suggested working standards in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of the available data, this paper presents the problem of malignant diseases in Central Serbia, and most common carcinogens. Division of carcinogens, cancerogenesis and natural history of disease, early detection of cancer and palliative management are explained. The role and capacities of primary health care doctors in treatment of patients with suspect malignant disease are presented. Authors are suggesting standards for medical tasks and contemporary principles in approach to patients with malignant diseases in everyday practice.

  1. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  2. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  3. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  4. Transit pipelines suggest a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Any reading to the history of transit pipeline suggests a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement, often resulting to the cessation of throughput, sometimes for a short period and sometimes for longer. That bad political relation between neighbours have certain a role, but very important is the economic nature of the transit terms, tariff and off take terms. What might be done to improve this record in the future and make transit pipeline less vulnerable and troublesome? [it

  5. Recommendations and Suggestions of the IRRS Mission in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Director General of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (SORNS) is obliged to conduct self-assessment of the national legislative framework and of the competent authorities and to provide for international audit of important segments of the national legislative framework and competent authorities with the purpose of continuous improvement of radiological and nuclear safety. SORNS as a state administration body competent for activities pertaining to radiological and nuclear safety, submitted in April 2013 the request to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. SORNS conducted a self-assessment in preparation for the mission and prepared a preliminary action plan. The results of SORNS self-assessment and supporting documentation were provided to the IRRS review team as advance reference material for the mission. IRRS mission took place in Zagreb from 7 to 17 Jun 2015. The IRRS team carried out the review in the following areas: responsibilities and functions of the government; the global nuclear safety regime; responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body; the management system of the regulatory body; the activities of the regulatory body including authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement processes; development and content of regulations and guides; emergency preparedness and response; occupational radiation protection, patient protection, public and environmental exposure control, waste management and decommissioning. The IRRS team identified a number of recommendations and suggestions where improvements in the area of radiological and nuclear safety are necessary or desirable. Those recommendations and suggestions were translated and approved by the Government in the form of the Governmental conclusion. This conclusion presents the action plan for the SORNS and other governmental bodies and

  6. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  7. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  8. Suggestions for English Culture Teaching in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hongjuan

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of the new High School English Curriculum Standards, more and more people have realized the importance of English culture teaching. To realize the goals of English teaching, teachers should cultivate students' culture awareness and develop their intercultural communicative competence. But in the actual teaching, culture teaching did not get real implementation. So the author puts forwards some suggestions for English culture teaching in high school.

  9. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of the proposed method. 1 Introduction TREC 1014 Contextual Suggestion Track gives researchers the chance to test their methods on providing...each category. Information including the name, average rating, address, business hour, all ratings and the associated text reviews of the candidate...Annals of Statistics , 29:1189–1232, 2000. 5. K. Ganesan, C. Zhai, and J. Han. Opinosis: a graph-based approach to abstractive summarization of highly

  10. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  11. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  12. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regional strain variations in the human patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen J; Ritchings, Tim; Mohamed, Azlan S A

    2014-07-01

    Characteristics of localized tendon strain in vivo are largely unknown. The present study examines local tendon strain between the deep, middle, and surface structures at the proximal and distal aspects of the patellar tendon during ramped isometric contractions. Male subjects (age 28.0 ± 6.3 yr) were examined for patellar tendon excursion (anterior, midsection, and posterior) during ramped isometric voluntary contractions using real-time B-mode ultrasonography and dynamometry. Regional tendon excursion measurements were compared using an automated pixel tracking method. Strain was determined from the tendon delta length normalized to initial/resting segment length. Strain increased from 10% to 100% of force for all regions. Significantly greater mean strain was seen for the anterior proximal region compared to the posterior and mid layer of the tendon (7.5% ± 1.1% vs 3.7% ± 0.5% vs 5.5% ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Similarly, the distal posterior region showed greater mean strain compared to the mid and anterior regions (7.9% ± 0.6% vs 5.0% ± 0.6% vs 5.4% ± 0.6%; P < 0.05). Relative changes in strain differences from 50% to 100% of force for the proximal region were greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.6% ± 0.6% and 5.6% ± 0.6%, respectively) and those for the distal region were also greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.4% ± 0.2% and 5.3% ± 0.2%, respectively). The largest mean strain for the proximal region was at the anterior layer (7.5% ± 1.1%) and that for the distal tendon region was at the posterior layer (7.9% ± 0.9%). This study shows significant regional differences in strain during ramped isometric contractions for the patellar tendon. Lower proximal strains in the posterior tendon compared to the anterior region may be associated with the suggestion of "stress shielding" as an etiological factor in insertional tendinopathy.

  14. A non-sense mutation in the putative anti-mutator gene ada/alkA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis isolates suggests convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicquel Brigitte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that variations in DNA repair genes of W-Beijing strains may have led to transient mutator phenotypes which in turn may have contributed to host adaptation of this strain family. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the DNA repair gene mutT1 was identified in MDR-prone strains from the Central African Republic. A Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv mutant inactivated in two DNA repair genes, namely ada/alkA and ogt, was shown to display a hypermutator phenotype. We then looked for polymorphisms in these genes in Central African Republic strains (CAR. Results In this study, 55 MDR and 194 non-MDR strains were analyzed. Variations in DNA repair genes ada/alkA and ogt were identified. Among them, by comparison to M. tuberculosis published sequences, we found a non-sense variation in ada/alkA gene which was also observed in M. bovis AF2122 strain. SNPs that are present in the adjacent regions to the amber variation are different in M. bovis and in M. tuberculosis strain. Conclusion An Amber codon was found in the ada/alkA locus of clustered M. tuberculosis isolates and in M. bovis strain AF2122. This is likely due to convergent evolution because SNP differences between strains are incompatible with horizontal transfer of an entire gene. This suggests that such a variation may confer a selective advantage and be implicated in hypermutator phenotype expression, which in turn contributes to adaptation to environmental changes.

  15. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  17. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  18. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  19. Strain-based failure criteria for steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Containment Integrity Division of the Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has been conducting a program to evaluate the performance of containment buildings with internal pressure. Sandia has suggested that in the absence of leakage past penetrations, containment buildings will fail by rupturing after large plastic strains are developed up to ultimate strain of the material. This paper represents a portion of work conducted at Ames Laboratory for Sandia, the objective of which was to identify fabrication details that may affect the performance of a containment building. Construction drawings for nine steel containment buildings were surveyed, and several significant strain concentration regions were identified by using recommendations from Sandia and Section NE-3217 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These following regions were identified as: eccentricities in stiffener patterns around penetrations, eccentricities in containment shell middle surface, flat plate covers used on spare penetrations, containment base connection details, and containment heads. Examples of each of these regions were analyzed by the finite-element method, by simplified equations or both. In the case of middle surface eccentricities, the strains were found to be self-limiting. Even though flat plates have primary strains, they are typically designed so as not to control. Bolts in the base connection have primary strains and may control. The circumferential compressive strains introduced at the knuckle during buckling of the containment head grow as the pressure increases, but are somewhat restricted by the meridional tension. Finally, three analysis techniques and their associated failure criteria for the analysis of containment strength are introduced. (orig.)

  20. Yeast strains and methods of use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Matthew Robert; Gardner, Richard Clague; Anfang, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to yeast strains and, in particular, to yeast stains for use in fermentation processes. The invention also relates to methods of fermentation using the yeast strains of the invention either alone or in combination with other yeast strains. The invention thither relates to methods for the selection of yeast strains suitable for fermentation cultures by screening for various metabolic products and the use of specific nutrient sources.

  1. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current metabolic engineering projects are carried out using laboratory strains as the starting host. Although such strains are easily manipulated genetically, their robustness does not always meet the requirements set by industrial fermentation conditions. In such conditions, the cells...... screening of the 36 industrial and laboratory yeast strains. In addition, progress in the development of molecular biology methods for generating the new strains will be presented....

