WorldWideScience

Sample records for stragegy hydrocarbon hc

  1. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  2. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  3. Performance and energy saving analysis of a refrigerator using hydrocarbon mixture (HC-R134a) as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, M. N.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of hydrocarbon mixture as a working fluid in a refrigerator system is rarely explored. Almost all domestic refrigerators use hydroflourocarbon R134a (HFC-R134a) as refrigerants. In this study, hydrocarbon gas (HC-R134a) is used as the alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-R134a. It has a composition of R290 (56%), R600a (54.39%) and additive (0.1%wt) blended for the trials. The experiments were conducted with 105 g and 52.5 g refrigerant mass charge, subjected to internal heat load of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg respectively. The study investigates the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator (COPR) and energy consumption. The results show that the use of HC-R134a as the replaceable refrigerant can save energy ranging from 2.04% to 7.09%, as compared to the conventional HFC-R134a refrigerant. Naturally, the COPR improvement and temperature distribution using HC-R134a are much better than HFC-R134a

  4. Study of hydrocarbon emission in small direct injection engines; Kogata DI diesel kikan ni okeru teifukaji HC haishutsu ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurushima, T; Zhang, L; Ueda, T; Fujino, R; Yokota, K [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The cause of unburned hydrocarbon emission in small DI diesel engines at light load was studied. An optically accessible engine which was enabled to visualize the squish area was used to investigate the behavior of spray, mixture distribution and so on. Based on these observations and engine tests, the factors such as the direct impingement of liquid phase fuel spray to the combustion chamber wall the unevenness of fuel spray among holes and spreading of the fuel droplets, mixture and flame to the squish area were supposed to be the cause of forming HC emission. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent up-regulation of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5)/CD98hc (SLC3A2) by diesel exhaust particle extract in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Lecureur, Valérie [Institut de Recherches en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), UMR INSERM U1085, Faculté de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.fardel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Recherches en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), UMR INSERM U1085, Faculté de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France)

    2016-01-01

    The heterodimeric L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1/CD98hc is overexpressed in lung cancers with a poor prognosis factor. Factors that contribute to LAT1/CD98hc overexpression in lung cells remain however to be determined, but the implication of atmospheric pollution can be suspected. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the effects of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (DEPe) on LAT1/CD98hc expression in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Exposure to DEPe up-regulated LAT1 and CD98hc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner, with DEPe EC{sub 50} values (around 0.2 μg/mL) relevant to environmental situations. DEPe concomitantly induced LAT1/CD98hc protein expression and LAT1-mediated leucine accumulation in BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway through the use of a chemical AhR antagonist or the siRNA-mediated silencing of AhR expression was next found to prevent DEPe-mediated induction of LAT1/CD98hc, indicating that this regulation depends on AhR, known to be activated by major chemical DEP components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. DEPe exposure was finally shown to induce mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in BEAS-2B cells, in a CD98hc/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) manner, thus suggesting that DEPe-mediated induction of CD98hc triggers activation of the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway known to be involved in MMP-2 regulation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that exposure to DEPe induces functional overexpression of the amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc in lung cells. Such a regulation may participate to pulmonary carcinogenic effects of DEPs, owing to the well-documented contribution of LAT1 and CD98hc to cancer development. - Highlights: • The amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc is up-regulated in DEPe-treated lung cells. • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is involved in DEPe-triggered induction of LAT1/CD98hc.

  6. Modelo hipermedia creador (HC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Armenteros Gallardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone las bases creativas del modelo Hipermedia Creador (HC, un modelo basado en la filosofía de los llamados tutores inteligentes. Tiene como objetivo la creación de una herramienta hipermedia que permita y facilite la producción creativa de proyectos hipermedias educativos con parámetros comunes a los usados en la fórmula del videojuego (entretenimiento. Se describe su estructura, y se analiza y explica la disposición creativa de sus elementos, entre los cuales sobresale las posibilidades pedagógicas del movimiento expresivo de la imagen.

  7. Observations of HC3N, HC5N, and HC7N in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Schloerb, F.P.; Young, J.S.; Hjalmarson, A.; Friberg, P.

    1981-01-01

    We present observations of HC 3 N, HC 5 N, and HC 7 N in five molecular clouds. Statistical equilibrium calculations have been performed for HC 5 N and HC 7 N and compared with our data and data on other transitions of these molecules reported in the literature to derive the densities and the column densities of the cyanopolyynes in these clouds. We derive densities for TMC 1, TMC 2, and L1544 of between 1 and 4 x 10 4 cm -3 . We have found that the ratios of the cyanopolyynes in these three clouds are the following: HC 3 N/HC 5 Nroughly-equal1.4 and HC 5 N/HC 7 Nroughly-equal3. In L134 N and DR 21(OH) we have measured limits on the HC 5 N emission and find the HC 3 N/HC 5 N ratio to be substantially greater than in the three Taurus clouds. We have also compared the cyanopolyyne column densities with those of 13 CO and find that the abundance of HC 3 N in L134 N and DR 21(OH) is an order of magnitude smaller than that found in the Taurus clouds. The chemical differences between L134 N and the Taurus clouds are particularly interesting in view of their similar physical properties

  8. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  9. Detection of HC5N and HC7N Isotopologues in TMC-1 with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, A. M.; Herbst, E.; Kalenskii, S. V.; McCarthy, M. C.; Remijan, A. J.; McGuire, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    We report the first interstellar detection of DC7N and six 13C-bearing isotopologues of HC7N towards the dark cloud TMC-1 through observations with the Green Bank Telescope, and confirm the recent detection of HC515N. For the average of the 13C isotopomers, DC7N, and HC515N, we derive column densities of 1.9(2) × 1011, 2.5(9) × 1011, and 1.5(4) × 1011 cm-2, respectively. The resulting isotopic ratios are consistent with previous values derived from similar species in the source, and we discuss the implications for the formation chemistry of the observed cyanopolyynes. Within our uncertainties, no significant 13C isotopomer variation is found for HC7N, limiting the significance CN could have in its production. The results further show that, for all observed isotopes, HC5N may be isotopically depleted relative to HC3N and HC7N, suggesting that reactions starting from smaller cyanopolyynes may not be efficient to form HCnN. This leads to the conclusion that the dominant production route may be the reaction between hydrocarbon ions and nitrogen atoms.

  10. Production and loss of HC3N in interstellar clouds: some relevant laboratory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, J.S.; Freeman, C.G.; McEwan, M.J.; Smith, S.C.; Adams, N.G.; Smith, D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of recent selected ion flow tube (SIFT) experiments on the ion-molecule chemistry of cyanoacetylene are considered in the context of the chemistry of HC 3 N in the interstellar environment. Important errors revealed by this SIFT investigation, following an earlier flowing afterglow study in the authors' laboratory, have led to a different perception of the ion-molecule chemistry that HC 3 N may undergo in interstellar clouds. It is now evident that insertion and association occur in the reactions of hydrocarbon ions with HC 3 N. (author)

  11. HFC404A vaporisation inside a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger (BPHE): Comparison with the possible long-term low GWP substitutes HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Giovanni A.; Mancin, Simone; Righetti, Giulia; Zilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper investigates HFC404A vaporisation inside a BPHE. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit heat transfer coefficients similar to HFC404A. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit frictional pressure drops higher than HFC404A. • The experimental measurements are complemented with an IR thermography analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents the heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drops measured during HFC404A vaporisation inside a commercial BPHE and the comparison of this data with previous measurements carried out during HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene) vaporisation inside the same BPHE and similar operating condition in order to assess the capability of HydroCarbon refrigerants as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A in commercial and industrial refrigeration. Propane and Propylene exhibit boiling heat transfer coefficient very similar and frictional pressure drops higher than to those of HFC404A, therefore, taking into account also their good thermodynamic properties, they seems to be very promising as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A. The HFC404A boiling heat transfer coefficients were also compared with a new model for refrigerant boiling inside BPHE (Longo et al., 2015): the mean absolute percentage deviation between calculated and experimental data is 6.0%. The heat transfer measurements were also complemented with an IR thermography analysis for a better understanding of refrigerant vaporisation heat transfer regime inside a BPHE.

  12. HC-130 Wing Life Raft Replacement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scher, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) uses HC-130 aircraft for search and rescue (SAR) and other missions. The aircraft are presently equipped with two to four 20 person inflatable life rafts, stowed in cells in the wings...

  13. Organizational structure of HC Sparta Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Pázlerová, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Title: Organizational structure of HC Sparta Praha Objectives: The aim of this bachelor thesis is based on an analysis of the organizational structure of czech ice hockey team HC Sparta Praha and to evaluate its individual parts and afterwards introduce suggestions to change it. Methods: To create the bachelors thesis was used qualitative research, from which it was used descriptive case study. Furthermore basic methods were used data acquisition as an observation, analysis of texts and docum...

  14. Purification of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein Hc2, and comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1996-01-01

    The metabolically inactive developmental form of Chlamydia trachomatis, the elementary body, contains two very basic DNA-binding proteins with homology to eukaryotic histone H1. One of these, Hc1, is relatively well characterized and induces DNA condensation in vitro, whereas the other, Hc2......, is functionally virtually uncharacterized. In this study we describe the purification of Hc2, and a detailed comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1 is presented. By gel shift assays and electron microscopy, marked differences in the nucleic acid-binding properties of Hc2 and Hc1 were observed. Furthermore...

  15. Infrared Spectroscopic and Theoretical Study of the HC_nO^+(N=5-12) Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jin, Jiaye; Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei

    2017-06-01

    Carbon chains and derivatives are highly active species, which are widely existed as reactive intermediates in many chemical processes including atmospheric chemistry, hydrocarbon combustion, as well as interstellar chemistry. The carbon chain cations, HC_nO^+ (n = 5-12) are produced via pulsed laser vaporization of a graphite target in supersonic expansions containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The infrared spectra are measured via mass-selected infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of the CO "tagged" [HC_nO.CO] cation complexes in the 1600-3500 \\wn region. The geometries and electronic ground states of these cation complexes are determined by their infrared spectra in conjunction with theoretical calculations. All the HC_nO^+ (n = 5-12) core cations are characterized to be linear carbon chain derivatives terminated by hydrogen and oxygen. The HC_nO^+ cations with odd n have closed-shell singlet ground states with polyyne-like structures, while those with even n have triplet ground states with allene-like structures.

  16. Effect of H/C ratio on coal ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1988-09-01

    The Cahn balance technique was found to be suitable for estimating ignition temperature and its dependence on the H/C ratio of the coal. This temperature decreased with increasing H/C ratio of coals. For coals a linear correlation between H/C ratio and the temperature was established. Chars derived from the coals deviated from the linear correlation established on coals. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Higgs production at the lHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the production of Higgs particles at the early stage of the CERN large Hadron Collider with a 7 TeV center of mass energy (lHC). We first consider the case of the Standard Model Higgs boson that is mainly produced in the gluon-gluon fusion channel and to be detected in its decays into electroweak gauge bosons, $gg\\to H \\to WW,ZZ,\\gamma\\gamma$. The production cross sections at $\\sqrt s=7$ TeV and the decay branching ratios, including all relevant higher order QCD and electroweak corrections, are evaluated. An emphasis is put on the various theoretical uncertainties that affect the production rates: the significant uncertainties from scale variation and from the parametrization of the parton distribution functions as well as the uncertainties which arise due to the use of an effective field theory in the calculation of the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections. The parametric uncertainties stemming from the values of the strong coupling constant and the heavy quark masses in the Higgs decay branc...

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  19. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the White sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.; Bogunov, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in the White Sea was presented. The study was conducted to determine natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in order to aid in future zoning plans. Hydrocarbons were extracted from samples of aerosols, ice, water, particulate matter, phyto- and zooplankton, and bottom sediments. Results of the study suggested that HC concentrations in aerosols above the White Sea were lower than in marine aerosols above the southeastern Atlantic and lower than Alkane concentrations in aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. A study of PAH behaviour in Northern Dvina estuaries showed that the submicron fractions contained light polyarenes. Particulate matter collected in sedimentation traps was enriched in phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Aliphatic HC enrichment was due to the presence of phytoplankton and other microorganisms. Between 54 per cent and 85 per cent of initial organic matter was consumed during diagenesis in the bottom sediments, indicating a high rate of HC transformation. It was suggested that the majority of oil HC transported with river water is precipitated. Fluoranthene was the dominant PAH in the study, and was assumed to be caused by natural transformation of PAH composition during distant atmospheric transport. Pyrogenic contamination of the bottom sediments was attributed to an aluminium plant. It was concluded that the detection of significant amounts of HC is not direct evidence of their anthropogenic origins. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Marketingový mix HC Enegie Karlovy Vary

    OpenAIRE

    Štrobl, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of HC Energie Karlovy Vary Objectives: This thesis is based on a questionnaire responses obtained from HC Energie Karlovy Vary fans. Its objective is focused on evaluation of their opinions on the marketing mix, their subsequent interpretation, and finally even development of recommendations for improvement based on previous analysis. Methods: Two methods are used to analyse the marketing mix. The first method is qualitative participant observation. The second method is a...

  1. Conditional deletion of CD98hc inhibits osteoclast development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tsumura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc regulates virus-induced cell fusion and monocyte fusion, and is involved in amino acid transportation. Here, we examined the role that CD98hc plays in the formation of osteoclasts using CD98hcflox/floxLysM-cre peritoneal macrophages (CD98hc-defect macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with co-cultured with osteoblasts in the presence of 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3, and thereafter stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining solution. The multinucleated osteoclast formation was severely impaired in the peritoneal macrophages isolated from the CD98hc-defect mice compared with those from wild-type mice. CD98hc mediates integrin signaling and amino acid transport through the CD98 light chain (CD98lc. In integrin signaling, suppression of the M-CSF-RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, JNK and p130Cas were observed at the triggering phase in the CD98h-defect peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, we showed that the general control non-derepressible (GCN pathway, which was activated by amino acid starvation, was induced by the CD98hc-defect peritoneal macrophages stimulated with RANKL. These results indicate that CD98 plays two important roles in osteoclast formation through integrin signaling and amino acid transport.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon. Dependence on H/C ratio of source gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsushi M.; Takayama, Arimichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Saito, Seiki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin

    2011-01-01

    By molecular dynamics simulation, the chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon onto graphite and diamond surfaces was studied. In particular, we investigated the effect of source H/C ratio, which is the ratio of the number of hydrogen atoms to the number of carbon atoms in a source gas, on the deposition process. In the present simulation, the following two source gas conditions were tested: one was that the source gas was injected as isolated carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the other was that the source gas was injected as hydrocarbon molecules. Under the former condition, we found that as the source H/C ratio increases, the deposition rate of carbon atoms decreases exponentially. This exponential decrease in the deposition rate with increasing source H/C ratio agrees with experimental data. However, under the latter molecular source condition, the deposition rate did not decrease exponentially because of a chemical reaction peculiar to the type of hydrocarbon in the source gas. (author)

  3. Application of numerical modeling of selective NOx reduction by hydrocarbon under diesel transient conditions in consideration of hydrocarbon adsorption and desorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Asano, A.; Banno, K.; Yokota, K.; Sugiura, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model of NO x selective reduction by hydrocarbon (HC) was developed, which takes into account the adsorption and desorption of HC. The model was applied for predicting the performance of a De-NO x catalytic reactor, working under transient conditions such as a legislative driving cycle. Diesel fuel was used as a supplemental reductant. The behavior of HC and NO x reactions and HC adsorption and desorption has been simulated successfully by our numerical approach under the transient conditions of the simulated Japanese 10-15 driving cycle. Our model is expected to optimize the design of selective diesel NO x reduction systems using a diesel fuel as a supplemental reductant

  4. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J.; Morel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m -2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Performance evaluation of Samsung LABGEO(HC10) Hematology Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Joong; Ahn, Sunhyun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Seon Joo; Cho, Sung Ran

    2014-08-01

    The Samsung LABGEO(HC10) Hematology Analyzer (LABGEO(HC10)) is a recently developed automated hematology analyzer that uses impedance technologies. The analyzer provides 18 parameters including 3-part differential at a maximum rate of 80 samples per hour. To evaluate the performance of the LABGEO(HC10). We evaluated precision, linearity, carryover, and relationship for complete blood cell count parameters between the LABGEO(HC10) and the LH780 (Beckman Coulter Inc) in a university hospital in Korea according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Sample stability and differences due to the anticoagulant used (K₂EDTA versus K₃EDTA) were also evaluated. The LABGEO(HC10) showed linearity over a wide range and minimal carryover ( 0.92) except for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The bias estimated was acceptable for all parameters investigated except for monocyte count. Most parameters were stable until 24 hours both at room temperature and at 4°C. The difference by anticoagulant type was statistically insignificant for all parameters except for a few red cell parameters. The accurate results achievable and simplicity of operation make the unit recommendable for small to medium-sized laboratories.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of HC Emissions Released by Oil Film for Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. İhsan KARAMANGİL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil film on cylinder liner has been suggested as a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions. So in the present study, the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been investigated numerically in a spark ignition engine by using gasoline, ethanol and methanol fuels. To aim this purpose, a thermodynamic cycle model has been developed and then a mathematical modeling for the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been developed and adapted for this thermodynamic cycle model.It was seen that the absorption/desorption mechanism of ethanol and methanol into the oil film were lower than gasoline. It was determined that the most dominant parameter of this difference was Henry’s constant, which was related to solubility. As interaction time of oil filmfuel vapor was longer at low engine speeds, the quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased. The quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased with increasing inlet pressure and compression ratio

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  8. Observations of HC5N and NH3 in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, P.C.; Ho, P.T.P.; Benson, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of HC 5 N lines toward TMC-2 indicate that it is a small (Lapprox.0.1 pc), dense (napprox.4 x 10 4 cm -3 ), low-mass (Mapprox.1 M/sub sun/) fragment in the Taurus complex, with velocity dispersion at the emission peak only about twice thermal (Δvapprox.0.2 km s -1 ). The HC 5 N emission region in TMC-2 has roughly half the projected area of that in TMC-1, and is more round than filamentary. The HC 5 N and NH 3 emission regions in TMC-2 are coincident, with N (HC 5 N)/N (NH 3 ) approx.0.1. The line width is much smaller than the free-fall width; the deduced values of L, n, and T satisfy the virial-theorem requirement for stable equilibrium. The temporary equilibrium of such fragments may serve to lengthen the time scales for formation of low-mass stars and long-chain molecules

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  11. The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for high back pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Pak, H.Y. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for dehumidifier is investigated. The selected refrigerants are R12, R134a, HC-Blend(R290/R600a), CX(R152a/R600a) and OS-12a. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed for the selected refrigerants. The test results of hydrocarbon refrigerants have been compared to traditional refrigerant(R12) and R134a. The results show that hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures(HC-Blend, CX and OS-12a) are very good alternatives in the refrigeration system for R12 and R134a. 11 refs., 3 fig., 12 tabs.

  12. Engineering study on conveyor system for HC-21C project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The sludge stabilization process thermally stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing materials in a muffle furnace. This process is used to prepare the material for long term storage in the vaults. The process is conducted in Room 230A and 230B. The furnaces are located in glovebox HC-21C. Glovebox HC-21A is used for preparation of the charge and packaging of the high fired oxide. The feed for the process is located throughout the PRF and RMC-line gloveboxes, with over half of the feedstock currently being located in HA-23S. For readiness assessment, the sludge stabilization process at PFP was reviewed by the ALARA team to see how the process could be improved. One suggestion was made that the conveyor system be used to transfer items from HA-23S to the process glovebox (HA-21A) instead of sealing items in and out of the gloveboxes. The following discussion describes and compares past and current methods. In addition, actions are addressed that would need to be completed before the conveyor method could be used. The transportation of the feedstock to the process and all the different influencing factors will be examined to determine the best method. This assessment is being performed considering only the current campaign for HC-21C. However, there is a possibility that in the future, additional furnaces will be installed and further campaigns done

  13. Experimental investigation of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a mixture in a window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabaraj, D.B.; Avinash, P.; Lal, D. Mohan; Renganarayan, S.

    2006-01-01

    HCFC22, one of the widely used refrigerants in window air conditioners must be phased out soon as per the Montreal protocol. Presently, HFC407C is considered as a potential drop in substitute for HCFC22, but retrofitting HCFC22 systems with HFC407C with polyol ester oil (POE) is a major issue as HFC407C is immiscible with mineral oil. The miscibility issue of HFC407C with mineral oil was overcome with the addition of a HC blend to it. The above technoeconomic feasibility issues to retrofit the existing HCFC22 systems with an ozone friendly refrigerant and retain the energy efficiency of the system are challenges in the air conditioning sector. In this present work, an experimental analysis has been conducted in a window air conditioner retrofitted with eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil. Its performance, as well as energy consumption, was compared with the conventional one. It is observed that the mixtures demand lengthening of the condenser in order to maintain the discharge pressure within acceptable limits. This also resulted in better heat transfer at the condenser. Therefore, in this study, the condenser tube length was increased by 19% to suit the mixtures as compared to HCFC22. Compared to HCFC22, the refrigeration capacity of the new mixture was 9.54-12.76% higher than that of HCFC22, while the actual COP was found to be 11.91-13.24% higher than that of HCFC22. The overall performance has proved that the HFC407C/HC blend refrigerant mixture could be an eco-friendly substitute to phase out HCFC22

  14. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  15. Detection of Interstellar HC5O in TMC-1 with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Kalenskii, Sergei V.; Herbst, Eric; Remijan, Anthony J.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2017-07-01

    We report the detection of the carbon-chain radical HC5O for the first time in the interstellar medium toward the cold core TMC-1 using the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. We observe four hyperfine components of this radical in the J=17/2\\to 15/2 rotational transition that originates from the {}2{{{\\Pi }}}1/2 fine structure level of its ground state and calculate an abundance of n/{n}{H2}=1.7× {10}-10, assuming an excitation temperature of {T}{ex}=7 K. No indication of HC3O, HC4O, or HC6O, is found in these or archival observations of the source, while we report tentative evidence for HC7O. We compare calculated upper limits and the abundance of HC5O to predictions based on (1) the abundance trend of the analogous HC n N family in TMC-1 and (2) a gas-grain chemical model. We find that the gas-grain chemical model well reproduces the observed abundance of HC5O, as well as the upper limits of HC3O, HC6O, and HC7O, but HC4O is overproduced. The prospects for astronomical detection of both shorter and longer HC n O chains are discussed.

  16. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  17. Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants―A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KOH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R indusries have come full circle since the beginning of the industrialrevolution. With concern on issues relating to the environment such as the global warming and climate change issues, we should finda better alternative than to continue using these refrigerants that cause global warming and ozone depletion. AC&R industryplayers have blended in by introducing some new equipment and components that are specificallydesigned for hydrocarbon (HC use. Mostnew refrigerators sold in Malaysia are already equipped with isobutane [a hydrocarbon designated as R-600a by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE standards]as refrigerants. Malaysia has ratifiedthe Montreal Protocol and targetted a 10% reduction in hydrochlorofluorocarbon(HCFC consumption, beginning 2016 with the banning of 2.5 horsepower (hp and below in air-conditioning (AC equipment to be used. Instead,hydrofluorocarbon(HFC R-410a was introduced as a replacement for HCFC- 22, whereas in other countries this HFC has been phased down. This article was initiated  because of the difficultin findinga replacement for HCFC. Also, the possibilities of using HC as an alternative to replace HCFC insteadof using HFC as a transitional refrigerant in place of HCFC is reviewed in this article. The performance of HC is very similar to HCFC and flmmability issues could be easily overcome with the use of an effectivedesign. Their use could be facilitated with the adaptation of specific standards and properly enacted legislatio

  18. Survey Observations to Study Chemical Evolution from High-mass Starless Cores to High-mass Protostellar Objects. I. HC3N and HC5N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Sridharan, T. K.; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    We carried out survey observations of HC3N and HC5N in the 42‑45 GHz band toward 17 high-mass starless cores (HMSCs) and 35 high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs) with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. We have detected HC3N from 15 HMSCs and 28 HMPOs, and HC5N from 5 HMSCs and 14 HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the column density of HC3N are found to be (5.7+/- 0.7) × {10}12 and (1.03+/- 0.12)×{10}13 cm‑2 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the fractional abundance of HC3N are derived to be (6.6+/- 0.8)× {10}-11 and (3.6+/- 0.5)× {10}-11 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. We find that the fractional abundance of HC3N decreases from HMSCs to HMPOs using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. On the other hand, its average value of the column density slightly increases from HMSCs to HMPOs. This may imply that HC3N is newly formed in dense gas in HMPO regions. We also investigate the relationship between the column density of HC3N in HMPOs and the luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M), a physical evolutional indicator. The column density of HC3N tends to decrease with the increase of the L/M ratio, which suggests that HC3N is destroyed by the stellar activities.

  19. CSER 99-002: CSER for unrestricted moderation of sludge material with two-boat operations in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAN, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report was prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest under contract to BWHC. This document establishes the criticality safety parameters for unrestricted moderation of Sludge material with two-boat operations in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C

  20. A survey of HC3N in extragalactic sources - is HC3N a tracer of activity in ULIRGs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.

    2011-01-01

    , and to compare HC3N with other molecular tracers (HCN, HNC), as well as other properties (silicate absorption strength, IR flux density ratios, C II flux, and megamaser activity). Methods. We present mm IRAM 30 m, OSO 20 m, and SEST observations of HC3N rotational lines (mainly the J = 10-9 transition...

  1. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author)

  2. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  3. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  5. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  6. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon Earth-to-orbit propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LO2/HC) rocket engine cycles for a surface to orbit transportation system were evaluated. A consistent engine system data base is established for defining advantages and disadvantages, system performance and operating limits, engine parametric data, and technology requirements for candidate engine systems. Preliminary comparisons of the engine cycles utilizing delivered specific impulse values are presented. Methane and propane staged combustion cycles are the highest LO2/HC performers. The hydrogen cooled LO2/methane dual throat engine was found to be the highest performing. Technology needs identified in the study include: high temperature turbines; oxidizer-rich preburners; LO2, methane, and propane cooling; methane and propane fuel-rich preburners; the HC fuel turbopump; and application of advanced composite materials to the engine system. Parametric sensitivity analysis data are displayed which show the effect of variations in engine thrust, mixture ratio, chamber pressure, area ratio, cycle life, and turbine inlet temperature on specific impulse and engine weight.

  7. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  8. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  9. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  10. Interaction between the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, G; Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Koehler, J E

    1993-01-01

    maintained its DNA-binding capacity and was able at high concentrations to form condensed aggregates with DNA (one molecule of Hc1 per base pair) independently of the form or size of the DNA but with a slight preference for supercoiled DNA. Hc1 alone is thus able to package DNA into condensed spherical...

  11. Systems and methods to mitigate NO.sub.x and HC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Chilumukuru, Krishna P.

    2017-06-14

    Systems and methods are provided for managing low temperature NO.sub.x and HC emissions, such as during a cold start of an internal combustion engine. The systems and methods include storing NO.sub.x and HC emissions at low temperatures and passively releasing and treating these emissions as the temperature of the exhaust system increases.

  12. High-temperature CO / HC gas sensors to optimize firewood combustion in low-power fireplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize firewood combustion in low-power firewood-fuelled fireplaces, a novel combustion airstream control concept based on the signals of in situ sensors for combustion temperature, residual oxygen concentration and residual un-combusted or partly combusted pyrolysis gas components (CO and HC has been introduced. A comparison of firing experiments with hand-driven and automated airstream-controlled furnaces of the same type showed that the average CO emissions in the high-temperature phase of the batch combustion can be reduced by about 80 % with the new control concept. Further, the performance of different types of high-temperature CO / HC sensors (mixed-potential and metal oxide types, with reference to simultaneous exhaust gas analysis by a high-temperature FTIR analysis system, was investigated over 20 batch firing experiments (∼ 80 h. The distinctive sensing behaviour with respect to the characteristically varying flue gas composition over a batch firing process is discussed. The calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficients reveals that mixed-potential sensor signals correlate more with CO and CH4; however, different metal oxide sensitive layers correlate with different gas species: 1 % Pt / SnO2 designates the presence of CO and 2 % ZnO / SnO2 designates the presence of hydrocarbons. In the case of a TGS823 sensor element, there was no specific correlation with one of the flue gas components observed. The stability of the sensor signals was evaluated through repeated exposure to mixtures of CO, N2 and synthetic air after certain numbers of firing experiments and exhibited diverse long-term signal instabilities.

  13. Development of an instrument to measure health center (HC) personnel's computer use, knowledge and functionality demand for HC computerized information system in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Speedie, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about socio-technical aspects of information technology (IT) is vital for the success of health IT projects. The Thailand health administration anticipates using health IT to support the recently implemented national universal health care system. However, the national knowledge associate with the socio-technical aspects of health IT has not been studied in Thailand. A survey instrument measuring Thai health center (HC) personnel's computer use, basic IT knowledge and HC computerized information system functionality needs was developed. The instrument reveals acceptable test-retest reliability and reasonable internal consistency of the measures. The future nation-wide demonstration study will benefit from this study.

  14. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  15. [Value-based health care (VbHC): Whence and wither].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2018-02-01

    Since about 2005 VbHC has become a prominent movement on the border between population medicine and health economics. The "value" it is aiming at is defined as health care "outcomes per dollar spent". The text focuses on the work of two prominent proponents: M.E. Porter and J.A.M. Gray. It considers background and central elements of VbHC and discusses similarities and differences between the two authors. Especially the differences raise questions that will hopefully play a role in the German discussion that is still in its infancy. Three complex topics seem to be particularly relevant: the relationship between VbHC and evidence-based health care, the question of who is to benefit from VbHC (total, diseased, patient population?), and the role of moral values especially the value of solidarity with the severely ill and socially deprived. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Optimally Scheduling Distribution of the MH-60S Helicopter and Pilots to Combat Support (HC) Squadrons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Culver, Cory

    2002-01-01

    ... (Optimal Transition HC Allocation Model) that minimizes lost flying days. OTHCAM takes into account variable training durations, travel times and tour lengths as well as manpower and aircraft constraints...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Chau Thuy; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x , PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO x and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  18. Thermal stability of hydrocarbons in nature: Limits, evidence, characteristics, and possible controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous petroleum-geochemical analyses of deeply buried, high-rank, fine-grained rocks from ultra-deep wellbores by different investigators demonstrate that C15+ hydrocarbons (HCs) persist in moderate to high concentrations at vitrinite reflectance (R0) values of 2.0-5.0% and persist in measurable concentrations up to R0 = 7.0-8.0%, at which point the thermal deadline for C15+ HC's is finally approached. Qualitative analyses have been carried out on 1. (1) high-rank gas condensates which have been exposed to the HC-thermal-destructive phase, 2. (2) bitumens from high-temperature aqueous-pyrolysis experiments in the HC-thermal-destructive phase, and 3. (3) bitumens from high-rank, fine-grained rocks near the HC-thermal-destructive phase. These analyses clearly demonstrate that well-defined compositional suites are established in the saturated, aromatic, and sulfur-bearing aromatic HCs in and near the HC-thermal-destructive phase. On the other hand, accepted petroleum-geochemical paradigms place rigid limits on HC thermal stability: C15+ HCs begin thermal cracking at R0 values of 0.9% and are completely thermally destroyed by R0 = 1.35%; C2-C4 HC gases are thermally destroyed by R0 = 2.0% and methane is thermally destroyed by R0 = 4.0%. Furthermore, published data and observations in many HC basins worldwide support these models; for example, 1. (1) sharp basinal zonations of gas and oil deposits vs. maturation rank in HC basins and 2. (2) decreasing C15+ HC concentrations in some fine-grained rocks at ranks of R0 ??? 0.9%. The fact that observed data (C15+ HCs thermally stable to R0 = 7.0-8.0%) is so far removed from predicted behavior (C15+) HCs expected to be thermally destroyed by R0 = 1.35%) may be due to 1. (1) a lack of recognition of some important possible controlling parameters of organic matter (OM) metamorphism and too much importance given to other assumed controlling parameters; and 2. (2) assigning HC distribution patterns in petroleum basins to HC

  19. Two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the host-selective phytotoxin HC-toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 produces a cyclic tetrapeptide HC-toxin, which is necessary for its exceptional virulence on certain varieties of maize. Previous genetic analysis of HC-toxin production by the fungus has indicated that a single genetic locus controls HC-toxin production. Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin have been sought by following the precedents established for the biosynthetic enzymes of cyclic peptide antibiotics. Two enzymatic activities from C. carbonum race 1 were found, a D-alanine- and an L-proline-dependent ATP/PP/sub i/ exchange, which by biochemical and genetic criteria were shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin. These two activities were present in all tested race 1 isolates of C. carbonum, which produce HC-toxin, and in none of the tested race 2 and race 3 isolates, which do not produce the toxin. In a genetic cross between two isolates of C. carbonum differing at the tox locus, all tox + progeny had both activities, and all tox - progeny lacked both activities

  20. In vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Mengyang; Wu, Xiaolong; Xu, Chen; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-04-10

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve expression of this peptide in E. coli, ABP-dHC-cecropin A was cloned into a pSUMO vector and transformed into E. coli, resulting in the production of a pSUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein. The soluble form of this protein was then purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 496-mg protein per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein was then cleaved using a SUMO protease and re-purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 158-mg recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A per liter of fermentation culture at a purity of ≥94%, the highest yield reported to date. Antifungal activity assays performed using this purified recombinant peptide revealed strong antifungal activity against both Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa, as well as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor species. Combined with previous analyses demonstrating strong antibacterial activity against a number of important bacterial pathogens, these results confirm the use of ABP-dHC-cecropin A as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, with significant therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of total protein (TP) and myosin heavy chain (HC) isozymes in pressure overloaded rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, R.; Martin, B.J.; Pritzl, N.; Zak, R.; Low, R.B.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Alpert, N.R.; Litten, R.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery banding (PO) leads to a rapid increase in right ventricular (RV) weight as well as a shift toward β myosin isozyme. They determined: (1) the contributions of changes in the capacity (RNA content) and efficiency of total protein synthesis to the increase in RV weight; and (2) the relative contributions of translational and pretranslational mechanisms to the shift in myosin HC isotypes. The rates of synthesis in vivo of TP, α- and β-HC were measured by a constant infusion technique using 3 H-leucine. TP synthesis was 7 +/- 2(SD) mg/day in control (RV:367 +/- 70 mg) and was increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 2.9 fold at day 4 following PO (p < 0.01). RV RNA content was increased by 83% at day 2 and 103% at day 4 PO (p < 0.05). The efficiency of synthesis (rate/RNA) was also significantly higher at these time points (1.4- and 1.3-fold). β-HC synthesis was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/day in control and increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 3.5 fold at day 4 following PO. In contrast, the rate of synthesis of α-HC was unchanged. The relative rates of β-HC to total HC synthesis was correlated linearly with the relative levels of β-myosin mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease mapping. They conclude that increases in the proportion of β-HC myosin following PO is due to increases in the relative amount of β-myosin mRNA and therefore involves modulation of a pretranslational mechanism

  2. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  3. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Health Center (HC) Personnel's Computer Use, Knowledge and Functionality Demand for HC Computerized Information System in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Speedie, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about socio-technical aspects of information technology (IT) is vital for the success of health IT projects. The Thailand health administration anticipates using health IT to support the recently implemented national universal health care system. However, the national knowledge associate with the socio-technical aspects of health IT has not been studied in Thailand. A survey instrument measuring Thai health center (HC) personnel’s computer use, basic IT knowledge a...

  5. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an early phase dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Taiki; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC 3 N in L1147, one of the carbon-chain producing region (CCPR) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH 3 . We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC 3 N core), which are away from a very low luminosity object (a source that may turn into a sub-stellar mass brown dwarf), exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 μm dust continuum. The column densities of CCS are 3-7 × 10 12 cm –2 and those of HC 3 N are 2-6 × 10 12 cm –2 , respectively, much lower than those previously reported toward other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from the peaks of HC 3 N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of the CCS-to-HC 3 N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical 'variation' may be seen in other CCPRs. Finally, we were able to confirm that the L1147 filament can be regarded as a CCPR.

  6. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  8. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  9. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail: jchiar@seti.org, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  10. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Adamson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 μm) and aliphatic (3.4 μm) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp 2 bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 μm CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 μm aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp 3 bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp 3 content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  11. Ekonomika HC ČSOB Pojišťovna Pardubice

    OpenAIRE

    Každan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Title: Economics of HC ČSOB Pojišťovna Pardubice Objectives: The main goal is to use the theory of strategic management in selected hockey club HC ČSOB Pojišťovna Pardubice, and to propose recommendations for sporting, economic and social areas. Methods: To analyze the current situation of the club will be used case study method of analysis of documents and interviews with club management. Furthermore, the analysis will use internal and external factors sports club which also contains PEST an...

  12. Interferometric imaging of Titan's HC$_3$N, H$^{13}$CCCN and HCCC$^{15}$N

    OpenAIRE

    Cordiner, M. A.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Teanby, N. A.; Molter, E. M.; Kisiel, Z.; Vuitton, V.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first maps of cyanoacetylene isotopologues in Titan's atmosphere, including H$^{13}$CCCN and HCCC$^{15}$N, detected in the 0.9 mm band using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) around the time of Titan's (southern winter) solstice in May 2017. The first high-resolution map of HC$_3$N in its $v_7=1$ vibrationally excited state is also presented, revealing a unique snapshot of the global HC$_3$N distribution, free from the strong optical depth effects that adv...

  13. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  15. Simulated and experimental performance of split packaged air conditioner using refrigerant HC-290 as a substitute for HCFC-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalkar, Atul S.; Mali, Kundlik V.; Devotta, Sukumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of propane (HC-290) as a safe and energy efficient alternative to HCFC-22 in a typical split air conditioner with nominal cooling capacities up to 5.1 kW. Initially split air conditioner performance is simulated for cooling capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and refrigerant charge. Tests were conducted for different test cases in a psychrometric test chamber with HCFC-22 and HC-290. The test conditions considered are as per Indian Standards, IS 1391 (1992) Part I. The various parameters considered were based on simulated performance with the objective to achieve maximum EER for the desired cooling capacity. As the flammability is an issue for HC-290, the reduction of HC-290 charge was another objective. Two different types of condensers, first with smaller size tubing and another parallel flow condenser (PFC) or minichannel condenser were used in order to reduce HC-290 charge. For HC-290, the highest EER achieved was 3.7 for cooling capacity 4.90 kW for a refrigerant charge of 360 g. The important safety aspects of using HC-290 in air conditioner are discussed. The refrigerant charge as per EN 378 for different cooling capacities and room sizes is also considered. -- Highlights: • Simulation for performance of split air conditioner has been done using HC-290 as a replacement to HCFC-22. • The safety aspects of HC-290 are discussed when used in split air conditioner. • HC-290 was tested in psychrometric test chamber as per IS 1391 part 1. • With PFC, HC-290 gave highest EER of 3.7 which was 37% higher than that of HCFC-22. • The lowest HC-290 charge used in test was 340 g which is well below LFL

  16. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  17. A Survey of CH3CN and HC3N in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Jennifer B.; Guzmán, Viviana G.; Öberg, Karin I.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Pegues, Jamila

    2018-04-01

    The organic content of protoplanetary disks sets the initial compositions of planets and comets, thereby influencing subsequent chemistry that is possible in nascent planetary systems. We present observations of the complex nitrile-bearing species CH3CN and HC3N toward the disks around the T Tauri stars AS 209, IM Lup, LkCa 15, and V4046 Sgr as well as the Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. HC3N is detected toward all disks except IM Lup, and CH3CN is detected toward V4046 Sgr, MWC 480, and HD 163296. Rotational temperatures derived for disks with multiple detected lines range from 29 to 73 K, indicating emission from the temperate molecular layer of the disk. V4046 Sgr and MWC 480 radial abundance profiles are constrained using a parametric model; the gas-phase CH3CN and HC3N abundances with respect to HCN are a few to tens of percent in the inner 100 au of the disk, signifying a rich nitrile chemistry at planet- and comet-forming disk radii. We find consistent relative abundances of CH3CN, HC3N, and HCN between our disk sample, protostellar envelopes, and solar system comets; this is suggestive of a robust nitrile chemistry with similar outcomes under a wide range of physical conditions.

  18. CSAR 81-001 addendum 2: Use of a plexiglass contamination barrier in HC-227-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) Engineering requested a criticality safety evaluation (Appendix 1) to support a revision of Criticality Prevention Specification CPS-Z-165-80601 allowing a plexiglass enclosure (PGE) to be placed inside the HC-227T hood as a contamination barrier. The HC-227T hood is the receiving/transfer enclosure for Pu nitrate solution contained in Product Removal containers (PR Cans), L10 Containers (L10, Fl-10, 10 L) or L-3 Containers. Within the HC-227T, a 1.349 square meter (15 square foot) enclosure, PGE, has been created to provide contamination control around the weighing scale. Two or more standard criticality drains shall be installed on this enclosure prior to beneficial usage. The evaluation considered the normal process, spillage scenarios, waste/container accumulations within the enclosure, and interactions of Pu within the enclosure as well as other containers external to the enclosure. The results from the criticality safety analysis by CRA shows that such as contamination barrier can be placed inside the HC-227T Hood if the PGE is equipped with adequate criticality drains. In addition, other limits as well as administrative controls listed in CPS-Z-165-80601 Rev./Mod. B/0 and CPS-Z-165-80010 Rev./Mod. C/1 shall also apply

  19. Detection of HC11N in the cold dust cloud TMC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.B.; Matthews, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of the J = 41 = 40 rotational transition of HC11N in the direction of the Taurus molecular cloud complex is reported. The line strength is in good agreement with predicted values, and the rotational parameters, althrough determined more accurately with these results, remain unchanged from those obtained previously using observations of IRC + 10 deg 216 alone. 14 references

  20. Adverse Events Associated with Hospitalization or Detected through the RAI-HC Assessment among Canadian Home Care Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Hirdes, John P.; Blais, Régis; Baker, G. Ross; Poss, Jeff W.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Dill, Donna; Gruneir, Andrea; Heckman, George; Lacroix, Hélène; Mitchell, Lori; O'Beirne, Maeve; Foebel, Andrea; White, Nancy; Qian, Gan; Nahm, Sang-Myong; Yim, Odilia; Droppo, Lisa; McIsaac, Corrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of adverse events (AEs) in care settings is a patient safety concern that has significant consequences across healthcare systems. Patient safety problems have been well documented in acute care settings; however, similar data for clients in home care (HC) settings in Canada are limited. The purpose of this Canadian study was to investigate AEs in HC, specifically those associated with hospitalization or detected through the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC). Method: A retrospective cohort design was used. The cohort consisted of HC clients from the provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, British Columbia and the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority. Results: The overall incidence rate of AEs associated with hospitalization ranged from 6% to 9%. The incidence rate of AEs determined from the RAI-HC was 4%. Injurious falls, injuries from other than fall and medication-related events were the most frequent AEs associated with hospitalization, whereas new caregiver distress was the most frequent AE identified through the RAI-HC. Conclusion: The incidence of AEs from all sources of data ranged from 4% to 9%. More resources are needed to target strategies for addressing safety risks in HC in a broader context. Tools such as the RAI-HC and its Clinical Assessment Protocols, already available in Canada, could be very useful in the assessment and management of HC clients who are at safety risk. PMID:23968676

  1. Determination of the angular dependence of Hc2 in high Tc single crystals by a microwave technique

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, David; Bill, Hans; Grayevsky, A.; Junod, Alain; Lovy, Dominique; Sadowski, S.; Walker, Eric

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that using an ESR spectrometer with magnetic field modulation and sweeping the temperature across Tc (at a constant and a very low magnetic field), is equivalent to temperature modulation. The signal intensity obtained when crossing Tc is proportional to 1/( delta Hc2/ delta T) at T=Tc. Using the WHH relation Hc2(T=0)=0.7 Tc( delta Hc2/ delta T)T=Tc enabled the measurement of the relative angular variation of Hc2 in single crystals of YBaCuO with Tc approximately 85 K. The data fi...