  2. STRAINED OFF BREAST MILK: PRO AND CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Lukoyanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of feeding of children with strained off breast milk are discussed in this article. Author presents medical indications to such type of feeding, peculiarities and rules of storage of strained off milk. There is a brief literature review on the influence of different factors on the composition of strained off breast milk.Key words: strained milk, breast feeding, pasteurization, freezing.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:70-73

  3. Novel strategy to improve vanillin tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances of Saccharomycere cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Jin, Xin-Na; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Ya-Hong; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a novel strategy for improving the vanillin tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Isogeneic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were generated by genome duplication of haploid strain CEN.PK2-1C. Ploidy increments improved vanillin tolerance and diminished proliferation capability. Antimitotic drug methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate (MBC) was used to introduce chromosomal aberrations into the tetraploid S. cerevisiae strain. Interestingly, aneuploid mutants with DNA contents between triploid and tetraploid were more resistant to vanillin and showed faster ethanol fermentation rates than all euploid strains. The physiological characteristics of these mutants suggest that higher bioconversion capacities of vanillin and ergosterol contents might contribute to improved vanillin tolerance. This study demonstrates that genome duplication and MBC treatment is a powerful strategy to improve the vanillin tolerance of yeast strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphogenesis and Biomechanics of Engineered Skin Cultured Under Uniaxial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N; Powell, Heather M

    2012-04-01

    Split-thickness autograft is the standard wound treatment for full-thickness burns. In large burns, sparse availability of uninjured skin prevents rapid closure of the wound, resulting in increased scar tissue formation or mortality. Tissue-engineered skin (ES) offers promise when autografts are not available. ES, constructed from a polymeric scaffold and skin cells, has been shown to reduce donor site area required to permanently close wounds, mortality, and morbidity from scarring but cannot restore all skin functions. Current generations of ES are orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin, leading to difficulty in surgical application, greater susceptibility to mechanical damage during fabrication and application, and less elasticity and strength once engrafted. Previous studies to improve ES biomechanics focus on altering the scaffolding material, which resulted in modest improvements but often inhibited proper skin development. As the skin is naturally under static strain, adding these mechanical cues to the culture environment is hypothesized to improve ES biomechanics. ES was cultured under applied static strains ranging from 0% to 40% strain for a total of 10 days. Strain magnitudes of 10% and 20% strain resulted in significantly stronger ES than unstrained controls, showed upregulation of many genes encoding structural extracellular matrix proteins, and exhibited increased epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation. Enhanced biomechanical properties of ES can allow for facile surgical application and less damage during dressing changes. These findings suggest that mechanical cues play a significant role in skin development and should be further explored.

  5. Modifying the Electronic Properties of Nano-Structures Using Strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, V K; Engles, D

    2012-01-01

    We used density-functional theory based Non equilibrium green function simulations to study the effects of strain and quantum confinement on the electronic properties of Germanium and Silicon NWs along the [110] direction, such as the energy gap and the effective masses of the electron and hole. The diameters of the NWs being studied in a range of 3-20 Å. On basis of our calculation we conclude that the Ge [110] NWs possess a direct band gap, while Si [110] NWs possess indirect band gap at nanoscale. The band gap is almost a linear function of strain when the diameter of Ge NWs D 15 Å; and for Si it is linear in behaviour. On doping silicon wire we found that the bandgap shows parabolic behaviour for change in strain. We also concluded that the band gap and the effective masses of charge carries (i.e. electron and hole) changes by applying the strain to the NWs. Our results suggested that strain can be used to tune the band structures of NWs, which may help in de sign of future nanoelectronic devices.

  6. Examination of the Anaerobic Growth of Campylobacter concisus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with intestinal diseases. C. concisus was previously described as a bacterium that requires H2-enriched microaerobic conditions for growth. The level of H2 in the oral cavity is extremely low, suggesting that C. concisus is unlikely to have a microaerobic growth there. In this study, the anaerobic growth of C. concisus was investigated. The growth of fifty-seven oral C. concisus strains and six enteric C. concisus strains under various atmospheric conditions including anaerobic conditions with and without H2 was examined. The atmospheric conditions were generated using commercially available gas-generation systems. C. concisus putative virulence proteins were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. Under anaerobic conditions, 92% of the oral C. concisus strains (52/57 and all six enteric strains grew without the presence of H2 and the presence of H2 greatly increased C. concisus growth. An oral C. concisus strain was found to express a number of putative virulence proteins and the expression levels of these proteins were not affected by H2. The levels of H2 appeared to affect the optimal growth of C. concisus. This study provides useful information in understanding the natural colonization site and pathogenicity of C. concisus.

  7. Seismic qualification of piping systems based on strain criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, K.; Rangette, A.

    1988-01-01

    Typical LMFBR piping is characterized by elevated temperature and low pressure levels. Taking into account operational conditions only these characteristics demand for and allow flexible piping design. The overestimation of the damage potential of seismic loading by e.g. improper failure criteria usually contradicts operational needs producing the known result of excessive ''snubberism'' and reduction of operational margins. As a matter of fact, due to its transiency seismic loading is essentially secondary provoking the natural design requirement ductility instead of stiffness and rigidity - i.e. exclusion of failure by strain control instead of stress control - and thus avoiding the LMFBR typical competition between operational needs and seismic qualification. The design requirement ductility needs judgement mechanisms, i.e. suitable load descriptions, allowed strain levels and strain evaluation tools. A simplified method for strain range estimation and the underlying basic ideas are roughly outlined. The status of verification and experience gained so far is described. The results achieved suggest that the qualification of piping based on ductility requirement controlled by strain criteria is not out of reach. (author)

  8. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  9. Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro [Honda R& D; Bunn, Jeffrey R. [ORNL; Fancher, Christopher M. [ORNL; Seid, Alan [Honda R& D; Motani, Ryuta [Honda R& D; Matsuda, Hideki [Honda R& D; Okayama, Tatsuya [Honda R& D

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this paper consists of non-destructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the 2nd Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite phase. The interior strain distribution of connecting rod, which prepared under different manufacturing processes, was revealed. By the visualization of interior strains, clear understandings of differences in various processing conditions were obtained. In addition, it is known that the peak width, which is also obtained during measurement, is suggestive of the size of crystallites in the structure; however the peak width can additionally be caused by microstresses and material dislocations.

  10. The core proteome and pan proteome of Salmonella Paratyphi A epidemic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Comparative proteomics of the multiple strains within the same species can reveal the genetic variation and relationships among strains without the need to assess the genomic data. Similar to comparative genomics, core proteome and pan proteome can also be obtained within multiple strains under the same culture conditions. In this study we present the core proteome and pan proteome of four epidemic Salmonella Paratyphi A strains cultured under laboratory culture conditions. The proteomic information was obtained using a Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE technique. The expression profiles of these strains were conservative, similar to the monomorphic genome of S. Paratyphi A. Few strain-specific proteins were found in these strains. Interestingly, non-core proteins were found in similar categories as core proteins. However, significant fluctuations in the abundance of some core proteins were also observed, suggesting that there is elaborate regulation of core proteins in the different strains even when they are cultured in the same environment. Therefore, core proteome and pan proteome analysis of the multiple strains can demonstrate the core pathways of metabolism of the species under specific culture conditions, and further the specific responses and adaptations of the strains to the growth environment.

  11. Actin and microtubule networks contribute differently to cell response for small and large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschke, H.; Schnauss, J.; Nnetu, K. D.; Warmt, E.; Stange, R.; Kaes, J.

    2017-09-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments provide cells with mechanical stability and organization. The main key players are actin filaments and microtubules governing a cell’s response to mechanical stimuli. We investigated the specific influences of these crucial components by deforming MCF-7 epithelial cells at small (≤5% deformation) and large strains (>5% deformation). To understand specific contributions of actin filaments and microtubules, we systematically studied cellular responses after treatment with cytoskeleton influencing drugs. Quantification with the microfluidic optical stretcher allowed capturing the relative deformation and relaxation of cells under different conditions. We separated distinctive deformational and relaxational contributions to cell mechanics for actin and microtubule networks for two orders of magnitude of drug dosages. Disrupting actin filaments via latrunculin A, for instance, revealed a strain-independent softening. Stabilizing these filaments by treatment with jasplakinolide yielded cell softening for small strains but showed no significant change at large strains. In contrast, cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt microtubules displayed a softening at large strains but remained unchanged at small strains. Stabilizing microtubules within the cells via paclitaxel revealed no significant changes for deformations at small strains, but concentration-dependent impact at large strains. This suggests that for suspended cells, the actin cortex is probed at small strains, while at larger strains; the whole cell is probed with a significant contribution from the microtubules.

  12. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  13. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea can provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of salmonellosis, mainly for typhoid fever caused by MDR strains of S. Typhi.The extract also inhibits S.Hadar a MDR emerging strain in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Thonningia sanguinea; Salmonella, MDR strains, ...

  14. Development of high temperature strain gage, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Kanai, Kenji; Yamaura, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Development and improvement of resistance wire type strain gages usable for experimental measurement of thermal strains generated at high temperature in various structures and equipments that consist of a Fast Breeder Reactor have been carried out, and various characteristics of the strain gages have been investigated. Based on the results obtained up to now, development and research of this time mainly aim to improve strain and fatigue characteristics. As the results, characteristics of strain gages with sensing elements of nichrome V are improved, specifically mechanical hysteresis is decreased, strain limit is increased, etc. Also, improvement is recognized in thermal output, and it becomes clear that dummy gages work effectively. However, a filling method of MgO and an inserting method of active-dummy elements are selected as primary objects to improve strain characteristics, and many hours are taken for these objects, so confirmations of characteristics of platinum-tungsten strain gages, strain sensing elements of which are troublesome to produce, have not been completely done, though the performance of the gages has been improved in several points. As to nichrome V strain gages, there is a fair prospect of obtaining ones, specifications of which are quite close to the goal, though problems in manufacturing technics remain for future. As to platinum-tungsten strain gages, it is expected that similar strain gages to nichrome V are obtainable by improvement in manufacturing of sensing elements. (auth.)