  2. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  3. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  4. Improvement on performance and efficiency of direct methanol fuel cells using hydrocarbon-based membrane electrode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon-Hee; Yang, Min-Jee; Park, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) of DMFC MEAs are calculated based on mass balance measurements. • Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is generally improved over the Nafion-based MEAs. • Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of -2. • Low WTC of the HC-based MEAs indicates the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. • Performance of HC-based MEAs is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases, maintaining high Faradaic efficiency. - Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency (fuel efficiency and electrical power) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), the hydrocarbon (HC) membrane-based membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are investigated under various operating conditions. The MEAs are then compared with the conventional Nafion-based MEA in terms of their efficiency and performance. The Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) are calculated based on mass balance measurements. The Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is improved over the Nafion-based MEAs since methanol crossover decreased. The performance of HC-based MEAs shows strong dependency on the anode stoichiometry at high current densities probably because of the limited mass transport of fuel, which is not observed for the Nafion-based MEAs. The Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of −2, indicating the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. This may have limited mass transport by interrupting proton conduction at high current densities. The performance of HC-based MEAs at high current densities is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases; High Faradaic efficiency is maintained by decreasing the cathode stoichiometry

  5. Prediction value of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels and antral follicle count (AFC) in hormonal contraceptive (HC) users and non-HC users undergoing IVF-PGD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Lando, Maayan; Rabinowitz, Ron; Farkash, Rivka; Algur, Nurit; Rubinstein, Esther; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2017-10-01

    Use of hormone contraceptives (HC) is very popular in the reproductive age and, therefore, evaluation of ovarian reserve would be a useful tool to accurately evaluate the reproductive potential in HC users. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 41 HC users compared to 57 non-HC users undergoing IVF-preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) aiming to evaluate the effect of HC on the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), small (2-5 mm), large (6-10 mm) and total antral follicle count (AFC) and the ability of these markers to predict IVF outcome. Significant differences in large AFC (p = 0.04) and ovarian volume (p users (p users these correlations were weaker. In HC users, the significant predictors of achieving 18 oocytes were AFC (ROC-AUC; 0.958, p = 0.001 and 0.883, p = 0.001) and AMH (ROC-AUC-0.858, p = 0.01 and 0.878, p = 0.001), respectively. The predictive values were less significant in non-HC users. These findings are important in women treated for PGD, in ovum donors and for assessing the fertility prognosis in women using HC and wishing to postpone pregnancy.

  6. Organic solvents improve hydrocarbon desorption and biodegradation in highly contaminated weathered soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rivero, M. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Mexico City (Mexico); Saucedo-Casteneda, G.; Gutierrez-Rojas, M. [Autonoma Metropolitan Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2007-07-15

    A toluene-based microbial slurry phase system was used to remediate hydrocarbons (HC) in highly contaminated soil samples collected from a site next to a working refinery in Mexico. Initial HC concentrations of the samples were 237.2 {+-} 16,6 g kg{sup -1} in dry soil. The microbial consortium consisted of 10 different strains in a mineral solution. Non-polar solvents used in the phase system included hexane, benzene, and toluene. Polar solvents included n-butanol, acetone, and methanol. The bioavailability of the HCs was increased using both polar and nonpolar solvents in order to promote desorption from the soil and to enhance overall HC biodegradation. HC desorption was analyzed in an abiotic system. Respiration and residual HCs were examined after a period of 30 days in order to compare the effects of the 2 solvents. The biodegradation extracts were then fractionated in a silica gel column to determine if the solvents actually enhanced the biodegradation of specific HC fractions. The study showed that induced dipole interactions forces resulted when nonpolar molecules were dissolved into a nonpolar solvent. Results for desorption and solubility varied among the 6 solvents. Higher dielectric constants resulted in higher solubility and desorption of HCs for nonpolar solvents, while the opposite effect was observed for polar solvents. It was concluded that toluene produced better biodegradation results than any of the milder solvents. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  8. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  9. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  10. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  11. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons in marine oils - Determination using reversed-phase HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-qTOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Holmelid, Bjarte

    2014-01-01

    ; dimethylarsinate (DMA), triphenylarsinoxide (Ph3AsO) and a synthesized arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) (dimethylarsinoyl nonadecane; C21H43AsO). The observed variation in signal intensity for arsenic during the gradient elution profile in reversed-phase HPLC was compensated for by determining the time...

  12. Characterisation of the cell line HC-AFW1 derived from a pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Armeanu-Ebinger

    Full Text Available Current treatment of paediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is often inefficient due to advanced disease at diagnosis and resistance to common drugs. The aim of this study was to generate a cell line derived from a paediatric HCC in order to expand research in this field. We established the HC-AFW1 cell line from a liver neoplasm of a 4-year-old boy through culturing of primary tumor specimens. The cell line has been stable for over one year of culturing and has a doubling time of 40 h. The tumour cells have an epithelial histology and express HCC-associated proteins such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, Glypican 3, E-cadherin, CD10, CD326, HepPar1 and Vimentin. Forty-nine amino acids in exon 3 of β-Catenin that involve the phosphorylation sites of GSK3 were absent and β-Catenin is detectable in the cell nuclei. Cytogenetic analysis revealed large anomalies in the chromosomal map. Several alterations of gene copy numbers were detected by genome-wide SNP array. Among the different drugs tested, cisplatin and irinotecan showed effective inhibition of tumour cell growth in a proliferation assay at concentrations below 5 µg/ml. Subcutaneous xenotransplantation of HC-AFW1 cells into NOD/SCID mice resulted in fast growing dedifferentiated tumours with high levels of serum AFP. Histological analyses of the primary tumour and xenografts included national and international expert pathological review. Consensus reading characterised the primary tumour and the HC-AFW1-derived tumours as HCC. HC-AFW1 is the first cell line derived from a paediatric HCC without a background of viral hepatitis or cirrhosis and represents a valuable tool for investigating the biology of and therapeutic strategies for childhood HCC.

  13. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  14. New Line Lists for planetological applications: HC3N and C4H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini, after four years of operation in Saturnian orbit with over thirty close fly-bys of Titan, has obtained spectra in the far and mid-infrared with a spectral resolution of 0.5 cm-1. Mismatch between observed spectra and model spectra obtained from the available line lists has led us to study the bending bands of HC3N and C4H2, the longest carbon chains observed on Titan. Our experimental study for HC3N (Jolly et al. 2007, J.Mol.Spec) has shown that band intensities had to be revised and that including hot bands with lower level as high as 1300 cm-1 was necessary to model our experimental spectra at 0.5 cm-1 resolution. A new extended line list could be obtained by fitting high resolution data with the help of a global analysis. This line list was made available to the astronomers of the CIRS team and will be included in the next version of the GEISA data base. Thanks to the precision of the new spectroscopic data, 13C isotopologues of HC3N have been detected and quantified for the first time in the atmosphere of Titan (Jennings et al. 2008, ApJL). Search for the 15N isotopologues of HC3N will also be presented. The proportion of hot bands is even more important for C4H2 than for HC3N and a new extended line list was absolutely necessary to improve the CIRS spectral analysis. We will present a new line list and show comparison between synthetic spectra and experimental spectra of C4H2 obtained between 193 and 296 K at 0.1 and 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Comparison of model spectra to CIRS observations of C4H2 at 220 and 630 cm-1 will also be presented. Detections of hot bands and isotopes in cold environments such as Titan will be emphasized.

  15. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  16. Non-detection of HC11N towards TMC-1: constraining the chemistry of large carbon-chain molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A.; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2016-12-01

    Bell et al. reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC11N towards the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported towards any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules towards TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analysed Green Bank Telescope observations of HC9N and HC11N towards TMC-1. Although we find an HC9N column density consistent with previous values, HC11N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC11N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown carbon-chain chemistry. We propose that cyclization reactions may be responsible for the depleted HC11N abundance, and that products of these cyclization reactions should be investigated as candidate interstellar molecules.

  17. Selective cytotoxicity of the antibacterial peptide ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog towards leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming; Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhuge, Qiang

    2017-05-15

    Some cationic antibacterial peptides, with typical amphiphilic α-helical conformations in a membrane-mimicking environment, exhibit anticancer properties as a result of a similar mechanism of action towards both bacteria and cancer cells. We previously reported the cDNA sequence of the antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-Cecropin A precursor cloned from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC). In the present study, we synthesized and structurally characterized ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog, ABP-dHC-Cecropin A-K(24). Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog adopt a well-defined α-helical structure in a 50% trifluorethanol solution. The cytotoxicity and cell selectivity of these peptides were further examined in three leukemia cell lines and two non-cancerous cell lines. The MTT assay indicated both of these peptides have a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect in leukemia cells, although the observed cytotoxicity was greater with ABP-dHC-Cecropin A-K(24) treatment, whereas they were not cytotoxic towards the non-cancerous cell lines. Moreover, ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog had a lower hemolytic effect in human red blood cells. Together, these results suggest the peptides are selectively cytotoxic towards leukemia cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy determined that the peptides were concentrated at the surface of the leukemia cells, and changes in the cell membrane were determined with a permeability assay, which suggested that the anticancer activity of ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog is a result of its presence at the leukemia cell membrane. ABP-dHC-Cecropin A and its analog may represent a novel anticancer agent for leukemia therapy, considering its cancer cell selectivity and relatively low cytotoxicity in normal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and characterization of the antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Jiaxin; Wei, Zhiheng; Wu, Xiaolong; Chen, Yan; Zhuge, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a linear cationic peptide that exhibits antimicrobial properties. To explore a new approach for expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we cloned the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene into the vector pPICZαA. The SacI-linearized plasmid pPICZαA-ABP-dHC-cecropin A was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Expression was induced after a 96-h incubation with 0.5% methanol at 20 °C in a culture supplied with 2% casamino acids to avoid proteolysis. Under these conditions, approximately 48 mg of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was secreted into 1L (4 × 250-mL)of medium. Recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A was purified using size-exclusion chromatography, and 21 mg of pure active ABP-dHC-cecropin A was obtained from 1L (4 × 250-mL)of culture. Electrophoresis on 4-20% gradient gels indicated that recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A was secreted as a protein approximately 4 kDa in size. Recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A was successfully expressed, as the product displayed antibacterial and antifungal activities (based on an antibacterial assay, scanning electron microscopy, and antifungal assay) indistinguishable from those of the synthesized protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Connection between in-plane upper critical field Hc 2 and gap symmetry in layered d -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Chang-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Angle-resolved upper critical field Hc 2 provides an efficient tool to probe the gap symmetry of unconventional superconductors. We revisit the behavior of in-plane Hc 2 in d -wave superconductors by considering both the orbital effect and Pauli paramagnetic effect. After carrying out systematic analysis, we show that the maxima of Hc 2 could be along either nodal or antinodal directions of a d -wave superconducting gap, depending on the specific values of a number of tuning parameters. This behavior is in contrast to the common belief that the maxima of in-plane Hc 2 are along the direction where the superconducting gap takes its maximal value. Therefore, identifying the precise d -wave gap symmetry through fitting experiments results of angle-resolved Hc 2 with model calculations at a fixed temperature, as widely used in previous studies, is difficult and practically unreliable. However, our extensive analysis of angle-resolved Hc 2 show that there is a critical temperature T*: in-plane Hc 2 exhibits its maxima along nodal directions at T change as other parameters vary, but the existence of π /4 shift of Hc 2 at T* appears to be a general feature. Thus a better method to identify the precise d -wave gap symmetry is to measure Hc 2 at a number of different temperatures, and examine whether there is a π /4 shift in its angular dependence at certain T*. We further show that Landau level mixing does not change this general feature. However, in the presence of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, the angular dependence of Hc 2 becomes quite complicated, which makes it more difficult to determine the gap symmetry by measuring Hc 2. Our results indicate that some previous studies on the gap symmetry of CeCu2Si2 are unreliable and need to be reexamined, and also provide a candidate solution to an experimental discrepancy in the angle-resolved Hc 2 in CeCoIn5.

  20. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Mechanism of hydrocarbon reduction using multiple injection in a natural gas fuelled/micro-pilot diesel ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklow, G.J.; Gong, W. [University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Research has shown that a large amount of natural gas (NG) is unburned at light loads in an NG fuelled/micro-pilot diesel compression ignition engine. A mechanism of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) reduction using multiple injections of micro-pilot diesel has been proposed in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for a dual-fuel engine based on a modified CAT3401 engine configuration. The computations show that a split injection with a small percentage (e.g. 30 per cent of diesel in the second injection pulse) can significantly reduce HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. Based on parax metric studies to optimize the timing of both of the injection pulses, HC emissions could be reduced by 90 per cent, with a reduction in CO emissions of 50 per cent and NO{sub x} emissions of 70 per cent in comparison to a singlex injection pulse-base case configuration. (author)

  2. Influence of performance characteristic of a gaseous fuel supply system on hydrocarbon emissions of a dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Zhong, H.; Hao, S.H. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Automobile Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of the gaseous fuel supply and its influence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of dual-fuel engines have been investigated. A new design of manifold respirators with mixers is also presented in the paper. The design of the gaseous fuel supply system has a great influence on HC emissions in the dual-fuel engine at light load. The problem of scavenging is discussed and solved by using the manifold respirators in the dual-fuel engine. It performs the function of retarding the gaseous fuel entry timing from the moment of intake valve opening, and its delaying effects have been measured and tested. Experimental results show that the manifold respirator gives the best performance in reducing HC emissions compared with a common pipe mixer and a respirator with bo miser. In addition, the mixing effects are sensitive to the mixer configuration. (Author)

  3. Condensing heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon refrigerants in 9.52 and 12.7 mm smooth tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-In; Lee, Ho-Saeng; Lee, Kwang-Bae; Kim, Jae-Dol; Bansal, Pradeep

    2005-12-01

    Experimental results for heat transfer characteristic and pressure gradients of hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and R-22 during condensing inside horizontal double pipe heat exchangers are presented. The test sections which have one tube diameter of 12.70 mm with 0.86 mm wall thickness, another tube diameter of 9.52 mm with 0.76 mm wall thickness are used for this investigation. The local condensing heat transfer coefficients of HC refrigerants were higher than that of R-22. The average condensing heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase of the mass flux. It showed the higher values in HC refrigerants than R-22. Comparing the heat transfer coefficient of experimental results with that of other correlations, the presented results had a good agreement with most of the Cavallini’s correlations.

  4. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  5. Analýza návštěvnosti HC Sparta Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovič, Velimír

    2014-01-01

    In bachelor thesis I investigate seasonal match attendance of HC Sparta Praha ice-hockey team in seasons 2002/2003 to 2012/2013 and the individual match attendance in seasons 2008/2009 to 2012/2013. The acquired data were processed by regression analysis and the effects of attendance determinants were quantified using OLS-method (ordinary least squares). The team rivalry and the prestigious players' appearance in match belong to the most significant factors. By derby-matches the attendance in...

  6. A mircocontroller MC68HC908GP32 based intelligent scalar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huiying

    2001-01-01

    A Mircocontroller MC68HC908GP32 based intelligent scalar is presented. By replacing traditional IC modular with Mircocontroller, the new type scalar can provide new functions, such as countering rate measurement, control signal output, LCD display, PC control, etc., in addition to traditional functions of normal scalar. This intelligent scalar achieved comprehensive technical innovation to the traditional nuclear electronic instrument, with regard to the design methodology, structure and functions. In this way, the overall technical performance of the new type scalar, such as counting rate, accuracy, volume, cost and operation, etc., has been improved obviously, with bright prospects for application and dissemination

  7. Microwave absorption across Tc: Determination of the angular dependance Hc2(theta)

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, David; Bill, Hans; Grayevsky, A.; Junod, Alain; Lovy, Dominique; Sadowski, Wojciech; Walker, Eric

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that measuring microwave absorption in high-Tc superconductors at constant and very low magnetic fields, using magnetic-field modulation, is, under some conditions, equivalent to temperature modulation when sweeping the temperature across Tc. Using an ESR spectrometer, the derivative of microwave absorption is measured close to Tc. This allows a determination of the relative angular variation of dHc2/dT at T=Tc in single crystals of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The data fit the Ginzburg-Landau theo...

  8. Limits of Freedom Expression: Analasys of HC 82.424/RS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Gallieta Borges

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to freedom of expression is constitutionally guaranteed in the Brazilian democratic polity. However, this right is not absolute: it finds limits of ethics and law. The limits of freedom of expression are evident when we apply the principle of proportionality and balance with other rights provided for in our legal system in the light of the case. The relativization of freedom of expression in the judgment of HC 82,424 / RS has been a major paradigm shift in the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court and a case of great symbolic importance in the fundamental rights field.

  9. Modeling of Antenna for Deep Target Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Nasir

    2017-11-01

    industry for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir (HC

  10. Two stage catalytic converter system to reduce exhaust emissions of HC, CO and NO in a motor vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagalingam, B; Gopalakrishnan, K V; Murthy, B S

    1978-09-01

    Two-stage catalytic converter system is currently receiving considerable attention as a means to control the primary pollutants, namely, HC, CO and NO in the automobile exhaust. In order to explore the possibility of developing catalysts from indigenous and inexpensive sources of materials, sponge iron for NO reduction and manganese ore pebbles for HC/CO oxidation were tested as candidate-catalysts in an engine dynamometer test bed to study their catalytic activity. The results of these experiments are reported.

  11. CSER 01-008 Canning of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide Powder in PFP Glovebox HC-21A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the analysis performed to support the canning operation in HC-21A. Most of the actual analysis was performed for the operation in HC-18M and HA-20MB, and is documented in HNF-2707 Rev I a (Erickson 2001a). This document will reference Erickson (2001a) as necessary to support the operation in HC-21A. The plutonium stabilization program at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) uses heat to convert plutonium-bearing materials into dry powder that is chemically stable for long term storage. The stabilized plutonium is transferred into one of several gloveboxes for the canning process, Gloveboxes HC-18M in Room 228'2, HA-20MB in Room 235B, and HC-21A in Room 230B are to be used for this process. This document presents the analysis performed to support the canning operation in HC-21A. Most of the actual analysis was performed for the operation in HC-I8M and HA-20MB, and is documented in HNF-2707 Rev l a (Erickson 2001a). This document will reference Erickson (2001a) as necessary to support the operation in HC-21A. Evaluation of this operation included normal, base cases, and contingencies. The base cases took the normal operations for each type of feed material and added the likely off-normal events. Each contingency is evaluated assuming the unlikely event happens to the conservative base case. Each contingency was shown to meet the double contingency requirement. That is, at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions are required before a criticality is possible

  12. Lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells is not accompanied by downregulation of AP-2 transcription factor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorle Hubert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During pregnancy the mammary epithelium undergoes a complex developmental process which culminates in the generation of the milk-secreting epithelium. Secretory epithelial cells display lactogenic differentiation which is characterized by the expression of milk protein genes, such as beta-casein or whey acidic protein (WAP. Transcription factors AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma are downregulated during lactation, and their overexpression in transgenic mice impaired the secretory differentiation of the mammary epithelium, resulting in lactation failure. To explore whether the downregulation of AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma is of functional significance for lactogenic differentiation, we analyzed the expression of the AP-2 family members during the lactogenic differentiation of HC11 mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Differentiation of HC11 cells was induced following established protocols by applying the lactogenic hormones prolactin, dexamethasone and insulin. Findings HC11 cells express all AP-2 family members except AP-2delta. Using RT-PCR we could not detect a downregulation of any of these genes during the lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells in vitro. This finding was confirmed for AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma using Northern analysis. Differentiating HC11 cells displayed lower expression levels of milk protein genes than mammary glands of mid-pregnant or lactating mice. Conclusion The extent of lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells in vitro is limited compared to mammary epithelium undergoing secretory differentiation in vivo. Downregulation of AP-2 transcription factor genes is not required for lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells but may functionally be involved in aspects of lactogenic differentiation in vivo that are not reflected by the HC11 system.

  13. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  14. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  15. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guobing; Zhang, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed.

  16. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Hwan Kang

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Kang, S.H., Ryu, J.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.S., Yang, H.C., Chung, D.Y. (2017. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 452-459 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.592.452-459

  17. Ext The effect of littoralis leaf extract on Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jiang WANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Umbelliferae littoralis leaf extract on the Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice, and to provide the basis for the development and utilization medicinal resources and edible resources. Methods: Prepare littoralis leaf water extract and alcohol extract, and set different dose treatment groups and blank control group, and continuously deliver American ginseng capsule for 15 days. Inject sRBC according to the weight on the tenth day. Take the blood serum from eyeball blood after 5 days. Put supernatant of 1ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 3ml in the test tube, and mix the 10% sRBC of 0.25ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 4ml together in another test tube, and measure absorbance at 540nm fine control (SA liquid tubing as blank, HC50 value were calculated. Results: Different extracts of stems and littoralis leaf were given to the mice for 15 days, and hemolytic value of the mice in water extract 4.68g/kg dose group, alcohol extract 4.68g/kg dose group and American ginseng capsule group significantly increased while comparing with the blank control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Littoralis Leaf plays an important role in regulating human immunity.

  18. Degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) / hydrolyzed collagen (HC) blends active sludge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Pascu, Mihaela; Cazacu, Georgeta; Vasile, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers represent a solution for the environment protection: they decrease the landfill space, by declining the petrochemical sources, and offer also an alternative solution for the recycling. The behavior during degradation in the presence of active sludge of some polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. Some samples were subjected to UV irradiation, for 30 hours. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, bacterial composition), as well as the changes of the properties of the blends (weight losses, aspect etc.) were studied. During the first moments of degradation in active sludge, all the samples absorbed water, behavior which favored the biodegradation. The bacteriological analysis of the sludge indicates the presence of some microbiological species. Generally, the populations of microorganisms decrease, excepting the sulphito-reducing anaerobic bacteria, the actinomycetes and other anaerobic bacteria. PVC/HC blends are degraded with a significant rate in active sewage sludge. More susceptible for the degradation are the UV irradiated blends. After the migration of the components with a small molecular mass in the environment, the natural polymer is degraded. The degradation effect increases with the content in the natural polymer.

  19. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  20. HC Forum®: a web site based on an international human cytogenetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Olivier; Mermet, Marie-Ange; Demongeot, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Familial structural rearrangements of chromosomes represent a factor of malformation risk that could vary over a large range, making genetic counseling difficult. However, they also represent a powerful tool for increasing knowledge of the genome, particularly by studying breakpoints and viable imbalances of the genome. We have developed a collaborative database that now includes data on more than 4100 families, from which we have developed a web site called HC Forum® (http://HCForum.imag.fr). It offers geneticists assistance in diagnosis and in genetic counseling by assessing the malformation risk with statistical models. For researchers, interactive interfaces exhibit the distribution of chromosomal breakpoints and of the genome regions observed at birth in trisomy or in monosomy. Dedicated tools including an interactive pedigree allow electronic submission of data, which will be anonymously shown in a forum for discussions. After validation, data are definitively registered in the database with the email of the sender, allowing direct location of biological material. Thus HC Forum® constitutes a link between diagnosis laboratories and genome research centers, and after 1 year, more than 700 users from about 40 different countries already exist. PMID:11125121

  1. Deep K-band Observations of TMC-1 with the Green Bank Telescope: Detection of HC7O, Nondetection of HC11N, and a Search for New Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Kisiel, Z.; McGuire, B. A.; Kuan, Y.-J.

    2017-12-01

    The 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope K-band (KFPA) receiver was used to perform a high-sensitivity search for rotational emission lines from complex organic molecules in the cold interstellar medium toward TMC-1 (cyanopolyyne peak), focussing on the identification of new carbon-chain-bearing species as well as molecules of possible prebiotic relevance. We report a detection of the carbon-chain oxide species HC7O and derive a column density of (7.8+/- 0.9)× {10}11 cm-2. This species is theorized to form as a result of associative electron detachment reactions between oxygen atoms and C7H-, and/or reaction of C6H2 + with CO (followed by dissociative electron recombination). Upper limits are given for the related HC6O, C6O, and C7O molecules. In addition, we obtained the first detections of emission from individual 13C isotopologues of HC7N, and derive abundance ratios HC7N/HCCC13CCCCN = 110 ± 16 and HC7N/HCCCC13CCCN = 96 ± 11, indicative of significant 13C depletion in this species relative to the local interstellar elemental 12C/13C ratio of 60-70. The observed spectral region covered two transitions of HC11N, but emission from this species was not detected, and the corresponding column density upper limit is 7.4× {10}10 {{cm}}-2 (at 95% confidence). This is significantly lower than the value of 2.8× {10}11 {{cm}}-2 previously claimed by Bell et al. and confirms the recent nondetection of HC11N in TMC-1 by Loomis et al. Upper limits were also obtained for the column densities of malononitrile and the nitrogen heterocycles quinoline, isoquinoline, and pyrimidine.

  2. Investigation of four self-report instruments (FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, HC-PAIRS) to measure healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs toward low back pain: Reliability, convergent validity and survey of New Zealand osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Rushworth, Wendy M; Mason, Jesse

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare practitioner beliefs influence advice and management provided to patients with back pain. Several instruments measuring practitioner beliefs have been developed but psychometric properties for some have not been investigated. To investigate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Tool (FABT), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Health Care Providers (TSK-HC), the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ), and the Health Care Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS). A secondary aim was to explore beliefs of New Zealand osteopaths and physiotherapists regarding low back pain. FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, and HC-PAIRS were administered twice, 14 days apart. Data from 91 osteopaths and 35 physiotherapists were analysed. The FABT, TSK-HC and Back-PAQ each demonstrated excellent internal consistency, (Cronbach's α = 0.92, 0.91, and 0.91 respectively), and excellent test-retest reliability (lower limit of 95% CI for intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Correlations between instruments (Pearson's r = 0.51 to 0.77, p  0.47) for mean differences in scores, for all instruments, between professions. This study found excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good convergent validity for the FABT, TSK-HC, and Back-PAQ. Previously reported internal consistency, test-retest and convergent validity of the HC-PAIRS were confirmed, and test-retest reliability was excellent. There were significant scoring differences on each instrument between professions, and while both groups demonstrated fear avoidant beliefs, physiotherapist respondent scores indicated that as a group, they held fewer fear-avoidant beliefs than osteopath respondents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  4. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  5. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant......The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA...... concentrations. These results were found to coincide with the formation of condensed Hc1-DNA and Hc1-RNA complexes as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The implications of these results for possible functions of Hc1 in vivo are discussed....

  6. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  7. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  8. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Degradation of PVC/HC blends. II. Terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Profire, Lenuţa; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at degradation by soil burial of some plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with a variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, physiologic state of the plants, assimilatory pigments) were studied. Using the growth test of the terrestrial plants, we followed the development of Triticum (wheat), Helianthus annus minimus (little sunflower), Pisum sativum (pea), and Vicia X hybrida hort, during a vegetation cycle. After the harvest, for each plant, the quantities of chlorophyll and carotenoidic pigments and of trace- and macroelements were determined. It was proved that, in the presence of polymer blends, the plants do not suffer morphological and physiological modifications, the products released in the culture soil being not toxic for the plants growth.

  13. Value of the asymmetric film-screen system InSight HC in chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeussler, M.D.; Lenzen, H.; Reckels, C.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The asymmetric film-screen system InSight HC represents a development to optimize chest imaging. The purpose of the study was to compare the exposure range and the image quality of this new system with a conventional film-screen system. The optical density of images in both techniques was measured and the image quality of 100 chest images from 50 intensive-care patients was evaluated. 4 observers graded the image quality of organic, non-organic and pathological structures. Statistical evaluation was performed by interobserver analysis. The asymmetric film-screen system shows a larger exposure range and a superior image quality in the mediastinal field. The image quality in the peripheral field must be judged critically and improved especially because of the poor recognizability of pneumothoraces. (orig.) [de

  14. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical Complexity in Local Diffuse and Translucent Clouds: Ubiquitous Linear C3H and CH3CN, a Detection of HC3N and an Upper Limit on the Abundance of CH2CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey; Gerin, Maryvonne; Beasley, Anthony; Pety, Jerome

    2018-04-01

    We present Jansky Very Large Array observations of 20–37 GHz absorption lines from nearby Galactic diffuse molecular gas seen against four cosmologically distant compact radio continuum sources. The main new observational results are that l-C3H and CH3CN are ubiqitous in the local diffuse molecular interstellar medium at {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} ≲ 1, while HC3N was seen only toward B0415 at {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} > 4 mag. The linear/cyclic ratio is much larger in C3H than in C3H2 and the ratio CH3CN/HCN is enhanced compared to TMC-1, although not as much as toward the Horsehead Nebula. More consequentially, this work completes a long-term program assessing the abundances of small hydrocarbons (CH, C2H, linear and cyclic C3H and C3 {{{H}}}2, and C4H and C4H‑) and the CN-bearing species (CN, HCN, HNC, HC3N, HC5N, and CH3CN): their systematics in diffuse molecular gas are presented in detail here. We also observed but did not strongly constrain the abundances of a few oxygen-bearing species, most prominently HNCO. We set limits on the column density of CH2CN, such that the anion CH2CN‑ is only viable as a carrier of diffuse interstellar bands if the N(CH2CN)/N(CH2CN‑) abundance ratio is much smaller in this species than in any others for which the anion has been observed. We argue that complex organic molecules (COMS) are not present in clouds meeting a reasonable definition of diffuse molecular gas, i.e., {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} ≲ 1 mag. Based on observations obtained with the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array (VLA).

  16. Hydrocarbon removal from bilgewater by a combination of air-stripping and photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoir, D., E-mail: david.cazoir@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France); Fine, L.; Ferronato, C.; Chovelon, J.-M. [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bilge water is an oily effluent that contaminates oceans and seas (MARPOL73/78). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrocarbon removal was studied by photocatalysis and air-stripping, together used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aqueous and gaseous phases were monitored by GC-MS during the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combined process showed a better efficiency and a synergistic effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Alkanes (N{sub C} > 15) appeared as being the most refractory compounds. - Abstract: In order to prevent hydrocarbon discharge at sea from the bilge of ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) enacted the MARPOL 73/78 convention in which effluents are now limited to those with maximum oil content of 15 ppmv. Thus, photocatalysis and air-stripping were combined for the hydrocarbon removal from a real oily bilgewater sample and an original monitoring of both aqueous and gaseous phases was performed by GC/MS to better understand the process. Our results show that the hydrocarbon oil index [HC] can be reduced to its maximum permissible value of 15 ppmv (MARPOL) in only 8.5 h when photocatalysis and air-stripping are used together in a synergistic way, as against 17 h when photocatalysis is used alone. However, this air-assisted photocatalytic process emits a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and, within the first four hours, ca. 10% of the hydrocarbon removal in the aqueous phase is actually just transferred into the gaseous one. Finally, we highlight that the n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms higher than 15 (N{sub C} > 15) are those which most decrease the rate of [HC] removal.

  17. Effects space velocity and gas velocity on DeNOx catalyst with HC reductant; HC tenka NOx kangen shokubai no kukan sokudo oyobi gas ryusoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, K.; Tsujimura, K.

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given on the hydrocarbon added reduction catalyst method to reduce NOx in diesel engine exhaust gas. An experiment was carried out with actual exhaust gas from a diesel engine by using a copper ion exchanged zeolite catalyst that has been coated on a honeycomb type substrate, and using propylene as a reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the exhaust gas space velocity kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased as the catalyst length is decreased, and the activity shifted to the lower temperature side. The NOx reduction efficiency increased if the faster the gas flow velocity. On the other hand, if the gas flow velocity is slow, the NOx reduction can be carried out with relatively small amount of the reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the passing gas amount kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased largely if the catalyst length is decreased. Further, the NOx reduction characteristics shift to the higher temperature side. In the catalyst length direction, the NOx reduction activity shows a relatively uniform action. However, a detailed observation reveals that the reaction heat in the catalyst is transmitted to the wake improving the activity, hence the further down the flow, the NOx conversion ratio gets higher in efficiency. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  19. Infrared spectroscopic and theoretical study of the HC2n+1O+ (n = 2-5) cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaye; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei

    2017-06-01

    The carbon chain cations, HC2n+1O+ (n = 2-5), are produced via pulsed laser vaporization of a graphite target in supersonic expansions containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The infrared spectra are measured via mass-selected infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of the CO "tagged" [HC2n+1O.CO]+ cation complexes in the 1600-3500 cm-1 region. The geometries and electronic ground states of these cation complexes are determined by their infrared spectra compared to the predications of theoretical calculations. All of the HC2n+1O+ (n = 2-5) core cations are characterized to be linear carbon chain derivatives terminated by hydrogen and oxygen, which have the closed-shell singlet ground states with polyyne-like carbon chain structures.

  20. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  1. Toxicity of bovicin HC5 against mammalian cell lines and the role of cholesterol in bacteriocin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Aline Dias; de Oliveira, Michelle Dias; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Breukink, Eefjan; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto

    2012-11-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by Bacteria and some Archaea. The assessment of the toxic potential of antimicrobial peptides is important in order to apply these peptides on an industrial scale. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and haemolytic potential of bovicin HC5, as well as to determine whether cholesterol influences bacteriocin activity on model membranes. Nisin, for which the mechanism of action is well described, was used as a reference peptide in our assays. The viability of three distinct eukaryotic cell lines treated with bovicin HC5 or nisin was analysed by using the MTT assay and cellular morphological changes were determined by light microscopy. The haemolytic potential was evaluated by using the haemoglobin liberation assay and the role of cholesterol on bacteriocin activity was examined by using model membranes composed of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and DPoPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). The IC(50) of bovicin HC5 and nisin against Vero cells was 65.42 and 13.48 µM, respectively. When the MTT assay was performed with MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, the IC(50) obtained for bovicin HC5 was 279.39 and 289.30 µM, respectively, while for nisin these values were 105.46 and 112.25 µM. The haemolytic activity of bovicin HC5 against eukaryotic cells was always lower than that determined for nisin. The presence of cholesterol did not influence the activity of either bacteriocin on DOPC model membranes, but nisin showed reduced carboxyfluorescein leakage in DPoPC membranes containing cholesterol. In conclusion, bovicin HC5 only exerted cytotoxic effects at concentrations that were greater than the concentration needed for its biological activity, and the presence of cholesterol did not affect its interaction with model membranes.

  2. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  3. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  4. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  5. Decomposition mechanisms and non-isothermal kinetics of LiHC_2O_4·H_2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The thermal decomposition process of LiHC2O4·H2O from 30 to 600 ℃ was investigated by the thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The phases decomposited at different temperature were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated the decompositions at 150, 170, and 420℃, relating to LiHC2O4, Li2C2O4, Li2C2O4, and Li2CO3, respectively. Reaction mechanisms in the whole sintering process were determined, and the model fitting kinetic approaches were applied to data for non...

  6. Structural and functional characterization of a novel gene, Hc-daf-22, from the strongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hongli; Zheng, Xiuping; Zhou, Qianjin; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Du, Aifang

    2016-07-29

    The strongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus is a parasite of major concern for modern livestock husbandry because hostile environmental conditions may induce diapause in the early fourth-stage larvae. A new gene Hc-daf-22 was identified which is the homologue of Ce-daf-22 and human SCPx. Genome walking and RACE were performed to obtain the whole cDNA and genomic sequence of this gene. Using qRT-PCR with all developmental stages as templates to explore the transcription level and micro-injection was applied to confirm the promoter activity of the 5'-flanking region. Overexpression, rescue and RNA interference experiments were performed in N2, daf-22 mutant (ok 693) strains of C. elegans to study the gene function of Hc-daf-22. The full length gene of Hc-daf-22 (6,939 bp) contained 16 exons separated by 15 introns, and encoded a cDNA of 1,602 bp (533 amino acids, estimated at about 59.3 kDa) with a peak in L3 and L4 in transcriptional level. The Hc-DAF-22 protein was consisted of a 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase domain and a SCP2 domain and evolutionarily conserved. The 1,548 bp fragment upstream of the 5'-flanking region was confirmed to have promoter activity compared with 5'-flanking region of Ce-daf-22. The rescue experiment by micro-injection of daf-22 (ok693) mutant strain showed significant increase in body size and brood size in the rescued worms with significantly reduced or completely absent fat granules confirmed by Oil red O staining, indicating that Hc-daf-22 could partially rescue the function of Ce-daf-22. Furthermore, RNAi with Hc-daf-22 could partially silence the endogenous Ce-daf-22 in N2 worms and mimic the phenotype of daf-22 (ok693) mutants. The gene Hc-daf-22 was isolated and its function identified using C. elegans as a model organism. Our results indicate that Hc-daf-22 shared similar characteristics and function with Ce-daf-22 and may play an important role in peroxisomal β-oxidation and the development in H. contortus.

  7. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisuls, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Among the existing proposed solutions to reduce emission of NOx there is a promising alternative, the so-called (HC-SCR) selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons as reductant. This thesis is part of a worldwide effort devoted to gain knowledge on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons with the final goal to contribute to the development of suitable catalysts for the above mentioned process. Chapter 2 describes the details of the experimental set-up and of the analytical methods employed. Among the catalyst for HC-SCR, Co-based catalyst are known to be active and selective, thus, a study on a series of Co-based catalysts, supported on zeolites, was undertaken and the results are presented in Chapter 3. Correlation between catalytic characteristics and kinetic results are employed to understand the working catalyst and this is used as a basis for catalyst optimization. With the intention to prepare a multi-functional catalyst that will preserve the desired characteristics of the individual components, minimizing their negative aspects, catalysts based on Co-Pt, supported on ZSM-5, were investigated. In Chapter 4 the results of this study are discussed. A bimetallic Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts with low Pt contents (0.1 wt %) showed a synergistic effect by combining high stability and activity of Pt catalysts with the high N2 selectivity of Co catalysts. Furthermore, it was found to be sulfur- and water-tolerant. Its positive qualities brought us to study the mechanism that takes place over this catalyst during HC-SCR. The results of an in-situ i.r mechanistic study over this catalyst is reported in Chapter 5. From the results presented in Chapter 5 a mechanism operating over the Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst is proposed. The modification of Co catalyst with Pt improved the catalysts. However, further improvement was found to be hindered by high selectivity to N2O. Since Rh catalysts are generally less selective to N2O, the modification of Co

  8. Estimation of Freezing Point of Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Mixtures for Mixed Refrigerant jt Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the freezing point of refrigerant is an essential part in designing an MR JT (Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson) cryocooler to prevent itself from clogging and to operate with stability. There were researches on estimating freezing point, but some of them resulted in the wrong prediction of clogging. In this paper, the freezing point of the MR is precisely estimated with caution of clogging. The solubility of HC (hydrocarbon) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) mixture components are obtained with their activity coefficients, which represent the molecular interaction among the components. The freezing points of the MR JT cryocooler are systematically investigated in the operating temperature range from 70 K to 90 K.

  9. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  10. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  11. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  12. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  13. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HC StratoMineR: A Web-Based Tool for the Rapid Analysis of High-Content Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omta, Wienand A; van Heesbeen, Roy G; Pagliero, Romina J; van der Velden, Lieke M; Lelieveld, Daphne; Nellen, Mehdi; Kramer, Maik; Yeong, Marley; Saeidi, Amir M; Medema, Rene H; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Klumperman, Judith; Egan, David A

    2016-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that these datasets are frequently underutilized. Here, we present HC StratoMineR, a web-based tool for high-content data analysis. It is a decision-supportive platform that guides even non-expert users through a high-content data analysis workflow. HC StratoMineR is built by using My Structured Query Language for storage and querying, PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor as the main programming language, and jQuery for additional user interface functionality. R is used for statistical calculations, logic and data visualizations. Furthermore, C++ and graphical processor unit power is diffusely embedded in R by using the rcpp and rpud libraries for operations that are computationally highly intensive. We show that we can use HC StratoMineR for the analysis of multivariate data from a high-content siRNA knock-down screen and a small-molecule screen. It can be used to rapidly filter out undesirable data; to select relevant data; and to perform quality control, data reduction, data exploration, morphological hit picking, and data clustering. Our results demonstrate that HC StratoMineR can be used to functionally categorize HCS hits and, thus, provide valuable information for hit prioritization.

  15. Copenhagen ITS: Forsøg med wifi-baseret positionering på H.C. Andersens Boulevard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olsen, Allan

    2017-01-01

    I samarbejde med Københavns Kommune afprøvede CITS konsortiet potentialet i wifi-baseret positionering med en forsøgsstrækning på H.C. Andersens Boulevard i vintermånederne 2014-2015. Wifi-positioneringen giver et nyt datagrundlag for trafik og bylivsundersøgelser, herunder f.eks. et grundlag...

  16. CSER 00-008 use of PFP Glovebox HC-18BS for Storage and Transport of Fissionable Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    This CSER addresses the feasibility of increasing the allowed number of open containers and permitting the transfer and storage of fissionable material in Glovebox HC-18BS without regard to form or density (metal, oxide having an H/X (le) 20, material having unrestricted moderation and plutonium hydroxide having a plutonium density of 0.2 g/cm 3 )

  17. Detection of the HC3NH+ and HCNH+ ions in the L1544 pre-stellar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, D.; Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Lefloch, B.; Bachiller, R.

    2017-09-01

    The L1544 pre-stellar core was observed as part of the ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM) Large Program. We report the first detection in a pre-stellar core of the HCNH+ and HC3NH+ ions. The high spectral resolution of the observations allows us to resolve the hyperfine structure of HCNH+. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis leads to derive a column density equal to (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1013 cm-2 for HCNH+ and (1.5 ± 0.5) × 1011 cm-2 for HC3NH+. We also present non-LTE analysis of five transitions of HC3N, three transitions of H13CN and one transition of HN13C, all of them linked to the chemistry of HCNH+ and HC3NH+. We computed for HC3N, HCN and HNC a column density of (2.0 ± 0.4) × 1013 cm-2, (3.6 ± 0.9) × 1014 cm-2 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 1014 cm-2, respectively. We used the gas-grain chemical code nautilus to predict the abundances of all these species across the pre-stellar core. Comparison of the observations with the model predictions suggests that the emission from HCNH+ and HC3NH+ originates in the external layer where non-thermal desorption of other species was previously observed. The observed abundance of both ionic species ([HCNH+] ≃ 3 × 10-10 and [HC3NH+] ≃ [1.5 - 3.0] × 10-12, with respect to H2) cannot be reproduced at the same time by the chemical modelling within the error bars of the observations only. We discuss the possible reasons for the discrepancy and suggest that the current chemical models are not fully accurate or complete. However, the modelled abundances are within a factor of 3, consistent with the observations, considering a late stage of the evolution of the pre-stellar core, compatible with previous observations.