  15. Strain path dependency in metal plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viatkina, E.M.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2003-01-01

    A change in strain path has a significant effect on the mechanical response of metals. Strain path change effects physically originate from a complex microstructure evolution. This paper deals with the contribution of cell structure evolution to the strain path change effect. The material with cells

  16. Stress and strain measurements in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askegaard, V.

    1978-01-01

    A design basis is given for stress- and strain cells to be used in a solid either externally loaded or with a stressfree strain field (for example shrinkage). A stress- and a strain cell has been designed for use in granular materials. Calibration tests show either good or reasonably good correspondance with calculated values. (orig.) [de

  17. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  18. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Paul A.; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J.

    2018-01-01

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS2, and Bi2Te3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals

  19. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  20. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26{approx}27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part.

  1. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  2. Partnership-Based Health Care: Suggestions for Effective Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Societal transformation often starts with one visionary and a compelling idea. However, if there are no followers, the idea quickly becomes marginalized. It “takes a village” to build a movement, and the more system layers that can be addressed, the more likely the transformation will take hold. This article describes the framework for creating the necessary changes for partnership-based health care. It also makes suggestions for ensuring successful application of partnership-based systems change. This article is for all readers seeking to apply partnership principles in their own fields of influence.

  3. Credit risk identification and suggestions of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Wang, Haichao; Chen, Zhongyuan; Hao, Yuxing; Jiang, Hailong; Qian, Hanhan; Wang, Meibao

    2018-03-01

    The power industry has a long history of credit problems, and the power industry has credit problems such as power users defaulting on electricity bills before the new electricity reform. With the reform of the power system, the credit problems in the power industry will be more complicated. How to effectively avoid the risk factors existing in the course of market operation and how to safeguard the fairness and standardization of market operation is an urgent problem to be solved. This paper first describes the credit risk in power market, and analyzes the components of credit risk identification in power market, puts forward suggestions on power market risk management.

  4. Concerning the mass of the suggested sixth satellite of Uranus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigmann, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of the strength of resonances arising from the known satellites of Uranus in the vicinity of the α and γ rings, with the strengths of probable resonances at the β and delta rings, suggest that the β and delta rings might be associated with an undiscovered satellite of mass approximately 0.4 mass of Miranda. This satellite is predicted to be a 17 to 18 mag object moving in a near-circular orbit, of low inclination to the plane of the rings, at a distance of 105 221 km from Uranus. (author)

  5. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San

    2012-01-01

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26∼27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part

  6. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  7. A new dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year

  8. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongmin; Huang Gang; Lv Zhongwei; Liu Jianjun; Chen Kemin; Chen Yongde

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  9. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongmin, Wang; Gang, Huang; Zhongwei, Lv; Jianjun, Liu [Department of Radiology, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Kemin, Chen; Yongde, Chen

    2009-09-15

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  10. Growth in coculture stimulates metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-07-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.

  11. Suggested PAZ Size of Pressurized Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, preliminary calculation results to suggest PAZ size are presented. PSA methodology and RASCAL code were used to calculate PAZ size. Suggested radius of PAZ from the preliminary calculation results is between 0.8 and 4.8 km. These results were calculated with simple assumptions and only considered technical aspect, such as fission product release characteristics and radioactive material dispersion in environment. The actual boundaries of PAZ need to be defined by site specific information, such as local landmarks and population distribution. The results in this study can be used as base information to stakeholders and decision makers who are response in arrangement of emergency preparedness. The goals of the protective actions during nuclear accident are to prevent the occurrence of severe deterministic effects and keep the dose below the level at which protective actions and other response actions are justified to reduce the risk of stochastic effects. To meet these goals, off-site emergency zones for taking urgent protective action have to be identified in advance, i.e. during emergency preparedness phase. Especially Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) is defined by the international requirement as the area within which arrangements should be made to implement precautionary urgent protective actions before or shortly after a major release with the aim of preventing or reducing the occurrence of severe deterministic effect. However, PAZ is not introduced in domestic emergency preparedness system.

  12. Educating Providers in Return-to-Play Suggested Guidelines Postconcussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bires, Angela Macci; Leonard, Amanda L; Thurber, Brandon

    As the awareness of concussions increases, it is imperative to be able to evaluate, diagnose, and treat concussed individuals properly to prevent further complications or death. The primary purpose of this study was to compare a provider's current awareness and comfort level as it relates to the return-to-play guidelines for concussions. A secondary aim was to evaluate current protocols that are in use and determine whether they coincide with the suggested guidelines. An educational intervention was implemented to assess the knowledge and confidence of health care providers. The study design was a quantitative, convenient sample, pretest/posttest questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to participants who were nurse practitioners prior to an educational PowerPoint presentation. At 8 weeks, the posttest was administered. Approximately 19% of individuals were not aware of a graded return-to-play protocols. The findings suggest that the educational intervention increased their confidence levels in making a diagnosis of a concussion, in assessing danger signs, and in understanding when to refer to a specialist. Additional supporting evidence from this study indicates that the educational intervention allowed the participants to achieve a greater comfort level in finding appropriate resources for them and their patients.

  13. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  14. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  15. Eyewitness recall and suggestibility in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Henry, L

    2016-12-01

    Many criminal justice professionals perceive the eyewitness skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities to be weaker than those of typically developing (TD) individuals. Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disabilities, yet there is no research addressing eyewitness skills in this population. This study examined the eyewitness recall and suggestibility of young people with DS. Young people with DS and mental age-matched TD children viewed a video of a non-violent petty crime and were subsequently asked to freely recall the event before being asked general and specific questions incorporating both misleading and non-leading prompts. Compared with mental age-matched TD individuals, young people with DS produced as much information, were just as accurate and were no more suggestible. The eyewitness memory skills of young people with DS are comparable to those of mental age-matched TD children. The implications of these findings for the forensic context and eyewitness memory are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. On Suggestibility and Placebo: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Sheiner, Eli O; Olson, Jay A; Thériault, Rémi; Raz, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Identifying what makes some people respond well to placebos remains a major challenge. Here, we attempt to replicate an earlier study in which we found a relationship between hypnotic suggestibility and subjective ratings of relaxation following the ingestion of a placebo sedative (Sheiner, Lifshitz, & Raz, 2016). To assess the reliability of this effect, we tested 34 participants using a similar design. Participants ingested a placebo capsule in one of two conditions: (1) relaxation, wherein we described the capsule as a herbal sedative, or (2) control, wherein we described the capsule as inert. To index placebo response, we collected measures of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as self-report ratings of relaxation and drowsiness. Despite using a similar experimental design as in our earlier study, we were unable to replicate the correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and placebo response. Furthermore, whereas in our former experiment we observed a change in subjective ratings of relaxation but no change in physiological measures, here we found that heart rate dropped in the relaxation condition while subjective ratings remained unchanged. Even within a consistent context of relaxation, therefore, our present results indicate that placebos may induce effects that are fickle, tenuous, and unreliable. Although we had low statistical power, our findings tentatively accord with the notion that placebo response likely involves a complex, multifaceted interaction between traits, expectancies, and contexts.

  17. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  18. High survival rates of Campylobacter coli under different stress conditions suggest that more rigorous food control measures might be needed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina N; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Vilela, Felipe P; Pereira da Silva, Fátima M H S; Duque, Sheila S; Falcão, Juliana P

    2018-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. have been the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in many countries. Consumption of improperly prepared poultry meat has been the main transmission route of Campylobacter spp. Although Brazil is the largest exporter of poultry meat in the world, campylobacteriosis has been a neglected disease in the country. The aim of this study was to characterize 50 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from different sources in Brazil regarding the frequency of 16 virulence genes and their survival capability under five different stress conditions. All strains studied presented the cadF, flaA, and sodB genes that are considered essential for colonization. All strains grew at 4 °C and 37 °C after 24 h. High survival rates were observed when the strains were incubated in BHI with 7.5% NaCl and exposed to acid and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the strains studied was reinforced by the presence of several important virulence genes and by the high growth and survival rates of the majority of those strains under different stress conditions. The results enabled a better understanding of strains circulating in Brazil and suggest that more rigorous control measures may be needed, given the importance of contaminated food as vehicles for Campylobacter coli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter...... the tangent moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that is at odds with what is expected from a strain gradient theory....... The findings raise questions about the physical acceptability of this class of strain gradient theories....