  18. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cold exposure increases slow-type myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) composition of soleus muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cold exposure on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform and metabolism-related factors. Male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were housed individually at 4 ± 2°C as a cold-exposed group or at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) as a control group for 4 weeks. We found that cold exposure significantly increased the slow-type MyHC1 content in the soleus muscle (a typical slow-type fiber), while the intermediate-type MyHC2A content was significantly decreased. In contrast to soleus, MyHC composition of extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a typical fast-type fiber) and gastrocnemius (a mix of slow-type and fast-type fibers) muscle did not change from cold exposure. Cold exposure increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in both the soleus and EDL. Cold exposure also increased mRNA expression of myoglobin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the soleus. Upregulation of UCP3 and PGC1α proteins were observed with Western blotting in the gastrocnemius. Thus, cold exposure increased metabolism-related factors in all muscle types that were tested, but MyHC isoforms changed only in the soleus. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  1. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  2. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  3. Influence of thermal treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a HC cast refractory steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatica, D; Garin, J; Mannheim, R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatments at 750 ( o C) on the microstructure and hardness of a HC cast refractory steel was studied. Samples were extracted from blocks obtained from the melting of this steel, which were heated to 750 ( o C) for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and cooled in water. The microstructural analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction, optic and scanning electron microscopy. The phases in each of the samples were quantified using X-ray diffraction, by the direct comparison method, using the DIFRACC-AT, PROFILE FITTING, LATTICE and LAZY-PULVERIX programs. Ferrite was also measured with a magnetic inductor. The phases that were present were ferrite, austenite and Cr 23 C 6 chrome carbides, with a small percentage of molybdenum carbides, slag and non metallic inclusions. As a result of the thermal treatment, the ferrite increased, the austenite decreased and the chrome carbides increased, although their presence varied during the first hours of treatment, displaying a sustained increase only after the 24 hours of heating. Brittle phases, like the sigma phase, did not occur, corroborated by other authors who have noted that for this phase to form there must be preexisting Cr 7 C 3 chrome carbide, as well as Cr 23 C 6 . Temperature impact tests were held in order to determine the temperature of ductile-brittle transition. Unnotched test pieces were submitted to impact trials in a temperature range of 20 to 200 ( o C). This steel does not have a clear transition temperature, but ranges from 50 ( o C) to 80 ( o C )

  4. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  5. Gamma irradiation of hydrocarbon-liquid nitrogen systems and the synthesis of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The 60 Co-gamma radiolysis of hydrocarbons (HC)-liquid N 2 mixtures at 77 0 K and 1.8 atm of pressure was investigated. Batch irradiation studies of methane, ethane, and ethylene and semibatch studies of methane were made in the presence and absence of transition metal oxide catalysts. In noncatalyzed systems, the effects of varying the radiation dose, total dose, solute feed rate and concentration and liquid N 2 volume were investigated. NH 3 was found to be the major N-containing product in the alkane solute system. N 2 and HC radical addition was found to be the predominate initial reaction for nitrogeneous product formation. Results of scavenger studies indicate that excited N 2 played a lesser role in precursor formation. All product yields were found to be dependent upon the H-containing species availability in the liquid N 2 solution. Production rates were limited by HC solubility. The use of the transition metal oxide supported catalyst greatly increased product formation in all systems. Product yields were found to be dependent upon the available catalyst surface area, metal loading, and reduction techniques for each metal examined. As evidenced by the radiation lag time studies, the stability of the N 2 precursors on the catalyst surface was believed to be a significant factor in reaction enhancement. Energy transfer from the catalyst to the absorbates was examined and could not be ruled out

  6. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  7. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  8. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  9. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  10. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  11. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  13. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  16. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (the Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya [Structural Biology research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  17. STUDY ON THE CARBON MONOXYDE AND HC EMISSIONS GENERATED BY THE DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES, RUNNING WITH BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU COSOFRET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the research results on the use of mixtures of biofuels with fossil fuels to power diesel engines are controversial in terms of reducing emissions of CO and HC which are contained in the exhaust gases of diesel engines. The diversity of the results is due to possibly different type of biodiesel used, the type of engine on which the tests were carried out and the methods and conditions for obtaining these results. Therefore, researches on regular diesel - biodiesel mixtures in various ratio is still a matter of study. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine, by using different mixtures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% of diesel with biodiesel made from rapeseed oil. The study results reveals that the CO and HC emissions will decrease within creasing load.

  18. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  19. Inhibited-coupling HC-PCF based beam-delivery-system for high power green industrial lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafer, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Maurel, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2018-02-01

    We report on an ultra-low loss Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) beam delivery system (GLO-GreenBDS) for high power ultra-short pulse lasers operating in the green spectral range (including 515 nm and 532 nm). The GLOBDS- Green combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. It comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath-cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. A 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for a green short pulse laser with a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single-mode (M2 <1.3).

  20. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study Revealed Three Important Residues in Hc-DAF-22, a Key Enzyme Regulating Diapause of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22. In this study, Hc-daf-22 mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and carried out rescue experiments, RNA interference (RNAi experiments and in vitro enzyme activity analysis with the mutants to further explore the precise function site of Hc-DAF-22. The results showed that Hc-daf-22 mutants could be expressed in the rescued ok693 worms and the expression positions were mainly in the intestine which was identical with that of Hc-daf-22 rescued worms. Through lipid staining we found that Hc-daf-22 could rescue daf-22 mutant (ok693 from the fatty acid metabolism deficiency while Hc-daf-22 mutants failed. Brood size and body length analyses in rescue experiment along with body length and life span analyses in RNAi experiment elucidated that Hc-daf-22 resembled Ce-daf-22 in effecting the development and capacity of C. elegans and mutants impaired the function of Hc-daf-22. Together with the protease activity assay, this research revealed three important active resides 84C/299H/349H in Hc-DAF-22 by site-directed mutagenesis.

  1. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study Revealed Three Important Residues in Hc-DAF-22, a Key Enzyme Regulating Diapause of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zheng, Xiuping; Zhang, Hongli; Ding, Haojie; Guo, Xiaolu; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Du, Aifang

    2017-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus ( H. contortus ) is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22 . In this study, Hc-daf-22 mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and carried out rescue experiments, RNA interference (RNAi) experiments and in vitro enzyme activity analysis with the mutants to further explore the precise function site of Hc-DAF-22. The results showed that Hc-daf-22 mutants could be expressed in the rescued ok693 worms and the expression positions were mainly in the intestine which was identical with that of Hc-daf-22 rescued worms. Through lipid staining we found that Hc-daf-22 could rescue daf-22 mutant ( ok693 ) from the fatty acid metabolism deficiency while Hc-daf-22 mutants failed. Brood size and body length analyses in rescue experiment along with body length and life span analyses in RNAi experiment elucidated that Hc-daf-22 resembled Ce-daf-22 in effecting the development and capacity of C. elegans and mutants impaired the function of Hc-daf-22 . Together with the protease activity assay, this research revealed three important active resides 84C/299H/349H in Hc-DAF-22 by site-directed mutagenesis.

  2. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600)} system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jihoon; Lee, Gangwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Kim, Hwayong

    2007-01-01

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were obtained for the {1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600)} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 363.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules. This system shows positive azeotropic phase behaviour

  3. Investiční strategie pro klub HC Letci Letňany na akciovém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Utěšil, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Title: Investment Strategy for Club HC Letňany Flyers in the US Stock Market Objectives: The main goal of this thesis is to analyze and set the most expedient investment opportunities in the US stock market in order to achieve higher profitability than Czech investment funds that are standardly offered. Methods: Fundamental and technical analysis of macroeconomic and microeconomic environment done through publicly available secondary data reports of The Institute for Supply Management and his...

  4. Compact, integrable, and long life time Raman multiline UV-Vis source based on hypocycloid core Kagome HC-PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafer, M.; Lekiefs, Q.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2017-02-01

    Raman-gas filled HC-PCF has proved to be an outstanding Raman-convertor, as illustrated by the generation of more than 5 octaves wide Raman comb using a hydrogen-filled Kagome HC-PCF pumped with high power picosecond-laser, or the generation of multiline Raman-source in the UV-Vis using a very compact system pumped with micro-chip laser. Whilst these demonstrations are promising, a principal challenge for the industrialization of such a Raman source is its lifetime as the H2 diffusion through silica is high enough to leak out from the fiber within only a few months. Here, we report on a HC-PCF based Raman multiline source with a very long life-span. The system consists of hydrogen filled ultra-low loss HC-PCF contained in highly sealed box, coined CombBox, and pumped with a 532 nm micro-chip laser. This combination is a turnkey multiline Raman-source with a "shoe box" size. The CombBox is a robust and compact component that can be integrated and pumped with any common pulsed laser. When pumped with a 32 mW average power and 1 ns frequency-doubled Nd:Yag microchip laser, this Raman-source generates 24 lines spanning from 355 to 745 nm, and a peak power density per line of 260 mW/nm for the strongest lines. Both the output power and the spectrum remained constant over its monitoring duration of more than six months. The spectrum of this multiline laser superimposes with no less than 17 absorption peaks of fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family used as biological markers.

  5. Mosaic structure of intragenic repetitive elements in histone H1-like protein Hc2 varies within serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone-like protein Hc2 binds DNA in Chlamydia trachomatis and is known to vary in size between 165 and 237 amino acids, which is caused by different numbers of lysine-rich pentamers. A more complex structure was seen in this study when sequences from 378 specimens covering the hctB gene, which encodes Hc2, were compared. Results This study shows that the size variation is due to different numbers of 36-amino acid long repetitive elements built up of five pentamers and one hexamer. Deletions and amino acid substitutions result in 14 variants of repetitive elements and these elements are combined into 22 configurations. A protein with similar structure has been described in Bordetella but was now also found in other genera, including Burkholderia, Herminiimonas, Minibacterium and Ralstonia. Sequence determination resulted in 41 hctB variants that formed four clades in phylogenetic analysis. Strains causing the eye disease trachoma and strains causing invasive lymphogranuloma venereum infections formed separate clades, while strains from urogenital infections were more heterogeneous. Three cases of recombination were identified. The size variation of Hc2 has previously been attributed to deletions of pentamers but we show that the structure is more complex with both duplication and deletions of 36-amino acid long elements. Conclusions The polymorphisms in Hc2 need to be further investigated in experimental studies since DNA binding is essential for the unique biphasic life cycle of the Chlamydiacae. The high sequence variation in the corresponding hctB gene enables phylogenetic analysis and provides a suitable target for the genotyping of C. trachomatis.

  6. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) ≤ 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k eff = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle

  7. CSER 98-003: Criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into GloveboxHC-21 A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) ≤ 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k eff = 0.95. Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle

  8. Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" (Mc HC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Shizuo

    2011-10-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex pathophysiology with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. There are numerous numbers of classification trials published focusing on various criteria, such as associated anomalies/underlying lesions, CSF circulation/intracranial pressure patterns, clinical features, and other categories. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these aspects. The new classification of hydrocephalus, "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" (Mc HC), was invented and developed to cover the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with all considerable classification items and categories. Ten categories include "Mc HC" category I: onset (age, phase), II: cause, III: underlying lesion, IV: symptomatology, V: pathophysiology 1-CSF circulation, VI: pathophysiology 2-ICP dynamics, VII: chronology, VII: post-shunt, VIII: post-endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and X: others. From a 100-year search of publication related to the classification of hydrocephalus, 14 representative publications were reviewed and divided into the 10 categories. The Baumkuchen classification graph made from the round o'clock classification demonstrated the historical tendency of deviation to the categories in pathophysiology, either CSF or ICP dynamics. In the preliminary clinical application, it was concluded that "Mc HC" is extremely effective in expressing the individual state with various categories in the past and present condition or among the compatible cases of hydrocephalus along with the possible chronological change in the future.

  9. Preliminary investigation to use Bayesian networks in predicting NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, V.; Hafez, H.A.; Kristiansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    A Bayesian network was used to characterize Lister-Petter diesel combustion engine emissions. Three sets of tests were conducted: (1) full open throttle; (2) 68 per cent closed throttle; and (3) 58 per cent closed throttle. The first test simulated normal lean burning conditions, while the last 2 tests simulated a clogged air filter. Experiments were conducted in an engine generator assembly with a fixed speed governor of 1500 rpm. Electrochemical sensors were used to detect nitrogen oxide (NO x ); carbon dioxide (CO 2 ); carbon monoxide (CO); hydrocarbons; and particulate matter. Engine oil, engine outlet, and engine inlet and exhaust temperatures were digitally measured. Data from 20 experimental sets of tests were used to train, test and project accurate emission levels. The Bayesian network model was built using input variables and measured output parameters related to the exhaust components. Human knowledge was used to build relationships between defined nodes and a path condition algorithm. An estimation-maximization algorithm was used. Results of the validation study showed that the Bayesian network accurately predicted emissions levels. It was concluded that it is possible to predict engine emission outputs with probable acceptable levels using Bayesian network modelling techniques and limited experimental data. 33 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  11. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ≳25 but ≲100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower

  12. Efficacy of a potential trivalent vaccine based on Hc fragments of botulinum toxins A, B, and E produced in a cell-free expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichel, R; Mimran, A; Keren, A; Barnea, A; Steinberger-Levy, I; Marcus, D; Turgeman, A; Reuveny, S

    2010-05-01

    Botulinum toxins produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most potent biological toxins in nature. Traditionally, people at risk are immunized with a formaldehyde-inactivated toxin complex. Second generation vaccines are based on the recombinant carboxy-terminal heavy-chain (Hc) fragment of the neurotoxin. However, the materialization of this approach is challenging, mainly due to the high AT content of clostridial genes. Herein, we present an alternative strategy in which the native genes encoding Hc proteins of botulinum toxins A, B, and E were used to express the recombinant Hc fragments in a cell-free expression system. We used the unique property of this open system to introduce different combinations of chaperone systems, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and reducing/oxidizing environments directly to the expression reaction. Optimized expression conditions led to increased production of soluble Hc protein, which was successfully scaled up using a continuous exchange (CE) cell-free system. Hc proteins were produced at a concentration of more than 1 mg/ml and purified by one-step Ni(+) affinity chromatography. Mice immunized with three injections containing 5 microg of any of the in vitro-expressed, alum-absorbed, Hc vaccines generated a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer of 10(5) against the native toxin complex, which enabled protection against a high-dose toxin challenge (10(3) to 10(6) mouse 50% lethal dose [MsLD(50)]). Finally, immunization with a trivalent HcA, HcB, and HcE vaccine protected mice against the corresponding trivalent 10(5) MsLD(50) toxin challenge. Our results together with the latest developments in scalability of the in vitro protein expression systems offer alternative routes for the preparation of botulinum vaccine.

  13. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  15. Tritium-labelled hemicholinium-3 ([3H]HC-3): membrane binding properties and potential uses for a novel presynaptic marker in cholinergically-innervated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickroy, T.W.; Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affintiy choline uptake (SDHACU) is the primary regulatory step in acetylcholine biosynthesis and subserves an essential function in cholinergically-mediated neurotransmission. Recent studies with [ 3 H]hemicholinium-3 ([ 3 H]HC-3), a potent competitive inhibitor of SDHACU, reveal that closely associated membrane sites mediate high-affinity [ 3 H]HC-3 binding and SDHACU. In this report, supportive evidences for this association are presented and potential uses of [ 3 H]HC-3 are outlined for studies of disorders that involve cholinergic nervous system dysfunction. 40 refs.; 1 figure

  16. Identita hokejbalového klubu HC Kert Park Praha a její využití v praxi

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlich, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    Title: Identity of HC KERT Park Praha and its usage in reality Objectives: The goal of this work is to create a project that leads to a better corporate identity of HC KERT Park Praha. Methods: In our thesis we used three methods that are non-structured interviews, focus groups and SWOT analysis. Results: It was found out that the identity of HC KERT Park Praha is incomplete and most respondents see it negatively. The respondents agreed on three main factors that could lead to improvement of ...

  17. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  18. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  1. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  2. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  3. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  4. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  5. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  6. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  7. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  10. Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): Examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions. Methods Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The scale’s sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d), and standardized response means (SRM). Results The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale’s responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal

  11. Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Knaak, Stephanie; Kassam, Aliya; Szeto, Andrew C H

    2014-04-23

    Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions. Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The scale's sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen's d), and standardized response means (SRM). The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale's responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal-based items comprising the Attitude

  12. Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.

  13. Addendum 4 to CSAR 81-001, Installation of an Official Critical Drain on the Plexiglass Contamination Barrier in HC-227T Hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report defines the maximum space allowed between the floor surface and the lower edge of an official criticality drain which is to be installed on the plexiglas contamination barrier in HC-227T Hood

  14. Functional replacement of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro with the corresponding cistron from a diverse array of viruses in the family Potyviridae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, Drake C.; French, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Wheat streak mosaic virus strain Sidney 81 (WSMV-Sidney 81) was systematically replaced with the corresponding cistron derived from four strains of WSMV (Type, TK1, CZ, and El Batan 3), the tritimovirus Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), the rymoviruses Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV), or the potyviruses Tobacco etch virus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). These HC-Pro proteins varied in amino acid sequence identity shared with HC-Pro of WSMV-Sidney 81 from high (strains of WSMV at ∼86-99%) to moderate (ONMV at 70%) to low (rymoviruses and potyviruses at ∼15-17%). Surprisingly, all chimeric viral genomes examined were capable of systemic infection of wheat upon inoculation with RNA transcripts produced in vitro. HC-Pro replacements derived from tritimoviruses did not alter host range relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, as each of these chimeric viruses was able to systemically infect wheat, oat, and corn line SDp2. These results indicate that differences in host range among tritimoviruses, including the inability of ONMV to infect wheat or the inability of WSMV strains Type and El Batan 3 to infect SDp2 corn, are not determined by HC-Pro. In contrast, all chimeric viruses bearing HC-Pro replacements derived from rymoviruses or potyviruses were unable to infect SDp2 corn and oat. Collectively, these results indicate that HC-Pro from distantly related virus species of the family Potyviridae are competent to provide WSMV-Sidney 81 with all functions necessary for infection of a permissive host (wheat) and that virus-host interactions required for systemic infection of oat and SDp2 corn are more stringent. Changes in symptom severity or mechanical transmission efficiency observed for some chimeric viruses further suggest that HC-Pro affects virulence in WSMV

  15. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  16. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  17. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice.

  20. Dissociation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: molecular dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Rapacioli, M.; Rouaut, G.; Trinquier, G.; Gadéa, F. X.

    2017-03-01

    We present dynamical studies of the dissociation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical cations in their ground electronic states with significant internal energy. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed, the electronic structure being described on-the-fly at the self-consistent-charge density functional-based tight binding (SCC-DFTB) level of theory. The SCC-DFTB approach is first benchmarked against DFT results. Extensive simulations are achieved for naphthalene , pyrene and coronene at several energies. Such studies enable one to derive significant trends on branching ratios, kinetics, structures and hints on the formation mechanism of the ejected neutral fragments. In particular, dependence of branching ratios on PAH size and energy were retrieved. The losses of H and C2H2 (recognized as the ethyne molecule) were identified as major dissociation channels. The H/C2H2 ratio was found to increase with PAH size and to decrease with energy. For , which is the most interesting PAH from the astrophysical point of view, the loss of H was found as the quasi-only channel for an internal energy of 30 eV. Overall, in line with experimental trends, decreasing the internal energy or increasing the PAH size will favour the hydrogen loss channels with respect to carbonaceous fragments. This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'.

  1. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and SO2 from civil aviation in China in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiyi; Sun, Yifei; Zhu, Tianle; Wen, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Civil aviation in China has developed rapidly in recent years, and the effects of civil aviation emissions on the atmospheric environment should not be neglected. The establishment of emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants from civil aviation contributes to related policy formation and pollution control. According to the 2010's China flight schedules, aircraft/engine combination information and revised emission indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization emission data bank based on meteorological data, the fuel consumption and HC, CO, NOx, CO2, SO2 emissions from domestic flights of civil aviation in China (excluding Taiwan Province) in 2010 are estimated in this paper. The results show that fuel consumption in 2010 on domestic flights in China is 12.12 million tons (metric tons), HC, CO, NOx, CO2 and SO2 emissions are 4600 tons, 39,700 tons, 154,100 tons, 38.21 million tons and 9700 tons, respectively. The fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of China Southern Airline are responsible for the largest national proportion of each, accounting for 27% and 25-28%, respectively.

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0-5 degrees C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Bonaunet, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 degrees C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C(10)-C(36) n-alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 degrees C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 degree C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 degree C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 degrees C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures < or =5 degrees C, and psychrotrophic or psychrophilic bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing

  3. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  4. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  5. The antimicrobial effect of CEN1HC-Br against Propionibacterium acnes and its therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects on acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Cheng, Hao; Li, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo. The antimicrobial activity of CEN1HC-Br was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays using the broth dilution method. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, HaCaT cells and human monocytes were treated with different concentration of CEN1HC-Br after stimulation by P. acnes. The expression of TLR2 and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, respectively, were measured by enzyme immunoassays. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in rat ear was conducted to compare the in vivo antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of CEN1HC-Br, the expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. CEN1HC-Br showed stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than clindamycin. CEN1HC-Br significantly reduced the expression of interleukin IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and TLR2 in monocytes, but they were not influenced by clindamycin. Both CEN1HC-Br and Clindamycin attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in rat along with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2. Our data demonstrates that CEN1HC-Br is bactericidal against P. acnes and that it has an anti-inflammatory effect on monocytes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through TLR2 down-regulation, triggering an innate immune response and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 The

  6. Hc-daf-2 encodes an insulin-like receptor kinase in the barber's pole worm, Haemonchus contortus, and restores partial dauer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Facai; Lok, James B; Gasser, Robin B; Korhonen, Pasi K; Sandeman, Mark R; Shi, Deshi; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xiangrui; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2014-06-01

    Infective L3s (iL3s) of parasitic nematodes share common behavioural, morphological and developmental characteristics with the developmentally arrested (dauer) larvae of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is proposed that similar molecular mechanisms regulate entry into or exit from the dauer stage in C. elegans, and the transition from free-living to parasitic forms of parasitic nematodes. In C. elegans, one of the key factors regulating the dauer transition is the insulin-like receptor (designated Ce-DAF-2) encoded by the gene Ce-daf-2. However, nothing is known about DAF-2 homologues in most parasitic nematodes. Here, using a PCR-based approach, we identified and characterised a gene (Hc-daf-2) and its inferred product (Hc-DAF-2) in Haemonchus contortus (a socioeconomically important parasitic nematode of ruminants). The sequence of Hc-DAF-2 displays significant sequence homology to insulin receptors (IR) in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and contains conserved structural domains. A sequence encoding an important proteolytic motif (RKRR) identified in the predicted peptide sequence of Hc-DAF-2 is consistent with that of the human IR, suggesting that it is involved in the formation of the IR complex. The Hc-daf-2 gene was transcribed in all life stages of H. contortus, with a significant up-regulation in the iL3 compared with other stages. To compare patterns of expression between Hc-daf-2 and Ce-daf-2, reporter constructs fusing the Ce-daf-2 or Hc-daf-2 promoter to sequence encoding GFP were microinjected into the N2 strain of C. elegans, and transgenic lines were established and examined. Both genes showed similar patterns of expression in amphidial (head) neurons, which relate to sensation and signal transduction. Further study by heterologous genetic complementation in a daf-2-deficient strain of C. elegans (CB1370) showed partial rescue of function by Hc-daf-2. Taken together, these findings provide a first insight into the roles of Hc

  7. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique.

  8. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600ppm) in 3months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  10. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein specific for the metabolically inactive chlamydial developmental form, the elementary body. Hc1 induces DNA condensation in Escherichia coli and is a strong inhibitor of transcription and translation. These effects may......-hydroxysuccinimide ester), purified recombinant Hc1 was found to form dimers. The dimerization site was located in the N-terminal part of Hc1 (Hc1(2-57)). Moreover, circular dichroism measurements indicated an overall alpha-helical structure of this region. By using limited proteolysis, Southwestern blotting, and gel...

  11. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  12. Polypropylene/ hydrocarbon resin blends nanocomposites; Blendas de polipropileno e resina hidrocarbonica com adicao de nanoparticulas de argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Marlon W.M. da; Chinellato, Anne C.; Vidotti, Suel E., E-mail: suel.vidotti@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    This work dealt with a study on the incorporation of hydrocarbon resin (HC) (Sukorez-120) and organoclay nanoparticles (MMT) (Cloisite 20A) to a homopolymer polypropylene (PP) matrix. The mixtures were done using a twin screw extruder and after molded into thin films. The films were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), melt flow index (MFI), X-ray diffraction (DRX) and water vapor permeability. In general, the addition of the hydrocarbon resin led to an increase on the polypropylene crystallinity and a reduction on the water vapor permeability, when compared to the pristine PP. Although it was not possible to perceive synergism by the addition of the organoclay, once the samples containing both HC and MMT presented similar crystallinity but higher permeation values than those obtained by the mixtures prepared without the organoclay. This behavior could be attributed to the lack of the organoclay dispersion, as demonstrated by X-ray, as well as to interface defects that could result in worst barrier properties. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  14. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  15. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  16. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  17. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  18. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  19. Magnetic Parameter Changes in Soil and Sediments in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M. L.; Ameen, N. N.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic proxies were successfully used for fast and non-destructive detection of fly ash related heavy metal pollution. Correlations of magnetic signals with organic contaminants in soils and sediments were also reported; however, their significance is unclear because of co-existing heavy metal pollution. At a hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated former military airbase (Hradcany, Czech Rep.), where heavy metal contents are insignificant, we detected clearly higher magnetic concentrations at the top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. Frequent GWF by up to ca. one meter was caused through remediation by air sparging. In this study and all previous ones magnetite was identified as the dominant phase for higher magnetic concentrations. To determine the importance of microbial activity and soil parameters on changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) laboratory batch experiments with different microbially active and sterile soils without carbon addition and with gasoline amendment were setup. MS of these microcosms was followed weekly. Depending on the soil MS either increased or decreased by up to ~7% and remained constant afterwards. The main findings were that MS changes were mainly microbially driven and influenced by the bioavailable Fe content, the initial MS and the organic carbon content of the soils. Moreover, we tested magnetic changes in laboratory columns, filled with sand from the field site Hradcany, by simulating water level changes. The observed changes were small and hardly statistically significant. Our laboratory studies revealed that different factors influence changes in magnetic properties of soil/sediments after HC contamination, with much smaller effects than expected from anomalies observed at field sites. With the present results, the ambitious goal of using magnetic monitoring for detecting HC contaminations by oil spills seem far from practical application.

  20. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray-Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities.

  1. Random mutagenesis of BoNT/E Hc nanobody to construct a secondary phage-display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, B; Mousavi Gargari, S L; Rasooli, I; Rajabi Bazl, M; Hoseinpoor, R

    2014-08-01

    To construct secondary mutant phage-display library of recombinant single variable domain (VHH) against botulinum neurotoxin E by error-prone PCR. The gene coding for specific VHH derived from the camel immunized with binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) was amplified by error-prone PCR. Several biopanning rounds were used to screen the phage-displaying BoNT/E Hc nanobodies. The final nanobody, SHMR4, with increased affinity recognized BoNT/E toxin with no cross-reactivity with other antigens especially with related BoNT toxins. The constructed nanobody could be a suitable candidate for VHH-based biosensor production to detect the Clostridium botulinum type E. Diagnosis and treatment of botulinum neurotoxins are important. Generation of high-affinity antibodies based on the construction of secondary libraries using affinity maturation step leads to the development of reagents for precise diagnosis and therapy. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  3. Heavy Metals and Radioactive Characterization of the Main Materials Involved in the HC-FeMn Alloy Production Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, H. [Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Bakr, H.; Elnimr, T. [Tanta University (Egypt); Sharshar, T. [Kafrelsheikh University (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    Natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are always present in association with a variety of elements in the geological formations. The extraction of non-radioactive minerals from the mineral matrices may lead to the buildup of NORM in wastes and/or end product with different concentrations of uranium and thorium daughters, depending on extraction procedures, initial concentrations and chemical forms of the NORM in the mineral matrices. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used for the quantitative assessment of radionuclides and the associated radiation hazards at the high carbon Ferromanganese alloy (HC-FeMn) production plant in Abu Zenima (West Sinai, Egypt). The low grad Mn from Um Bogma is mixed with Norwegian Mn to improve its quality. While the Egyptian raw Mn is richer in {sup 238}U, Cu and Zn, the Norwegian raw Mn is richer in {sup 40}K and Mn. The mixing process leads to increasing concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and Zn. Enhanced concentrations of Mn, Cu and Zn were also found in the waste. The radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in different raw materials used in the alloy formation process, HC-FeMn alloy, waste and other mining products produced by the same company are also determined. The estimated range of the total activities of wastes produced annually by the extraction process are 8.7-17.3, 0.7-1.3 and 6.7-13.4 GBq for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent in waste dumps with these increased fractions of NORM are 225 nGy/h and 276 mSv, respectively. This investigation does not recommend the use of the waste in housing construction or as filling materials in the area where houses may be built on or near the tailing piles. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  5. Modeling unburned hydrocarbon formation due to absorption/desorption processes into the wall oil film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.K.; Assanis, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as a result of continuing air pollution problems, very stringent regulations are being enforced to control emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) from premixed-charge, spark-ignition engines. A number of attempts have been reported on modeling sources of HC emissions using various analytical tools. Over the past decade, the development of multi-dimensional reacting flow codes has advanced considerably. Perhaps the most widely used multi-dimensional engine simulation code is KIVA-II, which was developed at Lost Alamos National Laboratory. The ability to deal with moving boundary conditions caused by the piston movement is built in this code. This code also includes models for turbulent fluid flow, turbulent interaction between spray drops and gas, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and fuel spray. A standard k-ε turbulence model is used for gas flow. The fuel spray model is based on the stochastic particle technique, and includes sub-models for droplet injection, breakup, collision and coalescence, and evaporation

  6. Biodistribution and excretion of radioactivity after the administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) into the prostate of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Kyoo; Ryu, Jei Man; Bae, Eun Jeong; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Shigematsu, Akiyo; Hatori, Yasuhiko; Nishigaki, Junko; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Kyong Bae

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the 166 Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats by examining its absorption, distribution and excretion after administration into the prostate. About 100 μCi of DW-166HC [containing 0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and 0.25 mg of chitosan] was administered intraprostatically. The level of radioactivity in blood, urinary and faecal excretion, and radioactivity distribution were examined. To determine the effect of chitosan in DW-166HC, 166 Ho nitrate alone [0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O] was administered into the prostate of male rats, and radioactivity distribution was examined using whole-body autoradiography. After administration of DW-166HC into the prostate, cumulative urinary and faecal excretion over the period 0-72 h was 0.35% and 0.11%, respectively. The radioactivity at the administration site was extremely high at all time points up to 144 h (>98% of injected dose). The small amount of radioactivity which did transfer from the administration site distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone. Compared with the DW-166HC group, the group that received 166 Ho nitrate alone displayed three- to fourfold higher levels of radioactivity in the main tissues, including liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone, at 24 h after administration (P<0.05). (orig.)

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  9. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  10. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein specific for the metabolically inactive chlamydial developmental form, the elementary body. Hc1 induces DNA condensation in Escherichia coli and is a strong inhibitor of transcription and translation. These effects may......-hydroxysuccinimide ester), purified recombinant Hc1 was found to form dimers. The dimerization site was located in the N-terminal part of Hc1 (Hc1(2-57)). Moreover, circular dichroism measurements indicated an overall alpha-helical structure of this region. By using limited proteolysis, Southwestern blotting, and gel...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  11. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  12. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  14. Kinetics of the reactions H+C2H4->C2H5, H+C2H5->2CH3 and CH3+C2H5->products studies by pulse radiolysis combined with infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, A.; Ratajczak, E.; Pagsberg, P.

    1993-01-01

    Formation of methyl radicals via the consecutive reactions H+C2H4+M-->C2H5+M (1) and H+C2H5-->CH3+CH3 (2a) was initiated by pulse radiolysis of 10-100 mbar H-2 in the presence of ethylene. The kinetics of CH3 Were studied by monitoring the transient infrared absorption at the Q(3, 3) line of the ...

  15. Intercalation crystallization of phase-pure α-HC(NH₂)₂PbI₃ upon microstructurally engineered PbI₂ thin films for planar perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Kwun, Joonsuh; Game, Onkar S; Zhao, Yixin; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai

    2016-03-28

    The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (α-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%.

  16. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  17. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  18. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  19. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  20. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of Nigeria's Inland Basins: From the View Point of Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Abubakar, M. B.; Jauro, A.; Tukur, A.; Wehner, H.

    2003-01-01

    The inland basins of Nigeria comprise the Anambra basin, the lower, middle and upper Benue trough, the southeastern sector of the Chad basin, the Mid-Niger (Bida) basin, and the Sokoto basin. Organic geochemical and organic petrologic studies indicate that coal beds constitute major potential source rocks in the whole of the Benue trough (Anambra basin inclusive). The generation and production of liquid and i gaseous hydrocarbons from coal beds presently is world-wide indisputable. In the Anambra basin, the coal beds in the Mamu Formation have TOC contents of up to 60.8wt%, mean Hydrogen Index (HI) of 364mgHC/gTOC, vitrinite reflectivity (Ro) of 0.54 to 0.56% and Tmax 430 to 433degrees C. Biomarker data indicate a dominance of high molecular weight : n-alkanes, very high pristane/phytane ratios, pronounced odd-over-even predominance (OEP), preponderance of C29 regular steranes but with also relatively high contents of C28. In the middle Benue trough, the coal beds of the Awgu Formation have TOC contents of up to 79.1 Owt%, Ro of 0.83 to 1.07%, and mean HI of 281 mgHC/gTOC; unimodal distributions of both low and high molecular weight n-alkanes with no obvious OEP, and a predominance of C29 steranes but also with relatively high contents of C27 and C28. Coal beds from the Lamja Formation in the upper Benue trough yielded TOC contents of up to 50.7wt% with HI of 184mgHC/gTOC, Ro of 0.70 to 0.73%, low and high molecular weights n- alkane dominance with an unpronounced OEP, high pristane/phytane ratios, and very high contents of C29 regular steranes. On a basinal evaluation level, incorporating source rock data from the other formations in the respective sectors, plots on the modified Van Krevelen diagram alongside biomarker and maceral data indicate good i to fair source rock qualities (oil and gas) in the Anambra basin and middle Benue trough; and fair to poor (gaseous to dry) in the upper Benue trough and the Chad basin, with sporadic good to fair source rock

  1. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  2. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  3. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  4. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  5. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  6. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  7. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  8. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  9. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  10. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  11. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  12. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  13. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  14. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  15. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI: An update and initial experience at HC-FMUSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Summary The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT, including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors. On the other hand, the evaluation of the lungs remains an enigma although new MRI sequences are being designed to overcome this. More clinical indications of PET/MRI are seen in the fields of neurology, cardiology and inflammatory processes, and the use of PET/MRI also opens perspectives for pediatric populations as it involves very low radiation exposure. Our review aimed to highlight the current indications of PET/MRI and discuss the challenges and perspectives of PET/MRI at HC-FMUSP.

  16. Sensitivity study of the Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ couplings for e$^+$- e$^-$ collisions at FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Heckmann, Lea Alina

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is one of the possible future projects proposed at CERN. With a circumference of 80 - 100km it should initially serve as an e$^+$- e$^-$ collider reaching energies between 90 - 350 GeV. While operating at centre of mass energies of 240 GeV and luminosities of 5*10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ FCC should be used as a Higgs factory with the aim of validating standard model predictions. Therefore, it should be able to measure the Higgs couplings with precisions around 1%. In order to estimate the sensitivity of the branching ratio for $H\\rightarrow c\\bar{c}$ (BR(Hcc)) a simultaneous simulation and analysis of Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ is necessary. Therefore, events were generated for both cases and afterwards the CMS detector with an added c-tagging method was used to simulate the detector response. Relevant events were selected and afterwards used for optimising a simultaneous fit determining BR(Hbb) and BR(Hcc) and its uncertainties. The same procedure was applied while chang...

  17. C3HC4-type RING finger protein NbZFP1 is involved in growth and fruit development in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wu

    Full Text Available C3HC4-type RING finger proteins constitute a large family in the plant kingdom and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, a C3HC4-type zinc finger gene was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 24-kDa protein with 191 amino acids containing one typical C3HC4-type zinc finger domain; this gene was named NbZFP1. Transient expression of pGDG-NbZFP1 demonstrated that NbZFP1 was localized to the chloroplast, especially in the chloroplasts of cells surrounding leaf stomata. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS analysis indicated that silencing of NbZFP1 hampered fruit development, although the height of the plants was normal. An overexpression construct was then designed and transferred into Nicotiana benthamiana, and PCR and Southern blot showed that the NbZFP1 gene was successfully integrated into the Nicotiana benthamiana genome. The transgenic lines showed typical compactness, with a short internode length and sturdy stems. This is the first report describing the function of a C3HC4-type RING finger protein in tobacco.

  18. 22 March 2012 - Canada Foundation for Innovation Senior Programs Officer H.-C. Bandulet with spouse in the ATLAS visitor centre guided by Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    CERN-HI-1203073 16: Senior Canadian Scientist, ATLAS Collaboration, University of Toronto/IPP R. Teuscher; L. Andrzejewski(Spouse); H.-C. Bandulet; R.Voss (behind);ATLAS Collaboration, University of Toronto N.Ilic; ;ATLAS Collaboration, University of Toronto, R. Rezvani; ATLAS Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  19. Evaluation of the performance of the novel PapilloCheck HPV genotyping test by comparison with two other genotyping systems and the HC2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schopp, Betti; Holz, Barbara; Zago, Manola

    2010-01-01

    The novel PapilloCheck genotyping test was compared with SPF10 PCR LiPav1 and PGMY09/11 on hybrid capture 2 (HC2)-pretested samples. From results of 826 cervical samples detection rates and kappa values for the tests were calculated using a HPV type consensus definition. With PapilloCheck HPV typ...

  20. Next-generation sequencing to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers for a novel Phytophthora resistance gene, RpsHC18, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Li, Yinping; Duan, Canxing; Zhu, Zhendong

    2018-03-01

    A novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene RpsHC18 was identified and finely mapped on soybean chromosome 3. Two NBS-LRR candidate genes were identified and two diagnostic markers of RpsHC18 were developed. Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean. The most effective disease-control strategy is to deploy resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora-resistant Rps genes. The soybean cultivar Huachun 18 has a broad and distinct resistance spectrum to 12 P. sojae isolates. Quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq), based on the whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of two extreme resistant and susceptible phenotype bulks from an F 2:3 population, was performed, and one 767-kb genomic region with ΔSNP-index ≥ 0.9 on chromosome 3 was identified as the RpsHC18 candidate region in Huachun 18. The candidate region was reduced to a 146-kb region by fine mapping. Nonsynonymous SNP and haplotype analyses were carried out in the 146-kb region among ten soybean genotypes using WGRS. Four specific nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in two nucleotide-binding sites-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes, RpsHC18-NBL1 and RpsHC18-NBL2, which were considered to be the candidate genes. Finally, one specific SNP marker in each candidate gene was successfully developed using a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay, and the two markers were verified to be specific for RpsHC18 and to effectively distinguish other known Rps genes. In this study, we applied an integrated genomic-based strategy combining WGRS with traditional genetic mapping to identify RpsHC18 candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers. These results suggest that next-generation sequencing is a precise, rapid and cost-effective way to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers, and it can accelerate Rps gene cloning and marker-assisted selection for breeding of P. sojae-resistant soybean cultivars.

  1. Relationship of serum S1P and HC-II levels with vasoactive substances and cytokines in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of serum sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P and heparin cofactor II (HCII levels with vasoactive substances and cytokines in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation. Methods: 52 patients who received cerebrovascular stent implantation and developed restenosis in our hospital between May 2012 and December 2015 were collected as observation group, and 40 healthy patients with cerebrovascular stent implantation who had re-examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. ELISA method was used to detect serum S1P and HC-II levels as well as vasoactive substance and inflammatory factor contents. Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of serum S1P and HC-II levels with vasoactive substances and inflammatory factors. Results: Serum S1P and HC-II levels of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vasoactive substances endothelin (ET, angiotensin II (AngII and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 contents of observation group were higher than those of control group while nitric oxide (NO content was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-11 contents of observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Serum S1P and HC-II levels in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation were directly correlated with vasoactive substance and inflammatory factor contents. Conclusion: Serum S1P and HC-II levels decrease in patients with cerebral vascular restenosis after stent implantation, and it is an important cause of cerebral vascular dysfunction and systemic inflammatory response.