  20. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  1. Local strains in waste tank deflagration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B.J.; Flanders, H.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years extensive effort has been expended to qualify buried nuclear waste storage tanks under accident conditions. One of these conditions is deflagration of the combustible gases which may build up over time. While much work has been done to calculate the general strain state, less effort has been made to address the local strains at structural discontinuities. An analytical method is presented for calculating these local strains and combining them with the general strain state. A closed form solution of the local strains is compared to a finite element solution

  2. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10 -9 and 3.4 x 10 -7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10 -8 to 1.3 x 10 -4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10 -5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [ 3 H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  3. The role of nitrogen uptake on the competition ability of three vineyard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, Chiara; Beltran, Gemma; Nadai, Chiara; Giacomini, Alessio; Mas, Albert; Corich, Viviana

    2017-10-03

    Three vineyard strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P301.4, P304.4 and P254.12, were assayed in comparison with a commercial industrial strain, QA23. The aim was to understand if nitrogen availability could influence strain competition ability during must fermentation. Pairwise-strain fermentations and co-fermentations with the simultaneous presence of the four strains were performed in synthetic musts at two nitrogen levels: control nitrogen condition (CNC) that assured the suitable assimilable nitrogen amount required by the yeast strains to complete the fermentation and low nitrogen condition (LNC) where nitrogen is present at very low level. Results suggested a strong involvement of nitrogen availability, as the frequency in must of the vineyard strains, respect to QA23, in LNC was always higher than that found in CNC. Moreover, in CNC only strain P304.4 reached the same strain frequency as QA23. P304.4 competition ability increased during the fermentation, indicating better performance when nitrogen availability was dropping down. P301.4 was the only strain sensitive to QA23 killer toxin. In CNC, when it was co-inoculated with the industrial strain QA23, P301.4 was never detected. In LNC, P301.4 after 12h accounted for 10% of the total population. This percentage increased after 48h (20%). Single-strain fermentations were also run in both conditions and the nitrogen metabolism further analyzed. Fermentation kinetics, ammonium and amino-acid consumptions and the expression of genes under nitrogen catabolite repression evidenced that vineyard yeasts, and particularly strain P304.4, had higher nitrogen assimilation rate than the commercial control. In conclusion, the high nitrogen assimilation rate seems to be an additional strategy that allowed vineyard yeasts successful competition during the growth in grape musts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  5. Strain gage based determination of mixed mode SIFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. S. R. K.; Sarangi, H.; Chakraborty, D.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate determination of mixed mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) is essential in understanding and analysis of mixed mode fracture of engineering components. Only a few strain gage determination of mixed mode SIFs are reported in literatures and those also do not provide any prescription for radial locations of strain gages to ensure accuracy of measurement. The present investigation experimentally demonstrates the efficacy of a proposed methodology for the accurate determination of mixed mode I/II SIFs using strain gages. The proposed approach is based on the modified Dally and Berger's mixed mode technique. Using the proposed methodology appropriate gage locations (optimal locations) for a given configuration have also been suggested ensuring accurate determination of mixed mode SIFs. Experiments have been conducted by locating the gages at optimal and non-optimal locations to study the efficacy of the proposed approach. The experimental results from the present investigation show that highly accurate SIFs (0.064%) can be determined using the proposed approach if the gages are located at the suggested optimal locations. On the other hand, results also show the very high errors (212.22%) in measured SIFs possible if the gages are located at non-optimal locations. The present work thus clearly substantiates the importance of knowing the optimal locations of the strain gages apriori in accurate determination of SIFs.

  6. EDITORIAL: Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-08-01

    , 'We must be clear that when it comes to atoms, language can be used only as in poetry. The poet, too, is not nearly so concerned with describing facts as with creating images and establishing mental connections' [8]. Images have been central to the communication and description of the Bohr-Rutherford model described in 1913, yet the paper itself uses none, and is typical of scientific communications at the time. In fact the text itself makes an eloquent redundancy of accompanying figures but it is interesting to note in comparison with the more technologically advanced channels for current science communications that are so thankfully profuse in images and multimedia. Obviously there is now much more experimental work on systems at the nanoscale and below than a hundred years ago and this also contributes to the greater wealth of images in today's reports. The report by Nrauda and colleagues in this issue is a great example with a wide range of annotated atomic force and transmission electron microscope images, reciprocal space maps and line plots, each image speaking a thousand words and communicating the results with an immediacy that outstrips any narrative. Yet the text serves an indispensable function in relaying the insights derived from analysis of the data, suggesting growth mechanisms, driving forces and expanding the existing understanding of these systems—as Bohr might put it, adding the poetry. References [1] Bohr N 1913 On the constitution of atoms and molecules Phil. Mag 26 1 [2] Hrauda N, Zhang J J, Groiss H, Etzelstorfer T, Holý V, Bauer G, Deiter C, Seeck O H and Stangl J 2013 Strain relief and shape oscillations in site-controlled coherent SiGe islands Nanotechnology 24 335707 [3] Hall H H, Bardeen J and Pearson G L 1951 The effects of pressure and temperature on the resistance of p-n junctions in germanium Phys. Rev. 84 129-32 [4] Smith C S 1954 Piezoresistance effect in germanium and silicon Phys. Rev. 94 42-9 [5] Wei N, Xu L, Wang H-Q and Zheng

  7. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  8. Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Syed

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is presumed to be co-evolved with its human host and is a highly diverse gastric pathogen at genetic levels. Ancient origins of H. pylori in the New World are still debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South America contributed to the evolution of strain diversity of H. pylori. The objective of our 'phylogeographic' study was to gain fresh insights into these issues through mapping genetic origins of H. pylori of native Peruvians (of Amerindian ancestry and their genomic comparison with isolates from Spain, and Japan. Results For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind. All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization. Conclusion Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination

  9. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  10. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  11. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    modulated gene expressions. In addition, gene expressions in both children and adults were investigated for associations with micronuclei frequencies. Both analysis approaches returned considerably more genes or gene groups and pathways that significantly differed between children from both regions than......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...

  12. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  13. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  15. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  16. Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

    2011-08-01

    Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information.

  17. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A United States forensic sample for the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, I Bruce; Lally, Stephen J; Sexton, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) is a valuable test to use as part of a comprehensive assessment of psychological and interrogative factors relevant to a defendant's vulnerability to giving a false or involuntary confession. One limitation of the test is that the manual only provides information for samples from Iceland and Great Britain. This report describes the results of 334 individuals in the United States, who were administered the tests as part of an evaluation to assess confession-related issues in a forensic context (i.e., capacity to waive Miranda rights or vulnerability in providing a false or involuntary confession). This forensic sample includes both juveniles and adults. Results are consistent with Gudjonsson's British and Icelandic samples, in which the Yield 1 score is more affected by intellectual and cognitive variables, but Shift and, to a lesser extent, Yield 2 scores are more related to emotional and personality characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  20. MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development: Reflections and Suggested Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher Professional Development (TPD has become a major policy priority within education systems worldwide. But keeping teachers professionally up-to-date and providing them professional development opportunities on continuing basis is a big challenge. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs can be a cost and resource effective means to complement the traditional methods of professional development of teachers. This optimism is based on the assumption that use of MOOCs will facilitate mass training of teachers as per their convenience and ease. The other assumption is that being MOOCs-based training, it will be easy to adapt it to different cultures and languages. Considering these assumptions, this concept paper which is based on reviews of different reports, documents and research papers - discusses the challenges of TPD, reflects upon promises of using MOOCs for TPD; details initiatives and experiences of using MOOCs for TPD; and suggests actions for promoting the use of MOOCs for TPD.

  1. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  2. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  3. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  4. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-04-01

    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  6. Strain quantification in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushley, M

    2008-01-01

    Strain arising in epitaxial thin films can be beneficial in some cases but devastating in others. By altering the lattice parameters, strain may give a thin film properties hitherto unseen in the bulk material. On the other hand, heavily strained systems are prone to develop lattice defects in order to relieve the strain, which can cause device failure or, at least, a decrease in functionality. Using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it is possible to determine local strains within a material. By comparing the results from CBED and HRTEM experiments, it is possible to gain a complete view of a material, including the strain and any lattice defects present. As well as looking at how the two experimental techniques differ from each other, I will also look at how results from different image analysis algorithms compare. Strain in Si/SiGe samples and BST/SRO/MgO capacitor structures will be discussed.

  7. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  8. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitivity strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.R.; Sharygin, V.I.; Khromykh, Yu.U.

    1985-01-01

    Fertility of radiosensitive mutant drosophila female strain rad (2) 201 61 after irradiation and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM), induced by γ-radiation for 0-5 h and 5-7 days, are investigated. It is shown, that oocytes of the mutant strain are more radiosensitive as compared with cells of mongrel flies as to criterion of DLM appearance over the period of maturing. Early oocytes of stages 2-7 are the most sensitive, i.e. at the stages, corresponding to the manifestation of previously established recombination-defective properties of mutations rad (2) 201 61 . It is also sown, that doses of γ-rays, exceeding 10 Gy produce a strong sterilizing effect on mutant females due to destruction and resorption of egg chambers, irradiated at the stages of previtellogenetic growth of oocytes. In females, carrying mutation of radiosensitivity there is no direct correlation betwen sensitivity of oocytes proper to DLM induction and sensitivity of egg folleicles to resorbing effect of γ-rays. The ways of possible involvement of mutant locus studied into genetic processes in various specialized cells of drosophila

  9. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  10. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  11. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  12. Suggestion, persuasion and work: Psychotherapies in communist Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The latter two approaches had striking similarities with parallel developments in behavioural and cognitive therapies in the West. In part, this was because clinicians on both sides of the 'iron curtain' drew upon shared European traditions from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nevertheless, this article argues that in the Soviet sphere, those promoting these approaches appropriated socialist thought as a source of inspiration and justification, or at the very least, as a convenient political shield.

  13. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  14. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report.

  15. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  16. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak

    2014-01-01

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report

  17. Suggestion for improvement of PET quality control tests in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda C.L.; Magalhaes, Cinthia M.S.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays nuclear medicine has a considerable importance among the other medical specialties. This medical specialty utilizes high-tech equipment for imaging in the diagnosis, obtaining information on the clinical functionality of organs and systems of the human body through the use of radioisotopes . In view of the importance of guaranteeing the image quality in SPECT and PET systems, enabling patients not repeat exams due to lack of quality control of equipment used in nuclear medicine, this paper aims to present a possible suggestion to update the quality control tests needed for quality assurance of nuclear medicine services. They were considered the requirements of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil. The minimum requirements to be defined for inclusion of quality control tests on PET in the standard CNEN are extremely important because they will guide the evaluation of PET systems, determining the quality control tests to be performed. And those tests for PET will be a regulatory requirement by the CNEN and ANVISA. As the National Health Surveillance Agency has already publication of RDC 38 with recommendations for services of nuclear medicine. This study will continue with evaluation of PET systems and presenting the tests of quality control with additional objects and simulators to ensure safety in PET systems have not standardized in nuclear medicine services in Brazil. (author)

  18. Failures and suggestions in Earthquake forecasting and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Seismologists have had poor success in earthquake prediction. However, wide ranging observations from earlier great earthquakes show that precursory data can exist. In particular, two aspects seem promising. In agreement with simple physical modeling, b-values decrease in highly loaded fault zones for years before failure. Potentially more usefully, in high stress regions, breakdown of dilatant patches leading to failure can yield expelled water-related observations. The volume increase (dilatancy) caused by high shear stresses decreases the pore pressure. Eventually, water flows back in restoring the pore pressure, promoting failure and expelling the extra water. Of course, in a generally stressed region there may be many small patches that fail, such as observed before the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. Only a few days before the major event will most of the dilatancy breakdown occur in the fault zone itself such as for the Tangshan, 1976 destructive event. Observations of 'water release' effects have been observed before the 1923 great Kanto earthquake, the 1984 Yamasaki event, the 1975 Haicheng and the 1976 Tangshan earthquakes and also the 1995 Kobe earthquake. While there are obvious difficulties in water release observations, not least because there is currently no observational network anywhere, historical data does suggest some promise if we broaden our approach to this difficult subject.

  19. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  1. The advances in radiation processing technology and some suggestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Wei Genshuan; Ha Hongfei

    1992-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been made great advances in the last decade especially in the developed countries. According to the conservative evaluation, the total sales of radiation processing products approached about 2-3 billion U.S. dollar in 1981, there after, the processing capacity at least doubles. Now, the intensities of 60 Co in use for radiation processing are (5.55-7.40) x 10 18 Bq and there are about 600 sets of electron accelerators for radiation processing. The total sales of radiation processing products are supposed to be over 10 billion U.S. dollar in 1989. However, there are only several fields commercialized. In great scale, such as radiation crosslinked heat shrinkable materials, radiation crosslinked electric cables and wires, and radiation sterilization of medical articles. In China, the radiation processing technology has been developed rapidly in the past years, but the processing capacity is still lower in comparing with developed countries. We suggest that much attention should be devoted to the training of the workers, technicians and managers. The basic theoretical and new technological researches are the keys for developing radiation processing technology at high speed in our country

  2. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  3. Child witnesses: a study of memory and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, I; Berlingerio, I; Lisi, A; Carabellese, F; Catanesi, R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of various factors on the ability of primary school children (aged 6-9 years) to refer an event that occurred during their life. The factors analyzed were: the time since the event occurred; the role the child had in the event; the type of questions asked to elicit the account. The results of this research indicate that 52.4% of 6-year old children are able to describe the main elements of the event if they are allowed to give a free account. Asking direct questions does not improve the quality of the narrative. By contrast, in 9-year-old children the quantity of data collected is improved if direct questions are asked. A role as a participant in the event improves the quality of the child's evidence but only in the group of children aged 9, whereas in younger children the difference is not significant. At the age of 9, the child's resistance to leading questions is already quite good (40.7%), whereas children of 6 are much more suggestible. The Authors conclude this work by making some reflections on the possible use of these findings in Law Courts, and on the need for a highly specific training of experts involved in the task of collecting evidence from young children.

  4. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  5. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  6. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  7. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  8. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  9. Two suggestions to ''improve the utilization of ISABELLE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. A very good communication system would make work as efficient as possible during times when the beam is off. Here are some ideas: (1) it should be a dedicated system that is always on or can be turned on from either position, and it should be impossible for the two ends to be on different channels; (2) tv is desirable so each individual can watch what the other is doing to avoid confusion; (3) slave CRT units would be desirable so both can watch a given waveform or other test signal; and (4) it should also be possible to monitor key voltages from either location. It seems reasonable that beam information would be stored in one or more files on a disc in the on-line computer system. Each experimenter's computer could then get whatever information was desired. Handling the information by computer is straightforward, and more or less standard systems for data-base management should be applicable. Having satisfactory sensors to monitor the information that is needed seems like more of a problem, but they are required in any case

  10. Visualization of bonding at an inclusion boundary using axial-shear strain elastography: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Krouskop, Thomas A; Garra, Brian S; Ophir, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography produces strain images of compliant tissues under quasi-static compression. In axial-shear strain elastography, the local axial-shear strain resulting from application of quasi-static axial compression to an inhomogeneous material is imaged. The overall hypothesis of this work is that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around the inclusion/background interface is completely determined by the bonding at the interface after normalization for inclusion size and applied strain levels, and that it is feasible to extract certain features from the axial-shear strain elastograms to quantify this pattern. The mechanical model used in this study consisted of a single stiff circular inclusion embedded in a homogeneous softer background. First, we performed a parametric study using finite-element analysis (FEA) (no ultrasound involved) to identify possible features that quantify the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around an inclusion/background interface. Next, the ability to extract these features from axial-shear strain elastograms, estimated from simulated pre- and post-compression noisy RF data, was investigated. Further, the feasibility of extracting these features from in vivo breast data of benign and malignant tumors was also investigated. It is shown using the FEA study that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution is determined by the degree of bonding at the inclusion/background interface. The results suggest the feasibility of using normalized features that capture the region of positive and negative axial-shear strain area to quantify the pattern of the axial-shear strain distribution. The simulation results showed that it was feasible to extract the features, as identified in the FEA study, from axial-shear strain elastograms. However, an effort must be made to obtain axial-shear strain elastograms with the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR asse ) possible, without compromising the resolution. The in vivo

  11. Response to gaseous NO2 air pollutant of P. fluorescens airborne strain MFAF76a and clinical strain MFN1032

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    Tatiana eKondakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, an air pollutant of increasing interest in biology, results in several toxic effects to human health and also to the air microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial response to gaseous NO2. Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, namely the airborne strain MFAF76a and the clinical strain MFN1032 were exposed to 0.1, 5 or 45 ppm concentrations of NO2, and their effects on bacteria were evaluated in terms of motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, as well as expression of several chosen target genes. While 0.1 and 5 ppm of NO2 did not lead to any detectable modification in the studied phenotypes of the two bacteria, several alterations were observed when the bacteria were exposed to 45 ppm of gaseous NO2. We thus chose to focus on this high concentration. NO2-exposed P. fluorescens strains showed reduced swimming motility, and decreased swarming in case of the strain MFN1032. Biofilm formed by NO2-treated airborne strain MFAF76a showed increased maximum thickness compared to non-treated cells, while NO2 had no apparent effect on the clinical MFN1032 biofilm structure. It is well known that biofilm and motility are inversely regulated by intracellular c-di-GMP level. The c-di-GMP level was however not affected in response to NO2 treatment. Finally, NO2-exposed P. fluorescens strains were found to be more resistant to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Accordingly, the resistance nodulation cell division (RND MexEF-OprN efflux pump encoding genes were highly upregulated in the two P. fluorescens strains. Noticeably, similar phenotypes had been previously observed following a NO treatment. Interestingly, an hmp-homologue gene in P. fluorescens strains MFAF76a and MFN1032 encodes a NO dioxygenase that is involved in NO detoxification into nitrites. Its expression was upregulated in response to NO2, suggesting a possible common pathway between NO and NO2 detoxification. Taken