  2. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  3. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  4. CD147-CD98hc complex contributes to poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients through promoting cell proliferation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fei; Li, Xiaofei; Xu, Li; Li, Deyang; Zhang, Zhipei; Guo, Xu; Yang, Hushan; Chen, Zhinan; Xing, Jinliang

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that CD147 and CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) form a complex on the cell plasma membrane of several cancers; however, whether this complex exists in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and affects the prognosis of patients remains to be elucidated. The expression of CD147 and CD98hc was assessed in tissue samples from 241 NSCLC patients and NSCLC cell lines. The correlation between CD147 and CD98hc expression and their association with the prognosis of NSCLC patients were analyzed. We also evaluated the impact of CD147 and CD98hc on the growth of NSCLC cells as well as Akt phosphorylation. Both CD147 and CD98hc were significantly upregulated in NSCLC cells, and their expression levels were significantly correlated (p CD147 and CD98hc could form a complex on NSCLC cells. Compared with NSCLC patients with CD147-/CD98hc-, those with CD147+/CD98hc+ exhibited a significantly poor overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.92 (p = 0.010), and a significantly increased risk of recurrence with a HR of 1.97 (p = 0.004). Also, we demonstrated that the proliferation of lung cancer cell lines was significantly affected by knockdown and force-expression of the CD147-CD98hc complex. Western blot analysis indicated that the phosphorylation of Akt in NSCLC cells was significantly affected by knockdown and overexpression of either or both CD147 and CD98hc. Our findings indicate that the CD147-CD98hc complex significantly contributes to poor prognosis of NSCLC patients through promoting cell proliferation via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  5. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  6. Radiographic image quality and dose at thorax, abdomen and skull of patients at HC-FMB-UNESP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Matheus; Giacomini, Guilherme; Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose R.A.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2013-01-01

    ICRP 103 specifies reference dose levels to be used during radiographic exams. Usually, the radiographer qualitative determines the best radiographic technique (kV and mAs) in order to obtain better image quality with the lowest dose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the doses used in examination of the chest, abdomen and skull in patients of different physical sizes, and infer about the amount of dose required to maintain acceptable radiological contrast in patients of different physical sizes. Techniques used by experienced radiographers of HC-FMB-UNESP for examinations of the chest (PA), abdomen (AP) and skull (AP) for patients of different thickness (small, medium and thick body) were obtained. Dose measurements were performed referring to all kV/mAs combinations. PMMA phantoms were placed below the ionization chamber. The Signal Difference Noise Ratio (SDNR) of the images of the phantoms were calculated from an area of contrast and a region of normal tissue. The Figure of Merit (FoM) was calculated for each of the exam modality. Measured FoM decreased according to the thickness of the chest and abdomen, indicating the need to increase the dose level to maintain the same level of image contrast. Patients thicker usually end up getting more than twice the dose of lean patients. Required image quality levels for correct diagnosis should be obtained using dose levels as low as reasonably practicable examination. These factors highlight the need for a program of quality assurance and effective dose studies in actual service. (author)

  7. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  8. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  9. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  10. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  11. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  12. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  13. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  14. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  15. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  16. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  17. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  18. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  19. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  20. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  1. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  2. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  3. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  4. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  5. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  6. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  7. Effect of Biodiesel of Spent Cooking Oil Addition at Diesel Fuel to Opacity and Gas Emission Throw Away of CO, CO2 and HC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyadji, Moch; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of biodiesel spent cooking oil addition effect at diesel fuel to opacity and gas emission throw away on various engine rotation speed has been done. The variables observed were fuel specific used i.e. pure diesel fuel, biodiesel mix 5% (B5), mix 10% (B10), mix 15% (B15), mix 20% (B20) and engine rotation speed. Gas emission throw away observed were CO, CO 2 , HC and opacity. Opacity and gas emission throwaway were observed by Opacity Sagem apparatus and gas analyzer. Result of experiment showed that biodiesel addition at diesel fuel was very decreasing opacity and gas emission throw away. The opacity lowest on B20, gas emission throw away lowest of CO on B10, CO 2 on B10 and HC on B20. (author)

  8. Measurement of 2J(H,C)- and 3J(H,C)-coupling constants by α/β selective HC(C)H-TOCSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchardt, Elke; Richter, Christian; Reif, Bernd; Glaser, Steffen J.; Engels, Joachim W.; Griesinger, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald

    2001-01-01

    A new heteronuclear NMR pulse sequence for the measurement of n J(C,H) coupling constants, the α/βselective HC(C)H-TOCSY, is described. It is shown that the S 3 E element (Meissner et al., 1997a,b) can be used to obtain spin state selective coherence transfer in molecules, in which adjacent CH moieties are labeled with 13 C. Application of the α/β selective HC(C)H-TOCSY to a 10nt RNA tetraloop 5'-CGCUUUUGCG-3', in which the four uridine residues are 13 C labeled in the sugar moiety, allowed measurement of two bond and three bond J(C,H) coupling constants, which provide additional restraints to characterize the sugar ring conformation of RNA in cases of conformational averaging

  9. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  10. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  11. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  12. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Detergent-induced stabilization and improved 3D map of the human heteromeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc-LAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meury, Marcel; Costa, Meritxell; Harder, Daniel; Stauffer, Mirko; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, Béla; Rosell, Albert; Ilgü, Hüseyin; Kovar, Karin; Palacín, Manuel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level.

  15. Detergent-induced stabilization and improved 3D map of the human heteromeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc-LAT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Meury

    Full Text Available Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level.

  16. Observation of e(+)e(-) -> pi(0)pi(0)h(c) and a Neutral Charmoniumlike Structure Z(c)(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. T.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected with the BESIII detector operating at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider at center-of-mass energies of root s = 4.23, 4.26, and 4.36 GeV, we observe e(+)e(-) -> pi(0)pi(0)h(c) for the first time. The Born cross sections are measured and found to be about half of those of

  17. Surface collisions of formic acid cations HCOOH+ and DCOOD+ with a hydrocarbon-covered stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepnual, Thawatchai; Feketeová, Linda; Grill, Verena; Scheier, Paul; Herman, Zdenek; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2005-07-01

    Interaction of the formic acid cation HCOOH+ with a stainless steel surface covered with hydrocarbons has been studied as a function of the collision energy from a few eV up to 40 eV. Mass spectra of the product ions showed ions produced by surface-induced dissociation of the projectile and formation of HCO2H2+ in interaction with the surface material. The fragmentation of the projectile led to product ions HCOO+ and CHO+. The product ion HCO2H2+ fragmented to give only CHO+, indicating that its structure was HC(OH)2+ as suggested earlier by others. The results were confirmed by studies using the deuterated formic acid cation DCOOD+.

  18. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Campoy, Pedro J; Robles, Francisca; Schwarzacher, Trude; Ruiz Rejón, Carmelo; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.). The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs) of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30) could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II) with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  19. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Sola-Campoy

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.. The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30 could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  20. To Reduce of HC and SO2 Emission from Engine’s Exhaust with Local of TiO2 to Inserted in Active Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2007-01-01

    The Active carbon can be use to adsorb of emission HC and SO 2 gas from Engine’s exhaust. The result of this research, to make active carbon with 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm length in Engine’s exhaust can be reduce of HC are 78.480 %, 81.500 % and 86.320 %. The inserted of 5, 10, 15 % TiO 2 in active carbon with 15 cm length can be reduce of HC are 88.290 %, 91.550 % and 94.920 %. With 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm length of variation in Engine’s exhaust can be reduce of SO 2 are 48.630 %, 60.517 % and 60.517 %. The inserted of 5, 10, 15 % TiO 2 in active carbon to make 15 cm length can be reduce of SO 2 are 80.223 %, 82.594 % and 87.696 %. The result of this research to known that the make of 15 % of TiO 2 inserted in active carbon is more effective with 5 % and 10 % of TiO 2 . (author)

  1. Performance of the digene LQ, RH and PS HPVs genotyping systems on clinical samples and comparison with HC2 and PCR-based Linear Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez, Jose M; Tous, Sara; Baixeras, Nuria; Moreno-Crespi, Judith; Alejo, María; Lejeune, Marylène; Bravo, Ignacio G; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2011-11-18

    Certain Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the infectious agents involved in cervical cancer development. Detection of HPVs DNA is part of the cervical cancer screening protocols and HPVs genotyping has been proposed for its inclusion in these preventive programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel genotyping tests, namely Qiagen LQ, RH and PS, in clinical samples with and without abnormalities. For this, 305 cervical samples were processed and the results of the evaluated techniques were compared with those obtained in the HPVs diagnostic process in our lab, by using HC2 and Linear Array (LA) technologies. The concordances and kappa statistics (k) for each technique compared with HC2 were 98.69% (k = 0.94) for LQ, 98.03% (k = 0.91) for RH and 91.80% (k = 0.82) for PS. There was a very good agreement in HPVs type-specific concordance for the most prevalent types HPV16 (kappa range = 0.83-0.90), HPV18 (k.r.= 0.74-0.80) and HPV45 (k.r.= 0.82-0.90). The three tests showed an overall good concordance for HPVs detection when compared with HR-HC2 system. LQ and RH rendered lower detection rate for multiple infections than LA genotyping. However, our understanding of the clinical significance of multiple HPVs infections is still incomplete and therefore the relevance of the lower ability to detect multiple infections needs to be evaluated.

  2. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  3. Proton conducting hydrocarbon membranes: Performance evaluation for room temperature direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivobokov, Ivan M.; Gribov, Evgeniy N.; Okunev, Alexey G.

    2011-01-01

    The methanol permeability, proton conductivity, water uptake and power densities of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at room temperature are reported for sulfonated hydrocarbon (sHC) and perfluorinated (PFSA) membranes from Fumatech, and compared to Nafion membranes. The sHC membranes exhibit lower proton conductivity (25-40 mS cm -1 vs. ∼95-40 mS cm -1 for Nafion) as well as lower methanol permeability (1.8-3.9 x 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 vs. 2.4-3.4 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 for Nafion). Water uptake was similar for all membranes (18-25 wt%), except for the PFSA membrane (14 wt%). Methanol uptake varied from 67 wt% for Nafion to 17 wt% for PFSA. The power density of Nafion in DMFCs at room temperature decreases with membrane thickness from 26 mW cm -2 for Nafion 117 to 12.5 mW cm -2 for Nafion 112. The maximum power density of the Fumatech membranes ranges from 4 to 13 mW cm -1 . Conventional transport parameters such as membrane selectivity fail to predict membrane performance in DMFCs. Reliable and easily interpretable results are obtained when the power density is plotted as a function of the transport factor (TF), which is the product of proton concentration in the swollen membrane and the methanol flux. At low TF values, cell performance is limited by low proton conductivity, whereas at high TF values it decreases due to methanol crossover. The highest maximum power density corresponds to intermediate values of TF.

  4. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkov Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (subunits contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III, locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC. TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  5. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  6. Effect of ethanol–gasoline blends on CO and HC emissions in last generation SI engines within the cold-start transient: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, Paolo; Senatore, Adolfo; Langella, Giuseppe; Amoresano, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study assesses the effect of ethanol–gasoline blends on cold emissions. • A last generation motorcycle was operated on the chassis dynamometer. • A new calculation procedure was applied to model the cold transient behaviour. • The 20% v/v ethanol blend shows the highest reduction of CO and HC cold emissions. - Abstract: Urban areas in developed countries are characterized by an increasing decline in air quality state mainly due to the exhaust emissions from vehicles. Besides, due to catalyst improvements and electronic mixture control of last generation engines, nowadays CO and HC cold start extra-emissions are heavily higher than emissions exhausted in hot conditions, with a clear consequence on air quality of the urban contexts. Ethanol combined with gasoline can be widely used as an alternative fuel due to the benefit of its high octane number and its self-sustaining characteristics. Ethanol, in fact, is well known as potential alcohol alternative fuel for SI engines, since it can be blended with gasoline to increase oxygen content, then decreasing CO and HC emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels. Literature data about cold emissive behaviour of SI engines powered with ethanol/gasoline blended fuels are rather limited. For this reason, the aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of ethanol/gasoline blends on CO and HC cold start emissions of four-stroke SI engines: a last generation motorcycle was operated on the chassis dynamometer for exhaust emission measurements without change to the engine design, while the ethanol was mixed with unleaded gasoline in different percentages (10, 20 and 30 vol.%). Results of the experimental tests and the application of a new calculation procedure, designed and optimised to model the cold transient behaviour of SI engines using different ethanol–gasoline blends, indicate that CO and HC cold start emissions decrease compared to the use of commercial gasoline, with the 20

  7. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  9. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  10. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  13. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  14. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  15. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  16. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  17. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  18. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  19. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  20. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  1. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  2. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  3. Performance of the digene LQ, RH and PS HPVs genotyping systems on clinical samples and comparison with HC2 and PCR-based Linear Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godínez Jose M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are the infectious agents involved in cervical cancer development. Detection of HPVs DNA is part of the cervical cancer screening protocols and HPVs genotyping has been proposed for its inclusion in these preventive programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel genotyping tests, namely Qiagen LQ, RH and PS, in clinical samples with and without abnormalities. For this, 305 cervical samples were processed and the results of the evaluated techniques were compared with those obtained in the HPVs diagnostic process in our lab, by using HC2 and Linear Array (LA technologies. Results The concordances and kappa statistics (k for each technique compared with HC2 were 98.69% (k = 0.94 for LQ, 98.03% (k = 0.91 for RH and 91.80% (k = 0.82 for PS. There was a very good agreement in HPVs type-specific concordance for the most prevalent types HPV16 (kappa range = 0.83-0.90, HPV18 (k.r.= 0.74-0.80 and HPV45 (k.r.= 0.82-0.90. Conclusions The three tests showed an overall good concordance for HPVs detection when compared with HR-HC2 system. LQ and RH rendered lower detection rate for multiple infections than LA genotyping. However, our understanding of the clinical significance of multiple HPVs infections is still incomplete and therefore the relevance of the lower ability to detect multiple infections needs to be evaluated.

  4. Optical microscope study of the γ(FCC)ε(HC) martensitic transformation of a Fe-16%Mn-9%Cr-5%Si-4%Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeon, N.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    The γ(FCC) ε(HC) transformation is studied by light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in a polycrystalline Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloy. Thermal and stress-induced martensites are both studied to point out differences. A color etching method permitted to clearly observe morphological evolutions during the transformation and its reversion. Deformations of a golden microgrid deposed on austenitic samples are observed by SEM during the transformation. This technic has led to point out microscopic differences concerning the two kinds of martensite. SEM results are used to explain light optical microscopy observations. (orig.)

  5. On the activation of Pt/Al2O3 catalysts in HC-SCR by sintering. Determination of redox-active sites using Multitrack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, A.R.; Mul, G.; Moulijn, J.A.; Perez-Ramirez, J.

    2003-01-01

    A highly dispersed Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was used for the selective catalytic reduction of NO x using propene (HC-SCR). Contact with the reaction gas mixture led to a significant activation of the catalyst at temperatures above 523K. According to CO chemisorption data and HRTEM analysis, Pt particles on the activated catalyst had sintered. The redox behavior of the fresh and sintered catalysts was investigated using Multitrack, a TAP-like pulse reactor. If Pt particles on the catalyst are highly dispersed (average size below =2nm), only a small part (=10%) of the total number of Pt surface sites as determined by CO chemisorption (Pt surf ) participates in H 2 /O 2 redox cycles (Pt surf,redox ) in Multitrack conditions. For a sintered catalyst, with an average particle size of 2.7nm, the number of Pt surf and Pt surf,redox sites are in good agreement. Similar results were obtained for both catalysts using NO as the oxidant. The low number of Pt surf,redox sites on highly dispersed Pt/Al 2 O 3 is explained by the presence of a kinetically more stable-probably ionic-form of Pt-O bonds on all surface sites of the smaller Pt particles, including corner, edge and terrace sites. When the average particle size shifts to =2.7nm, the kinetic stability of all Pt-O bonds is collectively decreased, enabling the participation of all Pt surface sites in the redox cycles. A linear correlation between the NO x conversion in HC-SCR, and the amount of Pt surf,redox was found. This suggests that redox-active Pt sites are necessary for catalytic activity. In addition, the correlation could be significantly improved by assuming that Pt surf,terrace sites of the particles larger than 2.7nm are mainly responsible for HC-SCR activity in steady state conditions. Implications of these results for the pathway of HC-SCR over Pt catalysts are discussed

  6. Three millimeter molecular line observations in Sagittarius B2. 1: Full synthesis mapping study of HNO, CCS, and HC(13)CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Snyder, Lewis E.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first full synthesis maps of the small molecules HNO, CCS, and HC(13)CCN in Sgr B2. We have observed the 3.8 mm continuum, the HNO J(sub K(sub -1)K(sub 1)) = 1(sub O1)-0(sub OO), the CCS J(sub N) = 7(sub 6)-6(sub 5), and the HC(13)CCN J = 9-8 transitions in the core of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, using the Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association (BIMA) millimeter array and the NRAO 12 m telescope. We have found that HNO exists in five major gas clumps in the Sgr B2 region, which we have labeled HNO(N), HNO(NW), HNO(E), HNO(M), and HNO(S). Of particular interest is HNO(M), a major molecular gas concentration approximately 15 sec west of Sgr B2(M) in a region of young star formation. HNO is found to be closely associated with the ionized gas and might be depleted around bright H II complexes. In general, the peak intensity of the HNO emission is found to be offset from the peak of the continuum emission. We found evidence for some chemical differentiation among the three species, HNO, CCS, and HC(13)CCN, but the abundance ratios are in fair agreement with theoretical models. Two unidentified lines, U81420 and U81518, were observed, and a previously unknown compact dust source was detected. Our HNO data indicate the presence of a rotating approximately (2.2-4.4) x 10(exp 3)solar mass gas envelope surrounding Sgr B2(N), a possible bipolar gas outflow in HNO(M), and possibly a large (approximately 4.2 x 10(exp 4)solar mass) extended rotating disk associated with HNO(S). In addition, the CCS and HC(13)CCN data approximately outline the extended component of Sgr B2 and clearly show that the southern continuum source Sgr B2(S) is actually a major molecular source as well. Consequently, the kinematics of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud is quite complex, but in moving from the northwest to south, the LSR velocity generally changes from 79 to 46 km/s.

  7. Outstanding low temperature HC-SCR of NOx over platinum-group catalysts supported on mesoporous materials expecting diesel-auto emission regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Tamikuni; Tomokuni, Keizou; Yamada, Issaku

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding low temperature HC-SCR of NOx over platinum-group catalysts supported on mesoporous materials, which does not rely on the conventional NOx-absorption-reduction-catalysts, is presented for the purpose of de-NOx of diesel-auto emissions. The established catalysts basically consist of mesoporous silica or metal-substituted mesoporous silicates for supports and platinum for active species, which is operated under lean- and rich-conditions. The new catalysts are very active at 150-200 o C and free from difficult problems of SOx-deactivation and hydrothermal ageing of the NOx-absorption-reduction catalyst. (author)

  8. POTENCIALIDADES DE Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar CEPA HC1 PARA EL MANEJO DEHypothenemus hampei Ferr . II. COMPATIBILIDAD CON Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo ) Vuillemin y Endosulfan

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Lourdes; Rodríguez, MayraG

    2008-01-01

    Heterorhabditis bacteriophora cepa HC1 ha demostrado ser un efectivo agente de control biológico para importantes plagas en las condiciones de Cuba, mostrando también potencialidades para el manejo de la broca del café. Con los objetivos de estudiar el tipo de relaciones que puede establecer con Beauveria bassiana , organismo de amplio uso a escala internacional para el manejo de la broca en condiciones de producción y el insecticida Endosulfan , se ejecutó este trabajo. H. bacteriophora cepa...

  9. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  10. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  11. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  12. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author)

  13. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  14. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  15. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  16. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  17. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  18. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  19. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  20. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  1. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  2. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  3. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  5. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  6. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  7. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  8. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  10. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  11. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  12. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  13. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  14. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  15. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  16. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  17. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  18. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  19. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  20. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  1. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  2. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  3. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  4. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  5. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  6. LAPTM4b recruits the LAT1-4F2hc Leu transporter to lysosomes and promotes mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkereit, Ruth; Persaud, Avinash; Vanoaica, Liviu; Guetg, Adriano; Verrey, Francois; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-05-22

    Mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cellular growth, is activated downstream of growth factors, energy signalling and intracellular essential amino acids (EAAs) such as Leu. mTORC1 activation occurs at the lysosomal membrane, and involves V-ATPase stimulation by intra-lysosomal EAA (inside-out activation), leading to activation of the Ragulator, RagA/B-GTP and mTORC1 via Rheb-GTP. How Leu enters the lysosomes is unknown. Here we identified the lysosomal protein LAPTM4b as a binding partner for the Leu transporter, LAT1-4F2hc (SLC7A5-SLAC3A2). We show that LAPTM4b recruits LAT1-4F2hc to lysosomes, leading to uptake of Leu into lysosomes, and is required for mTORC1 activation via V-ATPase following EAA or Leu stimulation. These results demonstrate a functional Leu transporter at the lysosome, and help explain the inside-out lysosomal activation of mTORC1 by Leu/EAA.

  7. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  8. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  9. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  10. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  12. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  13. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  14. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  15. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: The opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. Methods We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. Results The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75. The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. Conclusions The OMS–HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers.

  16. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Aliya; Papish, Andriyka; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott

    2012-06-13

    Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75). The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. The OMS-HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers.