  12. Context and strain-dependent behavioral response to stress

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    Baum Amber E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study posed the question whether strain differences in stress-reactivity lead to differential behavioral responses in two different tests of anxiety. Strain differences in anxiety-measures are known, but strain differences in the behavioral responses to acute prior stress are not well characterized. Methods We studied male Fisher 344 (F344 and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats basally and immediately after one hour restraint stress. To distinguish between the effects of novelty and prior stress, we also investigated behavior after repeated exposure to the test chamber. Two behavioral tests were explored; the elevated plus maze (EPM and the open field (OFT, both of which are thought to measure activity, exploration and anxiety-like behaviors. Additionally, rearing, a voluntary behavior, and grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior were measured in both tests. Results Prior exposure to the test environment increased anxiety-related measures regardless of prior stress, reflecting context-dependent learning process in both tests and strains. Activity decreased in response to repeated testing in both tests and both strains, but prior stress decreased activity only in the OFT which was reversed by repeated testing. Prior stress decreased anxiety-related measures in the EPM, only in F344s, while in the OFT, stress led to increased freezing mainly in WKYs. Conclusion Data suggest that differences in stressfulness of these tests predict the behavior of the two strains of animals according to their stress-reactivity and coping style, but that repeated testing can overcome some of these differences.

  13. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

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    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  14. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

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    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  15. PAK4 crystal structures suggest unusual kinase conformational movements.

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    Zhang, Eric Y; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J

    2018-02-01

    In order for protein kinases to exchange nucleotide they must open and close their catalytic cleft. These motions are associated with rotations of the N-lobe, predominantly around the 'hinge region'. We conducted an analysis of 28 crystal structures of the serine-threonine kinase, p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), including three newly determined structures in complex with staurosporine, FRAX486, and fasudil (HA-1077). We find an unusual motion between the N-lobe and C-lobe of PAK4 that manifests as a partial unwinding of helix αC. Principal component analysis of the crystal structures rationalizes these movements into three major states, and analysis of the kinase hydrophobic spines indicates concerted movements that create an accessible back pocket cavity. The conformational changes that we observe for PAK4 differ from previous descriptions of kinase motions, and although we observe these differences in crystal structures there is the possibility that the movements observed may suggest a diversity of kinase conformational changes associated with regulation. Protein kinases are key signaling proteins, and are important drug targets, therefore understanding their regulation is important for both basic research and clinical points of view. In this study, we observe unusual conformational 'hinging' for protein kinases. Hinging, the opening and closing of the kinase sub-domains to allow nucleotide binding and release, is critical for proper kinase regulation and for targeted drug discovery. We determine new crystal structures of PAK4, an important Rho-effector kinase, and conduct analyses of these and previously determined structures. We find that PAK4 crystal structures can be classified into specific conformational groups, and that these groups are associated with previously unobserved hinging motions and an unusual conformation for the kinase hydrophobic core. Our findings therefore indicate that there may be a diversity of kinase hinging motions, and that these may

  16. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

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    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  17. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

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    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  18. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

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    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  19. Morphologic Features Suggestive of Endometriosis in Nondiagnostic Peritoneal Biopsies.

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    Harrison, Beth T; Mittal, Khush

    2015-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common disorder that causes significant morbidity from dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Establishment of a definitive diagnosis has important therapeutic implications; however, only approximately 50% of biopsies of laparoscopically suspicious areas provide a diagnosis of endometriosis. Histologic criteria for diagnosis require the presence of endometrial glands or endometrial-type stroma. We hypothesize that other frequently present, but nondiagnostic, histologic features of endometriosis suggest its presence in patients with nondiagnostic peritoneal biopsies. We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of morphologic and immunohistochemical features that may improve the histologic diagnosis of endometriosis on laparoscopic peritoneal biopsies. We compared diagnostic (n=88) and nondiagnostic (n=54) peritoneal biopsies from pathologically confirmed endometriosis cases with negative peritoneal biopsies (n=84) from early-stage gynecologic cancer cases. Statistical analysis utilized the Fisher exact test. Multiple morphologic features were significantly increased in nondiagnostic biopsies from patients with endometriosis in comparison with those from negative controls, including foamy macrophages (P=0.0001) and submesothelial stromal clusters (SSCs) (P=0.0008). SSCs ranged from subtle aggregates of spindle cells to nodules of whorled spindle cells with small vessels and extravasated red blood cells resembling stromal endometriosis. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that ER and CD10-positive SSCs were present in a greater proportion of both nondiagnostic and diagnostic peritoneal biopsies and at a greater number of lesions per biopsy. The overall histologic detection rate of peritoneal biopsies for endometriosis was 62.0%, and inclusion of SSCs with or without foamy macrophages in the diagnostic criteria appreciably increased this rate to between 72.5% and 76.8%. We describe SSCs, which appear to be an early or less developed

  20. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

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    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  1. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

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    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  2. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

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    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  4. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Jordan R Gaston

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA, serum resistance protein (dsrA, and a collagen adhesin (ncaA contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  5. Temporal evolution and potential recombination events in PRRSV strains of Sonora Mexico.

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    Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Reséndiz-Sandoval, Mónica; Cortey, Martí; Mateu, Enric; Hernández, Jesús

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the evolution and potential existence of intragenic recombinations of PRRSV strains in Sonora, Mexico. In this study, 142 serum samples from farms located in Hermosillo (HMO), Cd. Obregón (OBR) and Navojoa (NAV) were sequenced from 2002 to 2012. Ninety non-redundant sequences of ORF5 gene were analyzed for temporal and spatial relationships among strains and the probability of a recombination event. The phylogenetic analysis showed 30 strains grouped into eight groups; 16 strains were closely related among the farms, while 14 were un-related. The first strain in this study was observed in 2002. A number of farms were infected with one or more strains, and in the majority of the strains, the virus was replaced by a new strain. The recombination analysis suggested the presence of four viruses as products of a recombination event; in one case, a virus close related with MLV vaccine was involved as the parent virus. This work shows the evolution of PRRSV in the field, the viral dissemination between farms and the potential recombination events. Our data suggest that PRRSV in Sonora has a specific genetic nature compared with other PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential.

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    Arnold, Jason W; Simpson, Joshua B; Roach, Jeffrey; Kwintkiewicz, Jakub; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains ( L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001) at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress) showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene ( bsh ) revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143), while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  7. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential

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    Jason W. Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010 of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains (L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001 at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143, while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  8. Genetic Diversity and Transmission Characteristics of Beijing Family Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru

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    Iwamoto, Tomotada; Grandjean, Louis; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Caviedes, Luz; Coronel, Jorge; Sheen, Patricia; Wada, Takayuki; Taype, Carmen A.; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Moore, David A. J.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR) plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10), which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%). Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n = 3], ST25 [n = 1], ST19 [n = 8]). Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3%) and a high recent transmission index (RTIn−1 = 0.707). These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999. PMID:23185395

  9. Variations in Endosymbiont Infection Between Buprofezin-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongteng; Liu, Xiangdong; Guo, Huifang

    2018-06-01

    The endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia have been shown to be correlated with the insecticide resistance of mosquito and whitefly. The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, harbours many species of endosymbionts, and has developed a high resistance to buprofezin in China. In this study, we examined the species and the infection incidences of endosymbionts in a buprofezin-resistant (BR) strain, a buprofezin-susceptible (BS) strain, and the BR strain after exposure to buprofezin, and we also investigated the change in buprofezin susceptibility after removal of Wolbachia from the BR strain. The results showed that Wolbachia infection incidences were 100% in both the BR and BS strains, but the Wolbachia density in the BR strain was significantly higher than that in the BS strain. There were no significant differences in Arsenophonus infection incidence between the two strains. However, the infection incidence of Serratia and double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia in the BR strain were significantly higher than that in the BS strain. After the BR strain was exposed to 1200 mg/L buprofezin, the infection incidence of Arsenophonus in the surviving individuals increased, and the infection rate of Serratia did not differ, but the double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia decreased. And when a Wolbachia-infected line originating from the BR strain was cleared of Wolbachia, its susceptibility to buprofezin increased. The results suggest that Serratia and Wolbachia infection might improve the buprofezin resistance of SBPH.

  10. Analysis of preference for carbon source utilization among three strains of aromatic compounds degrading Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karishma, M; Trivedi, Vikas D; Choudhary, Alpa; Mhatre, Akanksha; Kambli, Pranita; Desai, Jinal; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-10-01

    Soil isolates Pseudomonas putida CSV86, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4 and Pseudomonas sp. C5pp degrade naphthalene, phthalate isomers and carbaryl, respectively. Strain CSV86 displayed a diauxic growth pattern on phenylpropanoid compounds (veratraldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid) plus glucose with a distinct second lag-phase. The glucose concentration in the medium remained constant with higher cell respiration rates on aromatics and maximum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity in the first log-phase, which gradually decreased in the second log-phase with concomitant depletion of the glucose. In strains PP4 and C5pp, growth profile and metabolic studies suggest that glucose is utilized in the first log-phase with the repression of utilization of aromatics (phthalate or carbaryl). All three strains utilize benzoate via the catechol 'ortho' ring-cleavage pathway. On benzoate plus glucose, strain CSV86 showed preference for benzoate over glucose in contrast to strains PP4 and C5pp. Additionally, organic acids like succinate were preferred over aromatics in strains PP4 and C5pp, whereas strain CSV86 co-metabolizes them. Preferential utilization of aromatics over glucose and co-metabolism of organic acids and aromatics are found to be unique properties of P. putida CSV86 as compared with strains PP4 and C5pp and this property of strain CSV86 can be exploited for effective bioremediation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research.

  12. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research.

  13. Strain relief InGaN/GaN MQW micro-pillars for high brightness LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Micro-structured group-III-nitrides are considered as promising strain relief structures for high efficiency solid state lighting. In this work, the strain field in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) micro-pillars is investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the design of micro-pillars were studied experimentally. We distinguished the strained and strain-relieved signatures of the GaN layer from the E2 phonon peak split from the Raman scattering signatures at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, respectively. The extent of strain relief is examined considering the height and size of micro-pillars fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining technique. A significant strain relief can be achieved when one micro-machined through the entire epi-layers, 3 μm in our study. The dependence of strain relief on micro-pillar diameter (D) suggested that micro-pillar with D < 3 μm showed high degree of strain relief. Our results shed new insights into designing strain-relieved InGaN/GaN microstructures for high brightness light emitting diode arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus reuteri Strains on the Adhesion Characteristics of Selected Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder P; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kapila, Suman; Malik, Ravinder K

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion ability of probiotics is the key factor that decides their colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and potential to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, adhesion ability can be considered as a key determinant for probiotic efficacy. Presents study documents the antagonistic activity of viable/untreated, Lithium chloride (LiCl) treated or heat-killed forms of eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains on the adhesion characteristics of selected pathogens. All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace ( P strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5 M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cells and are highly antagonistic to pathogens tested in which surface associated proteins play an important role.

  15. Earthquake potential in California-Nevada implied by correlation of strain rate and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Petersen, Mark D.; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2018-01-01

    Rock mechanics studies and dynamic earthquake simulations show that patterns of seismicity evolve with time through (1) accumulation phase, (2) localization phase, and (3) rupture phase. We observe a similar pattern of changes in seismicity during the past century across California and Nevada. To quantify these changes, we correlate GPS strain rates with seismicity. Earthquakes of M > 6.5 are collocated with regions of highest strain rates. By contrast, smaller magnitude earthquakes of M ≥ 4 show clear spatiotemporal changes. From 1933 to the late 1980s, earthquakes of M ≥ 4 were more diffused and broadly distributed in both high and low strain rate regions (accumulation phase). From the late 1980s to 2016, earthquakes were more concentrated within the high strain rate areas focused on the major fault strands (localization phase). In the same time period, the rate of M > 6.5 events also increased significantly in the high strain rate areas. The strong correlation between current strain rate and the later period of seismicity indicates that seismicity is closely related to the strain rate. The spatial patterns suggest that before the late 1980s, the strain rate field was also broadly distributed because of the stress shadows from previous large earthquakes. As the deformation field evolved out of the shadow in the late 1980s, strain has refocused on the major fault systems and we are entering a period of increased risk for large earthquakes in California.

  16. Morphology and rDNA phylogeny of a Mediterranean Coolia monotis (Dinophyceae strain from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Dolapsakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of LSU and SSU ribosomal RNA genes and phylogeny have not been widely investigated for the dinoflagellate Coolia monotis Meunier, and no information is available on the small and large rDNA subunits of Mediterranean strains. A strain isolated from the Thermaikos Gulf in northern Greece was identified as C. monotis—a new record for the Greek algal flora—using thecal morphology by light, epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The small subunit and partial (D1/D2 large subunit sequences were analyzed and compared to other strains of C. monotis and dinoflagellates from various regions. Thecal architecture showed that the Greek strain of C. monotis was phenotypically similar, but not identical, to other strains reported in literature. The partial LSU sequence (700 bp was found to vary by 113 bp positions (16% from the C. monotis strain from New Zealand, whereas the SSU (1757 bp had 15 bp differences (0.85% from the strain from Norway. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that the Greek strain fell within the Coolia clade and had a close relationship with the families Ostreopsidaceae and Goniodomaceae of the order Gonyaulacales. Preliminary findings suggest the existence of different genotype strains of C. monotis with large intraspecific genetic variability and minimal morphological differentiation (similar phenotypes. Certain ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....

  19. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  20. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  1. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  2. A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Tao

    Full Text Available Very high gravity (VHG fermentation is aimed to considerably increase both the fermentation rate and the ethanol concentration, thereby reducing capital costs and the risk of bacterial contamination. This process results in critical issues, such as adverse stress factors (ie., osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition and high concentrations of metabolic byproducts which are difficult to overcome by a single breeding method. In the present paper, a novel strategy that combines metabolic engineering and genome shuffling to circumvent these limitations and improve the bioethanol production performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under VHG conditions was developed. First, in strain Z5, which performed better than other widely used industrial strains, the gene GPD2 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was deleted, resulting in a mutant (Z5ΔGPD2 with a lower glycerol yield and poor ethanol productivity. Second, strain Z5ΔGPD2 was subjected to three rounds of genome shuffling to improve its VHG fermentation performance, and the best performing strain SZ3-1 was obtained. Results showed that strain SZ3-1 not only produced less glycerol, but also increased the ethanol yield by up to 8% compared with the parent strain Z5. Further analysis suggested that the improved ethanol yield in strain SZ3-1 was mainly contributed by the enhanced ethanol tolerance of the strain. The differences in ethanol tolerance between strains Z5 and SZ3-1 were closely associated with the cell membrane fatty acid compositions and intracellular trehalose concentrations. Finally, genome rearrangements in the optimized strain were confirmed by karyotype analysis. Hence, a combination of genome shuffling and metabolic engineering is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of yeast strains for desirable industrial phenotypes.

  3. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938 (and the original strain ATCC 55730) for treating acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Urbańska, M; Chmielewska, A; Weizman, Z; Shamir, R

    2014-09-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has been shown to provide a moderate clinical effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. However, as the L. reuteri ATCC 55730 strain was found to carry potentially transferable resistance traits for tetracycline and lincomycin, it was replaced by a new strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, without unwanted plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance. Bioequivalence of the two strains has been suggested. We aimed to systematically evaluate data on the effectiveness of L. reuteri DSM 17938 and the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, in the treatment of AGE in children. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, reference lists, and abstract books of major scientific meetings were searched in August 2013, with no language restrictions, for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two RCTs (n=196) that evaluated L. reuteri DSM 17938 and three RCTs (n=156) that evaluated L. reuteri ATCC 55730, which involved hospitalised children aged 3 to 60 months, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo or no treatment, DSM 17938 significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea (mean difference -32 h, 95% confidence interval (CI): -41 to -24) and increased the chance of cure on day 3 (relative risk: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.8, random effects model). Similar results were obtained with the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730. In conclusion, in hospitalised children, use of both strains of L. reuteri reduced the duration of diarrhoea, and more children were cured within 3 days. Data from outpatients and countryspecific cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution.