  17. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: The opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. Methods We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. Results The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75). The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. Conclusions The OMS–HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers. PMID:22694771

  18. Hierarchical cluster-based partial least squares regression (HC-PLSR) is an efficient tool for metamodelling of nonlinear dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøndel, Kristin; Indahl, Ulf G; Gjuvsland, Arne B; Vik, Jon Olav; Hunter, Peter; Omholt, Stig W; Martens, Harald

    2011-06-01

    Deterministic dynamic models of complex biological systems contain a large number of parameters and state variables, related through nonlinear differential equations with various types of feedback. A metamodel of such a dynamic model is a statistical approximation model that maps variation in parameters and initial conditions (inputs) to variation in features of the trajectories of the state variables (outputs) throughout the entire biologically relevant input space. A sufficiently accurate mapping can be exploited both instrumentally and epistemically. Multivariate regression methodology is a commonly used approach for emulating dynamic models. However, when the input-output relations are highly nonlinear or non-monotone, a standard linear regression approach is prone to give suboptimal results. We therefore hypothesised that a more accurate mapping can be obtained by locally linear or locally polynomial regression. We present here a new method for local regression modelling, Hierarchical Cluster-based PLS regression (HC-PLSR), where fuzzy C-means clustering is used to separate the data set into parts according to the structure of the response surface. We compare the metamodelling performance of HC-PLSR with polynomial partial least squares regression (PLSR) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on various systems: six different gene regulatory network models with various types of feedback, a deterministic mathematical model of the mammalian circadian clock and a model of the mouse ventricular myocyte function. Our results indicate that multivariate regression is well suited for emulating dynamic models in systems biology. The hierarchical approach turned out to be superior to both polynomial PLSR and OLS regression in all three test cases. The advantage, in terms of explained variance and prediction accuracy, was largest in systems with highly nonlinear functional relationships and in systems with positive feedback loops. HC-PLSR is a promising approach for

  19. Hierarchical Cluster-based Partial Least Squares Regression (HC-PLSR is an efficient tool for metamodelling of nonlinear dynamic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deterministic dynamic models of complex biological systems contain a large number of parameters and state variables, related through nonlinear differential equations with various types of feedback. A metamodel of such a dynamic model is a statistical approximation model that maps variation in parameters and initial conditions (inputs to variation in features of the trajectories of the state variables (outputs throughout the entire biologically relevant input space. A sufficiently accurate mapping can be exploited both instrumentally and epistemically. Multivariate regression methodology is a commonly used approach for emulating dynamic models. However, when the input-output relations are highly nonlinear or non-monotone, a standard linear regression approach is prone to give suboptimal results. We therefore hypothesised that a more accurate mapping can be obtained by locally linear or locally polynomial regression. We present here a new method for local regression modelling, Hierarchical Cluster-based PLS regression (HC-PLSR, where fuzzy C-means clustering is used to separate the data set into parts according to the structure of the response surface. We compare the metamodelling performance of HC-PLSR with polynomial partial least squares regression (PLSR and ordinary least squares (OLS regression on various systems: six different gene regulatory network models with various types of feedback, a deterministic mathematical model of the mammalian circadian clock and a model of the mouse ventricular myocyte function. Results Our results indicate that multivariate regression is well suited for emulating dynamic models in systems biology. The hierarchical approach turned out to be superior to both polynomial PLSR and OLS regression in all three test cases. The advantage, in terms of explained variance and prediction accuracy, was largest in systems with highly nonlinear functional relationships and in systems with positive feedback

  20. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  1. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  3. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  4. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  5. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  7. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  8. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  9. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  11. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  12. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  13. Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Behrman, E. L.; Bergland, A. O.; Petrov, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Schmidt, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-80 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * Drosophila * experimental evolution * spatiotemporal variation * thermal plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12988/full

  14. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  15. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  16. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  17. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  19. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  1. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  2. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  3. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  4. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  5. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  6. Felix Spectroscopy of Likely Astronomical Molecular Ions: HC_3O^+, C_2H_3CNH^+, and C_2H_5CNH^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2017-06-01

    Infrared signatures of three molecular ions of relevance to the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres have been detected at the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments, FELIX, at Radboud University (Nijmegen, The Netherlands) in combination with the 4K FELion 22-pole ion trap facility. Mid-infrared vibrational modes of protonated tricarbon monoxide, HC_3O^+, protonated vinyl cyanide, C_2H_3CNH^+, and protonated ethyl cyanide, C_2H_5CNH^+, were detected using resonant photodissociation of the respective Ne-complexes by monitoring the depletion of their cluster mass signal as a function of wavenumber. The infrared fingerprints compare very favorably with results from high-level quantum-chemical calculations performed at the CCSD(T) level of theory.

  7. Rotational and High-resolution Infrared Spectrum of HC3N: Global Ro-vibrational Analysis and Improved Line Catalog for Astrophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Tamassia, Filippo; Laas, Jacob; Giuliano, Barbara M.; Degli Esposti, Claudio; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia; Canè, Elisabetta; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Müller, Holger S. P.; Spahn, Holger; Belloche, Arnaud; Caselli, Paola; Menten, Karl M.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2017-11-01

    HC3N is a ubiquitous molecule in interstellar environments, from external galaxies to Galactic interstellar clouds, star-forming regions, and planetary atmospheres. Observations of its rotational and vibrational transitions provide important information on the physical and chemical structures of the above environments. We present the most complete global analysis of the spectroscopic data of HC3N. We recorded the high-resolution infrared spectrum from 450 to 1350 cm-1, a region dominated by the intense {ν }5 and {ν }6 fundamental bands, located at 660 and 500 cm-1, respectively, and their associated hot bands. Pure rotational transitions in the ground and vibrationally excited states were recorded in the millimeter and submillimeter regions in order to extend the frequency range so far considered in previous investigations. All of the transitions from the literature and from this work involving energy levels lower than 1000 cm-1 were fitted together to an effective Hamiltonian. Because of the presence of various anharmonic resonances, the Hamiltonian includes a number of interaction constants, in addition to the conventional rotational and vibrational l-type resonance terms. The data set contains about 3400 ro-vibrational lines of 13 bands and some 1500 pure rotational lines belonging to 12 vibrational states. More than 120 spectroscopic constants were determined directly from the fit, without any assumption deduced from theoretical calculations or comparisons with similar molecules. An extensive list of highly accurate rest frequencies was produced to assist astronomical searches and data interpretation. These improved data enabled a refined analysis of the ALMA observations toward Sgr B2(N2).

  8. The HC potential of pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin. A synthesis; Das Kohlenwasserstoff-Potential des Praewestfals im norddeutschen Becken. Eine Synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F.; Krull, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany).]|[Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It was the aim of the interdisciplinary and interinstitutional research program to investigate the possibilities of HC generation from pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin in space and time. Potential source rock horizons exist within all pre-Westphalian structural units in Northern Europe, ranging from Cambrian to the Namurian in age and deposited in different environments. The structural framework of the basement of the North German Permian basin was described, the position of the Variscan outer front newly defined and the maturation history during the Late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic deciphered. Pyrolysis experiments have shown that HC generation, especially from type III kerogen, is possible even beyond a maturity of 4% Rmax. Detailed geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations of the natural gases from all North German fields indicate gas contributions from pre-Westphalian sources in special regions (Ems Estuary region, Altmark). By integrating all the results of the study an estimation of the possibilities of pre-Westphalian gas occurrences in Northern Germany could be made and the most promising areas for prospecting have been outlined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe des interdisziplinaeren und interinstitutionellen Forschungsvorhabens war es, die Moeglichkeiten der Kohlenwasserstoff-Bildung aus praewestfalen Sedimenten im Norddeutschen Becken in Raum und Zeit zu erkunden. In allen praewestfalen strukturellen Grosseinheiten Nordeuropas existieren potentielle Muttergesteinshorizonte kambrischen bis namurischen Alters aus unterschiedlichen Ablagerungsmilieus. Das strukturelle Inventar des Untergrundes des norddeutschen Permbeckens, der Verlauf der Variszidenfront in Norddeutschland und die Reifungsgeschichte der praewestfalen Muttergesteine im Verlauf der jungpalaeozoischen, mesozoischen und tertiaeren Entwicklung wurden entschluesselt. Pyrolyseversuche zeigten, dass eine KW-Genese, vor allem fuer Kerogen des Typs III, auch jenseits

  9. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in Organic Fertilizers by Hc100 Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Its Correlation with the Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of the Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luisa F; Torres, Isaura P; Jiménez-A, María Del Pilar; McEwen, Juan Gmo; de Bedout, Catalina; Peláez, Carlos A; Acevedo, José M; Taylor, María L; Arango, Myrtha

    2018-05-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis and this fungus inhabits soils rich in phosphorus and nitrogen that are enriched with bird and bat manure. The replacement of organic matter in agroecosystems is necessary in the tropics, and the use of organic fertilizers has increased. Cases and outbreaks due to the presence of the fungus in these components have been reported. The Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario resolution 150 of 2003 contains the parameters set by the Colombian Technical Standard (NTC 5167) on the physicochemical and microbiological features of fertilizers, but it does not regulate the search for H. capsulatum . The aim of this study was to demonstrate H. capsulatum presence in organic fertilizers by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 239 samples were collected: 201 (84.1%) corresponded to organic fertilizers, 30 (12.5%) to bird excrement, and 8 (3.4%) to cave soils. The Hc100 nested PCR had a detection limit of 0.1 pg/µL and a specificity of 100%. A total of 25 (10.5%) samples were positive and validated by sequencing. Seven of the positive samples represented locations where H. capsulatum was previously detected, suggesting the persistence of the fungus. No significant correlations were detected between the physicochemical and microbiological parameters with the presence of H. capsulatum by nested PCR, indicating the fungus existence in organic fertilizers that complied with the NTC 5167. The Hc100 nested PCR targeting H. capsulatum standardized in this work will improve the evaluation of organic fertilizers and ensure the prevention of outbreaks and cases due to manufacturing, marketing, and use of fertilizers contaminated with H. capsulatum .

  10. Rotational Spectrum, Conformational Composition, and Quantum Chemical Calculations of Cyanomethyl Formate (HC(O)OCH2C≡N), a Compound of Potential Astrochemical Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Svein; Møllendal, Harald; Carles, Sophie

    2015-08-27

    The rotational spectrum of cyanomethyl formate (HC(O)OCH2C≡N) has been recorded in the 12–123 GHz spectral range. The spectra of two conformers were assigned. The rotamer denoted I has a symmetry plane and two out-of plane hydrogen atoms belonging to the cyanomethyl (CH2CN) moiety. In the conformer called II, the cyanomethyl group is rotated 80.3° out of this plane. Conformer I has an energy that is 1.4(6) kJ/mol lower than the energy of II according to relative intensity measurements. A large number of rotational transitions have been assigned for the ground and vibrationally excited states of the two conformers and accurate spectroscopic constants have been obtained. These constants should predict frequencies of transitions outside the investigated spectral range with a very high degree of precision. It is suggested that cyanomethyl formate is a potential interstellar compound. This suggestion is based on the fact that its congener methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3) exists across a large variety of interstellar environments and the fact that cyanides are very prevalent in the Universe. The experimental work has been augmented by high-level quantum chemical calculations. The CCSD/cc-pVQZ calculations are found to predict structures of the two forms that are very close to the Born–Oppenheimer equilibrium structures. MP2/cc-pVTZ predictions of several vibration–rotation interaction constants were generally found to be rather inaccurate. A gas-phase reaction between methyl formate and the cyanomethyl radical CH2CN to produce a hydrogen atom and cyanomethyl formate was mimicked using MP2/cc-pVTZ calculations. It was found that this reaction is not favored thermodynamically. It is also conjectured that the possible formation of cyanomethyl formate might be catalyzed and take place on interstellar particles.

  11. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of methane and C2+ alkanes in electrical spark discharge: implications for identifying sources of hydrocarbons in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Jon; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    The low-molecular-weight alkanes--methane, ethane, propane, and butane--are found in a wide range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings. The development of robust criteria for distinguishing abiogenic from biogenic alkanes is essential for current investigations of Mars' atmosphere and for future exobiology missions to other planets and moons. Here, we show that alkanes synthesized during gas-phase radical recombination reactions in electrical discharge experiments have values of δ(2)H(methane)>δ(2)H(ethane)>δ(2)H(propane), similar to those of the carbon isotopes. The distribution of hydrogen isotopes in gas-phase radical reactions is likely due to kinetic fractionations either (i) from the preferential incorporation of (1)H into longer-chain alkanes due to the more rapid rate of collisions of the smaller (1)H-containing molecules or (ii) by secondary ion effects. Similar δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns may be expected in a range of extraterrestrial environments where gas-phase radical reactions dominate, including interstellar space, the atmosphere and liquid hydrocarbon lakes of Saturn's moon Titan, and the outer atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus. Radical recombination reactions at high temperatures and pressures may provide an explanation for the combined reversed δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns of terrestrial alkanes documented at a number of high-temperature/pressure crustal sites.

  13. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo; John Chi-Wei Lan; Wen-Chang Lu; Yong-Yuan Ku

    2007-01-01

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO x , particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h -1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h -1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  14. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo [Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Management; John Chi-Wei Lan [Yuan Ze University (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Wen-Chang Lu [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China). New Energy Div.; Yong-Yuan Ku [Automotive Research and Testing Center, Chunhwa (China). Diesel Vehicle Section

    2007-11-15

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO{sub x}, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  15. Dithiothreitol activity by particulate oxidizers of SOA produced from photooxidation of hydrocarbons under varied NOx levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Yu, Zechen

    2017-08-01

    When hydrocarbons (HCs) are atmospherically oxidized, they form particulate oxidizers, including quinones, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). These particulate oxidizers can modify cellular materials (e.g., proteins and enzymes) and adversely modulate cell functions. In this study, the contribution of particulate oxidizers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) to the oxidative potential was investigated. SOAs were generated from the photooxidation of toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, and α-pinene under varied NOx levels. Oxidative potential was determined from the typical mass-normalized consumption rate (reaction time t = 30 min) of dithiothreitol (DTTt), a surrogate for biological reducing agents. Under high-NOx conditions, the DTTt of toluene SOA was 2-5 times higher than that of the other types of SOA. Isoprene DTTt significantly decreased with increasing NOx (up to 69 % reduction by changing the HC / NOx ratio from 30 to 5). The DTTt of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene SOA was insensitive to NOx under the experimental conditions of this study. The significance of quinones to the oxidative potential of SOA was tested through the enhancement of DTT consumption in the presence of 2,4-dimethylimidazole, a co-catalyst for the redox cycling of quinones; however, no significant effect of 2,4-dimethylimidazole on modulation of DTT consumption was observed for all SOA, suggesting that a negligible amount of quinones was present in the SOA of this study. For toluene and isoprene, mass-normalized DTT consumption (DTTm) was determined over an extended period of reaction time (t = 2 h) to quantify their maximum capacity to consume DTT. The total quantities of PANs and organic hydroperoxides in toluene SOA and isoprene SOA were also measured using the Griess assay and the 4-nitrophenylboronic acid assay, respectively. Under the NOx conditions (HC / NOx ratio: 5-36 ppbC ppb-1) applied in this study, the amount of organic hydroperoxides was

  16. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  17. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  18. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  19. In vivo study of the HC-TN strain of hepatitis C virus recovered from a patient with fulminant hepatitis: RNA transcripts of a molecular clone (pHC-TN) are infectious in chimpanzees but not in Huh7.5 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Akito; Takikawa, Shingo; Thimme, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Both viral and host factors are thought to influence the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We studied strain HC-TN (genotype 1a), which caused fulminant hepatic failure in a patient and, subsequently, severe hepatitis in a chimpanzee (CH1422), to analyze the relationship between...... persistently infected. CH1579 and CH1581, despite their differing outcomes, both developed significant intrahepatic cellular immune responses, but not antibodies to the envelope glycoproteins or neutralizing antibodies, during the acute infection. We analyzed the polyprotein sequences of virus recovered...

  20. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  1. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  2. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  3. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  4. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  5. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  6. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  7. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  8. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  9. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  10. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)

  12. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  13. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shantanu

    2005-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important com- ponent of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They are being used as probes for understanding of process and conditions of different astrophysical environments. The understanding of their IR spectra and its variations with PAH size and ionization state is useful in characterizing the ISM. Spectral features of model graphene sheets and also that of smaller PAH molecules are reported. The variation of intensity with charge state of the molecule shows that cations give a better correlation with observations. The relationship between changes in charge distribution with intensity changes upon ionization has been probed.

  15. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  16. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  17. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of cleansing and refining of liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C A; Nielsen, H

    1934-10-11

    A process is described for cleaning and refining liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives by utilization of acids, followed by washing partly with a basic solution, partly with clean water. The process is characterized by using, in connection with the acid solutions mentioned, a strong solution of a mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.

  20. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  1. Tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão portal esquistossomótica no hc/ufpe: análise de 131 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A hipertensão portal esquistossomótica com antecedente de hemorragia digestiva foi tratada com esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda (LVGE + desvascularização da grande curvatura do estômago + esclerose endoscópica pós-operatória. Quando da existência de varizes de fundo gástrico, realizamos a abertura do fundo gástrico e sutura obliterante destas varizes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recidiva de hemorragia digestiva, repercussões laboratoriais e mortalidade do tratamento cirúrgico/endoscópico. MÉTODOS: Entre 1992 e 1998, foram operados no HC-UFPE 131 pacientes. O seguimento médio foi de 30 meses, em 111 pacientes, que foram solicitados a retornar ao ambulatório do HC-UFPE para a realização de controle clínico e laboratorial. RESULTADOS: A recidiva hemorrágica foi de 14,4% (16/111 e uma mortalidade de 5,4% (6/111. A recidiva de hemorragia digestiva alta foi exteriorizada através de hematemese em oito pacientes e oito por melena. Dos seis pacientes que foram a óbito, três apresentavam diagnóstico de linfoma, hepatocarcinoma e infarto agudo do miocárdio, respectivamente. Dois pacientes foram a óbito no pós-operatório imediato (sepse e coagulação intravascular disseminada. O sexto paciente foi a óbito por recidiva da hemorragia digestiva alta. Em nove pacientes, 13,2%, foi diagnosticada trombose da veia porta. Os dados laboratoriais, hematológicos e de função hepática também foram analisados. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores concluíram que o tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão portal esquistossomótica, através da esplenectomia + LVGE + desvascularização da grande curvatura do estômago + esclerose endoscópica pós-operatória determina resultados compatíveis com a literatura em relação à recidiva de sangramento, mas preserva a funcionalidade hepática.

  2. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  3. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate and gas phase from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tzu-Ting, E-mail: d89844001@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shaw-Tao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, No. 200 Chung-Chi Rd., Salu Dist., Taichung City 43301, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tser-Sheng [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National United University, 2 Lien Da, Maioli 360, Taiwan (China); Chung, Hua-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-15

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in particulate and gas phases generated from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios were examined. Five types of mosquito coils were burned in a test chamber with a total airflow rate of 8.0 L/min at a constant relative humidity and temperature. The concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using the GC/MS technique. Among the used mosquito coils, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total mass, gaseous, and particulate PAH emission factors of 28.17–78.72 mg/g, 26,139.80–35,932.98 and 5735.22–13,431.51 ng/g, respectively. The various partitions of PAHs in the gaseous and particulate phases were in the ranges, 70.26–83.70% and 16.30–29.74% for the utilized mosquito coils. The carcinogenic potency of PAH emissions in the particulate phase (203.82–797.76 ng/g) was approximately 6.92–25.08 times higher than that of the gaseous phase (26.27–36.07 ng/g). Based on the analyses of PAH emissions, mosquito coils containing the lowest H/C ratio, a low oxygen level, and additional additives (i.e., CaCO{sub 3}) are recommended for minimizing the production of total PAH emission factors and carcinogenic potency. - Highlights: • PAHs emissions are influenced by mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios. • The PAHs generated by burning mosquito coils mainly occur in the gaseous phase. • Total TEQ emission factors of PAHs mainly consisted of the particulate phase (> 87%). • The BaP and BaA accounted for 71.13–77.28% of the total TEQ emission factors. • Special PAH ratios were regarded as characteristic ratios for burning mosquito coil.

  4. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  7. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  8. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  9. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  10. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  11. (beta-HC CG) in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Urothelial tumour samples were obtained from all the 86 patients requiring surgical ..... and/or urine beta HCG appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the ..... collected all urothelial tumour specimens for storage, cutting and staining.

  12. Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at λEx /λEm: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at λEx /λEm: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at λEx /λEm: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of

  13. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  14. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  15. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A.; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2016-10-18

    The present invention is directed to the one step selective conversion of starch, cellulose, or glucose to molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. The invention is also directed to the conversion of those intermediates to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  16. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  17. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  18. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  19. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  1. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  2. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  3. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  4. Cuticular hydrocarbons for species determination of tropical termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Lori J. Nelson; Barbara L. Thorne; Margaret S. Collins; Johanna P.E.C. Darlington; Marion Page

    1992-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons can be used to discriminate species in Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, here discussed for selected species from locations in the Pacific Rim and several Caribbean islands. We recently reexamined the cuticular hydrocarbons of Coptotermes formosanus and identified several dimethylalkanes that...

  5. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  6. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  7. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  8. Graph theory for alternating hydrocarbons with attached ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Properties of molecules of certain hydrocarbons give rise to difficult questions in graph theory. This paper is primarily devoted to the graph theory, but the physico-chemical motivation, which is somewhat speculative, is also presented. Molecules of unsaturated hydrocarbons exhibit alternating

  9. Performance estimation of ejector cycles using heavier hydrocarbon refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Jacek; Gil, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons was prepared. Investigation was focused on nine hydrocarbons: propane, butane, iso-butane, pentane, iso-pentane, hexane, heptane and octane. A series of calculations was carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Calculation results show that none of the hydrocarbons enables high efficiency of a cycle in a wide range of temperature. Each hydrocarbon has its own maximal entrainment ratio at its individual temperature of optimum. Temperatures of entrainment ratios optimum increase according to the hydrocarbon heaviness with simultaneous increase of entrainment ratio peak values. Peak values of the COP do not increase according to the hydrocarbons heaviness. The highest COP = 0.32 is achieved for iso-butane at 102 °C and the COP = 0.28 for pentane at 165 °C. Heptane and octane can be ignored. - Highlights: • Advantages of use of higher hydrocarbons as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of vapor generation for each hydrocarbon was calculated

  10. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil ... Kalpana1 D J Patil1 A M Dayal1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500606, India.

  11. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  12. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  13. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  14. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Daniel J; Seger, Donna L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed. Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: 59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated. 318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values. These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.

  16. Article Commentary: The interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC Assessment: Evaluating the Long-term Community-Based Service and Support Needs of Children Facing Special Healthcare Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of assessment instruments developed to assess children facing special healthcare challenges were constructed to assess children within a limited age range or children who face specific conditions or impairments. In contrast, the interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC Assessment Form was specifically designed to assess the long-term community-based service and support needs of children and youth aged from four to 20 years who face a wide range of chronic physical or behavioral health challenges. Initial research indicates that PEDS HC items exhibit good predictive validity–-explaining significant proportions of the variance in parents’ perceptions of needs, case managers’ service authorizations, and Medicaid program expenditures for long-term community-based services and supports. In addition, PEDS HC items have been used to construct scales that summarize the strengths and needs of children facing special healthcare challenges. Versions of the PEDS HC are now being used in Medicaid programs in three states in the United States.

  17. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  20. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.