  4. Strain-based HLA association analysis identified HLA-DRB1*09:01 associated with modern strain tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyo-Oka, L; Mahasirimongkol, S; Yanai, H; Mushiroda, T; Wattanapokayakit, S; Wichukchinda, N; Yamada, N; Smittipat, N; Juthayothin, T; Palittapongarnpim, P; Nedsuwan, S; Kantipong, P; Takahashi, A; Kubo, M; Sawanpanyalert, P; Tokunaga, K

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) occurs as a result of complex interactions between the host immune system and pathogen virulence factors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules play an important role in the host immune system. However, no study has assessed the association between HLA class II genes and susceptibility to TB caused by specific strains. This study investigated the possible association of HLA class II genes with TB caused by modern and ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The study included 682 patients with TB and 836 control subjects who were typed for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles. MTB strains were classified using a large sequence polymorphism typing method. Association analysis was performed using common HLA alleles and haplotypes in different MTB strains. HLA association analysis of patients infected with modern MTB strains showed significant association for HLA-DRB1*09:01 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; P-value = 9.88 × 10 -4 ) and HLA-DQB1*03:03 alleles (OR = 1.76; P-value = 1.31 × 10 -3 ) with susceptibility to TB. Haplotype analysis confirmed that these alleles were in strong linkage disequilibrium and did not exert an interactive effect. Thus, the results of this study showed an association between HLA class II genes and susceptibility to TB caused by modern MTB strains, suggesting the importance of strain-specific analysis to determine susceptibility genes associated with TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'Drosophila nebulosa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'D. nebulosa' is described, as well as some conclusions on the genetic nature of these differences are presented. The strains used in this experiment were MF 204, from 'Morro de Ferro', in Pocos de Caldas (MG) (one of the biggest radioactive anomalies in the world) whose radioresistance is due to its additive genetic components (Kratz, 1973 and 1975); 85(87) R, an induced radioresistant strain; and MF K a control 'pooled' strain obtained near 'Morro do Ferro'. Survival tests, 72 hours after temperature shocks, performed in the interval of 36 0 C to 39 0 C showed a decreasing gradient of thermoresistance with the following regression coefficients: MF 204 b= - 5,4; 85(87)R b= - 7,2 and MF K b= - 7,9. Bifactorial analysis (strains and sexes) performed at 38 0 C and 39 0 C confirmed differences among strains (P [pt

  6. The many shades of prion strain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, Ilia V

    2014-01-01

    In several recent studies transmissible prion disease was induced in animals by inoculation with recombinant prion protein amyloid fibrils produced in vitro. Serial transmission of amyloid fibrils gave rise to a new class of prion strains of synthetic origin. Gradual transformation of disease phenotypes and PrP(Sc) properties was observed during serial transmission of synthetic prions, a process that resembled the phenomenon of prion strain adaptation. The current article discusses the remarkable parallels between phenomena of prion strain adaptation that accompanies cross-species transmission and the evolution of synthetic prions occurring within the same host. Two alternative mechanisms underlying prion strain adaptation and synthetic strain evolution are discussed. The current article highlights the complexity of the prion transmission barrier and strain adaptation and proposes that the phenomenon of prion adaptation is more common than previously thought.

  7. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  8. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    .6-16.8%) recorded for two isolates from blue veined cheeses. Merely 25% of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii strains displayed good adhesive properties (16.2-28.0%). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α decreased strikingly in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to a Shiga-like toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli...... strain when the cells were pre- and coincubated with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii even though this yeast strain was low adhesive (5.4%), suggesting that adhesion is not a mandatory prerequisite for such a probiotic effect. A strain of S. cerevisiae isolated from West African sorghum beer exerted similar......The probiotic potential of IS Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for production of foods or bevel-ages or isolated from such, and eight strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, was investigated. All strains included were able to withstand pH 2.5 and 0.3% Ox-all. Adhesion...

  9. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  10. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tensio...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....

  11. Strain comparisons in aquaculture species: a manual

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni, R.W.; James, J.W.; Nguyen, N.H.; Mekkawy, W.; Khaw, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    When different strains or breeds of a particular species are available, the best choice is seldom immediately obvious for producers. Scientists are also interested in the relative performance of different strains because it provides a basis for recommendations to producers and it often stimulates the conduct of work aimed at unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the expression of such differences. Hence, strain or breed comparisons of some sort are frequently conducted. ...

  12. Uptake of 51Cr-SRBC in low- and high-responder mouse strains (C57BL/10ScSn/A/J mouse strains)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova, B.; Vetvicka, V.

    1984-01-01

    51 Cr-SRBC (sheep red blood cells) antigen clearance was studied in two strains of mice differing in the capacity to react with IgG antibody formation. In the B10 strain which is a poor IgG anti SRBC producer, before immunization 80.3% of the injected radioactivity was taken up by the liver, whereas after primary stimulation the uptake was only 31.1%. This value further decreases to 22.8% after secondary stimulation. The well IgG antibody producing A/J strain accumulated less antigen in the liver before immunization than the poorly responding strain (69.8%). On the 10th day after primary immunization a higher uptake of the radioactivity in the liver was shown than in the poor responder strain (53.8%) and this difference was even more pronounced after the secondary stimulation (49.6%). Interaction between peritoneal macrophages of the B10 and A/J strains before and after immunization with SRBC antigen was assessed from the formation of rosettes. Before immunization the low-responder strain B10 exhibited a three times higher level of rosette-forming macrophages (RFM), i.e. 6.1% than the high-responder strain A/J (2.0%). However, after immunization the RFM level in the A/J strain increased sevenfold (13.5%) whereas that in the low-responder strain B10 remained unaffected. These results suggested a role of macrophage population in the control of IgG antibody response. (author)

  13. [Characteristics of Lactobacillus strains contained in pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, W; Bucholc, B; Wójcik, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are components of drugs administered orally in cases of intestinal disturbances, or antibiotic--related diarrhea. Biochemical properties, growth behavior, bile tolerance, and survival at low pH of six LAB strains (four strains L. rhamnosus and two L. acidophilus) were studied. The survival at low pH was determined in MRS broth (Difco) acidified to pH 1; 2; 3; and 4. Bile tolerance was tested on MRS broth with 0.3% oxgall (Difco). Between tested strains differences in ability to grow at low pH and survival in bile were observed. Only 0.01% inoculum of all examined strains survived at pH 1. Differences between strains in survival at low pH (pH 2 and pH 3) and tolerance of bile were observed. However, after 2 h incubation at pH 4, 100% of strains stayed alive. Examined strains demonstrated good 3% bile tolerance. All strains met the criteria for probiotic strains: ability to survive at pH 3 and in the presence of bile.

  14. Properties of strain gages at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Nobuo; Fujiyoshi, Toshimitsu.

    1978-01-01

    At the time of developing superconduction generators, the stress measurement for rotor parts is required to grasp the safety and performance of the rotor at cryogenic temperature, which is cooled with liquid helium. In case of carrying out the stress measurement with strain gages, the problems are as follows. The strain gages and lead wires are exposed to cryogenic temperature from 4 to 10 K and strong magnetic field of about 3T, and subjected to high centrifugal acceleration of about 500G. In order to establish the techniques of the stress measurement under such conditions, the adhesives and damp-proof coatings for strain gages and strain gages themselves in Japan and foreign countries were examined on the properties at cryogenic temperature. As for the properties of strain gages, mainly the apparent strain owing to temperature change was investigated, and the change of the gage factors was studies only at liquid nitrogen temperature. The stress measurement with strain gages at low temperature had been studied in detail down to liquid nitrogen temperature concerning LNG tanks. The experimental apparatus, the samples, the testing methods and the test results of cooling tests on adhesives and damp-proof coatings, and the temperature characteristics of strain gages are reported. The usable adhesives and coatings were found, and correction by accurate temperature measurement is required for apparent strain. (Kako, I.)

  15. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  16. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Rosário; Santos, Cledir; Pereira, Pablo; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Lima, Nelson

    2017-12-14

    In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae . The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a) use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b) degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg - ¹ d - ¹. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  17. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosário Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  18. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasawin, Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    strain generated a new genetic sexing strain, Salaya5. Morphology-based taxonomic characteristics, distinctive pheromone components, microsatellite DNA markers, genetic relationships, and mating competitiveness provided parental baseline data and validation tools for the new strain. The Salaya5 strain shows a close similarity with those features in the wild B. carambolae strain. In addition, mating competitiveness tests suggested that Salaya5 has a potential to be used in B. carambolae SIT programs based on male-only releases.

  19. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junehyung; Cheon, Jinsik; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  20. Zika Virus Strains Potentially Display Different Infectious Profiles in Human Neural Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Simonin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent Zika virus (ZIKV epidemic has highlighted the poor knowledge on its physiopathology. Recent studies showed that ZIKV of the Asian lineage, responsible for this international outbreak, causes neuropathology in vitro and in vivo. However, two African lineages exist and the virus is currently found circulating in Africa. The original African strain was also suggested to be neurovirulent but its laboratory usage has been criticized due to its multiple passages. In this study, we compared the French Polynesian (Asian ZIKV strain to an African strain isolated in Central African Republic and show a difference in infectivity and cellular response between both strains in human neural stem cells and astrocytes. Consistently, this African strain led to a higher infection rate and viral production, as well as stronger cell death and anti-viral response. Our results highlight the need to better characterize the physiopathology and predict neurological impairment associated with African ZIKV.